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Economic News Release
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Employment Characteristics of Families News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, April 18, 2019 	             USDL-19-0666

Technical information:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES -- 2018


In 2018, 5.2 percent of families included an unemployed person, down
from 5.8 percent in 2017, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. Of the nation's 82.5 million families, 80.8 percent had at least
one employed member in 2018.

These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are
collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly
survey of about 60,000 households. Data in this release are annual
averages. Families are classified either as married-couple families or
as families maintained by women or men without spouses present. Unless
otherwise noted, families include those with and without children under
age 18. For further information, see the Technical Note in this news
release.

Families and Unemployment

The number of families with at least one member unemployed decreased
by 444,000 to 4.3 million in 2018. The proportion of families with
an unemployed person declined by 0.6 percentage point to 5.2 percent.
(This is the lowest proportion since 1994, the first year for which
comparable data are available.) In 2018, this proportion was down for
White (4.7 percent), Black (8.4 percent), Asian (4.7 percent) and 
Hispanic (7.0 percent) families. Black and Hispanic families remained
more likely to have an unemployed member than White or Asian families.
(See table 1.) 

Seventy percent of families with an unemployed member also had at least
one family member who was employed in 2018, up from 69.1 percent in the
prior year. The proportion of families with an unemployed member that
had at least one family member working full time grew to 61.3 percent
in 2018. 

Among families with an unemployed member, Black families remained less
likely to also have at least one family member who was working (60.3
percent) than White (71.8 percent), Asian (84.5 percent), and Hispanic
(71.5 percent) families. However, the likelihood of Black families with
an unemployed member also having an employed family member did increase
from 58.1 percent in 2017 to 60.3 percent in 2018. (See table 1.)

In 2018, 4.2 percent of married-couple families had an unemployed member,
less than the corresponding percentages of families maintained by women
or families maintained by men (8.0 percent and 7.7 percent, respectively).
Among families with an unemployed family member, those maintained by women
were less likely to also have an employed family member (51.4 percent)
than families maintained by men and married-couple families (56.2 percent
and 82.1 percent, respectively). (See tables 2 and 3.)

Families and Employment

In 2018, 80.8 percent of families had at least one employed family member,
up from 80.5 percent in the prior year. From 2017 to 2018, the likelihood
of having an employed family member increased among White (80.4 percent),
Black (79.3 percent), and Hispanic (87.5 percent) families. The percentage
of Asian families having at least one family member employed (88.3 percent)
was little different from the prior year. (See table 1.)

In 2018, families maintained by women remained less likely to have an
employed member (77.7 percent) than families maintained by men (84.3 percent)
or married-couple families (81.2 percent). Among married-couple families,
both the husband and wife were employed in 48.8 percent of families; in
19.1 percent of married-couple families only the husband was employed, and
in 6.8 percent only the wife was employed. (See table 2.)

Families with Children

In 2018, 33.6 million families included children under age 18, about two-
fifths of all families. (Children are sons, daughters, step-children, or
adopted children living in the household who are under age 18. Not included
are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related and unrelated children,
and children not living in the household.) At least one parent was employed
in 90.8 percent of families with children, an increase of 0.6 percentage
point from the previous year. Among married-couple families with children,
97.4 percent had at least one employed parent, and 63.0 percent had both
parents employed. Among families maintained by fathers, 84.2 percent of
fathers were employed in 2018, a greater share than the 74.1 percent of
employed mothers in families maintained by mothers. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Parents

The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population working or
looking for work--for all women with children under age 18 was 71.5 percent
in 2018, up from 71.1 percent in the prior year. Married mothers remained
less likely to participate in the labor force, at 69.0 percent, than mothers
with other marital statuses, at 76.7 percent. (Other marital status includes
persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married,
spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex marriages.) The unemployment
rate for married mothers was also considerably lower than for mothers with
other marital statuses--2.5 percent, compared with 6.4 percent. (See table 5.) 

Mothers with young children are less likely to be in the labor force than
those with older children. In 2018, the labor force participation rate of 
mothers with children under age 6, at 65.1 percent, was lower than the rate
of those whose youngest child was age 6 to 17, at 76.4 percent. Among mothers
with children under age 3, the participation rate of married mothers was
lower than the rate of mothers with other marital statuses--59.6 percent
versus 67.2 percent. The unemployment rate of mothers who were married and
had children under age 3, at 2.6 percent, was substantially lower than the
rate for their counterparts with other marital statuses, at 8.7 percent.
(See tables 5 and 6.)

The labor force participation rate for all fathers with children under age
18 rose to 93.3 percent in 2018. The participation rate for married fathers,
at 94.1 percent, continued to be higher than the rate of fathers with other
marital statuses (88.4 percent). Married fathers also continued to have a
lower unemployment rate (1.9 percent) than fathers with other marital statuses
(5.7 percent). (See table 5.)

Employed fathers remained more likely to work full time than employed mothers
in 2018; 96 percent of employed fathers worked full time, compared with 78
percent of employed mothers. Among employed mothers, those with older children
were more likely to work full time than those with younger children. In 2018,
80 percent of employed mothers with children ages 6 to 17 worked full time,
compared with 75 percent of mothers with children under age 6. Employed fathers
with younger and older children were about equally likely to work full time.
(See table 5.)




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the Current
Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for
the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible
households that provides information on the labor force status, demographics, and
other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16
and over.

   The data presented in this release are not strictly comparable with data for
earlier years due to the introduction of updated population estimates, or controls,
used in the CPS. The population controls are updated each year in January to reflect
the latest information about population change. Additional information is available
from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop. 

   Upon request, the information in this release will be made available to individuals
who are sensory impaired: Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and
this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 
90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing
of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions
	
   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are described briefly below.
   
   Householder. The householder is the family reference person. This is the person (or
one of the persons) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. The relationship
of other individuals in the household is defined in terms of their relationship to the
householder. The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder.
	
   Family. A family is a group of two or more persons residing together who are related by
birth, marriage, or adoption; all such individuals are considered members of one family. The
count of families is for "primary" families only. A primary family consists of a householder
and all other persons related to and residing with the householder. Sub-families are excluded
from the count of families. A sub-family is a family that does not maintain their own household,
such as a married couple living in the home of a friend and their family. In this example,
the report would include only one family (the householder's or primary family), not two. 
Families include those with and without children under age 18. Families are further categorized
as follows:

   --Married-couple families refer to opposite-sex married couples residing together and any
     of their family members residing in the household.
   
   --Families maintained by women or men are made up of householders residing with one or
     more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse. The household may or may not include
     a same-sex spouse or an unmarried domestic partner of either sex.
	
   This release presents data for two marital status categories, defined below. Marital status is
based on a person's status at the time of the survey.
	
   Married, spouse present. Married, spouse present, includes persons in opposite-sex marriages
living together in the same household, even though one may be temporarily absent on business, on
vacation, on a visit, in a hospital, or for other reasons.
	
   Other marital status. Other marital status includes persons who are never married; widowed;
divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex marriages.
Separated includes persons with legal separations, those living apart with intentions of obtaining
a divorce, and other persons permanently or temporarily separated because of marital discord.
Married, spouse absent, includes opposite-sex married persons living apart because either the
husband or wife was employed and living at a considerable distance from home, was serving away
from home in the Armed Forces, had moved to another area, or had a different place of residence
for any other reason except separation as defined above.
	
   Children. Data on children refer to own children under age 18 that live in the household.
Included are sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children of the husband, wife, or person
maintaining the family. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related children,
and all unrelated children living in the household.
	
   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week, (a) did any
work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm;
or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member of the family.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, vacation, labor disputes,
or another reason also are counted as employed.
	
   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.
	
   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at all jobs.
	
   Unemployed. The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the reference week, were
available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a
job from which they had been laid off need not be looking for work to be classified as unemployed.
	
   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as employed or
unemployed. 
	
   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a
percent of the population.
	
   Employment-population ratio. The employment-population ratio is the employed as a percent of
the population.
	
   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the civilian
labor force.




Table 1. Employment and unemployment in families by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018

EMPLOYMENT IN FAMILIES

Total families

82,015 82,502

With at least one family member employed

66,027 66,655

As a percent of total families

80.5 80.8

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

60,395 61,159

With no family member employed

15,988 15,847

As a percent of total families

19.5 19.2

White

Total families

64,910 65,042

With at least one family member employed

52,016 52,264

As a percent of total families

80.1 80.4

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

47,621 47,973

With no family member employed

12,894 12,778

As a percent of total families

19.9 19.6

Black or African American

Total families

10,017 10,008

With at least one family member employed

7,886 7,934

As a percent of total families

78.7 79.3

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

7,053 7,149

With no family member employed

2,131 2,074

As a percent of total families

21.3 20.7

Asian

Total families

4,735 4,977

With at least one family member employed

4,195 4,393

As a percent of total families

88.6 88.3

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

3,978 4,159

With no family member employed

539 584

As a percent of total families

11.4 11.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

12,936 13,194

With at least one family member employed

11,244 11,546

As a percent of total families

86.9 87.5

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

10,383 10,706

With no family member employed

1,692 1,649

As a percent of total families

13.1 12.5

UNEMPLOYMENT IN FAMILIES

Total families

82,015 82,502

With at least one family member unemployed

4,744 4,300

As a percent of total families

5.8 5.2

Some family member(s) employed

3,277 3,012

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

69.1 70.0

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

2,870 2,636

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

60.5 61.3

White

Total families

64,910 65,042

With at least one family member unemployed

3,343 3,042

As a percent of total families

5.2 4.7

Some family member(s) employed

2,385 2,184

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

71.3 71.8

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

2,098 1,917

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

62.8 63.0

Black or African American

Total families

10,017 10,008

With at least one family member unemployed

951 837

As a percent of total families

9.5 8.4

Some family member(s) employed

553 504

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

58.1 60.3

Some family member employed full time(1)

469 437

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

49.4 52.3

Asian

Total families

4,735 4,977

With at least one family member unemployed

255 233

As a percent of total families

5.4 4.7

Some family member(s) employed

214 197

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

84.0 84.5

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

194 175

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

76.1 75.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

12,936 13,194

With at least one family member unemployed

994 918

As a percent of total families

7.7 7.0

Some family member(s) employed

715 657

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

71.9 71.5

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

634 584

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

63.8 63.6

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.

NOTE: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2017 2018 2017 2018

MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES(1)

Total

59,910 60,094 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

48,525 48,791 81.0 81.2

Husband only

11,425 11,469 19.1 19.1

Wife only

4,265 4,085 7.1 6.8

Husband and wife

28,944 29,317 48.3 48.8

Other employment combinations

3,891 3,921 6.5 6.5

With no family member employed

11,386 11,302 19.0 18.8

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN(2)

Total

15,438 15,452 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

11,861 12,003 76.8 77.7

Householder only

6,333 6,250 41.0 40.4

Householder and other member(s)

3,372 3,484 21.8 22.5

Other member(s), not householder

2,156 2,269 14.0 14.7

With no family member employed

3,577 3,449 23.2 22.3

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN(2)

Total

6,666 6,956 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

5,641 5,861 84.6 84.3

Householder only

2,564 2,703 38.5 38.9

Householder and other member(s)

2,101 2,173 31.5 31.2

Other member(s), not householder

976 985 14.6 14.2

With no family member employed

1,025 1,096 15.4 15.7

Footnotes
(1) Refers to opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Unemployment in families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2017 2018 2017 2018

MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES(1)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

2,783 2,528 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

2,245 2,075 80.7 82.1

No family member employed

537 452 19.3 17.9

Unemployment of family members

Husband unemployed(2)

1,009 877 36.3 34.7

Wife employed

632 558 22.7 22.1

Wife unemployed, husband employed or not in labor force

850 766 30.6 30.3

Husband employed

700 654 25.1 25.9

Other family member(s) unemployed

923 885 33.2 35.0

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN(3)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

1,389 1,233 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

691 633 49.8 51.4

No family member employed

697 600 50.2 48.6

Unemployment of family members

Householder unemployed

644 559 46.4 45.4

Other member(s) employed

165 154 11.9 12.5

Other family member(s) unemployed

744 673 53.6 54.6

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN(3)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

573 539 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

340 303 59.4 56.2

No family member employed

233 236 40.6 43.8

Unemployment of family members

Householder unemployed

312 306 54.5 56.7

Other member(s) employed

132 125 23.1 23.2

Other family member(s) unemployed

260 233 45.5 43.3

Footnotes
(1) Refers to opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) Total families with unemployed husbands, including those with unemployed wives.
(3) No opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Families with own children: Employment status of parents by age of youngest child and family type, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2017 2018 2017 2018

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Total families

33,615 33,632 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

30,318 30,522 90.2 90.8

No parent employed

3,297 3,109 9.8 9.2

Married-couple families(1)

Total

22,855 22,883 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

22,158 22,296 96.9 97.4

Mother employed

15,389 15,545 67.3 67.9

Both parents employed

14,151 14,407 61.9 63.0

Mother employed, not father

1,238 1,138 5.4 5.0

Father employed, not mother

6,769 6,751 29.6 29.5

Neither parent employed

697 586 3.1 2.6

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

8,259 8,125 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

6,043 6,018 73.2 74.1

Mother not employed

2,216 2,108 26.8 25.9

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

2,500 2,624 100.0 100.0

Father employed

2,117 2,209 84.7 84.2

Father not employed

383 416 15.3 15.8

WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER

Total families

19,621 19,377 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

17,742 17,627 90.4 91.0

No parent employed

1,879 1,751 9.6 9.0

Married-couple families(1)

Total

13,032 12,859 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

12,595 12,488 96.6 97.1

Mother employed

9,362 9,384 71.8 73.0

Both parents employed

8,553 8,643 65.6 67.2

Mother employed, not father

810 741 6.2 5.8

Father employed, not mother

3,233 3,104 24.8 24.1

Neither parent employed

437 370 3.4 2.9

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

5,093 5,028 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

3,890 3,887 76.4 77.3

Mother not employed

1,204 1,141 23.6 22.7

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

1,496 1,491 100.0 100.0

Father employed

1,257 1,251 84.1 83.9

Father not employed

239 240 15.9 16.1

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS

Total families

13,994 14,254 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

12,576 12,896 89.9 90.5

No parent employed

1,418 1,359 10.1 9.5

Married-couple families(1)

Total

9,823 10,024 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

9,562 9,808 97.3 97.8

Mother employed

6,027 6,161 61.4 61.5

Both parents employed

5,598 5,764 57.0 57.5

Mother employed, not father

428 396 4.4 4.0

Father employed, not mother

3,536 3,647 36.0 36.4

Neither parent employed

261 216 2.7 2.2

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

3,166 3,097 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

2,154 2,130 68.0 68.8

Mother not employed

1,013 967 32.0 31.2

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

1,005 1,133 100.0 100.0

Father employed

860 957 85.6 84.5

Father not employed

145 176 14.4 15.5

Footnotes
(1) Refers to opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
Total Men Women Total Men Women

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

64,188 28,740 35,448 64,235 28,913 35,321

Civilian labor force

51,875 26,662 25,213 52,206 26,967 25,239

Participation rate

80.8 92.8 71.1 81.3 93.3 71.5

Employed

50,036 25,920 24,117 50,590 26,316 24,274

Full-time workers(1)

43,433 24,807 18,626 44,177 25,231 18,946

Part-time workers(2)

6,604 1,113 5,491 6,414 1,085 5,328

Employment-population ratio

78.0 90.2 68.0 78.8 91.0 68.7

Unemployed

1,838 742 1,096 1,616 651 965

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.8 4.3 3.1 2.4 3.8

Married, spouse present(3)

Civilian noninstitutional population

48,974 24,779 24,195 49,007 24,809 24,198

Civilian labor force

39,781 23,172 16,609 40,043 23,341 16,703

Participation rate

81.2 93.5 68.6 81.7 94.1 69.0

Employed

38,775 22,633 16,142 39,183 22,895 16,288

Full-time workers(1)

34,081 21,746 12,334 34,625 22,044 12,581

Part-time workers(2)

4,695 887 3,808 4,558 851 3,707

Employment-population ratio

79.2 91.3 66.7 80.0 92.3 67.3

Unemployed

1,006 539 467 860 445 415

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.3 2.8 2.1 1.9 2.5

Other marital status(4)

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,213 3,961 11,253 15,228 4,104 11,123

Civilian labor force

12,093 3,490 8,603 12,163 3,627 8,536

Participation rate

79.5 88.1 76.5 79.9 88.4 76.7

Employed

11,261 3,287 7,975 11,407 3,421 7,987

Full-time workers(1)

9,352 3,061 6,291 9,552 3,187 6,365

Part-time workers(2)

1,909 226 1,683 1,856 234 1,622

Employment-population ratio

74.0 83.0 70.9 74.9 83.3 71.8

Unemployed

832 203 629 755 206 550

Unemployment rate

6.9 5.8 7.3 6.2 5.7 6.4

WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER

Civilian noninstitutional population

36,286 16,153 20,133 35,880 15,995 19,886

Civilian labor force

30,060 14,812 15,248 29,936 14,753 15,183

Participation rate

82.8 91.7 75.7 83.4 92.2 76.4

Employed

29,063 14,428 14,635 29,097 14,429 14,668

Full-time workers(1)

25,391 13,830 11,561 25,604 13,860 11,744

Part-time workers(2)

3,672 598 3,074 3,493 569 2,924

Employment-population ratio

80.1 89.3 72.7 81.1 90.2 73.8

Unemployed

997 384 612 840 324 515

Unemployment rate

3.3 2.6 4.0 2.8 2.2 3.4

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,902 12,587 15,315 28,354 12,919 15,436

Civilian labor force

21,815 11,849 9,965 22,270 12,214 10,056

Participation rate

78.2 94.1 65.1 78.5 94.5 65.1

Employed

20,973 11,492 9,481 21,494 11,888 9,606

Full-time workers(1)

18,041 10,977 7,064 18,573 11,371 7,201

Part-time workers(2)

2,932 515 2,417 2,921 516 2,405

Employment-population ratio

75.2 91.3 61.9 75.8 92.0 62.2

Unemployed

841 358 484 776 327 449

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.0 4.9 3.5 2.7 4.5

WITH NO OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

190,891 94,535 96,356 193,556 95,765 97,791

Civilian labor force

108,445 58,483 49,962 109,869 59,129 50,740

Participation rate

56.8 61.9 51.9 56.8 61.7 51.9

Employed

103,301 55,482 47,819 105,171 56,382 48,789

Full-time workers(1)

82,535 46,764 35,770 84,396 47,704 36,692

Part-time workers(2)

20,766 8,718 12,048 20,775 8,678 12,096

Employment-population ratio

54.1 58.7 49.6 54.3 58.9 49.9

Unemployed

5,144 3,001 2,143 4,698 2,747 1,951

Unemployment rate

4.7 5.1 4.3 4.3 4.6 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.
(2) Usually work less than 35 hours per week at all jobs.
(3) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(4) Includes persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex marriages.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of mothers with own children under 3 years old by single year of age of youngest child and marital status, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
With own children under 3 years old With own children under 3 years old
Total 2 years 1 year Under 1
year
Total 2 years 1 year Under 1
year

TOTAL MOTHERS

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,877 2,804 3,208 2,865 8,825 2,842 3,133 2,849

Civilian labor force

5,528 1,835 2,016 1,677 5,462 1,858 1,956 1,648

Participation rate

62.3 65.4 62.8 58.5 61.9 65.4 62.4 57.8

Employed

5,250 1,742 1,923 1,585 5,210 1,775 1,866 1,569

Full-time workers(1)

3,837 1,315 1,385 1,138 3,827 1,323 1,347 1,157

Part-time workers(2)

1,413 427 538 447 1,383 452 519 412

Employment-population ratio

59.1 62.1 59.9 55.3 59.0 62.5 59.6 55.1

Unemployed

277 93 93 92 251 83 90 78

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.1 4.6 5.5 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.8

Married, spouse present(3)

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,193 1,951 2,253 1,989 6,195 1,996 2,195 2,004

Civilian labor force

3,716 1,207 1,354 1,155 3,694 1,221 1,328 1,145

Participation rate

60.0 61.9 60.1 58.1 59.6 61.2 60.5 57.1

Employed

3,618 1,167 1,324 1,128 3,597 1,187 1,294 1,116

Full-time workers(1)

2,660 871 970 819 2,656 881 945 831

Part-time workers(2)

958 296 353 309 940 306 349 285

Employment-population ratio

58.4 59.8 58.8 56.7 58.1 59.4 59.0 55.7

Unemployed

98 40 30 27 97 35 33 29

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.3 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.9 2.5 2.5

Other marital status(4)

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,684 853 956 876 2,630 846 938 845

Civilian labor force

1,812 628 662 522 1,768 637 628 503

Participation rate

67.5 73.6 69.3 59.6 67.2 75.2 67.0 59.5

Employed

1,632 575 600 457 1,614 589 572 453

Full-time workers(1)

1,177 443 415 319 1,170 442 402 327

Part-time workers(2)

455 131 185 138 443 147 170 127

Employment-population ratio

60.8 67.4 62.7 52.2 61.4 69.5 60.9 53.6

Unemployed

180 53 62 64 154 48 57 50

Unemployment rate

9.9 8.5 9.4 12.3 8.7 7.6 9.0 9.8

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.
(2) Usually work less than 35 hours per week at all jobs.
(3) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(4) Includes persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex marriages.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: April 18, 2019