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Economic News Release
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Employment Characteristics of Families News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, April 21, 2021 		            USDL-21-0695

Technical information:  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps 
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902   *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		     EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES -- 2020


In 2020, 9.8 percent of families included an unemployed person, twice the figure of 4.9
percent in 2019, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The increase in
unemployment among families reflects the effect of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic
on the labor market. Of the nation's 83.1 million families, 78.2 percent had at least
one employed member in 2020. 

These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are collected as part
of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households.
Data in this news release are annual averages. Families are classified either as 
married-couple families or as families maintained by women or men without spouses 
present. Unless otherwise noted, families include those with and without children 
under age 18. For further information, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Families and Unemployment

The number of families with at least one member unemployed increased by 4.0 million to
8.1 million in 2020. The proportion of families with an unemployed person, at 9.8 
percent, doubled from the previous year, when it was 4.9 percent. In 2020, the 
proportion of families with an unemployed person increased for White (9.0 percent of
families), Black (13.4 percent), Asian (10.9 percent), and Hispanic (14.3 percent) 
families. White families were the least likely to have an unemployed member, and 
Hispanic families were the most likely. In 2019, by contrast, Asian families were the 
least likely to have an unemployed person, and Black families were the most likely. 
(See table 1.)

In 2020, among families with an unemployed member, 67.6 percent also had at least one
family member employed, down from 71.3 percent in the prior year. The proportion of 
families with an unemployed member that had at least one family member working full 
time fell by 2.5 percentage points to 59.9 percent in 2020. Among families with an 
unemployed member, Black families remained less likely to also have at least one family
member who was working (57.1 percent) than White (69.9 percent), Asian (71.6 percent),
and Hispanic (67.7 percent) families. (See table 1.)

In 2020, 8.6 percent of married-couple families had an unemployed member, less than the
corresponding percentages of families maintained by women or families maintained by men
(12.7 percent and 13.6 percent, respectively). Among families with an unemployed member,
those maintained by women remained less likely to also have an employed family member 
(49.9 percent) than families maintained by men and married-couple families (55.0 percent
and 76.2 percent, respectively). (See tables 2 and 3.)

Families and Employment

In 2020, 78.2 percent of families had at least one employed family member, down from 
81.2 percent in the prior year. From 2019 to 2020, the likelihood of having an employed 
family member decreased for White (78.0 percent of families), Black (75.7 percent), 
Asian (84.7 percent), and Hispanic (84.1 percent) families. (See table 1.)

Families maintained by women remained less likely to have an employed member (74.8 
percent) in 2020 than families maintained by men (81.1 percent) or married-couple 
families (78.7 percent). Among married-couple families, both spouses were employed in 
45.5 percent of families, down from 49.7 percent in the prior year. In 2020, only one 
spouse was employed in 31.3 percent of married-couple families, up from 29.8 percent in
2019. (See table 2.)

Families with Children

In 2020, 33.0 million families, or two-fifths of all families, included children under
age 18. (Children are sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children living in the
household who are under age 18. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other
related and unrelated children, and children not living in the household.) At least one
parent was employed in 88.5 percent of families with children, down from 91.4 percent
in the previous year. Among married-couple families with children, 95.3 percent had at
least one employed parent in 2020, and 59.8 percent had both parents employed. Among 
families maintained by fathers, 79.6 percent of fathers were employed, a greater share
than the 71.0 percent of mothers who were employed in families maintained by mothers.
(See tables 1 and 4.)

Parents

The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population working or looking
for work--for all women with children under age 18 was 71.2 percent in 2020, down from
72.3 percent in the prior year. The participation rate for fathers with children under
age 18, at 92.3 percent in 2020, also declined from the previous year (93.3 percent). 
This decline in labor force participation among parents, especially mothers, likely 
reflects not only pandemic-related job losses, but also the shift of many schools to 
distance learning and the temporary closure of many childcare facilities during the
pandemic. (See table 5.)

Participation rates declined from the prior year for married mothers and fathers, and 
for mothers and fathers with other marital statuses. Married mothers remained less 
likely to participate in the labor force in 2020, at 69.2 percent, than mothers with 
other marital statuses (75.9 percent). In contrast, married fathers remained more 
likely to participate in the labor force (93.3 percent) than fathers with other marital
statuses (86.3 percent). (Other marital status includes persons who are never married;
widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent.) (See table 5.)

In 2020, mothers of older children remained more likely to participate in the labor 
force than mothers with younger children. The participation rate for mothers with
children under age 6, at 65.8 percent, was lower than that of mothers whose youngest 
child was age 6 to 17, at 75.4 percent. By comparison, fathers with children under age
6 were more likely to participate in the labor force than those whose youngest child 
was age 6 to 17 (93.4 percent versus 91.4 percent). (See table 5.)

In 2020, the unemployment rate for mothers increased by 4.0 percentage points from the
prior year to 7.5 percent, and the rate for fathers increased by 3.4 percentage points
to 5.6 percent. The unemployment rate for married mothers remained considerably lower 
than for mothers with other marital statuses--6.1 percent, compared with 10.4 percent.
Married fathers also continued to have a lower unemployment rate, at 4.8 percent, than
fathers with other marital statuses, at 10.6 percent. Among mothers who had children 
under age 3, the unemployment rate of mothers who were married was less than half that
of those with other marital statuses (6.1 percent versus 12.8 percent). (See tables 5 
and 6.) 

Employed fathers remained more likely to work full time in 2020 than employed mothers;
95.6 percent of employed fathers worked full time, compared with 79.7 percent of 
employed mothers. The likelihood of working full time declined by 0.5 percentage point
from the previous year for employed fathers, while it increased by 1.2 percentage 
points over the year for employed mothers. The increase in the percentage of working 
mothers who were employed full time from 2019 to 2020 reflects the nature of pandemic-
related job losses in 2020, which were disproportionately large among mothers who 
worked part time. 

Among employed mothers, those with older children remained more likely to work full 
time than those with younger children. In 2020, 81.2 percent of employed mothers with
children ages 6 to 17 worked full time, compared with 77.5 percent of mothers with 
children under age 6. Employed fathers with older and younger children were about 
equally likely to work full time, at 95.7 percent and 95.4 percent, respectively. 
(See table 5.)


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                Change in classification by marital status and family type             |
|											|
| Estimates in this news release reflect a change in the classification of persons in 	|
| same-sex marriages. In this news release, estimates of the number of married persons 	|
| refer to those in opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. In prior news releases, 	|
| estimates of the number of married persons referred to those in opposite-sex 		|
| marriages only. The definition of families incorporates this change by expanding the  |
| definition of married-couple families to include same-sex married couples. 		|
|											|
| This new classification results in a larger estimate of the number of persons who are |
| married with a spouse present. It also results in a larger estimate of the number of  |
| married-couple families and the total number of families. Estimates of same-sex 	|
| married-couple families are not displayed in this news release. BLS continues to 	|
| evaluate these data. 									|
|											|
| Family estimates and estimates by marital status for 2020 and 2019 in this news	|
| release incorporate this change. Therefore, 2019 estimates presented in these tables  |
| do not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" 	|
| news release and in the BLS online database. 						|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the Current 
Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible 
households that provides information on the labor force status, demographics, and 
other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and
over.

   Estimates in this news release reflect a change in the classification of persons in
same-sex marriages. In this news release, estimates of the number of married persons 
refer to those in opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. In prior news releases, 
estimates of the number of married persons referred to those in opposite-sex marriages
only. The definition of families incorporates this change by expanding the definition
of married-couple families to include same-sex married couples. This new classification
results in a larger estimate of the number of persons who are married with a spouse 
present. It also results in a larger estimate of the number of married-couple families 
and the total number of families. The 2019 estimates presented in this news release do
not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" news 
release and in the BLS online database. Additional information about the classification
change is available from the Census Bureau at 
www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/working-papers/2019/demo/SEHSD-WP-2018-30.pdf.  

   In addition, the data presented in this release are not strictly comparable with data
for earlier years due to the introduction of updated population estimates, or controls,
used in the CPS. The population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is available from the
BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Upon request, the information in this release will be made available to individuals 
who are sensory impaired: Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample 
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference,
or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this 
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for 
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of 
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or 
processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating 
standard errors are available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are described briefly below.

   Householder. The householder is the family reference person. This is the person (or 
one of the persons) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. The relationship
of other individuals in the household is defined in terms of their relationship to the 
householder. The race and Hispanic ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the
householder.

   Family. A family is a group of two or more persons residing together who are related
by birth, marriage, or adoption; all such individuals are considered members of one 
family. The count of families is for "primary" families only. A primary family consists
of a householder and all other persons related to and residing with the householder. 
Sub-families are excluded from the count of families. A sub-family is a family that does
not maintain their own household, such as a married couple living in the home of a 
friend and their family. In this example, the report would include only one family (the
householder's or primary family), not two. 

   Families include those with and without children under age 18. Families are further
categorized as follows:

   --Married-couple families refer to opposite-sex and same-sex married couples residing
     together and any of their family members residing in the household.

   --Families maintained by women or men are made up of householders residing with one 
     or more family members but no spouse of either sex present. Unmarried domestic 
     partners of either sex may or may not be present in the household.

   This release presents data for two marital status categories, defined below. Marital
status is based on a person's status at the time of the survey.

   Total married, spouse present. Married, spouse present, includes persons in either 
opposite-sex or same-sex marriages living together in the same household, even though 
one may be temporarily absent on business, on vacation, on a visit, in a hospital, or 
for other reasons.

   Other marital status. Other marital status includes persons who are never married; 
widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent. Separated includes persons 
with legal separations, those living apart with intentions of obtaining a divorce, and 
other persons permanently or temporarily separated because of marital discord. Married,
spouse absent, includes married persons living apart because either a husband or wife 
was employed and living at a considerable distance from home, was serving away from home
in the Armed Forces, had moved to another area, or had a different place of residence 
for any other reason except separation as defined above.

   Children. Data on children refer to own children under age 18 that live in the 
household. Included are sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children of the 
husband, wife, or person maintaining the family. Not included are nieces, nephews, 
grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the 
household. 

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week, (a) 
did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or 
on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise 
operated by a member of the family. Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs 
because of illness, vacation, labor disputes, or another reason also are counted as 
employed.

   Full-time workers. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per 
week at all jobs.

   Part-time workers. Part-time workers are those who usually work fewer than 35 hours 
per week at all jobs.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment 
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting
to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be looking for work to
be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as 
employed or unemployed.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor force 
as a percent of the population.

   Employment-population ratio. The employment-population ratio is the employed as a 
percent of the population.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
civilian labor force.




Table 1. Employment and unemployment in families by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019-2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2019 2020

EMPLOYMENT IN FAMILIES

Total families

83,107 83,144

With at least one family member employed

67,503 64,995

As a percent of total families

81.2 78.2

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

62,015 59,683

With no family member employed

15,604 18,148

As a percent of total families

18.8 21.8

White

Total families

65,489 65,324

With at least one family member employed

52,850 50,925

As a percent of total families

80.7 78.0

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

48,530 46,762

With no family member employed

12,640 14,399

As a percent of total families

19.3 22.0

Black or African American

Total families

9,995 10,183

With at least one family member employed

8,020 7,713

As a percent of total families

80.2 75.7

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

7,274 6,975

With no family member employed

1,975 2,470

As a percent of total families

19.8 24.3

Asian

Total families

5,109 5,153

With at least one family member employed

4,517 4,365

As a percent of total families

88.4 84.7

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

4,279 4,131

With no family member employed

592 788

As a percent of total families

11.6 15.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

13,343 13,369

With at least one family member employed

11,793 11,245

As a percent of total families

88.4 84.1

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

10,946 10,367

With no family member employed

1,550 2,124

As a percent of total families

11.6 15.9

UNEMPLOYMENT IN FAMILIES

Total families

83,107 83,144

With at least one family member unemployed

4,111 8,124

As a percent of total families

4.9 9.8

Some family member(s) employed

2,930 5,492

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

71.3 67.6

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

2,565 4,869

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

62.4 59.9

White

Total families

65,489 65,324

With at least one family member unemployed

2,925 5,858

As a percent of total families

4.5 9.0

Some family member(s) employed

2,157 4,097

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

73.7 69.9

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

1,886 3,644

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

64.5 62.2

Black or African American

Total families

9,995 10,183

With at least one family member unemployed

801 1,360

As a percent of total families

8.0 13.4

Some family member(s) employed

484 776

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

60.4 57.1

Some family member employed full time(1)

422 676

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

52.8 49.7

Asian

Total families

5,109 5,153

With at least one family member unemployed

207 560

As a percent of total families

4.0 10.9

Some family member(s) employed

171 401

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

82.6 71.6

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

155 358

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

74.8 63.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

13,343 13,369

With at least one family member unemployed

883 1,906

As a percent of total families

6.6 14.3

Some family member(s) employed

654 1,290

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

74.0 67.7

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

571 1,150

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

64.6 60.3

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.

NOTE: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Family estimates reflect a change in the classification of marital status. Data for 2019 and 2020 incorporate this change into the definition of families, which expands the definition of married-couple families to include same-sex married couples. As a result, data under the new definition are not strictly comparable with data for previous years. Data for 2019 in this news release incorporate the new definition; therefore, 2019 estimates shown here do not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" news release and in the BLS online database.


Table 2. Families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2019-2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2019 2020 2019 2020

TOTAL MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES(1)

Total

60,975 61,375 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

49,625 48,279 81.4 78.7

With only one spouse employed

18,158 19,197 29.8 31.3

With both spouses employed

30,333 27,921 49.7 45.5

Other employment combinations

3,943 3,950 6.5 6.4

With no family member employed

11,350 13,096 18.6 21.3

Opposite-sex married-couple families

Total

60,449 60,804 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

49,162 47,785 81.3 78.6

Husband only

11,108 11,644 18.4 19.1

Wife only

4,123 4,614 6.8 7.6

Husband and wife

30,003 27,591 49.6 45.4

Other employment combinations

3,929 3,937 6.5 6.5

With no family member employed

11,287 13,018 18.7 21.4

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN(2)

Total

15,188 14,826 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

11,938 11,089 78.6 74.8

Householder only

6,138 5,879 40.4 39.7

Householder and other member(s)

3,520 3,108 23.2 21.0

Other member(s), not householder

2,280 2,102 15.0 14.2

With no family member employed

3,250 3,737 21.4 25.2

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN(2)

Total

6,944 6,943 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

5,940 5,627 85.5 81.1

Householder only

2,709 2,706 39.0 39.0

Householder and other member(s)

2,244 1,959 32.3 28.2

Other member(s), not householder

987 963 14.2 13.9

With no family member employed

1,004 1,315 14.5 18.9

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for 2019, includes both opposite-sex and same-sex married-couple families. Prior to 2019, included opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) Beginning with data for 2019, includes families with no spouse of either sex present. Prior to 2019, included only families with no opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: In families maintained by women or men with no spouse present, householder refers to the woman or man maintaining the family. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Family estimates reflect a change in the classification of marital status. Data for 2019 and 2020 incorporate this change into the definition of families, which expands the definition of married-couple families to include same-sex married couples. As a result, data under the new definition are not strictly comparable with data for previous years. Data for 2019 in this news release incorporate the new definition; therefore, 2019 estimates shown here do not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" news release and in the BLS online database.


Table 3. Unemployment in families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2019-2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2019 2020 2019 2020

TOTAL MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES(1)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

2,400 5,292 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

1,973 4,031 82.2 76.2

No family member employed

427 1,261 17.8 23.8

Unemployment of family members

At least one spouse unemployed(2)

1,525 3,920 63.6 74.1

One spouse employed

1,137 2,632 47.4 49.7

Other family member(s) unemployed

875 1,371 36.4 25.9

Opposite-sex married-couple families

With at least one family member unemployed, total

2,380 5,237 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

1,956 3,990 82.2 76.2

No family member employed

425 1,247 17.8 23.8

Unemployment of family members

Husband unemployed(3)

788 2,041 33.1 39.0

Wife employed

510 1,096 21.4 20.9

Wife unemployed, husband employed or not in labor force

721 1,835 30.3 35.0

Husband employed

613 1,506 25.7 28.8

Other family member(s) unemployed

872 1,361 36.6 26.0

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN(4)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

1,168 1,890 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

625 943 53.5 49.9

No family member employed

543 947 46.5 50.1

Unemployment of family members

Householder unemployed

516 942 44.1 49.8

Other member(s) employed

152 266 13.0 14.1

Other family member(s) unemployed

653 948 55.9 50.2

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN(4)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

543 942 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

331 518 61.1 55.0

No family member employed

211 424 38.9 45.0

Unemployment of family members

Householder unemployed

287 559 52.9 59.4

Other member(s) employed

138 218 25.4 23.2

Other family member(s) unemployed

255 383 47.1 40.6

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for 2019, includes both opposite-sex and same-sex married-couple families. Prior to 2019, included opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) Includes families with both spouses unemployed.
(3) Total opposite-sex married couple families with unemployed husbands, including those with unemployed wives.
(4) Beginning with data for 2019, includes families with no spouse of either sex present. Prior to 2019, included only families with no opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: In families maintained by women or men with no spouse present, householder refers to the woman or man maintaining the family. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Family estimates reflect a change in the classification of marital status. Data for 2019 and 2020 incorporate this change into the definition of families, which expands the definition of married-couple families to include same-sex married couples. As a result, data under the new definition are not strictly comparable with data for previous years. Data for 2019 in this news release incorporate the new definition; therefore, 2019 estimates shown here do not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" news release and in the BLS online database.


Table 4. Families with own children: Employment status of parents by age of youngest child and family type, 2019-2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2019 2020 2019 2020

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Total families

33,460 33,047 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

30,584 29,259 91.4 88.5

No parent employed

2,876 3,788 8.6 11.5

Total married-couple families(1)

Total

23,005 22,921 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

22,421 21,846 97.5 95.3

Both parents employed

14,810 13,705 64.4 59.8

Only one parent employed

7,611 8,141 33.1 35.5

Neither parent employed

583 1,075 2.5 4.7

Opposite-sex married couple families

Total

22,923 22,826 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

22,342 21,755 97.5 95.3

Mother employed

15,841 15,044 69.1 65.9

Both parents employed

14,754 13,642 64.4 59.8

Mother employed, not father

1,088 1,402 4.7 6.1

Father employed, not mother

6,501 6,711 28.4 29.4

Neither parent employed

581 1,071 2.5 4.7

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

7,850 7,526 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

5,934 5,344 75.6 71.0

Mother not employed

1,916 2,181 24.4 29.0

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

2,605 2,601 100.0 100.0

Father employed

2,228 2,069 85.5 79.6

Father not employed

377 531 14.5 20.4

WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER

Total families

19,351 19,246 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

17,700 17,109 91.5 88.9

No parent employed

1,651 2,137 8.5 11.1

Total married-couple families(1)

Total

12,943 12,939 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

12,555 12,315 97.0 95.2

Both parents employed

8,766 8,090 67.7 62.5

Only one parent employed

3,790 4,224 29.3 32.6

Neither parent employed

388 624 3.0 4.8

Opposite-sex married couple families

Total

12,898 12,887 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

12,512 12,266 97.0 95.2

Mother employed

9,469 8,944 73.4 69.4

Both parents employed

8,736 8,058 67.7 62.5

Mother employed, not father

733 886 5.7 6.9

Father employed, not mother

3,043 3,322 23.6 25.8

Neither parent employed

387 621 3.0 4.8

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

4,842 4,731 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

3,835 3,538 79.2 74.8

Mother not employed

1,007 1,193 20.8 25.2

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

1,566 1,576 100.0 100.0

Father employed

1,311 1,256 83.7 79.7

Father not employed

255 320 16.3 20.3

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS

Total families

14,109 13,801 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

12,884 12,150 91.3 88.0

No parent employed

1,225 1,651 8.7 12.0

Total married-couple families(1)

Total

10,061 9,983 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

9,866 9,531 98.1 95.5

Both parents employed

6,045 5,614 60.1 56.2

Only one parent employed

3,821 3,917 38.0 39.2

Neither parent employed

195 451 1.9 4.5

Opposite-sex married couple families

Total

10,025 9,939 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

9,830 9,490 98.1 95.5

Mother employed

6,372 6,100 63.6 61.4

Both parents employed

6,017 5,584 60.0 56.2

Mother employed, not father

355 516 3.5 5.2

Father employed, not mother

3,458 3,390 34.5 34.1

Neither parent employed

194 450 1.9 4.5

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

3,008 2,795 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

2,099 1,807 69.8 64.6

Mother not employed

909 988 30.2 35.4

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

1,040 1,024 100.0 100.0

Father employed

918 813 88.3 79.4

Father not employed

122 211 11.7 20.6

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for 2019, includes both opposite-sex and same-sex married-couple families. Prior to 2019, included opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) Beginning with data for 2019, includes families with no spouse of either sex present. Prior to 2019, included only families with no opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Family estimates reflect a change in the classification of marital status. Data for 2019 and 2020 incorporate this change into the definition of families, which expands the definition of married-couple families to include same-sex married couples. As a result, data under the new definition are not strictly comparable with data for previous years. Data for 2019 in this news release incorporate the new definition; therefore, 2019 estimates shown here do not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" news release and in the BLS online database.


Table 5. Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18, 2019-2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2019 2020
Total Men Women Total Men Women

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

63,971 28,773 35,199 63,242 28,569 34,673

Civilian labor force

52,291 26,848 25,443 51,063 26,361 24,702

Participation rate

81.7 93.3 72.3 80.7 92.3 71.2

Employed

50,802 26,253 24,550 47,742 24,892 22,850

Full-time workers(1)

44,521 25,239 19,282 42,008 23,796 18,212

Part-time workers(2)

6,282 1,014 5,268 5,734 1,097 4,638

Employment-population ratio

79.4 91.2 69.7 75.5 87.1 65.9

Unemployed

1,489 596 893 3,321 1,469 1,852

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.2 3.5 6.5 5.6 7.5

Total married, spouse present(3)

Civilian noninstitutional population

49,057 24,712 24,345 48,799 24,511 24,287

Civilian labor force

40,289 23,252 17,037 39,673 22,858 16,816

Participation rate

82.1 94.1 70.0 81.3 93.3 69.2

Employed

39,486 22,847 16,639 37,542 21,760 15,782

Full-time workers(1)

34,921 22,059 12,862 33,329 20,878 12,451

Part-time workers(2)

4,565 788 3,777 4,213 882 3,331

Employment-population ratio

80.5 92.5 68.3 76.9 88.8 65.0

Unemployed

803 405 398 2,131 1,097 1,034

Unemployment rate

2.0 1.7 2.3 5.4 4.8 6.1

Other marital status(4)

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,915 4,061 10,854 14,443 4,057 10,385

Civilian labor force

12,002 3,596 8,405 11,389 3,504 7,886

Participation rate

80.5 88.6 77.4 78.9 86.3 75.9

Employed

11,316 3,405 7,910 10,200 3,132 7,068

Full-time workers(1)

9,600 3,180 6,419 8,679 2,918 5,762

Part-time workers(2)

1,716 225 1,491 1,521 215 1,306

Employment-population ratio

75.9 83.9 72.9 70.6 77.2 68.1

Unemployed

686 191 495 1,189 371 818

Unemployment rate

5.7 5.3 5.9 10.4 10.6 10.4

WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,897 16,046 19,851 35,666 15,967 19,699

Civilian labor force

30,010 14,760 15,250 29,437 14,588 14,848

Participation rate

83.6 92.0 76.8 82.5 91.4 75.4

Employed

29,196 14,429 14,767 27,621 13,825 13,797

Full-time workers(1)

25,735 13,880 11,855 24,433 13,233 11,200

Part-time workers(2)

3,461 549 2,912 3,189 592 2,597

Employment-population ratio

81.3 89.9 74.4 77.4 86.6 70.0

Unemployed

814 331 483 1,815 764 1,052

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.2 3.2 6.2 5.2 7.1

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,075 12,727 15,348 27,575 12,602 14,973

Civilian labor force

22,281 12,088 10,193 21,626 11,773 9,853

Participation rate

79.4 95.0 66.4 78.4 93.4 65.8

Employed

21,606 11,823 9,783 20,121 11,068 9,053

Full-time workers(1)

18,786 11,359 7,427 17,575 10,563 7,012

Part-time workers(2)

2,820 464 2,356 2,546 505 2,041

Employment-population ratio

77.0 92.9 63.7 73.0 87.8 60.5

Unemployed

675 265 410 1,505 705 800

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.2 4.0 7.0 6.0 8.1

WITH NO OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

195,204 96,581 98,623 197,087 97,353 99,734

Civilian labor force

111,277 59,859 51,418 109,680 58,843 50,837

Participation rate

57.0 62.0 52.1 55.7 60.4 51.0

Employed

106,771 57,232 49,540 100,053 53,668 46,385

Full-time workers(1)

86,126 48,614 37,512 81,180 45,666 35,515

Part-time workers(2)

20,645 8,618 12,027 18,872 8,002 10,870

Employment-population ratio

54.7 59.3 50.2 50.8 55.1 46.5

Unemployed

4,506 2,628 1,878 9,627 5,175 4,452

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.4 3.7 8.8 8.8 8.8

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.
(2) Usually work less than 35 hours per week at all jobs.
(3) Beginning with data for 2019, includes persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. Prior to 2019, included only persons in opposite-sex marriages.
(4) Beginning with data for 2019, includes persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent. Prior to 2019, included persons in same-sex marriages as well.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Estimates for 2019 and 2020 introduce a change in the classification of marital status; estimates of married persons refer to those in opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. As a result, data by marital status are not strictly comparable with data for previous years. Data for 2019 in this news release incorporate the new classification; therefore, 2019 estimates shown here do not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" news release and in the BLS online database.


Table 6. Employment status of mothers with own children under 3 years old by single year of age of youngest child and marital status, 2019-2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2019 2020
With own children under 3 years old With own children under 3 years old
Total 2 years 1 year Under 1
year
Total 2 years 1 year Under 1
year

TOTAL MOTHERS

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,732 2,690 3,182 2,859 8,480 2,698 3,071 2,711

Civilian labor force

5,545 1,789 2,042 1,714 5,371 1,797 1,940 1,634

Participation rate

63.5 66.5 64.2 60.0 63.3 66.6 63.2 60.3

Employed

5,316 1,718 1,956 1,642 4,943 1,653 1,783 1,507

Full-time workers(1)

3,968 1,282 1,469 1,217 3,785 1,298 1,320 1,167

Part-time workers(2)

1,348 436 487 425 1,158 355 463 340

Employment-population ratio

60.9 63.9 61.5 57.4 58.3 61.3 58.1 55.6

Unemployed

229 71 86 72 428 144 157 127

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.0 4.2 4.2 8.0 8.0 8.1 7.8

Total married, spouse present(3)

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,243 1,916 2,294 2,033 6,181 1,971 2,239 1,971

Civilian labor force

3,900 1,211 1,452 1,237 3,887 1,281 1,412 1,194

Participation rate

62.5 63.2 63.3 60.8 62.9 65.0 63.1 60.6

Employed

3,808 1,184 1,416 1,208 3,650 1,201 1,323 1,126

Full-time workers(1)

2,866 886 1,073 907 2,827 956 985 886

Part-time workers(2)

942 298 342 302 823 245 338 240

Employment-population ratio

61.0 61.8 61.7 59.4 59.0 60.9 59.1 57.1

Unemployed

92 27 36 28 238 80 89 69

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.3 2.5 2.3 6.1 6.3 6.3 5.8

Other marital status(4)

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,489 774 888 826 2,299 727 831 740

Civilian labor force

1,645 578 590 477 1,484 516 528 440

Participation rate

66.1 74.6 66.4 57.8 64.6 70.9 63.5 59.5

Employed

1,508 534 540 434 1,294 452 460 382

Full-time workers(1)

1,102 396 396 310 959 342 336 281

Part-time workers(2)

406 138 145 124 335 110 125 100

Employment-population ratio

60.6 69.0 60.8 52.5 56.3 62.1 55.3 51.6

Unemployed

137 43 50 44 190 64 68 58

Unemployment rate

8.3 7.5 8.4 9.1 12.8 12.4 12.9 13.3

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.
(2) Usually work less than 35 hours per week at all jobs.
(3) Beginning with data for 2019, includes persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. Prior to 2019, included only persons in opposite-sex marriages.
(4) Beginning with data for 2019, includes persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent. Prior to 2019, included persons in same-sex marriages as well.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Estimates for 2019 and 2020 introduce a change in the classification of marital status; estimates of married persons refer to those in opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. As a result, data by marital status are not strictly comparable with data for previous years. Data for 2019 in this news release incorporate the new classification; therefore, 2019 estimates shown here do not match those published in the "Employment Characteristics of Families--2019" news release and in the BLS online database.


Last Modified Date: April 21, 2021