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Economic News Release
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Persons with a Disability: Barriers to Employment and Other Labor-Related Issues News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 1, 2020 				USDL-20-0721

Technical information:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT, TYPES OF ASSISTANCE,
		       AND OTHER LABOR-RELATED ISSUES -- JULY 2019


In July 2019, almost half of all persons with a disability who were not working reported
some type of barrier to employment, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
A person's own disability, lack of education or training, lack of transportation, and 
the need for special features at the job were among the barriers reported. Among persons
with a disability who were employed, over half experienced some difficulty completing
their work duties because of their disability. 

This information was obtained from a supplement to the July 2019 Current Population
Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that provides statistics on
employment and unemployment in the United States. The July 2019 supplement, sponsored 
by the U.S. Department of Labor's Chief Evaluation Office, collected information about
barriers to employment, prior work experience, career and financial assistance,
requested changes to the workplace, and related topics for persons with a disability.
This supplement was conducted once before, in May 2012. For more information, see the
Technical Note.

Selected Characteristics of Persons with a Disability

In July 2019, 30.3 million persons in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16
and over had a disability. Persons with a disability tend to be older than those with
no disability, reflecting the increased incidence of disability with age. In July 2019,
50.6 percent of persons with a disability were age 65 and over, compared with 16.4
percent of those with no disability. Reflecting the aging of the population, these
shares have increased for both groups since the last time the survey was conducted;
in May 2012, 45.4 percent of persons with a disability and 13.4 percent of those with
no disability were age 65 and over. (See table 1.)

Women made up a greater proportion of persons with a disability than men in July 2019
(53.8 percent, compared with 46.2 percent), partly reflecting the greater life
expectancy of women. By educational attainment, 19.6 percent of persons age 25 and over
with a disability had a bachelor's degree or higher, compared with 39.4 percent for
persons with no disability. 

In July 2019, 19.2 percent of persons with a disability were employed, which was less
than one-third of the employment-population ratio for persons with no disability (67.1
percent). In part, this reflects the older age profile of persons with a disability.
However, the employment-population ratio was much lower among persons with a disability 
for all age groups.

Barriers to Employment

In July 2019, 47.5 percent of those with a disability who were not employed (that is,
persons who were either unemployed or not in the labor force) reported at least one
barrier to employment. This was 2.0 percentage points lower than the proportion in May
2012 (49.5 percent). When asked to identify barriers they had encountered, most reported
that their own disability was a barrier to employment in July 2019 (79.0 percent). Other
barriers cited included lack of education or training (12.2 percent), lack of 
transportation (10.6 percent), and the need for special features at the job (9.9 percent).
(See tables 2 and 3.)

Among those who were not employed, a greater proportion of persons ages 16 to 64 reported
a barrier to employment in July 2019 than those age 65 and over (71.3 percent and 30.4 
percent, respectively). This may reflect the fact that older workers are, in general, 
less likely to participate in the labor force. Among persons with a disability age 25 and
over, 34.7 percent of persons with a bachelor's degree and higher who were not employed 
reported a barrier to employment, compared with 54.7 percent of those with less than a
high school diploma.

Prior Work Experience

Among persons with a disability who were not in the labor force in July 2019 (that is,
neither employed nor unemployed), 88.6 percent had worked previously. This proportion
was about the same for both men and women. A person's disability status was established
at the time of the survey; their previous work experience may have occurred at a time 
when they did not have a disability. (See table 4.)

The proportion of persons with a disability who were not in the labor force but had
prior work experience increased with age. In July 2019, 25.1 percent of 16- to 24-year-
olds had worked before, compared with 97.4 percent of those age 65 and over.

Individuals with a disability who had higher levels of educational attainment were more
likely to have had work experience. Of those age 25 and over with a bachelor's degree 
and higher, 97.1 percent had worked before, compared with 82.5 percent of those with
less than a high school diploma.

Career Assistance Programs

In July 2019, 6.5 percent of persons with a disability reported using some type of career
assistance program within the past 5 years to help them prepare for work or advance on 
the job. In May 2012, 7.4 percent of persons with a disability reported using some type 
of career assistance. Career assistance sources include State Vocational Rehabilitation
agencies and other job assistance programs. (See table 5.)

Persons with a disability who were unemployed at the time of the survey were more likely
than those who were employed or not in the labor force to have used some type of career
assistance. In July 2019, 20.8 percent of unemployed persons with a disability reported
using a career assistance program, compared with 10.1 percent of employed persons with a 
disability and 5.3 percent of those not in the labor force.

Persons with a disability ages 16 to 64 were more likely to have used a career assistance
program than those age 65 and over (10.3 percent and 2.7 percent, respectively).

Financial Assistance Programs

In July 2019, 58.1 percent of persons with a disability received financial assistance
within the past year from one or more of the following sources: Workers Compensation,
Social Security Disability Income, Supplemental Security Income, Veterans Disability
compensation, disability insurance payments, Medicaid, Medicare, and other payments or
programs. This was about the same percentage as in May 2012 (58.4 percent). (See table 6.)

Among persons with a disability in July 2019, those who were employed were least likely
to have received some type of financial assistance within the past year (27.6 percent).
Of those with a disability who were unemployed, 45.5 percent received assistance from at
least one of the financial assistance programs listed above, compared with 65.8 percent
for those not in the labor force. (Differences in use of financial assistance among 
those with a disability reflect a variety of factors such as age, work history, or
program eligibility requirements.)

Some financial assistance programs include work limitations in order to establish or
maintain program eligibility. In July 2019, the vast majority (91.7 percent) of those
who received financial assistance within the past year reported that the program(s) they
used did not cause them to work less than they otherwise would have.

Difficulty Completing Work Duties

Just over half of employed persons with a disability reported that their disability
caused some difficulty in completing their current work duties in July 2019--27.8 
percent reported a little difficulty in completing work duties, 19.2 percent reported
moderate difficulty, and 6.9 percent reported severe difficulty. In July 2019, 46.1
percent of employed persons with a disability had no difficulty completing their 
current work duties. (See table 7.)

Among employed persons with a disability, those age 65 and over were less likely to report
that they had some difficulty completing their work duties than were those ages 16 to 
64--44.0 percent versus 56.1 percent. In July 2019, 55.8 percent of women and 52.2 percent
of men reported some difficulty completing work duties due to their disability.

Requesting Changes in the Workplace

According to the July 2019 data, employed persons with a disability were more likely to
have requested a change in their current workplace to do their job better than were 
those with no disability (13.8 percent and 9.1 percent, respectively). Such changes 
included new or modified equipment; physical changes to the workplace; policy changes to
the workplace; changes in work tasks, job structure, or schedule; changes in communication
or information sharing; changes to comply with religious beliefs; accommodations for 
family or personal obligations; training; or other changes. Among workers with a 
disability, 15.4 percent of those ages 16 to 64 had requested a change in their current
workplace, compared with 6.8 percent of those age 65 and over. (See table 8.)  

Regardless of disability status, requests for changes to work tasks, job structure, or 
schedule, and requests for new or modified equipment were most common. (See table 9.)

Persons with a disability who asked for a change in their current workplace were more
likely to have requested physical changes to the workplace than were those with no 
disability. In contrast, employed persons with no disability were more likely than those
with a disability to request policy changes, training, or accommodations for family or
personal obligations.

Commute

In July 2019, 73.6 percent of persons with a disability used their own vehicle for their
commute to work, compared with 83.3 percent for persons with no disability. For persons
with and without a disability, other commuting methods were used much less often; these
methods included riding in a friend or family member's car, taking a bus, walking, and
taking the train or subway. (See table 10.)

Work at Home

In July 2019, 26.3 percent of employed persons with a disability did some work at home
as part of their job, compared with 23.0 percent of those with no disability. Older 
workers (age 65 and over) with a disability were more likely to do some work at home
than those ages 16 to 64 (42.9 percent and 22.5 percent, respectively). Men and women
with a disability were about equally likely to work at home (25.8 percent and 26.9
percent, respectively). (See table 11.)  

Persons with a disability who had higher educational attainment were more likely to do
some work at home. In July 2019, among persons with a disability age 25 and over, those
with a bachelor's degree and higher were more than 4 times as likely to do some work at
home than those with less than a high school diploma (51.2 percent and 12.0 percent,
respectively).

Flexible Work Hours

Employed persons with a disability were more likely than those with no disability to
have flexible work schedules in July 2019 (46.8 percent and 38.7 percent, respectively).
These workers reported that they had flexible work hours that allowed them to vary the
time they began or ended work. Both figures are up from May 2012 (42.2 percent and 35.0
percent, respectively.) (See table 12.)

In July 2019, 67.2 percent of workers with a disability age 65 and over had flexible
work schedules, compared with 42.2 percent of those between 16 and 64 years of age.
Men and women with disabilities were about equally likely to have flexible work hours.

Regardless of disability status, the likelihood of having a flexible work schedule was
higher for persons with at least a bachelor's degree than for those with less education.

Temporary Jobs

In July 2019, 6.3 percent of employed persons with a disability held jobs that were
temporary, compared with 4.6 percent of those with no disability. These workers
expected their job to last only for a limited time or until the completion of
project. (See table 13.)




Technical Note
 
The data in this release were collected through a supplement to the July 2019
Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census
Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about
60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force status,
demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional
population age 16 and over. The July 2019 supplement was designed to gather
data in several specific areas related to the employment situation of persons
with disabilities. The collection of these data was sponsored by the U.S.
Department of Labor's Chief Evaluation Office.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200, Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Definitions and concepts from the monthly CPS

Disability status. The monthly CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons
with disabilities. In the CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if
there is a response of "yes" to any of these questions. Persons who respond "no"
to all of these questions are classified as having no disability. The disability
questions are as follows.

This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for all household members who are 15 years old or over. 

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty hearing?

   --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty seeing, even when
     wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have
     serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have
     difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctorís office or
     shopping?

The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only asked of
household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions asks the respondent
whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and if the respondent
replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in the household who has
the condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are tabulated for persons age 16
and older. More information on the disability questions and the merits and limitations
of the CPS disability data is available on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Labor force status. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference
week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business,
profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers
in a family memberís business. Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also are counted as
employed.

Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the reference week, were
available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment 
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were
waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have 
been looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

Civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as employed or unemployed.

Unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed persons as a percent of the
civilian labor force.

Not in the labor force includes all persons who are not classified as employed or 
unemployed.

Not employed includes persons who were unemployed or not in the labor force. 

Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

Selected questions and concepts from the July 2019 supplement

Barriers to employment. This information was obtained from responses to a question
asked of persons with a disability who were not employed (that is, either unemployed
or not in the labor force). Respondents were classified as having a barrier to
employment if they answered "yes" to one or more of the response options in the
following question.

 The purpose of this next question is to identify barriers to employment faced by
 persons with difficulties. Do you consider any of the following a barrier to
 employment for you?
   1.  Lack of education or training
   2.  Lack of job counseling
   3.  Lack of transportation
   4.  Loss of government assistance
   5.  Need for special features at the job
   6.  Employer or coworker attitudes
   7.  Your difficulty (hearing/seeing/concentrating, remembering, or making
       decisions/walking or climbing stairs/dressing or bathing/doing errands alone)
   8.  Other


Prior work experience. This information was obtained from answers to the following
question, which was asked of persons with a disability who were not employed and
had not already reported working before.

 Have you ever worked for pay at a job or business?
   1.  Yes
   2.  No


Career assistance. Persons with a disability were asked the following question to
determine whether they had received certain types of career assistance. Individuals
could give multiple responses.

 The purpose of this next question is to find out if you have taken advantage of any
 of the following sources that help people prepare for work or advance on the job.
 In the past 5 years, have you received assistance from:
   1.  State Vocational Rehabilitation agencies
   2.  One-Stop Career Centers
   3.  Ticket to Work program
   4.  Assistive Technology Act program
   5.  Center for Independent Living for individuals with disabilities
   6.  Client Assistance Program
   7.  Any other employment assistance program


Financial assistance. This information was obtained from responses to two questions.
All persons were asked the following question and could give multiple responses.

 There are a variety of programs designed to provide financial assistance to people.
 In the past year, did you receive assistance from any of the following programs?
   1.  Workersí Compensation
   2.  Social Security Disability Income
   3.  Supplemental Security Income
   4.  Veterans Disability Compensation
   5.  Disability insurance payments
   6.  Other disability payments
   7.  Medicaid
   8.  Medicare
   9.  Other program

The following question was asked only of persons who indicated in the above question
that they received assistance from one or more programs.

 Some financial assistance programs include limitations on the amount of work you can
 do. Did this program cause you to work less than you would otherwise?
   1.  Yes
   2.  No


Level of disability-related difficulty in completing work duties.  This information
was obtained from answers to the following question, which was asked of employed persons
with a disability.

 Previously, you mentioned that you had difficulty (hearing/seeing/concentrating,
 remembering, or making decisions/walking or climbing stairs/dressing or bathing/doing
 errands alone). How has this difficulty affected your ability to complete current work
 duties? Would you say this has caused no difficulty, a little difficulty, moderate
 difficulty, or severe difficulty?
   1.  No difficulty
   2.  A little difficulty
   3.  Moderate difficulty
   4.  Severe difficulty


Requested changes in the current workplace. This information was obtained from answers
to two questions. The first, asked of all employed persons, was as follows.

 Have you ever requested any change in your current workplace to help you do your job
 better?  For example, changes in work policies, equipment, or schedules.
   1.  Yes
   2.  No

The following question was asked only of persons who responded "yes" to the above
question. Individuals could identify multiple changes.  

 What changes did you request?
   1.  New or modified equipment
   2.  Physical changes to the workplace
   3.  Policy changes to the workplace
   4.  Changes in work tasks, job structure, or schedule
   5.  Changes in communication or information sharing
   6.  Changes to comply with religious beliefs
   7.  Accommodations for family or personal obligations
   8.  Training
   9.  Other changes

Typical commute to work. This information was obtained from responses to the following
question, which was asked of all employed persons. Individuals could identify multiple
commuting methods.

 How do you typically commute to work?
   1.  Bus
   2.  Specialized bus or van service for people with disabilities
   3.  Train/subway
   4.  Taxi
   5.  Own vehicle
   6.  Passenger in a friend or family memberís car
   7.  Carpool
   8.  Bicycle
   9.  Walk
   10. Other
   11. Work from home


Work at home. This information was obtained from two questions. First, persons who answered
"work from home" to the question regarding their typical commute to work were included among
those who work at home. In addition, the following question was asked of all remaining 
employed persons.

 Do you do any work at home for your job or business?
   1.  Yes
   2.  No


Flexible work hours. All employed persons were asked the following question to determine
whether they have flexible work hours at their current job.

 Do you have flexible work hours that allow you to vary or make changes in the time you
 begin and end work?
   1.  Yes
   2.  No


Temporary jobs. All employed persons were asked the following question to determine if their
jobs were temporary.

 Some people are in temporary jobs that last only for a limited time or until the
 completion of a project. Is your job temporary?
   1.  Yes
   2.  No


Comparability of the estimates

The concepts of barriers to employment, prior work experience, career and financial assistance,
and other labor-related issues for persons with a disability used in the July 2019 survey are
the same as those used in May 2012, the first time the supplement was fielded. The questions
used to identify these workers were essentially unchanged.

However, there are a few issues that could affect the comparability of these estimates with
those from 2012. For example, changes in the demographic characteristics of people with 
disabilities can complicate comparisons of data over time. Also, the 2012 and 2019 supplements
were collected at different points in the business cycle. In addition, the 2019 supplement was
collected in July, and the 2012 supplement was collected in May. 

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample,
rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may
differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that
occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is
measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level
of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard
errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally
conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

The monthly CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

General information on the reliability of data from the CPS is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

259,225 166,526 64.2 159,469 61.5 7,057 4.2 92,699

Men

125,378 88,459 70.6 85,059 67.8 3,400 3.8 36,919

Women

133,847 78,067 58.3 74,410 55.6 3,657 4.7 55,780

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

30,344 6,344 20.9 5,830 19.2 513 8.1 24,001

Men

14,019 3,388 24.2 3,141 22.4 247 7.3 10,632

Women

16,325 2,956 18.1 2,689 16.5 267 9.0 13,369

Age

16 to 64 years

14,982 5,222 34.9 4,751 31.7 470 9.0 9,760

16 to 24 years

1,526 600 39.3 503 33.0 97 16.1 926

25 to 34 years

1,888 947 50.2 800 42.4 147 15.6 941

35 to 44 years

2,068 909 44.0 856 41.4 53 5.8 1,158

45 to 54 years

3,392 1,172 34.6 1,092 32.2 80 6.8 2,220

55 to 64 years

6,108 1,593 26.1 1,500 24.6 93 5.9 4,515

65 years and over

15,362 1,122 7.3 1,079 7.0 43 3.8 14,240

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

28,818 5,744 19.9 5,327 18.5 417 7.3 23,074

Less than a high school diploma

4,943 444 9.0 403 8.2 41 9.1 4,499

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,115 1,728 17.1 1,597 15.8 132 7.6 8,387

Some college or associate degree

8,101 1,930 23.8 1,786 22.0 144 7.5 6,171

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

5,659 1,641 29.0 1,541 27.2 101 6.1 4,018

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

228,881 160,182 70.0 153,639 67.1 6,543 4.1 68,699

Men

111,359 85,071 76.4 81,918 73.6 3,153 3.7 26,288

Women

117,522 75,111 63.9 71,721 61.0 3,390 4.5 42,411

Age

16 to 64 years

191,282 151,632 79.3 145,361 76.0 6,271 4.1 39,650

16 to 24 years

36,202 22,997 63.5 20,814 57.5 2,183 9.5 13,206

25 to 34 years

43,033 36,692 85.3 35,325 82.1 1,366 3.7 6,341

35 to 44 years

38,908 33,578 86.3 32,538 83.6 1,040 3.1 5,330

45 to 54 years

37,000 32,054 86.6 31,154 84.2 900 2.8 4,946

55 to 64 years

36,139 26,312 72.8 25,530 70.6 782 3.0 9,827

65 years and over

37,599 8,550 22.7 8,278 22.0 272 3.2 29,049

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

192,678 137,185 71.2 132,825 68.9 4,361 3.2 55,493

Less than a high school diploma

15,609 9,123 58.5 8,705 55.8 418 4.6 6,485

High school graduates, no college(1)

51,158 33,557 65.6 32,401 63.3 1,156 3.4 17,601

Some college or associate degree

49,986 36,114 72.2 34,826 69.7 1,287 3.6 13,872

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

75,926 58,391 76.9 56,892 74.9 1,499 2.6 17,535

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: These estimates, which come from a special supplemental survey, may differ slightly from previously published estimates for May 2012 that come from the regular monthly labor force survey.


Table 2. Persons with a disability who were not employed by age, sex, educational attainment, prior work experience, and barrier to employment, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not employed(1) Percent distribution
Total Barrier No barrier Total Barrier No barrier

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

24,514 11,635 12,322 100.0 47.5 50.3

16 to 64 years

10,231 7,292 2,662 100.0 71.3 26.0

65 years and over

14,283 4,343 9,659 100.0 30.4 67.6

Men

10,878 5,287 5,310 100.0 48.6 48.8

Women

13,636 6,347 7,012 100.0 46.5 51.4

Total, 25 years and over

23,491 10,894 12,061 100.0 46.4 51.3

Less than a high school diploma

4,540 2,481 1,906 100.0 54.7 42.0

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,518 3,982 4,366 100.0 46.7 51.3

Some college or associate degree

6,315 3,000 3,194 100.0 47.5 50.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

4,118 1,430 2,595 100.0 34.7 63.0

Never worked(4)

2,806 1,986 769 100.0 70.8 27.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons who are not employed include both the unemployed and those not in the labor force (neither working nor looking for work). Employed persons were not asked about barriers to employment.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
(4) This estimate represents all persons with a disability who have never worked. It includes both unemployed persons and persons not in the labor force.

NOTE: Persons with a disability were able to report more than one barrier to employment. Data may not sum to total because some persons did not respond to the question identifying barriers to employment. Barriers to employment include: lack of education or training, lack of job counseling, lack of transportation, loss of government assistance, need for special features at the job, employer or coworker attitudes, own disability, and other.


Table 3. Persons with a disability who were not employed by age, sex, educational attainment, prior work experience, and type of barrier to employment, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total not
employed(1)
with a
barrier to
employment
Percent of total by type of barrier
Lack of
education
or training
Lack of job
counseling
Lack of
transpor-tation
Loss of
government assistance
Need for
special
features at
the job
Employer
or
coworker
attitudes
Own
disability
Other

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

11,635 12.2 5.1 10.6 4.4 9.9 7.6 79.0 16.8

16 to 64 years

7,292 14.3 6.4 12.1 5.3 12.5 9.1 81.6 13.5

65 years and over

4,343 8.7 2.8 7.9 2.9 5.5 5.1 74.6 22.3

Men

5,287 12.2 5.1 9.9 4.6 9.8 7.9 80.0 15.6

Women

6,347 12.2 5.0 11.1 4.3 10.0 7.4 78.2 17.8

Total, 25 years and over

10,894 11.7 4.8 9.9 4.3 9.5 7.5 79.1 16.8

Less than a high school diploma

2,481 20.6 6.9 11.9 3.6 8.3 6.3 75.3 17.9

High school graduates, no college(2)

3,982 10.4 4.6 10.1 4.4 8.4 6.1 81.4 15.3

Some college or associate degree

3,000 9.6 4.4 8.5 5.0 12.1 10.3 80.7 15.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

1,430 4.4 2.5 8.5 3.4 9.4 7.6 75.9 21.9

Never worked(4)

1,986 16.7 7.2 11.0 3.4 10.9 4.0 76.2 18.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons who are not employed include both the unemployed and those not in the labor force (neither working nor looking for work). Employed persons were not asked about barriers to employment.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
(4) This estimate represents all persons with a disability who have never worked. It includes both unemployed persons and persons not in the labor force.

NOTE: Percents may sum to more than 100 percent because persons with a disability were able to report more than one barrier to employment.


Table 4. Persons with a disability who were not in the labor force by sex, age, educational attainment, and prior work experience, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not in the labor force Percent distribution
Total Previously
worked
Never
worked(1)
Total Previously
worked
Never
worked(1)

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

24,001 21,254 2,747 100.0 88.6 11.4

Men

10,632 9,391 1,241 100.0 88.3 11.7

Women

13,369 11,863 1,506 100.0 88.7 11.3

Age

16 to 64 years

9,760 7,384 2,376 100.0 75.7 24.3

16 to 24 years

926 233 694 100.0 25.1 74.9

25 to 34 years

941 494 447 100.0 52.5 47.5

35 to 44 years

1,158 855 303 100.0 73.8 26.2

45 to 54 years

2,220 1,778 442 100.0 80.1 19.9

55 to 64 years

4,515 4,024 491 100.0 89.1 10.9

65 years and over

14,240 13,870 370 100.0 97.4 2.6

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

23,074 21,021 2,053 100.0 91.1 8.9

Less than a high school diploma

4,499 3,711 789 100.0 82.5 17.5

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,387 7,535 852 100.0 89.8 10.2

Some college or associate degree

6,171 5,877 294 100.0 95.2 4.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

4,018 3,899 118 100.0 97.1 2.9

Footnotes
(1) This estimate does not represent all persons with a disability who have never worked. It excludes a small number of unemployed persons who have never worked before.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.


Table 5. Persons with a disability who received career assistance in the past 5 years by current employment status, prior work experience, and age, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Persons
with a
disability
Received career assistance(1)
Number Percent of
persons
with a
disability

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

30,344 1,968 6.5

Employed

5,830 590 10.1

Unemployed

513 107 20.8

Not in the labor force

24,001 1,272 5.3

Previously worked

21,254 1,065 5.0

Never worked(2)

2,747 208 7.6

Total, 16 to 64 years

14,982 1,550 10.3

Employed

4,751 565 11.9

Unemployed

470 98 20.8

Not in the labor force

9,760 887 9.1

Previously worked

7,384 693 9.4

Never worked(2)

2,376 194 8.2

Total, 65 years and over

15,362 419 2.7

Employed

1,079 24 2.3

Unemployed

43 9 -

Not in the labor force

14,240 385 2.7

Previously worked

13,870 371 2.7

Never worked(2)

370 14 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Career assistance programs include: State Vocational Rehabilitation agencies, One-Stop Career Centers, Ticket to Work program, Assistive Technology Act program, Center for Independent Living for individuals with disabilities, Client Assistance Program, and other.
(2) This estimate does not represent all persons with a disability who have never worked. It excludes a small number of unemployed persons who have never worked before.

NOTE: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 6. Persons with a disability who used a financial assistance program in the past year by age, employment status, usual full- or part-time status, and program limitation on work, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total Persons who used a financial assistance program
Total Percent of
total
Percent of persons who used a
financial assistance program
Total Worked
less
because
of
program(1)
Did not
work less
because
of
program(1)

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

30,344 17,634 58.1 100.0 7.3 91.7

16 to 64 years

14,982 8,033 53.6 100.0 11.9 86.7

65 years and over

15,362 9,601 62.5 100.0 3.4 95.9

Employed

5,830 1,610 27.6 100.0 14.1 85.2

Usually work full time

3,957 767 19.4 100.0 7.7 91.8

Usually work part time

1,873 843 45.0 100.0 20.0 79.3

Unemployed

513 233 45.5 100.0 6.4 92.8

Not in the labor force

24,001 15,791 65.8 100.0 6.6 92.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with a disability were able to report more than one financial assistance program, and the report of a limitation could refer to any of the assistance programs used. Data may not sum to total because some persons did not respond to the question on work limitation.

NOTE: Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours. Financial assistance programs include: Workers' Compensation, Social Security Disability Income, Supplemental Security Income, Veterans Disability Compensation, disability insurance payments, Medicaid, Medicare, and other payments or programs.


Table 7. Employed persons with a disability by age, sex, and level of disability-related difficulty in completing current work duties, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Percent of total employed by level of difficulty
Total No difficulty A little
difficulty
Moderate
difficulty
Severe
difficulty

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,830 100.0 46.1 27.8 19.2 6.9

16 to 64 years

4,751 100.0 43.9 28.6 20.1 7.4

65 years and over

1,079 100.0 56.0 23.9 15.2 4.9

Men

3,141 100.0 47.8 28.2 18.1 5.9

Women

2,689 100.0 44.2 27.3 20.5 8.1

Table 8. Employed persons who requested a change in their current workplace to help them do their job better by age, sex, and disability status, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Requested a change in current workplace
Total Percent
of total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

159,469 14,827 9.3

16 to 64 years

150,112 14,141 9.4

65 years and over

9,357 686 7.3

Men

85,059 7,435 8.7

Women

74,410 7,392 9.9

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,830 805 13.8

16 to 64 years

4,751 732 15.4

65 years and over

1,079 73 6.8

Men

3,141 354 11.3

Women

2,689 451 16.8

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

153,639 14,022 9.1

16 to 64 years

145,361 13,409 9.2

65 years and over

8,278 613 7.4

Men

81,918 7,082 8.6

Women

71,721 6,940 9.7

NOTE: Data on people who requested a change in their current workplace are restricted to those who also provided a response about the type of change requested. A relatively small number of people who did not specify the type of change requested are excluded from these estimates, as they were for the May 2012 estimates.


Table 9. Employed persons who requested a change in their current workplace to help them do their job better by age, sex, disability status, and type of change requested, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total who
requested a
change in
current
workplace
Percent of total by type of change requested
New or
modified
equipment
Physical
changes
to the
workplace
Policy
changes
to the
workplace
Work
tasks, job
structure, or
schedule
Changes in
communi-
cation or
information
sharing
Changes to
comply with
religious
beliefs
Accommo-
dations for
family or
personal
obligations
Training Other

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

14,827 36.3 14.8 20.8 45.8 15.1 1.6 13.4 12.2 11.3

16 to 64 years

14,141 36.1 14.8 20.7 46.3 15.1 1.5 13.6 12.2 11.1

65 years and over

686 40.0 14.7 24.0 35.8 14.4 1.8 10.7 12.3 15.2

Men

7,435 42.7 16.3 21.8 43.2 15.2 1.9 11.0 13.9 10.4

Women

7,392 29.8 13.3 19.9 48.4 14.9 1.2 15.9 10.5 12.2

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

805 33.0 21.0 8.7 40.2 11.6 0.1 8.7 6.5 18.4

16 to 64 years

732 33.9 21.3 8.9 41.5 12.4 0.1 9.6 6.7 17.0

65 years and over

73 - - - - - - - - -

Men

354 34.3 25.3 12.3 37.9 13.4 0.2 9.2 5.5 16.8

Women

451 32.1 17.6 5.8 42.0 10.2 - 8.4 7.2 19.6

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

14,022 36.5 14.4 21.5 46.1 15.3 1.6 13.7 12.5 10.9

16 to 64 years

13,409 36.2 14.4 21.3 46.5 15.2 1.6 13.8 12.5 10.8

65 years and over

613 41.8 14.3 26.1 36.8 15.8 2.0 12.0 13.2 13.1

Men

7,082 43.1 15.8 22.3 43.5 15.3 2.0 11.1 14.4 10.1

Women

6,940 29.6 13.0 20.8 48.8 15.2 1.3 16.4 10.7 11.7

NOTE: Data on people who requested a change in their current workplace are restricted to those who also provided a response about the type of change requested. A relatively small number of people who did not specify the type of change requested are excluded from these estimates, as they were for the May 2012 estimates. Percents may sum to more than 100 percent because employed persons may have requested more than one change. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 10. Employed persons by typical commute to work and disability status, July 2019 [Percent distribution]
Characteristic Total Persons with a
disability
Persons with
no disability

Total employed (in thousands)

159,469 5,830 153,639

Percent of employed persons by commute method

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0

Bus

2.3 3.7 2.2

Specialized bus or van service for people with disabilities

0.1 1.1 0.1

Train/subway

2.7 1.5 2.8

Taxi

0.3 0.9 0.3

Own vehicle

83.0 73.6 83.3

Passenger in a friend or family member's car

2.7 4.7 2.6

Carpool

1.1 1.9 1.1

Bicycle

0.7 1.0 0.7

Walk

2.3 3.5 2.2

Other

2.1 2.0 2.1

Work from home

4.9 7.9 4.7

NOTE: The percent using each commuting method may sum to more than 100 percent because employed persons may have reported more than one method.


Table 11. Employed persons who worked at home by age, sex, educational attainment, and disability status, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Worked at home
Number Percent of
total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

159,469 36,876 23.1

16 to 64 years

150,112 33,637 22.4

65 years and over

9,357 3,239 34.6

Men

85,059 19,268 22.7

Women

74,410 17,608 23.7

Total, 25 years and over

138,152 35,645 25.8

Less than a high school diploma

9,108 629 6.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

33,998 3,722 10.9

Some college or associate degree

36,612 7,321 20.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

58,433 23,973 41.0

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,830 1,532 26.3

16 to 64 years

4,751 1,069 22.5

65 years and over

1,079 463 42.9

Men

3,141 809 25.8

Women

2,689 723 26.9

Total, 25 years and over

5,327 1,497 28.1

Less than a high school diploma

403 48 12.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

1,597 218 13.7

Some college or associate degree

1,786 441 24.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,541 789 51.2

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

153,639 35,344 23.0

16 to 64 years

145,361 32,568 22.4

65 years and over

8,278 2,776 33.5

Men

81,918 18,459 22.5

Women

71,721 16,885 23.5

Total, 25 years and over

132,825 34,148 25.7

Less than a high school diploma

8,705 581 6.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

32,401 3,504 10.8

Some college or associate degree

34,826 6,879 19.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

56,892 23,184 40.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Persons who worked at home include those who responded that they work at home when asked about their typical commute and those who responded yes when asked if they do any work at home for their job or business.


Table 12. Employed persons with flexible work hours by age, sex, educational attainment, and disability status, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Flexible work hours
Number Percent of
total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

159,469 62,152 39.0

16 to 64 years

150,112 56,912 37.9

65 years and over

9,357 5,240 56.0

Men

85,059 33,667 39.6

Women

74,410 28,485 38.3

Total, 25 years and over

138,152 56,082 40.6

Less than a high school diploma

9,108 2,578 28.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

33,998 10,712 31.5

Some college or associate degree

36,612 14,051 38.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

58,433 28,740 49.2

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,830 2,728 46.8

16 to 64 years

4,751 2,003 42.2

65 years and over

1,079 725 67.2

Men

3,141 1,489 47.4

Women

2,689 1,239 46.1

Total, 25 years and over

5,327 2,523 47.4

Less than a high school diploma

403 149 36.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

1,597 632 39.6

Some college or associate degree

1,786 804 45.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,541 938 60.9

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

153,639 59,424 38.7

16 to 64 years

145,361 54,909 37.8

65 years and over

8,278 4,515 54.5

Men

81,918 32,178 39.3

Women

71,721 27,246 38.0

Total, 25 years and over

132,825 53,559 40.3

Less than a high school diploma

8,705 2,429 27.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

32,401 10,080 31.1

Some college or associate degree

34,826 13,247 38.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

56,892 27,803 48.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Flexible work hours allow employed persons to vary or make changes in the time they begin and end work.


Table 13. Employed persons with temporary jobs by age, sex, educational attainment, and disability status, July 2019 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Temporary job
Number Percent of
total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

159,469 7,487 4.7

16 to 64 years

150,112 7,108 4.7

65 years and over

9,357 379 4.1

Men

85,059 4,106 4.8

Women

74,410 3,382 4.5

Total, 25 years and over

138,152 4,291 3.1

Less than a high school diploma

9,108 662 7.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

33,998 921 2.7

Some college or associate degree

36,612 945 2.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

58,433 1,763 3.0

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,830 366 6.3

16 to 64 years

4,751 331 7.0

65 years and over

1,079 35 3.2

Men

3,141 235 7.5

Women

2,689 131 4.9

Total, 25 years and over

5,327 305 5.7

Less than a high school diploma

403 32 7.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

1,597 77 4.8

Some college or associate degree

1,786 105 5.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,541 90 5.9

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

153,639 7,122 4.6

16 to 64 years

145,361 6,777 4.7

65 years and over

8,278 344 4.2

Men

81,918 3,871 4.7

Women

71,721 3,251 4.5

Total, 25 years and over

132,825 3,986 3.0

Less than a high school diploma

8,705 630 7.2

High school graduates, no college(1)

32,401 844 2.6

Some college or associate degree

34,826 840 2.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

56,892 1,672 2.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: A temporary job is one that lasts only for a limited time or until the completion of a project.


Last Modified Date: May 01, 2020