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Economic News Release
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JOLTS JLT Program Links

State Job Openings and Labor Turnover News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, March 21, 2023	USDL-23-0538
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870    JoltsInfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov

			STATE JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER  JANUARY 2023

Job openings rates decreased in 13 states and the District of Columbia and increased in 3 states on the 
last business day of January, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires rates increased in 
7 states and decreased in 4 states. Total separations rates increased in 4 states and decreased in 4 states. 
Nationally, the job openings rate decreased in January, while the hires and total separations rates showed 
little or no change.

This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, total separations, quits, and 
layoffs and discharges for the total nonfarm sector and for all states and the District of Columbia. 

Job Openings

In January, job openings rates decreased in 13 states and the District of Columbia, increased in 3 states, 
and were little changed in 34 states. The largest decreases in job openings rates occurred in North 
Dakota (-1.8 percentage points), Iowa (-1.7 points), and Michigan (-1.6 points). The increases occurred 
in Georgia and South Dakota (+0.8 point each), as well as in Florida (+0.5 point). Over the month, the 
national job openings rate decreased (-0.3 point). (See table A.)

The number of job openings decreased in 13 states and the District of Columbia, increased in 5 states, 
and was little changed in 32 states in January. The largest decreases in the job openings level occurred in 
California (-163,000), Texas (-98,000), and Michigan (-78,000). The largest increases occurred in 
Florida (+59,000), Georgia (+48,000), and New Hampshire (+5,000). Nationally, the number of job 
openings decreased over the month (-410,000). (See table A.)

Hires

In January, hires rates increased in 7 states, decreased in 4 states, and were little changed in 39 states 
and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in hires rates occurred in Arizona and South Dakota 
(+0.8 percentage point each), as well as in Ohio and Pennsylvania (+0.6 point each). The largest 
decreases occurred in Missouri (-1.1 points), Minnesota (-0.9 point), and North Dakota (-0.7 point). The 
national hires rate was little changed over the month. (See table B.)

The number of hires increased in 8 states, decreased in 3 states, and was little changed in 39 states and 
the District of Columbia in January. The largest increases in the hires level occurred in California 
(+87,000), Pennsylvania (+38,000), and Ohio (+35,000). The decreases occurred in Missouri and North 
Carolina (-32,000 each), as well as in Minnesota (-24,000). Nationally, the number of hires was little 
changed over the month. (See table B.)

Total Separations

In January, total separations rates increased in 4 states, decreased in 4 states, and were little changed in 
42 states and the District of Columbia. The increases in total separations rates occurred in Alaska  
(+1.1 percentage points) and Georgia (+0.8 point), as well as in Minnesota and North Carolina (+0.7 
point each). The largest decreases occurred in Idaho (-1.1 points) and in Iowa and Utah (-0.7 point 
each). Over the month, the national total separations rate was unchanged. (See table C.)

In January, the number of total separations increased in 5 states, decreased in 4 states, and was little 
changed in 41 states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in the total separations level 
occurred in Georgia (+36,000), North Carolina (+34,000), and Minnesota (+21,000). The largest 
decreases occurred in Indiana (-17,000), Iowa (-12,000), and Utah (-11,000). Nationally, the number of 
total separations was little changed over the month. (See table C.)
 
Quits

In January, quits rates decreased in 8 states, increased in 1 state, and were little changed in 41 states and 
the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in quits rates occurred in Idaho and Utah (-0.9 
percentage point each) and in Wyoming (-0.7 point). The increase occurred in Maryland (+0.5 point). 
Over the month, the national quits rate was little changed. (See table D.)

The number of quits decreased in 8 states, increased in 1 state, and was little changed in 41 states and 
the District of Columbia in January. The largest decreases in the quits level occurred in Texas 
(-47,000), Florida (-25,000), and Utah (-13,000). The increase occurred in Maryland (+13,000). 
Nationally, the number of quits decreased over the month (-207,000). (See table D.)
 
Layoffs and Discharges 

In January, layoffs and discharges rates increased in 10 states, decreased in 1 state, and were little 
changed in 39 states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in layoffs and discharges rates 
occurred in Alaska (+1.2 percentage points), North Carolina (+0.7 point), and Florida (+0.6 point). The 
decrease occurred in Indiana (-0.3 point). Over the month, the national layoffs and discharges rate was 
little changed. (See table E.)

The number of layoffs and discharges increased in 10 states, decreased in 2 states, and was little 
changed in 38 states and the District of Columbia in January. The largest increases in the layoffs and 
discharges levels occurred in Florida (+58,000), North Carolina (+34,000), and Texas (+33,000). The 
decreases occurred in Indiana and Missouri (-10,000 each). Nationally, the number of layoffs and 
discharges increased over the month (+241,000). (See table E.)

For more information, please see the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) interactive 
charts at www.bls.gov/charts/state-job-openings-and-labor-turnover/state-job-openings-rates.htm#.  
	
_____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey State estimates for February 2023 are scheduled 
to be released on Wednesday, April 19, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|		Changes to Annual Estimates for States from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover			|
|						 Survey								|
|														|
|Effective with the release of the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) national data for 		|
|January on March 8, 2023, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) published historical annual average job 	|
|openings levels and rates for states. State annual averages for 2001 through 2021 are available in the 	|
|BLS database at www.bls.gov/jlt/data.htm. 									|
|														|
|Also effective with the release of national data on March 8, 2023, JOLTS modified its method for 		|
|calculating annual estimates for hires and separations rates. Annual rates are computed as annual 		|
|averages, instead of annual totals, to make the estimates more helpful for data users and to be consistent 	|
|with other BLS programs. State annual average hires and separations rates for 2001 through 2021 are 		|
|available in the BLS database. 										|
|														|
|The 2022 state annual estimates will be published on July 26, 2023.						|
|														|
|Additional information about these changes, including the annual average calculation method, is 		|
|available at www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts-2023-changes.htm.								|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________|


Table A: States with significant changes in job openings from Dec 2022 to Jan 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Dec   |   Jan  | Over-the-month |   Dec  |   Jan  | Over-the-month
                       |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............|11,234  |10,824  |     -410       |   6.8  |   6.5  |     -0.3        
California.............|  1219  |  1056  |     -163       |   6.4  |   5.6  |     -0.8
Connecticut............|   110  |    97  |      -13       |   6.2  |   5.5  |     -0.7
Delaware...............|    38  |    35  |       -3*      |   7.6  |   6.8  |     -0.8
District of Columbia...|    55  |    45  |      -10       |   6.6  |   5.5  |     -1.1
Florida................|   647  |   706  |       59       |   6.3  |   6.8  |      0.5
Georgia................|   388  |   436  |       48       |   7.4  |   8.2  |      0.8
Idaho..................|    65  |    58  |       -7       |   7.3  |   6.4  |     -0.9
Indiana................|   221  |   206  |      -15       |   6.4  |   6.0  |     -0.4*
Iowa...................|   135  |   104  |      -31       |   7.8  |   6.1  |     -1.7
Maine..................|    48  |    42  |       -6       |   6.9  |   6.1  |     -0.8
Michigan...............|   369  |   291  |      -78       |   7.8  |   6.2  |     -1.6
Minnesota..............|   231  |   212  |      -19       |   7.2  |   6.7  |     -0.5
New Hampshire..........|    51  |    56  |        5       |   6.8  |   7.4  |      0.6*
New Mexico.............|    70  |    63  |       -7       |   7.6  |   6.8  |     -0.8
North Dakota...........|    35  |    26  |       -9       |   7.5  |   5.7  |     -1.8
Ohio...................|   409  |   389  |      -20*      |   6.9  |   6.5  |     -0.4
Oregon.................|   153  |   140  |      -13       |   7.1  |   6.6  |     -0.5*
South Dakota...........|    33  |    37  |        4       |   6.7  |   7.5  |      0.8
Tennessee..............|   263  |   243  |      -20       |   7.4  |   6.8  |     -0.6
Texas..................|  1033  |   935  |      -98       |   7.0  |   6.4  |     -0.6
Vermont................|    22  |    25  |        3       |   6.7  |   7.5  |      0.8*
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table B: States with significant changes in hires from Dec 2022 to Jan 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Dec   |   Jan  | Over-the-month |   Dec  |   Jan  | Over-the-month
                       |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 6,251  | 6,372  |      121       |   4.0  |   4.1  |      0.1        
Arizona................|   135  |   159  |       24       |   4.3  |   5.1  |      0.8
California.............|   542  |   629  |       87       |   3.0  |   3.5  |      0.5
Idaho..................|    37  |    43  |        6       |   4.5  |   5.1  |      0.6*
Minnesota..............|   126  |   102  |      -24       |   4.3  |   3.4  |     -0.9
Missouri...............|   147  |   115  |      -32       |   5.0  |   3.9  |     -1.1
North Carolina.........|   239  |   207  |      -32       |   4.9  |   4.3  |     -0.6
North Dakota...........|    19  |    16  |       -3*      |   4.4  |   3.7  |     -0.7
Ohio...................|   195  |   230  |       35       |   3.5  |   4.1  |      0.6
Pennsylvania...........|   183  |   221  |       38       |   3.0  |   3.6  |      0.6
South Dakota...........|    20  |    24  |        4       |   4.4  |   5.2  |      0.8
Washington.............|   138  |   160  |       22       |   3.9  |   4.4  |      0.5
Wisconsin..............|   112  |   128  |       16       |   3.8  |   4.3  |      0.5
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table C: States with significant changes in total separations from Dec 2022 to Jan 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Dec   |   Jan  | Over-the-month |   Dec  |   Jan  | Over-the-month
                       |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 5,906  | 5,902  |       -4       |   3.8  |   3.8  |      0.0        
Alaska.................|    18  |    22  |        4       |   5.6  |   6.7  |      1.1
Arkansas...............|    55  |    64  |        9       |   4.2  |   4.7  |      0.5*
Georgia................|   220  |   256  |       36       |   4.5  |   5.3  |      0.8
Idaho..................|    47  |    39  |       -8       |   5.7  |   4.6  |     -1.1
Indiana................|   154  |   137  |      -17       |   4.8  |   4.2  |     -0.6
Iowa...................|    67  |    55  |      -12       |   4.2  |   3.5  |     -0.7
Minnesota..............|    89  |   110  |       21       |   3.0  |   3.7  |      0.7
North Carolina.........|   175  |   209  |       34       |   3.6  |   4.3  |      0.7
Utah...................|    82  |    71  |      -11       |   4.9  |   4.2  |     -0.7
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table D: States with significant changes in quits from Dec 2022 to Jan 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Dec   |   Jan  | Over-the-month |   Dec  |   Jan  | Over-the-month
                       |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 4,091  | 3,884  |     -207       |   2.6  |   2.5  |     -0.1        
Colorado...............|    93  |    81  |      -12       |   3.2  |   2.8  |     -0.4
Florida................|   287  |   262  |      -25       |   3.0  |   2.7  |     -0.3*
Idaho..................|    34  |    27  |       -7       |   4.1  |   3.2  |     -0.9
Indiana................|    99  |    91  |       -8*      |   3.1  |   2.8  |     -0.3
Iowa...................|    43  |    37  |       -6       |   2.7  |   2.3  |     -0.4
Maryland...............|    55  |    68  |       13       |   2.0  |   2.5  |      0.5
Oregon.................|    62  |    54  |       -8       |   3.1  |   2.7  |     -0.4*
Texas..................|   440  |   393  |      -47       |   3.2  |   2.9  |     -0.3
Utah...................|    63  |    50  |      -13       |   3.8  |   2.9  |     -0.9
Virginia...............|   109  |    96  |      -13*      |   2.7  |   2.3  |     -0.4
Wyoming................|    12  |    10  |       -2       |   4.2  |   3.5  |     -0.7
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table E: States with significant changes in layoffs and discharges from Dec 2022 to Jan 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Dec   |   Jan  | Over-the-month |   Dec  |   Jan  | Over-the-month
                       |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2022  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 1,475  | 1,716  |      241       |   1.0  |   1.1  |      0.1        
Alaska.................|     4  |     8  |        4       |   1.2  |   2.4  |      1.2
Arizona................|    22  |    30  |        8*      |   0.7  |   1.0  |      0.3
Florida................|    68  |   126  |       58       |   0.7  |   1.3  |      0.6
Georgia................|    47  |    74  |       27       |   1.0  |   1.5  |      0.5
Illinois...............|    61  |    82  |       21       |   1.0  |   1.3  |      0.3
Indiana................|    49  |    39  |      -10       |   1.5  |   1.2  |     -0.3
Louisiana..............|    21  |    31  |       10       |   1.1  |   1.6  |      0.5
Minnesota..............|    24  |    35  |       11       |   0.8  |   1.2  |      0.4
Missouri...............|    42  |    32  |      -10       |   1.4  |   1.1  |     -0.3*
North Carolina.........|    42  |    76  |       34       |   0.9  |   1.6  |      0.7
Oregon.................|    13  |    21  |        8       |   0.7  |   1.1  |      0.4
South Carolina.........|    24  |    33  |        9       |   1.1  |   1.5  |      0.4*
Texas..................|   114  |   147  |       33       |   0.8  |   1.1  |      0.3
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.

Technical Note

This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The
JOLTS program provides information on labor demand and turnover. Additional information about
the JOLTS program can be found at www.bls.gov/jlt/. State estimates are published for
job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and total separations. The JOLTS program covers all
private nonfarm establishments, as well as civilian federal, state, and local government entities in the 50
states and the District of Columbia. Starting with data for January 2023, industries are classified in
accordance with the 2022 North American Industry Classification System.

Definitions

Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay
period that includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other
paid leave. Proprietors or partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on
strike for the entire pay period, and employees on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not
counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside
contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working. JOLTS does not publish employment estimates but uses the reported
employment for validation of the other reported data elements.

Job Openings. Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the
reference month. A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions:
* A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be
full-time or part-time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal.
* The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate
during that time.
* The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include
advertising in newspapers, on television, or on the radio; posting internet notices, posting “help
wanted” signs, networking, or making “word-of-mouth” announcements; accepting applications;
interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; or soliciting employees at job fairs,
state or local employment offices, or similar sources.

Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from
layoffs. Also excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future;
positions for which employees have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work; and
positions to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside
contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job openings by
the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires. Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly
hired and rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal
employees; employees who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension
from pay status) lasting more than 7 days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after
having been formally separated; workers who were hired and separated during the month, and transfers
from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions within the reporting location, employees
returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside
contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by
employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations. Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month
and is reported by type of separation: quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include
employees who left voluntarily, with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs
and discharges includes involuntary separations initiated by the employer, such as layoffs with no
intent to rehire; layoffs (formal suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days;
discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause;
terminations of permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or
not they are expected to return the next season). Other separations include retirements, transfers to
other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. Other separations comprise
less than 8 percent of total separations. Other separations rates are generally very low, and other
separations variance estimates are relatively high. Consequently, the other separations component is not
published for states. Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; 
employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The
separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that
quotient by 100. The quits and layoffs and discharges rates are computed similarly.

State Estimation Method

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of approximately 21,000 nonfarm business
and government establishments. The sample is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and
establishment size class. The JOLTS sample of 21,000 establishments does not directly support the
production of sample-based state estimates. However, state estimates have been produced by combining the
available sample with model-based estimates. 

The state estimates consist of four major estimating models; the Composite Regional model (an unpublished 
intermediate model), the Synthetic model (an unpublished intermediate model), the Composite Synthetic 
model (published historical series through the most current benchmark year), and the Extended Composite 
Synthetic model (published current-year monthly series). The Composite Regional model uses JOLTS microdata, 
JOLTS regional published estimates, and Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment data. The
Composite Synthetic model uses JOLTS microdata and Synthetic model estimates derived from monthly
employment changes in microdata from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and
JOLTS published regional data. The Extended Composite Synthetic model extends the Composite Synthetic 
estimates by ratio-adjusting the Composite Synthetic model by the ratio of the current Composite
Regional model estimate to the Composite Regional model estimate from the previous year.

The Extended Composite Synthetic model (and its major component—the Composite Regional
model) is used to extend the Composite Synthetic estimates because all of the inputs required by this
model are available at the time monthly estimate are produced. In contrast, the Composite Synthetic model
(and its major component—the Synthetic model) can only be produced when the latest QCEW data are
available. The Extended Composite Synthetic model estimates are used to extend the Composite Synthetic
model estimates during the annual JOLTS retabulation process. The extension of the Composite
Synthetic model using current data-based Composite Regional model estimates ensures that the Composite
Synthetic model estimates reflect current economic trends.

The Composite Regional approach calculates state-level JOLTS estimates from JOLTS microdata
using sample weights and the adjustments for nonresponse. The Composite Regional estimate is then
benchmarked to CES state-supersector employment to produce state-supersector estimates. The JOLTS
sample, by itself, cannot ensure a reasonably sized sample for each state-supersector cell. The small
JOLTS sample results in several state-supersector cells that lack enough data to produce a reasonable
estimate. To overcome this issue, the state-level estimates derived directly from the JOLTS sample
are augmented using JOLTS regional estimates when the number of respondents is low (that is, less than
30). This approach is known as a composite estimate, which leverages the small JOLTS sample to the
greatest extent possible and supplements that with a model-based estimate. Previous research has found
that regional industry estimates are a good proxy at finer levels of geographical detail. That is, one can
make a reliable prediction of JOLTS estimates at the regional-level using only national industry-level
JOLTS rates. The assumption in this approach is that one can make a good prediction of JOLTS estimates
at the state-level using only regional industry-level JOLTS rates.)

In this approach, the JOLTS microdata-based estimate is used, without model augmentation, in all
state-supersector cells that have 30 or more respondents. The JOLTS regional estimate will be
used, without a sample-based component, in all state-supersector cells that have fewer than five
respondents. In all state-supersector cells with 5 to 30 respondents, an estimate is calculated that is a
composition of a weighted estimate of the microdata-based estimate and a weighted estimate of the JOLTS
regional estimate. The weight assigned to the JOLTS data in those cells is proportional the number of
JOLTS respondents in the cell (weight=n∕30, where n is the number of respondents). The sum of state
estimates within a region is made equal to the aligned regional JOLTS published regional estimates.

Seasonal adjustment. BLS uses the seasonal adjustment program (X-13ARIMA-SEATS) to
seasonally adjust the JOLTS series. Each month, a concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology uses all
relevant data, up to and including the current month, to calculate new seasonal adjustment factors. Moving
averages are used as seasonal filters in seasonal adjustment. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes
both additive and multiplicative models, as well as regression with autocorrelated errors (REGARIMA)
modeling, to improve the seasonal adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to detect
and adjust for outliers in the series.

Annual estimates and benchmarking. The JOLTS state estimates utilize and leverage data from
three BLS programs; JOLTS, CES, and QCEW. These state estimates are published as a historical
series made up of a historical annually revised benchmark component of the Composite Synthetic
model and a current component of the Extended Composite Synthetic model that provides monthly
"real-time" estimates between lagged benchmarks. 

The JOLTS employment levels are ratio-adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios 
are applied to all JOLTS data elements.

The seasonally adjusted estimates are recalculated for the most recent 5 years to reflect
updated seasonal adjustment factors. These annual updates result in revisions to both the seasonally
adjusted and not seasonally adjusted JOLTS data series for the period since the last benchmark was
established.

Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations
are the sum of the 12 published monthly levels.

Annual average levels for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 published
monthly levels by 12.

Annual average rates for hires, total separations quits, and layoffs and discharges are calculated by
dividing the sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published levels for each data element by the sum of the 12
monthly CES published employment levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Annual average rates for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 monthly
JOLTS published levels by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published employment levels plus the
sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.)

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to two types of error: sampling error and nonsampling error.

Sampling error can result when a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed. There is a
chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies with the sample selected, and this variability is measured by the
standard error of the estimate. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of
confidence. This means that there is a 90-percent chance that the true population mean will fall into the
interval created by the sample mean plus or minus 1.65 standard errors. Estimates of median standard
errors are released monthly as part of the significant change tables on the JOLTS webpage. Standard
errors are updated annually with the most recent 5 years of data. For sampling error estimates, see
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a segment of the
population, the inability to obtain data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the
collection or processing of the data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.
The JOLTS program uses quality control procedures to reduce nonsampling error in the survey’s design.

The JOLTS state variance estimates account for both sampling error and the error attributable to
modeling. A small area domain model uses a Bayesian approach to develop estimates of JOLTS
state variance. The small area model uses QCEW-based JOLTS synthetic model data to generate a
Bayesian prior distribution, then updates the prior distribution using JOLTS microdata and samplebased
variance estimates at the state and US Census regional level to generate a Bayesian posterior
distribution. Once the Bayesian posterior distribution has been generated, estimates of JOLTS state
variances are made by drawing 2,500 estimates from the Bayesian posterior distribution. This Bayesian
approach thus indirectly accounts for sampling error and directly for model error.

Other information

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access
telecommunications relay services.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

11,487 10,471 10,746 11,234 10,824 7.1 6.4 6.5 6.8 6.5


Alabama

151 156 154 161 162 6.8 6.9 6.8 7.1 7.0

Alaska

33 30 29 31 30 9.4 8.5 8.2 8.7 8.4

Arizona

236 231 214 214 225 7.2 6.9 6.5 6.4 6.7

Arkansas

92 103 95 103 108 6.6 7.2 6.7 7.2 7.4

California

1,148 1,212 1,239 1,219 1,056 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.4 5.6

Colorado

236 231 215 213 209 7.7 7.4 6.9 6.9 6.8

Connecticut

108 96 100 110 97 6.2 5.4 5.7 6.2 5.5

Delaware

36 38 37 38 35 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.6 6.8

District of Columbia

45 48 46 55 45 5.6 5.9 5.6 6.6 5.5

Florida

704 562 637 647 706 7.1 5.6 6.2 6.3 6.8

Georgia

394 396 392 388 436 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.4 8.2

Hawaii

48 38 34 39 41 7.4 5.8 5.2 5.9 6.1

Idaho

63 61 60 65 58 7.2 6.9 6.8 7.3 6.4

Illinois

484 374 416 474 464 7.5 5.8 6.4 7.2 7.1

Indiana

257 219 209 221 206 7.5 6.4 6.1 6.4 6.0

Iowa

123 106 117 135 104 7.3 6.3 6.9 7.8 6.1

Kansas

97 97 90 100 99 6.5 6.4 6.0 6.6 6.4

Kentucky

158 150 155 153 156 7.6 7.1 7.3 7.2 7.3

Louisiana

143 175 180 181 178 7.0 8.3 8.5 8.5 8.4

Maine

54 43 43 48 42 7.9 6.3 6.2 6.9 6.1

Maryland

212 188 198 203 206 7.3 6.4 6.8 6.9 7.0

Massachusetts

270 264 239 281 290 7.0 6.6 6.0 7.0 7.2

Michigan

357 280 286 369 291 7.7 6.0 6.1 7.8 6.2

Minnesota

260 206 185 231 212 8.3 6.5 5.9 7.2 6.7

Mississippi

84 85 86 88 91 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.2

Missouri

229 196 197 220 211 7.3 6.3 6.3 7.0 6.6

Montana

45 42 41 44 43 8.2 7.7 7.5 8.0 7.7

Nebraska

84 64 59 73 75 7.7 5.8 5.4 6.5 6.7

Nevada

113 106 104 114 114 7.3 6.7 6.6 7.2 6.9

New Hampshire

61 53 47 51 56 8.3 7.2 6.4 6.8 7.4

New Jersey

299 246 203 266 280 6.8 5.5 4.5 5.9 6.1

New Mexico

67 71 68 70 63 7.4 7.7 7.4 7.6 6.8

New York

591 509 442 473 452 6.0 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.5

North Carolina

352 365 363 367 351 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.7

North Dakota

34 25 28 35 26 7.4 5.5 6.1 7.5 5.7

Ohio

388 356 345 409 389 6.7 6.1 5.9 6.9 6.5

Oklahoma

119 124 132 135 139 6.7 6.8 7.2 7.3 7.4

Oregon

151 143 140 153 140 7.3 6.7 6.6 7.1 6.6

Pennsylvania

506 393 428 458 465 8.0 6.1 6.6 7.0 7.1

Rhode Island

39 35 33 37 38 7.4 6.6 6.2 6.9 7.1

South Carolina

181 169 182 188 178 7.7 7.0 7.5 7.7 7.3

South Dakota

37 29 30 33 37 7.7 6.0 6.2 6.7 7.5

Tennessee

258 244 259 263 243 7.5 7.0 7.3 7.4 6.8

Texas

940 933 886 1,033 935 6.7 6.4 6.1 7.0 6.4

Utah

124 107 111 112 113 7.0 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.2

Vermont

24 23 20 22 25 7.4 7.1 6.2 6.7 7.5

Virginia

310 356 320 344 333 7.2 8.0 7.2 7.7 7.5

Washington

221 230 214 242 248 6.0 6.1 5.7 6.4 6.5

West Virginia

57 61 66 69 71 7.6 7.9 8.4 8.9 9.2

Wisconsin

237 226 243 236 233 7.5 7.1 7.6 7.4 7.2

Wyoming

24 23 22 22 22 7.8 7.5 7.1 7.1 7.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,496 6,164 6,253 6,251 6,372 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.1


Alabama

106 116 98 103 99 5.2 5.5 4.7 4.9 4.6

Alaska

19 20 20 22 22 6.0 6.2 6.2 6.8 6.7

Arizona

156 141 130 135 159 5.2 4.5 4.2 4.3 5.1

Arkansas

63 61 62 67 62 4.8 4.6 4.7 5.1 4.6

California

638 634 585 542 629 3.7 3.6 3.3 3.0 3.5

Colorado

153 126 118 116 121 5.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.2

Connecticut

59 50 56 58 56 3.6 3.0 3.4 3.5 3.3

Delaware

27 25 24 24 22 6.0 5.4 5.2 5.2 4.6

District of Columbia

22 27 27 28 23 2.9 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.0

Florida

391 380 357 371 378 4.3 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.9

Georgia

266 245 228 248 259 5.7 5.1 4.7 5.1 5.3

Hawaii

30 23 20 24 28 5.0 3.7 3.2 3.9 4.5

Idaho

43 38 35 37 43 5.3 4.6 4.2 4.5 5.1

Illinois

254 241 241 257 262 4.3 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.3

Indiana

154 142 142 149 141 4.9 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.4

Iowa

61 57 67 64 61 3.9 3.6 4.2 4.0 3.8

Kansas

49 60 56 59 59 3.5 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.1

Kentucky

112 96 94 96 93 5.8 4.9 4.8 4.9 4.7

Louisiana

98 108 92 102 99 5.2 5.6 4.7 5.3 5.1

Maine

28 22 30 28 26 4.4 3.4 4.6 4.3 4.0

Maryland

99 111 113 113 115 3.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2

Massachusetts

167 142 123 126 133 4.6 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.6

Michigan

182 171 166 175 171 4.2 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9

Minnesota

106 104 107 126 102 3.7 3.5 3.6 4.3 3.4

Mississippi

55 51 53 58 57 4.7 4.4 4.6 5.0 4.8

Missouri

95 103 108 147 115 3.3 3.5 3.7 5.0 3.9

Montana

28 28 28 29 30 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.8

Nebraska

42 40 38 40 42 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.8 4.0

Nevada

71 76 73 74 75 5.0 5.2 4.9 5.0 4.9

New Hampshire

33 26 27 30 29 4.9 3.8 3.9 4.4 4.2

New Jersey

167 139 135 141 143 4.0 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.3

New Mexico

39 39 35 40 38 4.7 4.6 4.1 4.7 4.4

New York

310 262 282 323 309 3.3 2.7 2.9 3.4 3.2

North Carolina

273 229 223 239 207 5.9 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.3

North Dakota

19 16 19 19 16 4.5 3.7 4.4 4.4 3.7

Ohio

219 226 211 195 230 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.5 4.1

Oklahoma

84 75 82 85 85 5.1 4.4 4.8 5.0 4.9

Oregon

84 86 78 85 91 4.4 4.3 3.9 4.3 4.6

Pennsylvania

205 188 192 183 221 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.6

Rhode Island

23 19 19 22 21 4.7 3.8 3.8 4.4 4.2

South Carolina

114 96 109 113 108 5.2 4.3 4.9 5.0 4.8

South Dakota

19 19 21 20 24 4.3 4.2 4.6 4.4 5.2

Tennessee

162 164 162 161 166 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0

Texas

536 554 609 608 583 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.2

Utah

81 69 66 79 85 4.9 4.1 3.9 4.7 5.0

Vermont

14 11 12 12 14 4.7 3.6 4.0 4.0 4.6

Virginia

169 164 174 177 178 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.3

Washington

133 135 132 138 160 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.4

West Virginia

34 34 36 37 37 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.3

Wisconsin

118 108 106 112 128 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.8 4.3

Wyoming

15 16 16 16 17 5.3 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,235 5,846 5,945 5,906 5,902 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8


Alabama

97 100 96 99 94 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.4

Alaska

22 22 23 18 22 6.9 6.8 7.1 5.6 6.7

Arizona

155 151 145 125 125 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.0 4.0

Arkansas

57 58 65 55 64 4.4 4.4 4.9 4.2 4.7

California

667 540 592 598 571 3.9 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.2

Colorado

138 109 152 128 118 4.9 3.8 5.2 4.4 4.1

Connecticut

56 44 55 56 53 3.4 2.6 3.3 3.4 3.2

Delaware

21 23 22 21 21 4.6 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4

District of Columbia

23 25 23 24 20 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.1 2.6

Florida

363 367 351 373 401 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.2

Georgia

246 243 238 220 256 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.5 5.3

Hawaii

23 23 24 23 20 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.7 3.2

Idaho

43 37 39 47 39 5.3 4.5 4.7 5.7 4.6

Illinois

199 215 256 210 232 3.3 3.5 4.2 3.4 3.8

Indiana

140 143 134 154 137 4.4 4.5 4.2 4.8 4.2

Iowa

65 60 70 67 55 4.2 3.8 4.4 4.2 3.5

Kansas

47 55 55 59 53 3.4 3.9 3.9 4.2 3.7

Kentucky

96 84 89 93 96 5.0 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.8

Louisiana

85 93 97 100 102 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.2

Maine

24 23 24 29 25 3.8 3.6 3.7 4.5 3.9

Maryland

94 106 102 90 100 3.5 3.9 3.7 3.3 3.7

Massachusetts

112 98 104 109 102 3.1 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.7

Michigan

181 154 158 160 167 4.2 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

Minnesota

91 106 100 89 110 3.2 3.6 3.4 3.0 3.7

Mississippi

57 61 55 53 52 4.9 5.3 4.8 4.6 4.4

Missouri

117 109 100 124 112 4.0 3.7 3.4 4.2 3.8

Montana

26 26 28 28 27 5.2 5.1 5.5 5.5 5.2

Nebraska

41 40 38 38 36 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5

Nevada

69 69 70 69 69 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.5

New Hampshire

30 28 29 32 33 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.7

New Jersey

147 120 130 141 140 3.6 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.2

New Mexico

36 35 39 37 36 4.3 4.1 4.6 4.3 4.2

New York

271 270 233 280 288 2.9 2.8 2.4 2.9 3.0

North Carolina

202 206 196 175 209 4.3 4.3 4.0 3.6 4.3

North Dakota

19 17 17 18 17 4.5 3.9 3.9 4.2 3.9

Ohio

234 218 198 209 198 4.3 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.6

Oklahoma

72 76 74 75 74 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3

Oregon

82 78 92 81 80 4.3 3.9 4.6 4.1 4.0

Pennsylvania

207 166 169 200 185 3.5 2.8 2.8 3.3 3.0

Rhode Island

19 21 17 22 22 3.9 4.2 3.4 4.4 4.4

South Carolina

104 95 97 111 110 4.8 4.2 4.3 4.9 4.8

South Dakota

18 18 18 18 18 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9

Tennessee

154 186 168 150 144 4.9 5.7 5.1 4.6 4.4

Texas

546 535 514 573 561 4.2 3.9 3.8 4.2 4.1

Utah

76 68 77 82 71 4.6 4.1 4.6 4.9 4.2

Vermont

14 11 12 12 13 4.7 3.6 4.0 4.0 4.2

Virginia

162 164 154 153 148 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.6

Washington

145 114 148 126 123 4.2 3.2 4.2 3.5 3.4

West Virginia

32 31 33 34 34 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9

Wisconsin

102 98 95 102 98 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.3

Wyoming

16 15 16 17 15 5.7 5.3 5.6 5.9 5.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,391 4,048 4,148 4,091 3,884 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.5


Alabama

69 76 71 70 64 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.0

Alaska

16 14 13 13 13 5.0 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.0

Arizona

111 109 96 94 87 3.7 3.5 3.1 3.0 2.8

Arkansas

40 42 45 40 44 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.0 3.2

California

469 372 437 399 388 2.7 2.1 2.5 2.2 2.2

Colorado

96 70 89 93 81 3.4 2.4 3.1 3.2 2.8

Connecticut

38 29 35 35 34 2.3 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.0

Delaware

15 16 15 15 14 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.3 2.9

District of Columbia

16 18 15 16 13 2.1 2.3 1.9 2.1 1.7

Florida

262 280 266 287 262 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.7

Georgia

171 176 174 162 170 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.5

Hawaii

17 16 16 16 14 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.2

Idaho

28 25 25 34 27 3.4 3.0 3.0 4.1 3.2

Illinois

148 139 142 141 142 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

Indiana

107 93 102 99 91 3.4 2.9 3.2 3.1 2.8

Iowa

43 43 50 43 37 2.8 2.7 3.2 2.7 2.3

Kansas

35 38 38 38 35 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.4

Kentucky

67 63 65 69 69 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.5

Louisiana

62 68 70 66 67 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.4

Maine

16 16 16 17 15 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.3

Maryland

70 71 73 55 68 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.0 2.5

Massachusetts

76 69 74 65 57 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.5

Michigan

144 111 108 111 100 3.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.3

Minnesota

64 74 74 60 69 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.3

Mississippi

43 44 39 37 36 3.7 3.8 3.4 3.2 3.1

Missouri

74 77 77 76 75 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5

Montana

18 17 18 20 18 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.9 3.5

Nebraska

29 27 26 26 23 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.2

Nevada

44 46 46 49 45 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.3 2.9

New Hampshire

18 17 17 17 17 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4

New Jersey

102 82 81 77 76 2.5 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8

New Mexico

25 23 22 26 24 3.0 2.7 2.6 3.0 2.8

New York

174 163 155 183 176 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.8

North Carolina

130 156 137 127 126 2.8 3.2 2.8 2.6 2.6

North Dakota

14 12 11 12 11 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.5

Ohio

153 144 143 148 140 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5

Oklahoma

52 55 55 49 48 3.1 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.8

Oregon

57 55 57 62 54 3.0 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.7

Pennsylvania

134 117 115 124 122 2.3 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.0

Rhode Island

12 13 11 12 12 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.4

South Carolina

80 69 71 79 72 3.7 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.2

South Dakota

13 13 13 13 12 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.6

Tennessee

109 125 122 105 102 3.4 3.8 3.7 3.2 3.1

Texas

418 411 408 440 393 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.9

Utah

51 48 52 63 50 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.8 2.9

Vermont

9 7 8 7 8 3.0 2.3 2.7 2.3 2.6

Virginia

119 122 108 109 96 3.0 3.0 2.6 2.7 2.3

Washington

88 77 99 89 85 2.6 2.2 2.8 2.5 2.4

West Virginia

24 23 24 23 23 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3

Wisconsin

74 68 68 67 67 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2

Wyoming

11 10 10 12 10 3.9 3.5 3.5 4.2 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,425 1,525 1,485 1,475 1,716 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1


Alabama

23 21 21 23 24 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1

Alaska

4 6 9 4 8 1.3 1.9 2.8 1.2 2.4

Arizona

33 34 40 22 30 1.1 1.1 1.3 0.7 1.0

Arkansas

13 13 17 13 17 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.3

California

166 133 116 163 162 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9

Colorado

28 34 55 23 30 1.0 1.2 1.9 0.8 1.0

Connecticut

14 13 17 17 13 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.8

Delaware

5 7 6 5 7 1.1 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.5

District of Columbia

6 7 6 5 6 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.8

Florida

83 71 69 68 126 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.3

Georgia

56 58 53 47 74 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.5

Hawaii

4 6 7 5 5 0.7 1.0 1.1 0.8 0.8

Idaho

11 10 11 10 9 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1

Illinois

50 62 108 61 82 0.8 1.0 1.8 1.0 1.3

Indiana

22 42 29 49 39 0.7 1.3 0.9 1.5 1.2

Iowa

19 13 13 19 16 1.2 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.0

Kansas

9 13 14 17 15 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.0

Kentucky

25 18 21 19 23 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.2

Louisiana

17 21 25 21 31 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.6

Maine

6 6 6 9 8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.2

Maryland

17 30 24 29 26 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.0

Massachusetts

29 27 24 37 34 0.8 0.7 0.6 1.0 0.9

Michigan

31 37 44 43 53 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.2

Minnesota

21 26 20 24 35 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.8 1.2

Mississippi

11 14 14 13 15 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.3

Missouri

21 26 17 42 32 0.7 0.9 0.6 1.4 1.1

Montana

6 7 8 7 7 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.4

Nebraska

9 11 9 10 11 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.1

Nevada

21 20 20 15 20 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.3

New Hampshire

9 10 10 13 14 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.9 2.0

New Jersey

26 34 41 58 53 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.4 1.2

New Mexico

8 10 14 8 10 1.0 1.2 1.6 0.9 1.2

New York

75 95 68 74 89 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.9

North Carolina

52 45 47 42 76 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.6

North Dakota

5 4 5 5 5 1.2 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.2

Ohio

70 64 42 52 53 1.3 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.0

Oklahoma

16 19 15 20 22 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.3

Oregon

19 19 26 13 21 1.0 1.0 1.3 0.7 1.1

Pennsylvania

62 42 36 60 55 1.1 0.7 0.6 1.0 0.9

Rhode Island

5 7 5 8 8 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.6 1.6

South Carolina

19 23 21 24 33 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.5

South Dakota

4 4 4 5 5 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.1

Tennessee

37 56 40 35 37 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.1

Texas

100 107 90 114 147 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.1

Utah

19 16 19 15 17 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.0

Vermont

4 3 3 4 4 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3

Virginia

34 37 38 35 44 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.1

Washington

49 32 37 30 29 1.4 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.8

West Virginia

7 7 7 7 9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.3

Wisconsin

22 25 21 30 26 0.8 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.9

Wyoming

3 4 4 4 4 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

11,432 10,164 10,767 7.2 6.1 6.6


Alabama

141 146 155 6.5 6.3 6.8

Alaska

29 27 28 8.8 8.0 8.3

Arizona

264 208 259 8.1 6.1 7.6

Arkansas

88 92 108 6.3 6.3 7.4

California

1,153 1,122 1,052 6.3 5.9 5.6

Colorado

244 199 213 8.1 6.4 7.0

Connecticut

118 100 100 6.8 5.6 5.7

Delaware

39 30 36 8.0 5.9 7.2

District of Columbia

46 43 47 5.8 5.3 5.8

Florida

683 606 699 6.9 5.9 6.8

Georgia

393 364 440 7.8 6.9 8.3

Hawaii

47 42 41 7.4 6.2 6.1

Idaho

62 64 57 7.2 7.1 6.4

Illinois

459 421 450 7.3 6.4 7.0

Indiana

243 189 194 7.3 5.5 5.7

Iowa

116 116 100 7.1 6.8 6.0

Kansas

98 90 100 6.7 5.8 6.5

Kentucky

156 141 154 7.6 6.6 7.3

Louisiana

147 157 183 7.2 7.5 8.7

Maine

59 45 43 8.8 6.6 6.4

Maryland

210 187 206 7.4 6.4 7.1

Massachusetts

262 249 287 6.9 6.3 7.3

Michigan

339 303 270 7.4 6.5 5.9

Minnesota

255 207 213 8.3 6.5 6.8

Mississippi

76 80 85 6.2 6.4 6.8

Missouri

222 205 204 7.2 6.5 6.5

Montana

40 45 39 7.6 8.1 7.1

Nebraska

86 65 80 8.0 5.9 7.2

Nevada

105 106 110 6.9 6.5 6.8

New Hampshire

65 52 60 9.0 7.0 8.1

New Jersey

309 254 288 7.1 5.5 6.4

New Mexico

76 65 71 8.4 7.0 7.7

New York

609 440 444 6.3 4.3 4.5

North Carolina

352 331 350 7.1 6.3 6.8

North Dakota

34 31 26 7.6 6.7 5.8

Ohio

378 358 374 6.6 6.0 6.4

Oklahoma

117 119 142 6.6 6.5 7.7

Oregon

153 146 146 7.5 6.8 6.9

Pennsylvania

519 443 495 8.3 6.8 7.6

Rhode Island

39 32 37 7.6 6.0 7.1

South Carolina

191 164 190 8.2 6.7 7.8

South Dakota

30 28 31 6.6 5.7 6.4

Tennessee

266 224 250 7.8 6.3 7.1

Texas

896 863 874 6.5 5.9 6.0

Utah

138 114 127 7.8 6.3 7.0

Vermont

26 24 26 8.0 7.2 8.0

Virginia

297 324 319 7.0 7.3 7.2

Washington

211 211 246 5.9 5.6 6.5

West Virginia

51 62 66 6.9 8.1 8.7

Wisconsin

239 208 235 7.8 6.5 7.4

Wyoming

21 24 19 7.2 7.8 6.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 7. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,273 4,641 6,143 4.2 3.0 4.0


Alabama

102 78 93 5.0 3.6 4.4

Alaska

16 12 18 5.3 3.9 5.7

Arizona

158 96 170 5.2 3.0 5.4

Arkansas

61 46 61 4.7 3.4 4.5

California

595 393 605 3.5 2.2 3.4

Colorado

149 88 121 5.4 3.1 4.3

Connecticut

57 39 51 3.5 2.3 3.1

Delaware

27 16 22 6.1 3.4 4.6

District of Columbia

22 19 22 2.9 2.4 2.9

Florida

428 290 408 4.7 3.0 4.2

Georgia

258 188 255 5.5 3.9 5.3

Hawaii

28 19 27 4.7 3.1 4.3

Idaho

39 27 40 4.9 3.2 4.8

Illinois

236 219 246 4.0 3.6 4.1

Indiana

135 114 124 4.3 3.5 3.9

Iowa

53 49 51 3.5 3.1 3.3

Kansas

48 44 57 3.5 3.0 4.0

Kentucky

103 72 85 5.4 3.6 4.3

Louisiana

105 76 106 5.6 3.9 5.5

Maine

27 19 24 4.5 3.0 3.8

Maryland

95 83 112 3.6 3.0 4.2

Massachusetts

157 85 121 4.5 2.3 3.3

Michigan

167 143 156 3.9 3.2 3.6

Minnesota

100 90 91 3.6 3.1 3.1

Mississippi

51 44 54 4.4 3.7 4.6

Missouri

93 107 110 3.3 3.6 3.8

Montana

23 23 25 4.7 4.4 5.0

Nebraska

42 33 43 4.2 3.1 4.2

Nevada

69 47 77 4.9 3.1 5.1

New Hampshire

33 23 29 4.9 3.3 4.2

New Jersey

156 102 132 3.9 2.3 3.1

New Mexico

37 25 38 4.5 2.9 4.5

New York

276 225 277 3.0 2.3 2.9

North Carolina

260 162 192 5.6 3.3 4.0

North Dakota

18 14 15 4.2 3.3 3.4

Ohio

201 141 211 3.8 2.5 3.8

Oklahoma

82 62 86 5.0 3.6 5.0

Oregon

81 61 90 4.3 3.1 4.6

Pennsylvania

178 133 196 3.1 2.2 3.3

Rhode Island

21 14 18 4.5 2.7 3.8

South Carolina

114 84 107 5.3 3.7 4.8

South Dakota

14 14 18 3.2 3.1 4.1

Tennessee

155 119 163 4.9 3.6 5.0

Texas

567 469 607 4.4 3.4 4.4

Utah

81 60 92 5.0 3.5 5.5

Vermont

13 11 14 4.4 3.5 4.6

Virginia

158 135 168 4.0 3.3 4.1

Washington

126 102 158 3.7 2.8 4.5

West Virginia

30 26 34 4.4 3.7 4.9

Wisconsin

100 87 111 3.5 2.9 3.8

Wyoming

12 12 13 4.5 4.4 4.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,595 5,598 6,437 4.5 3.6 4.2


Alabama

99 88 98 4.9 4.1 4.6

Alaska

16 16 18 5.3 5.0 5.8

Arizona

174 110 140 5.8 3.5 4.4

Arkansas

57 51 65 4.4 3.8 4.8

California

685 570 631 4.0 3.2 3.6

Colorado

125 124 110 4.5 4.3 3.8

Connecticut

68 55 63 4.2 3.3 3.8

Delaware

25 20 25 5.6 4.1 5.4

District of Columbia

27 23 24 3.6 3.0 3.1

Florida

389 340 464 4.3 3.5 4.8

Georgia

255 197 266 5.5 4.0 5.5

Hawaii

28 18 25 4.8 2.8 4.0

Idaho

40 46 38 5.1 5.5 4.6

Illinois

212 213 263 3.6 3.5 4.4

Indiana

144 147 146 4.6 4.5 4.6

Iowa

67 63 57 4.4 4.0 3.6

Kansas

50 53 57 3.7 3.6 4.0

Kentucky

102 88 105 5.4 4.4 5.3

Louisiana

85 95 105 4.5 4.8 5.4

Maine

25 28 26 4.2 4.4 4.1

Maryland

109 88 125 4.1 3.2 4.7

Massachusetts

117 106 108 3.3 2.9 2.9

Michigan

181 159 180 4.3 3.6 4.1

Minnesota

92 98 116 3.3 3.3 4.0

Mississippi

58 48 54 5.1 4.0 4.6

Missouri

121 118 118 4.2 4.0 4.0

Montana

25 26 28 5.1 5.0 5.5

Nebraska

50 35 45 5.0 3.3 4.4

Nevada

68 68 74 4.8 4.4 4.9

New Hampshire

30 32 35 4.4 4.6 5.1

New Jersey

156 151 163 3.9 3.5 3.9

New Mexico

34 37 36 4.2 4.3 4.2

New York

304 265 337 3.3 2.7 3.6

North Carolina

214 154 217 4.6 3.2 4.5

North Dakota

20 18 18 4.9 4.2 4.2

Ohio

248 193 210 4.6 3.5 3.8

Oklahoma

77 70 80 4.7 4.0 4.7

Oregon

78 79 82 4.1 4.0 4.2

Pennsylvania

232 216 219 4.0 3.5 3.7

Rhode Island

21 22 24 4.4 4.4 5.1

South Carolina

111 100 119 5.2 4.4 5.3

South Dakota

18 17 19 4.3 3.6 4.3

Tennessee

188 134 179 6.0 4.0 5.5

Texas

552 520 587 4.2 3.8 4.3

Utah

81 78 79 5.0 4.6 4.7

Vermont

13 12 12 4.4 3.8 4.0

Virginia

155 148 148 3.9 3.6 3.6

Washington

155 117 137 4.6 3.3 3.9

West Virginia

34 33 37 5.0 4.7 5.4

Wisconsin

112 99 112 3.9 3.3 3.8

Wyoming

14 14 14 5.1 4.8 5.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,282 3,540 3,785 2.9 2.3 2.5


Alabama

68 56 60 3.3 2.6 2.9

Alaska

10 10 9 3.5 3.3 3.0

Arizona

116 81 91 3.8 2.6 2.9

Arkansas

39 33 41 3.0 2.4 3.0

California

425 351 372 2.5 2.0 2.1

Colorado

82 87 70 2.9 3.0 2.5

Connecticut

38 30 35 2.3 1.8 2.1

Delaware

17 13 15 3.8 2.7 3.1

District of Columbia

19 15 15 2.5 1.9 1.9

Florida

257 269 256 2.8 2.8 2.7

Georgia

170 137 166 3.6 2.8 3.4

Hawaii

19 12 16 3.2 1.9 2.6

Idaho

23 31 23 2.9 3.7 2.8

Illinois

138 130 137 2.4 2.1 2.3

Indiana

100 87 88 3.2 2.7 2.8

Iowa

38 35 33 2.5 2.2 2.1

Kansas

34 31 34 2.5 2.2 2.3

Kentucky

67 60 70 3.5 3.0 3.6

Louisiana

58 58 63 3.1 3.0 3.3

Maine

16 14 13 2.6 2.3 2.1

Maryland

75 48 76 2.9 1.7 2.8

Massachusetts

78 52 55 2.2 1.4 1.5

Michigan

133 99 95 3.1 2.2 2.2

Minnesota

59 58 68 2.1 2.0 2.3

Mississippi

41 32 33 3.6 2.7 2.8

Missouri

71 66 74 2.5 2.2 2.5

Montana

16 17 17 3.2 3.3 3.3

Nebraska

30 20 24 3.0 1.9 2.4

Nevada

42 46 46 3.0 3.0 3.0

New Hampshire

17 14 15 2.5 2.0 2.2

New Jersey

102 58 75 2.5 1.3 1.8

New Mexico

23 25 22 2.7 2.9 2.6

New York

170 163 180 1.9 1.7 1.9

North Carolina

127 104 119 2.7 2.1 2.5

North Dakota

12 10 10 3.0 2.3 2.3

Ohio

139 124 132 2.6 2.2 2.4

Oklahoma

53 42 49 3.3 2.4 2.9

Oregon

50 57 49 2.6 2.9 2.5

Pennsylvania

136 104 125 2.4 1.7 2.1

Rhode Island

12 11 13 2.6 2.1 2.6

South Carolina

83 66 75 3.8 2.9 3.3

South Dakota

11 10 11 2.7 2.2 2.5

Tennessee

118 90 108 3.8 2.7 3.3

Texas

411 369 385 3.2 2.7 2.8

Utah

49 56 47 3.0 3.3 2.8

Vermont

8 6 6 2.5 1.8 2.1

Virginia

109 92 87 2.8 2.2 2.1

Washington

85 73 87 2.5 2.0 2.5

West Virginia

23 20 22 3.4 2.9 3.2

Wisconsin

68 60 65 2.4 2.0 2.2

Wyoming

9 8 8 3.1 2.9 3.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)
Jan.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,836 1,698 2,298 1.2 1.1 1.5


Alabama

24 25 29 1.2 1.2 1.4

Alaska

4 4 8 1.3 1.3 2.4

Arizona

40 21 38 1.3 0.7 1.2

Arkansas

14 15 20 1.1 1.1 1.5

California

223 182 239 1.3 1.0 1.3

Colorado

28 25 32 1.0 0.9 1.1

Connecticut

24 21 22 1.5 1.3 1.4

Delaware

6 6 9 1.4 1.2 2.0

District of Columbia

6 6 7 0.8 0.8 0.9

Florida

109 57 194 1.2 0.6 2.0

Georgia

57 49 80 1.2 1.0 1.7

Hawaii

7 4 8 1.2 0.6 1.3

Idaho

13 12 11 1.7 1.5 1.4

Illinois

72 74 118 1.2 1.2 2.0

Indiana

29 54 51 0.9 1.7 1.6

Iowa

25 22 21 1.6 1.4 1.3

Kansas

12 18 21 0.9 1.2 1.5

Kentucky

29 22 30 1.5 1.1 1.5

Louisiana

20 23 37 1.0 1.2 1.9

Maine

7 11 10 1.1 1.7 1.6

Maryland

26 34 41 1.0 1.2 1.5

Massachusetts

32 46 40 0.9 1.2 1.1

Michigan

40 54 70 0.9 1.2 1.6

Minnesota

27 34 43 1.0 1.2 1.5

Mississippi

13 12 18 1.1 1.0 1.5

Missouri

27 45 40 0.9 1.5 1.3

Montana

6 7 9 1.3 1.3 1.8

Nebraska

15 12 18 1.5 1.2 1.7

Nevada

21 17 25 1.5 1.1 1.6

New Hampshire

10 16 17 1.5 2.3 2.5

New Jersey

34 86 75 0.8 2.0 1.8

New Mexico

8 8 12 1.0 1.0 1.4

New York

110 75 130 1.2 0.8 1.4

North Carolina

60 44 89 1.3 0.9 1.8

North Dakota

7 7 7 1.6 1.6 1.6

Ohio

97 58 73 1.8 1.0 1.3

Oklahoma

18 22 27 1.1 1.3 1.6

Oregon

22 16 26 1.1 0.8 1.3

Pennsylvania

81 93 85 1.4 1.5 1.4

Rhode Island

7 10 10 1.4 2.0 2.0

South Carolina

22 26 38 1.0 1.1 1.7

South Dakota

6 6 7 1.3 1.2 1.6

Tennessee

58 35 62 1.9 1.1 1.9

Texas

108 135 176 0.8 1.0 1.3

Utah

25 17 25 1.5 1.0 1.5

Vermont

4 5 4 1.4 1.7 1.5

Virginia

36 46 51 0.9 1.1 1.2

Washington

59 35 38 1.7 1.0 1.1

West Virginia

8 8 12 1.2 1.2 1.8

Wisconsin

37 34 43 1.3 1.1 1.5

Wyoming

4 4 5 1.4 1.4 1.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: March 21, 2023