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Economic News Release
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JOLTS JLT Program Links

State Job Openings and Labor Turnover News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, June 21, 2023	USDL-23-1363
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870    JoltsInfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov

			   STATE JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER  APRIL 2023

Job openings rates increased in 13 states and decreased in 2 states on the last business day of April, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires rates decreased in 4 states and increased in 3 states. 
Total separations rates decreased in 9 states and increased in 5 states. Nationally, the job openings, hires, 
and total separations rates showed little or no change in April.

This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, total separations, quits, and 
layoffs and discharges for the total nonfarm sector and for all states and the District of Columbia. 

Job Openings

In April, job openings rates increased in 13 states, decreased in 2 states, and were little changed in 35 
states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in job openings rates occurred in Maryland 
(+1.4 percentage points) and in Kansas and New Mexico (+1.2 points each). The decreases occurred in 
Maine (-1.1 points) and Virginia (-0.7 point). Over the month, the national job openings rate was little 
changed. (See table A.)

The number of job openings increased in 15 states, decreased in 4 states and the District of Columbia, 
and was little changed in 31 states in April. The largest increases in the job openings level occurred in 
California (+112,000), Maryland (+46,000), and Ohio (+29,000). The largest decreases occurred in 
Virginia (-33,000), New Jersey (-21,000), and Connecticut (-9,000). Nationally, the number of job 
openings edged up over the month. (See table A.)

Hires

In April, hires rates decreased in 4 states, increased in 3 states, and were little changed in 43 states and 
the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in the hires rates occurred in New Jersey and West 
Virginia (-0.8 percentage point each) and in Oregon (-0.7 point). The increases occurred in New 
Hampshire (+1.0 point), Kansas (+0.7 point), and Florida (+0.5 point). The national hires rate was 
unchanged over the month. (See table B.)

The number of hires decreased in 4 states, increased in 3 states, and was little changed in 43 states and 
the District of Columbia in April. The largest decreases in the hires level occurred in California  
(-61,000), New Jersey (-36,000), and Oregon (-14,000). The increases occurred in Florida (+54,000), 
Kansas (+10,000), and New Hampshire (+7,000). Nationally, the number of hires was little changed 
over the month. (See table B.)

Total Separations

In April, total separations rates decreased in 9 states, increased in 5 states, and were little changed in 
36 states and the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in total separations rates occurred in 
Tennessee (-1.4 percentage points) and New Hampshire (-1.0 point), as well as in Louisiana, Maine, and 
Maryland (-0.9 point each). The largest increases occurred in Alaska (+2.5 points), South Dakota     
(+1.5 points), and Idaho (+1.0 point). Over the month, the national total separations rate was little 
changed. (See table C.)

In April, the number of total separations decreased in 10 states, increased in 5 states, and was little 
changed in 35 states and the District of Columbia. The largest decreases occurred in California              
(-125,000), Tennessee (-46,000), and Georgia (-39,000). The largest increases in the total separations 
level occurred in Illinois (+30,000), Idaho (+9,000), and Alaska (+8,000). Nationally, the number of 
total separations decreased over the month (-286,000). (See table C.)
 
Quits

In April, quits rates decreased in 6 states, increased in 1 state, and were little changed in 43 states and 
the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in quits rates occurred in New Hampshire                       
(-0.9 percentage point) and Louisiana (-0.6 point), as well as in Maryland and Virginia (-0.5 point each). 
The increase occurred in Idaho (+0.8 point). Over the month, the national quits rate was little changed.            
(See table D.)

The number of quits decreased in 7 states, increased in 3 states, and was little changed in 40 states and 
the District of Columbia in April. The largest decreases in the quits level occurred in Georgia and 
Virginia (-20,000 each) and in New York (-19,000). The increases occurred in Arizona (+12,000), Idaho 
(+7,000), and South Dakota (+2,000). Nationally, the number of quits was little changed over the month. 
(See table D.)
 
Layoffs and Discharges

In April, layoffs and discharges rates decreased in 10 states, increased in 4 states, and were little 
changed in 36 states and the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in layoffs and discharges rates 
occurred in Tennessee (-1.5 percentage points) and Massachusetts (-0.7 point), as well as in California, 
Maine, Vermont, and Washington (-0.6 point each). The increases occurred in Alaska (+2.5 points) and 
South Dakota (+0.8 point), and in Kansas and Ohio (+0.5 point each). Over the month, the national 
layoffs and discharges rate decreased (-0.2 point). (See table E.)

The number of layoffs and discharges decreased in 13 states, increased in 4 states, and was little 
changed in 33 states and the District of Columbia in April. The largest decreases in the layoffs and 
discharges levels occurred in California (-106,000), Tennessee (-49,000), and Massachusetts (-26,000). 
The largest increases occurred in Ohio (+24,000), Alaska (+8,000), and Kansas (+7,000). Nationally, the 
number of layoffs and discharges decreased over the month (-264,000). (See table E.)

For more information, please see the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) interactive 
charts at www.bls.gov/charts/state-job-openings-and-labor-turnover/state-job-openings-rates.htm#.  
	
______________
State Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for May 2023 are scheduled to be 
released on Wednesday, July 26, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|		Upcoming Changes to State Estimates from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover		  |
|						Survey							  | 
|													  |
|Effective with the release of May 2023 data on July 26, 2023, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover 	  |
|Survey (JOLTS) state estimates will be benchmarked, or revised, to incorporate the annual updates to     |
|the Current Employment Statistics state employment estimates, Quarterly Census of Employment and 	  |
|Wages (QCEW) updates through fourth quarter 2022, revised JOLTS national data, and revised JOLTS 	  |
|seasonal adjustment factors. In 2022, state estimates were benchmarked in June with the release of April |
|data. The change in the release date from June to July is being made to incorporate QCEW data through    |
|the fourth quarter of 2022. Not seasonally adjusted data and seasonally adjusted data from January 2018  |
|forward are subject to revision. Additional historical data may also be revised due to benchmarking.     |
|													  |
|JOLTS will introduce several changes to the monthly news release tables beginning with the May 2023 	  |
|news release. Significance tables A through E will be removed from the news release and provided as 	  |
|supplemental tables on the JOLTS website. JOLTS will also introduce over-the-month change columns 	  |
|for levels and rates to tables 1 through 5. Also, two tables will be added to present annual average job |
|openings levels and rates. (Annual estimates of levels and rates are published each year with the annual |
|benchmark.) 												  |
|													  |
|Also effective with the release of May 2023 data, JOLTS will modify its estimation methodology to 	  |
|reduce variance. State data from January 2018 forward is subject to revision. 				  |
|													  |
|Additional information about these changes is available at www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts-2023-changes.htm.	  |
|_________________________________________________________________________________________________________|


Table A: States with significant changes in job openings from Mar 2023 to Apr 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Mar   |   Apr  | Over-the-month |   Mar  |   Apr  | Over-the-month
                       |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 9,745  |10,103  |      358       |   5.9  |   6.1  |      0.2        
Alaska.................|    26  |    29  |        3       |   7.4  |   8.2  |      0.8
Arizona................|   211  |   238  |       27       |   6.3  |   7.0  |      0.7
California.............|   893  |  1005  |      112       |   4.7  |   5.3  |      0.6
Colorado...............|   218  |   243  |       25       |   7.0  |   7.8  |      0.8
Connecticut............|   103  |    94  |       -9       |   5.8  |   5.3  |     -0.5*
District of Columbia...|    47  |    41  |       -6       |   5.7  |   5.0  |     -0.7*
Kansas.................|    74  |    93  |       19       |   4.9  |   6.1  |      1.2
Maine..................|    51  |    43  |       -8       |   7.3  |   6.2  |     -1.1
Maryland...............|   167  |   213  |       46       |   5.8  |   7.2  |      1.4
Minnesota..............|   180  |   204  |       24       |   5.7  |   6.4  |      0.7
Mississippi............|    78  |    86  |        8       |   6.2  |   6.8  |      0.6
Montana................|    37  |    41  |        4       |   6.7  |   7.3  |      0.6*
Nebraska...............|    58  |    66  |        8       |   5.3  |   6.0  |      0.7
New Jersey.............|   242  |   221  |      -21       |   5.3  |   4.9  |     -0.4*
New Mexico.............|    59  |    71  |       12       |   6.4  |   7.6  |      1.2
Ohio...................|   360  |   389  |       29       |   6.0  |   6.5  |      0.5
Virginia...............|   340  |   307  |      -33       |   7.6  |   6.9  |     -0.7
Washington.............|   183  |   210  |       27       |   4.8  |   5.5  |      0.7
Wisconsin..............|   188  |   204  |       16       |   5.9  |   6.4  |      0.5
Wyoming................|    21  |    23  |        2       |   6.8  |   7.4  |      0.6*
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table B: States with significant changes in hires from Mar 2023 to Apr 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Mar   |   Apr  | Over-the-month |   Mar  |   Apr  | Over-the-month
                       |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 6,066  | 6,115  |       49       |   3.9  |   3.9  |      0.0        
California.............|   592  |   531  |      -61       |   3.3  |   2.9  |     -0.4
Florida................|   374  |   428  |       54       |   3.9  |   4.4  |      0.5
Kansas.................|    47  |    57  |       10       |   3.3  |   4.0  |      0.7
New Hampshire..........|    31  |    38  |        7       |   4.4  |   5.4  |      1.0
New Jersey.............|   205  |   169  |      -36       |   4.7  |   3.9  |     -0.8
Oregon.................|    83  |    69  |      -14       |   4.2  |   3.5  |     -0.7
West Virginia..........|    38  |    32  |       -6       |   5.4  |   4.6  |     -0.8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table C: States with significant changes in total separations from Mar 2023 to Apr 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Mar   |   Apr  | Over-the-month |   Mar  |   Apr  | Over-the-month
                       |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 5,994  | 5,708  |     -286       |   3.9  |   3.7  |     -0.2        
Alaska.................|    18  |    26  |        8       |   5.5  |   8.0  |      2.5
California.............|   637  |   512  |     -125       |   3.5  |   2.8  |     -0.7
Colorado...............|   131  |   114  |      -17       |   4.5  |   3.9  |     -0.6*
Georgia................|   221  |   182  |      -39       |   4.5  |   3.7  |     -0.8
Idaho..................|    38  |    47  |        9       |   4.5  |   5.5  |      1.0
Illinois...............|   220  |   250  |       30       |   3.6  |   4.1  |      0.5
Louisiana..............|   106  |    88  |      -18       |   5.4  |   4.5  |     -0.9
Maine..................|    28  |    22  |       -6       |   4.3  |   3.4  |     -0.9
Maryland...............|   139  |   116  |      -23       |   5.1  |   4.2  |     -0.9
Massachusetts..........|   130  |   113  |      -17       |   3.5  |   3.0  |     -0.5
New Hampshire..........|    32  |    25  |       -7       |   4.6  |   3.6  |     -1.0
North Dakota...........|    17  |    21  |        4       |   3.9  |   4.8  |      0.9
South Dakota...........|    17  |    24  |        7       |   3.7  |   5.2  |      1.5
Tennessee..............|   184  |   138  |      -46       |   5.6  |   4.2  |     -1.4
Virginia...............|   174  |   146  |      -28       |   4.2  |   3.5  |     -0.7
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table D: States with significant changes in quits from Mar 2023 to Apr 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Mar   |   Apr  | Over-the-month |   Mar  |   Apr  | Over-the-month
                       |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 3,842  | 3,793  |      -49       |   2.5  |   2.4  |     -0.1        
Arizona................|    94  |   106  |       12       |   3.0  |   3.4  |      0.4*
Georgia................|   153  |   133  |      -20       |   3.1  |   2.7  |     -0.4
Idaho..................|    23  |    30  |        7       |   2.7  |   3.5  |      0.8
Louisiana..............|    73  |    61  |      -12       |   3.7  |   3.1  |     -0.6
Maine..................|    17  |    14  |       -3       |   2.6  |   2.2  |     -0.4*
Maryland...............|    92  |    80  |      -12       |   3.4  |   2.9  |     -0.5
New Hampshire..........|    21  |    15  |       -6       |   3.0  |   2.1  |     -0.9
New York...............|   159  |   140  |      -19       |   1.6  |   1.4  |     -0.2
South Dakota...........|    11  |    13  |        2       |   2.4  |   2.8  |      0.4*
Virginia...............|   119  |    99  |      -20       |   2.9  |   2.4  |     -0.5
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.


Table E: States with significant changes in layoffs and discharges from Mar 2023 to Apr 2023, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |     Levels (in thousands)        |                  Rates                          
                       |----------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------
         State         |  Mar   |   Apr  | Over-the-month |   Mar  |   Apr  | Over-the-month
                       |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)   |  2023  | 2023(p)|    change(p)  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total U.S..............| 1,845  | 1,581  |     -264       |   1.2  |   1.0  |     -0.2        
Alaska.................|     6  |    14  |        8       |   1.8  |   4.3  |      2.5
California.............|   244  |   138  |     -106       |   1.4  |   0.8  |     -0.6
Colorado...............|    43  |    34  |       -9       |   1.5  |   1.2  |     -0.3*
Georgia................|    55  |    41  |      -14       |   1.1  |   0.8  |     -0.3
Kansas.................|    17  |    24  |        7       |   1.2  |   1.7  |      0.5
Maine..................|    10  |     6  |       -4       |   1.5  |   0.9  |     -0.6
Maryland...............|    39  |    29  |      -10       |   1.4  |   1.1  |     -0.3*
Massachusetts..........|    62  |    36  |      -26       |   1.7  |   1.0  |     -0.7
Montana................|    10  |     8  |       -2       |   1.9  |   1.5  |     -0.4*
New Hampshire..........|    11  |     8  |       -3       |   1.6  |   1.1  |     -0.5
New Jersey.............|    55  |    43  |      -12       |   1.3  |   1.0  |     -0.3
Ohio...................|    53  |    77  |       24       |   0.9  |   1.4  |      0.5
Pennsylvania...........|    73  |    51  |      -22       |   1.2  |   0.8  |     -0.4
South Dakota...........|     5  |     9  |        4       |   1.1  |   1.9  |      0.8
Tennessee..............|    79  |    30  |      -49       |   2.4  |   0.9  |     -1.5
Vermont................|     5  |     3  |       -2       |   1.6  |   1.0  |     -0.6
Washington.............|    54  |    34  |      -20       |   1.5  |   0.9  |     -0.6
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.
   * Not significant.

Technical Note

This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The JOLTS 
program provides information on labor demand and turnover. Additional information about the JOLTS program can 
be found at www.bls.gov/jlt/. State estimates are published for job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
total separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well as civilian federal, state, 
and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Starting with data for January 2023, 
industries are classified in accordance with the 2022 North American Industry Classification System.

Definitions

Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that 
includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and 
hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of 
unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on strike for the entire pay period, and employees 
on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, 
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by 
the establishment where they are working. JOLTS does not publish employment estimates but uses the reported 
employment for validation of the other reported data elements.

Job Openings. Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the reference month. 
A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions: 
* A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-
time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal. 
* The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate during that time. 
* The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position. Active recruiting 
means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in newspapers, on 
television, or on the radio; posting internet notices, posting "help wanted" signs, networking, or making "word-
of-mouth" announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; 
or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or similar sources.

Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs. Also 
excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future; positions for which employees 
have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work; and positions to be filled by employees of 
temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is 
computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that 
quotient by 100.

Hires. Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly hired and 
rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees; employees 
who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension from pay status) lasting more than 7 
days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated; workers who 
were hired and separated during the month, and transfers from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions 
within the reporting location, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee 
leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by 
employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations. Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month and is 
reported by type of separation:  quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include employees who 
left voluntarily, with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs and discharges includes 
involuntary separations initiated by the employer, such as layoffs with no intent to rehire; layoffs (formal 
suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, 
downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or short-term employees; 
and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return the next season). Other 
separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. 
Other separations comprise less than 8 percent of total separations. Other separations rates are generally very low, 
and other separations variance estimates are relatively high. Consequently, the other separations component is not 
published for states. 

Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; employees of temporary help 
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The separations rate is computed by 
dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits and layoffs and 
discharges rates are computed similarly.

State Estimation Method

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of approximately 21,000 nonfarm business and 
government establishments. The sample is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment size 
class. The JOLTS sample of 21,000 establishments does not directly support the production of sample-based state 
estimates. However, state estimates have been produced by combining the available sample with model-based 
estimates.

The state estimates consist of four major estimating models; the Composite Regional model (an unpublished 
intermediate model), the Synthetic model (an unpublished intermediate model), the Composite Synthetic model 
(published historical series through the most current benchmark year), and the Extended Composite Synthetic model 
(published current-year monthly series). The Composite Regional model uses JOLTS microdata, JOLTS regional 
published estimates, and Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment data. The Composite Synthetic model 
uses JOLTS microdata and Synthetic model estimates derived from monthly employment changes in microdata from 
the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and JOLTS published regional data. The Extended 
Composite Synthetic model extends the Composite Synthetic estimates by ratio-adjusting the Composite Synthetic 
model by the ratio of the current Composite Regional model estimate to the Composite Regional model estimate 
from the previous year.

The Extended Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the Composite Regional model) is used 
to extend the Composite Synthetic estimates because all of the inputs required by this model are available at the time 
monthly estimate are produced. In contrast, the Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the 
Synthetic model) can only be produced when the latest QCEW data are available. The Extended Composite 
Synthetic model estimates are used to extend the Composite Synthetic model estimates during the annual JOLTS
retabulation process. The extension of the Composite Synthetic model using current data-based Composite Regional 
model estimates ensures that the Composite Synthetic model estimates reflect current economic trends.

The Composite Regional approach calculates state-level JOLTS estimates from JOLTS microdata using sample 
weights and the adjustments for non-response. The Composite Regional estimate is then benchmarked to CES state-
supersector employment to produce state-supersector estimates. The JOLTS sample, by itself, cannot ensure a 
reasonably sized sample for each state-supersector cell. The small JOLTS sample results in several state-supersector 
cells that lack enough data to produce a reasonable estimate. To overcome this issue, the state-level estimates 
derived directly from the JOLTS sample are augmented using JOLTS regional estimates when the number of 
respondents is low (that is, less than 30). This approach is known as a composite estimate, which leverages the small 
JOLTS sample to the greatest extent possible and supplements that with a model-based estimate. Previous research 
has found that regional industry estimates are a good proxy at finer levels of geographical detail. That is, one can 
make a reliable prediction of JOLTS estimates at the regional-level using only national industry-level JOLTS rates. 
The assumption in this approach is that one can make a good prediction of JOLTS estimates at the state-level using 
only regional industry-level JOLTS rates.)

In this approach, the JOLTS microdata-based estimate is used, without model augmentation, in all state-
supersector cells that have 30 or more respondents. The JOLTS regional estimate will be used, without a sample-
based component, in all state-supersector cells that have fewer than five respondents. In all state-supersector cells 
with 5 to 30 respondents, an estimate is calculated that is a composition of a weighted estimate of the microdata-
based estimate and a weighted estimate of the JOLTS regional estimate. The weight assigned to the JOLTS data in 
those cells is proportional the number of JOLTS respondents in the cell (weight=n/30, where n is the number of 
respondents). The sum of state estimates within a region is made equal to the aligned regional JOLTS published 
regional estimates.

Seasonal adjustment. BLS uses the seasonal adjustment program (X-13ARIMA-SEATS) to seasonally adjust 
the JOLTS series. Each month, a concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology uses all relevant data, up to and 
including the current month, to calculate new seasonal adjustment factors. Moving averages are used as seasonal 
filters in seasonal adjustment. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and multiplicative models, as well 
as regression with autocorrelated errors (REGARIMA) modeling, to improve the seasonal adjustment factors at the 
beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series. 

Annual estimates and benchmarking. The JOLTS state estimates utilize and leverage data from three BLS 
programs; JOLTS, CES, and QCEW. These state estimates are published as a historical series made up of a 
historical annually revised benchmark component of the Composite Synthetic model and a current component of the 
Extended Composite Synthetic model that provides monthly "real-time" estimates between lagged benchmarks.

The JOLTS employment levels are ratio-adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are 
applied to all JOLTS data elements.

The seasonally adjusted estimates are recalculated for the most recent 5 years to reflect updated seasonal 
adjustment factors. These annual updates result in revisions to both the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally 
adjusted JOLTS data series for the period since the last benchmark was established.

Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the 
12 published monthly levels. 

Annual average levels for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 published monthly levels 
by 12. 

Annual average rates for hires, total separations quits, and layoffs and discharges are calculated by dividing the 
sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published levels for each data element by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published 
employment levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100. 

Annual average rates for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published 
levels by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published employment levels plus the sum of the 12 monthly job openings 
levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.)

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to two types of error:  sampling error and nonsampling error.

Sampling error can result when a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed. There is a chance that 
the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling 
error, varies with the sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. This means that there is a 90-percent chance 
that the true population mean will fall into the interval created by the sample mean plus or minus 1.65 standard 
errors. Estimates of median standard errors are released monthly as part of the significant change tables on the 
JOLTS webpage. Standard errors are updated annually with the most recent 5 years of data. For sampling error 
estimates, see www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a segment of the population, the 
inability to obtain data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a 
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors from 
the employment benchmark data used in estimation. The JOLTS program uses quality control procedures to reduce 
nonsampling error in the survey's design. 

The JOLTS state variance estimates account for both sampling error and the error attributable to modeling. A 
small area domain model uses a Bayesian approach to develop estimates of JOLTS state variance. The small area 
model uses QCEW-based JOLTS synthetic model data to generate a Bayesian prior distribution, then updates the 
prior distribution using JOLTS microdata and sample-based variance estimates at the state and US Census regional 
level to generate a Bayesian posterior distribution. Once the Bayesian posterior distribution has been generated, 
estimates of JOLTS state variances are made by drawing 2,500 estimates from the Bayesian posterior distribution. 
This Bayesian approach thus indirectly accounts for sampling error and directly for model error.

Other information

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications 
relay services.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

11,755 10,563 9,974 9,745 10,103 7.2 6.4 6.0 5.9 6.1


Alabama

157 155 145 136 141 7.1 6.8 6.3 6.0 6.2

Alaska

30 29 28 26 29 8.6 8.2 7.9 7.4 8.2

Arizona

222 211 189 211 238 6.8 6.3 5.7 6.3 7.0

Arkansas

96 105 105 96 97 6.8 7.2 7.2 6.6 6.7

California

1,251 1,021 985 893 1,005 6.7 5.4 5.2 4.7 5.3

Colorado

229 200 242 218 243 7.4 6.5 7.7 7.0 7.8

Connecticut

111 92 98 103 94 6.3 5.2 5.5 5.8 5.3

Delaware

35 34 36 36 38 7.1 6.6 7.0 6.9 7.3

District of Columbia

57 46 39 47 41 6.9 5.6 4.8 5.7 5.0

Florida

729 686 616 665 651 7.3 6.6 6.0 6.4 6.3

Georgia

436 420 424 387 392 8.4 7.9 8.0 7.3 7.4

Hawaii

54 39 37 33 37 8.2 5.8 5.5 5.0 5.5

Idaho

60 55 55 57 58 6.9 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.4

Illinois

507 461 408 395 404 7.8 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.2

Indiana

250 202 173 176 189 7.3 5.9 5.1 5.1 5.5

Iowa

131 103 100 93 97 7.7 6.1 5.9 5.5 5.7

Kansas

110 97 92 74 93 7.3 6.3 6.0 4.9 6.1

Kentucky

178 151 137 141 142 8.4 7.1 6.4 6.6 6.6

Louisiana

156 172 152 148 152 7.6 8.1 7.2 7.1 7.2

Maine

50 39 43 51 43 7.3 5.7 6.2 7.3 6.2

Maryland

227 212 210 167 213 7.7 7.2 7.1 5.8 7.2

Massachusetts

309 276 256 278 270 7.8 6.9 6.4 6.9 6.7

Michigan

369 291 262 254 269 7.9 6.2 5.6 5.4 5.7

Minnesota

235 203 190 180 204 7.5 6.4 6.0 5.7 6.4

Mississippi

85 88 84 78 86 6.8 7.0 6.7 6.2 6.8

Missouri

240 207 195 186 186 7.6 6.5 6.2 5.9 5.9

Montana

45 40 38 37 41 8.2 7.2 6.8 6.7 7.3

Nebraska

86 74 64 58 66 7.7 6.6 5.8 5.3 6.0

Nevada

115 108 107 100 106 7.4 6.6 6.5 6.1 6.4

New Hampshire

56 53 46 49 46 7.6 7.0 6.2 6.5 6.2

New Jersey

288 268 269 242 221 6.4 5.8 5.9 5.3 4.9

New Mexico

68 58 61 59 71 7.4 6.3 6.6 6.4 7.6

New York

581 451 419 429 446 5.8 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.4

North Carolina

396 340 366 367 357 7.7 6.5 7.0 7.0 6.8

North Dakota

36 28 27 29 28 7.8 6.1 5.9 6.3 6.1

Ohio

431 375 316 360 389 7.3 6.3 5.4 6.0 6.5

Oklahoma

128 136 122 121 124 7.1 7.3 6.6 6.6 6.7

Oregon

147 133 122 118 123 7.0 6.3 5.8 5.6 5.8

Pennsylvania

448 441 432 418 416 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.4

Rhode Island

41 36 33 32 32 7.6 6.7 6.2 6.0 6.1

South Carolina

180 177 176 184 172 7.6 7.2 7.2 7.5 7.0

South Dakota

37 37 31 29 29 7.6 7.5 6.3 5.9 5.9

Tennessee

265 236 254 245 249 7.6 6.7 7.1 6.9 7.0

Texas

1,002 943 881 824 845 7.0 6.4 6.0 5.6 5.7

Utah

108 106 102 105 112 6.1 5.9 5.6 5.8 6.1

Vermont

27 24 20 20 21 8.3 7.3 6.1 6.1 6.3

Virginia

316 337 335 340 307 7.3 7.5 7.5 7.6 6.9

Washington

229 241 200 183 210 6.2 6.3 5.2 4.8 5.5

West Virginia

60 72 59 56 52 7.9 9.4 7.8 7.4 6.9

Wisconsin

252 235 173 188 204 7.9 7.3 5.5 5.9 6.4

Wyoming

24 20 19 21 23 7.8 6.5 6.2 6.8 7.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,572 6,327 6,150 6,066 6,115 4.3 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9


Alabama

104 98 97 90 91 5.0 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.2

Alaska

22 21 19 19 18 6.9 6.4 5.8 5.9 5.5

Arizona

140 156 137 141 152 4.6 5.0 4.4 4.5 4.8

Arkansas

64 64 65 58 58 4.9 4.7 4.8 4.3 4.3

California

665 665 593 592 531 3.8 3.7 3.3 3.3 2.9

Colorado

155 115 122 117 132 5.4 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.6

Connecticut

62 55 54 57 57 3.8 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.4

Delaware

23 22 25 24 24 5.0 4.6 5.2 5.0 5.0

District of Columbia

27 23 25 28 23 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.6 3.0

Florida

435 372 364 374 428 4.7 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.4

Georgia

268 258 238 236 229 5.6 5.3 4.9 4.8 4.7

Hawaii

34 26 27 24 20 5.6 4.1 4.3 3.8 3.2

Idaho

42 42 37 40 40 5.2 5.0 4.4 4.7 4.7

Illinois

256 254 253 238 240 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.9

Indiana

137 141 150 132 144 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.1 4.4

Iowa

61 62 62 58 59 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.7

Kansas

51 57 59 47 57 3.7 3.9 4.1 3.3 4.0

Kentucky

107 96 103 92 82 5.5 4.8 5.2 4.6 4.1

Louisiana

88 100 105 95 87 4.6 5.1 5.4 4.9 4.4

Maine

28 25 24 30 26 4.4 3.9 3.7 4.6 4.0

Maryland

120 116 116 116 111 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.1

Massachusetts

142 133 128 129 142 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.8

Michigan

169 173 162 164 170 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.8

Minnesota

112 98 102 113 118 3.9 3.3 3.4 3.8 4.0

Mississippi

56 59 58 47 50 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.0 4.2

Missouri

114 109 108 109 108 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6

Montana

30 29 29 28 26 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.0

Nebraska

41 41 49 35 41 4.0 3.9 4.7 3.4 3.9

Nevada

83 75 64 69 67 5.7 4.9 4.2 4.5 4.3

New Hampshire

33 28 28 31 38 4.8 4.0 4.0 4.4 5.4

New Jersey

173 141 152 205 169 4.1 3.3 3.5 4.7 3.9

New Mexico

40 37 36 36 35 4.7 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.0

New York

308 299 315 301 288 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.0

North Carolina

235 210 221 188 195 5.0 4.3 4.5 3.8 4.0

North Dakota

19 15 18 18 16 4.5 3.5 4.2 4.1 3.7

Ohio

207 220 200 212 218 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.9

Oklahoma

106 85 82 76 77 6.3 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.5

Oregon

90 88 81 83 69 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.2 3.5

Pennsylvania

180 211 180 182 199 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.3

Rhode Island

22 20 21 23 24 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.6 4.8

South Carolina

109 110 112 101 105 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.4 4.6

South Dakota

19 24 21 20 19 4.2 5.2 4.6 4.3 4.1

Tennessee

153 160 145 148 158 4.8 4.8 4.4 4.5 4.8

Texas

625 589 604 597 638 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.6

Utah

76 78 70 71 76 4.6 4.6 4.1 4.1 4.4

Vermont

14 14 12 13 15 4.7 4.6 3.9 4.2 4.8

Virginia

190 176 183 182 168 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.1

Washington

136 157 135 123 129 3.9 4.4 3.7 3.4 3.6

West Virginia

32 39 35 38 32 4.6 5.6 5.0 5.4 4.6

Wisconsin

106 124 110 100 101 3.6 4.1 3.7 3.3 3.4

Wyoming

17 16 16 16 15 6.0 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,175 5,900 5,841 5,994 5,708 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7


Alabama

99 100 96 86 80 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.0 3.7

Alaska

20 21 19 18 26 6.3 6.4 5.8 5.5 8.0

Arizona

124 122 127 140 153 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.4 4.8

Arkansas

60 65 63 63 56 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.1

California

594 579 603 637 512 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.5 2.8

Colorado

128 117 120 131 114 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.5 3.9

Connecticut

59 52 50 56 53 3.6 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.1

Delaware

20 22 23 22 21 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.4

District of Columbia

25 22 28 21 20 3.3 2.9 3.6 2.7 2.6

Florida

387 397 415 397 408 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.2

Georgia

249 248 253 221 182 5.2 5.1 5.2 4.5 3.7

Hawaii

20 20 21 21 18 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.3 2.9

Idaho

39 39 39 38 47 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.5 5.5

Illinois

228 218 215 220 250 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.6 4.1

Indiana

145 126 139 126 142 4.6 3.9 4.3 3.9 4.4

Iowa

67 55 58 57 63 4.3 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.0

Kansas

52 52 52 57 64 3.7 3.6 3.6 4.0 4.4

Kentucky

107 97 93 92 92 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.6

Louisiana

83 104 104 106 88 4.3 5.4 5.3 5.4 4.5

Maine

24 25 28 28 22 3.8 3.9 4.3 4.3 3.4

Maryland

103 105 125 139 116 3.8 3.8 4.6 5.1 4.2

Massachusetts

119 108 104 130 113 3.3 2.9 2.8 3.5 3.0

Michigan

163 157 135 156 146 3.8 3.6 3.1 3.5 3.3

Minnesota

102 106 97 107 103 3.5 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.5

Mississippi

55 53 54 51 52 4.8 4.5 4.6 4.3 4.4

Missouri

129 106 101 104 103 4.4 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.5

Montana

25 27 25 29 28 4.9 5.2 4.8 5.6 5.4

Nebraska

44 39 34 37 42 4.3 3.7 3.3 3.5 4.0

Nevada

52 70 64 68 64 3.6 4.6 4.2 4.4 4.2

New Hampshire

28 31 24 32 25 4.1 4.4 3.4 4.6 3.6

New Jersey

153 183 129 151 143 3.6 4.2 3.0 3.5 3.3

New Mexico

34 36 37 38 35 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.0

New York

306 267 263 253 237 3.3 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5

North Carolina

216 213 196 184 189 4.6 4.4 4.0 3.8 3.9

North Dakota

19 16 17 17 21 4.5 3.7 3.9 3.9 4.8

Ohio

199 198 198 219 236 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.9 4.2

Oklahoma

80 74 80 73 69 4.8 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.0

Oregon

73 80 78 82 78 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.9

Pennsylvania

179 189 171 204 188 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.3 3.1

Rhode Island

20 22 19 21 18 4.0 4.4 3.8 4.2 3.6

South Carolina

113 113 101 103 99 5.1 5.0 4.4 4.5 4.3

South Dakota

17 17 18 17 24 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.7 5.2

Tennessee

156 144 154 184 138 4.9 4.4 4.7 5.6 4.2

Texas

516 567 566 507 514 3.9 4.1 4.1 3.7 3.7

Utah

64 70 65 67 68 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.9 4.0

Vermont

11 13 12 13 11 3.7 4.2 3.9 4.2 3.6

Virginia

181 149 161 174 146 4.5 3.6 3.9 4.2 3.5

Washington

123 123 122 146 132 3.5 3.4 3.4 4.0 3.6

West Virginia

32 34 36 32 31 4.6 4.9 5.1 4.6 4.4

Wisconsin

111 97 94 103 110 3.8 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.7

Wyoming

14 15 15 15 16 4.9 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,497 3,878 3,980 3,842 3,793 3.0 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.4


Alabama

68 64 71 61 60 3.3 3.0 3.3 2.8 2.8

Alaska

15 13 12 10 11 4.7 4.0 3.7 3.1 3.4

Arizona

100 87 89 94 106 3.3 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.4

Arkansas

42 45 47 43 40 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.2 2.9

California

448 404 381 366 348 2.6 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9

Colorado

95 81 81 74 74 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6

Connecticut

41 33 33 34 34 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

Delaware

15 14 16 15 15 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.1 3.1

District of Columbia

16 14 20 14 14 2.1 1.8 2.6 1.8 1.8

Florida

309 265 289 282 284 3.3 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.9

Georgia

177 166 199 153 133 3.7 3.4 4.1 3.1 2.7

Hawaii

15 14 14 14 11 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.2 1.7

Idaho

29 28 25 23 30 3.6 3.3 3.0 2.7 3.5

Illinois

164 136 129 133 143 2.7 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.3

Indiana

117 84 94 86 93 3.7 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.9

Iowa

48 38 38 38 39 3.1 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

Kansas

38 34 35 36 35 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.4

Kentucky

76 70 67 66 69 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.4

Louisiana

61 68 75 73 61 3.2 3.5 3.9 3.7 3.1

Maine

17 14 18 17 14 2.7 2.2 2.8 2.6 2.2

Maryland

72 69 85 92 80 2.7 2.5 3.1 3.4 2.9

Massachusetts

85 59 67 63 68 2.3 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.8

Michigan

126 96 85 94 87 2.9 2.2 1.9 2.1 2.0

Minnesota

70 70 64 70 68 2.4 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.3

Mississippi

39 36 39 35 38 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.2

Missouri

98 74 67 72 70 3.4 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4

Montana

19 18 16 17 17 3.7 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.3

Nebraska

33 23 22 24 25 3.2 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.4

Nevada

40 48 44 42 44 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.9

New Hampshire

20 16 15 21 15 2.9 2.3 2.1 3.0 2.1

New Jersey

105 76 82 90 92 2.5 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.1

New Mexico

25 24 24 23 22 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.5

New York

183 162 168 159 140 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.4

North Carolina

148 129 136 118 133 3.1 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.7

North Dakota

14 11 11 11 12 3.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.8

Ohio

137 135 128 135 130 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.3

Oklahoma

57 49 54 50 50 3.4 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.9

Oregon

54 55 51 52 50 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.5

Pennsylvania

120 121 101 125 126 2.0 2.0 1.7 2.0 2.1

Rhode Island

13 12 12 13 11 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.2

South Carolina

82 75 76 74 69 3.7 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.0

South Dakota

12 12 11 11 13 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.8

Tennessee

111 103 108 98 102 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.1

Texas

397 394 432 368 382 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.7 2.8

Utah

47 50 46 42 47 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.7

Vermont

7 8 8 7 7 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.3

Virginia

112 95 117 119 99 2.8 2.3 2.8 2.9 2.4

Washington

96 87 81 85 88 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.4

West Virginia

22 23 26 23 21 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.0

Wisconsin

79 66 63 66 63 2.7 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1

Wyoming

10 10 10 9 10 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,342 1,719 1,557 1,845 1,581 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.0


Alabama

25 23 19 20 16 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.7

Alaska

4 6 6 6 14 1.3 1.8 1.8 1.8 4.3

Arizona

18 28 32 36 34 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1

Arkansas

14 17 13 16 14 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0

California

116 152 189 244 138 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.4 0.8

Colorado

25 28 32 43 34 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.2

Connecticut

14 14 15 20 15 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.9

Delaware

4 7 6 6 5 0.9 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0

District of Columbia

6 6 6 5 5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6

Florida

61 117 108 97 106 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1

Georgia

55 69 44 55 41 1.2 1.4 0.9 1.1 0.8

Hawaii

4 4 6 6 5 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8

Idaho

8 8 12 12 14 1.0 0.9 1.4 1.4 1.7

Illinois

49 73 71 82 94 0.8 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5

Indiana

22 36 39 37 43 0.7 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.3

Iowa

13 15 16 16 20 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.3

Kansas

10 14 15 17 24 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.7

Kentucky

25 23 21 22 19 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.9

Louisiana

17 32 25 29 23 0.9 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.2

Maine

6 9 7 10 6 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.5 0.9

Maryland

25 29 32 39 29 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.1

Massachusetts

26 39 30 62 36 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.7 1.0

Michigan

29 49 42 57 52 0.7 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.2

Minnesota

25 30 28 32 29 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.0

Mississippi

12 14 12 12 12 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0

Missouri

26 27 30 28 28 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9

Montana

5 6 7 10 8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.9 1.5

Nebraska

9 13 10 12 14 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.3

Nevada

10 18 17 22 17 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.1

New Hampshire

7 13 7 11 8 1.0 1.9 1.0 1.6 1.1

New Jersey

39 98 41 55 43 0.9 2.3 1.0 1.3 1.0

New Mexico

6 8 11 12 10 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.2

New York

108 89 83 79 81 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8

North Carolina

60 76 51 55 47 1.3 1.6 1.0 1.1 1.0

North Dakota

4 5 5 6 7 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.6

Ohio

50 57 61 53 77 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.4

Oklahoma

18 21 21 19 15 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.9

Oregon

15 18 22 24 21 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.1

Pennsylvania

50 60 64 73 51 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.8

Rhode Island

6 9 6 7 6 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.4 1.2

South Carolina

25 33 20 24 26 1.1 1.4 0.9 1.1 1.1

South Dakota

3 5 6 5 9 0.7 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.9

Tennessee

37 35 35 79 30 1.2 1.1 1.1 2.4 0.9

Texas

81 154 107 121 106 0.6 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.8

Utah

14 16 16 20 17 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.0

Vermont

3 4 4 5 3 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.0

Virginia

63 45 33 45 40 1.6 1.1 0.8 1.1 1.0

Washington

21 26 36 54 34 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.5 0.9

West Virginia

8 9 8 7 8 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.1

Wisconsin

26 26 25 32 39 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.3

Wyoming

3 4 4 5 5 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.7 1.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

12,435 9,592 10,642 7.6 5.8 6.4


Alabama

171 131 149 7.6 5.8 6.5

Alaska

30 23 28 8.7 6.7 8.1

Arizona

227 197 240 6.9 5.9 7.1

Arkansas

101 94 100 7.1 6.5 6.9

California

1,329 866 1,037 7.1 4.6 5.4

Colorado

240 216 254 7.8 7.0 8.1

Connecticut

115 95 95 6.6 5.4 5.4

Delaware

40 33 44 8.0 6.4 8.5

District of Columbia

61 46 42 7.4 5.6 5.1

Florida

775 661 687 7.7 6.4 6.6

Georgia

457 379 407 8.8 7.2 7.7

Hawaii

52 32 34 7.9 4.8 5.2

Idaho

66 56 63 7.5 6.2 6.9

Illinois

536 401 440 8.2 6.2 6.7

Indiana

272 177 210 7.9 5.2 6.1

Iowa

149 93 111 8.7 5.6 6.5

Kansas

114 78 99 7.5 5.1 6.4

Kentucky

187 139 150 8.8 6.5 6.9

Louisiana

166 143 155 8.0 6.9 7.3

Maine

50 45 43 7.4 6.6 6.3

Maryland

233 188 224 7.9 6.5 7.6

Massachusetts

315 276 279 8.0 6.9 6.9

Michigan

388 245 295 8.3 5.3 6.3

Minnesota

256 172 232 8.2 5.5 7.3

Mississippi

89 79 90 7.2 6.3 7.1

Missouri

255 197 205 8.1 6.2 6.4

Montana

48 34 43 8.7 6.2 7.7

Nebraska

87 57 72 7.8 5.2 6.4

Nevada

117 103 108 7.5 6.3 6.5

New Hampshire

55 46 46 7.6 6.2 6.2

New Jersey

281 225 217 6.3 5.0 4.8

New Mexico

72 55 77 7.8 6.0 8.1

New York

581 423 456 5.8 4.2 4.5

North Carolina

413 375 370 8.0 7.1 7.0

North Dakota

36 29 28 7.9 6.4 6.2

Ohio

452 369 426 7.7 6.3 7.1

Oklahoma

141 117 134 7.7 6.4 7.2

Oregon

150 118 123 7.2 5.6 5.9

Pennsylvania

444 427 419 7.0 6.6 6.4

Rhode Island

43 31 34 8.0 6.0 6.5

South Carolina

207 176 193 8.6 7.2 7.8

South Dakota

38 29 30 8.0 6.0 6.2

Tennessee

282 238 259 8.1 6.7 7.2

Texas

1,104 804 910 7.7 5.5 6.2

Utah

118 100 123 6.6 5.5 6.7

Vermont

27 17 21 8.3 5.3 6.4

Virginia

343 324 324 7.8 7.3 7.3

Washington

260 184 235 7.0 4.9 6.1

West Virginia

67 56 56 8.7 7.5 7.4

Wisconsin

259 178 201 8.1 5.7 6.3

Wyoming

22 17 21 7.4 5.5 7.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 7. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,814 5,507 6,303 4.5 3.6 4.1


Alabama

110 79 93 5.3 3.7 4.3

Alaska

22 14 17 6.9 4.4 5.2

Arizona

147 126 163 4.8 4.0 5.1

Arkansas

65 53 58 4.9 3.9 4.3

California

684 508 534 3.9 2.8 3.0

Colorado

160 103 140 5.6 3.6 4.9

Connecticut

75 55 70 4.5 3.3 4.2

Delaware

27 21 28 5.9 4.4 5.7

District of Columbia

27 25 23 3.6 3.2 2.9

Florida

400 363 401 4.3 3.7 4.1

Georgia

267 206 224 5.6 4.2 4.6

Hawaii

35 19 19 5.8 3.0 3.0

Idaho

44 35 43 5.5 4.2 5.1

Illinois

248 228 228 4.1 3.8 3.7

Indiana

143 119 147 4.5 3.7 4.5

Iowa

66 51 61 4.2 3.3 3.8

Kansas

48 44 53 3.4 3.0 3.7

Kentucky

115 85 87 5.9 4.3 4.3

Louisiana

91 92 82 4.8 4.7 4.2

Maine

31 22 29 4.9 3.6 4.5

Maryland

131 106 119 4.9 3.9 4.4

Massachusetts

146 107 151 4.0 2.9 4.0

Michigan

169 148 164 3.9 3.4 3.7

Minnesota

119 93 127 4.1 3.2 4.3

Mississippi

56 43 48 4.9 3.6 4.1

Missouri

120 105 110 4.1 3.6 3.7

Montana

32 22 27 6.4 4.3 5.3

Nebraska

42 33 40 4.1 3.2 3.9

Nevada

94 64 67 6.5 4.1 4.4

New Hampshire

35 26 46 5.2 3.7 6.6

New Jersey

173 204 180 4.1 4.8 4.2

New Mexico

46 32 38 5.4 3.7 4.3

New York

321 274 304 3.4 2.9 3.1

North Carolina

250 178 199 5.3 3.6 4.1

North Dakota

20 17 16 4.6 3.9 3.7

Ohio

227 190 237 4.2 3.4 4.2

Oklahoma

110 73 79 6.6 4.2 4.6

Oregon

94 76 71 4.9 3.8 3.6

Pennsylvania

212 178 249 3.6 2.9 4.1

Rhode Island

26 21 29 5.3 4.3 5.9

South Carolina

116 91 109 5.3 4.0 4.8

South Dakota

20 17 19 4.5 3.7 4.2

Tennessee

158 139 159 4.9 4.2 4.8

Texas

647 539 668 4.9 3.9 4.8

Utah

78 57 79 4.7 3.3 4.6

Vermont

15 10 17 5.0 3.4 5.6

Virginia

199 168 174 4.9 4.1 4.2

Washington

147 117 136 4.2 3.2 3.7

West Virginia

35 35 33 5.0 5.1 4.7

Wisconsin

108 86 98 3.7 2.9 3.3

Wyoming

17 11 13 5.9 3.8 4.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,208 5,235 5,641 4.1 3.4 3.6


Alabama

104 85 81 5.0 4.0 3.8

Alaska

15 11 20 4.9 3.6 6.2

Arizona

133 128 168 4.4 4.1 5.3

Arkansas

55 55 51 4.2 4.1 3.8

California

616 549 520 3.5 3.1 2.9

Colorado

138 111 127 4.8 3.9 4.4

Connecticut

57 46 53 3.5 2.8 3.1

Delaware

20 18 20 4.4 3.9 4.2

District of Columbia

26 18 20 3.4 2.4 2.6

Florida

400 377 416 4.3 3.9 4.3

Georgia

272 218 190 5.7 4.5 3.9

Hawaii

22 18 19 3.6 2.8 2.9

Idaho

38 30 47 4.6 3.6 5.5

Illinois

209 194 234 3.5 3.2 3.8

Indiana

155 106 150 4.9 3.3 4.6

Iowa

65 44 59 4.1 2.8 3.7

Kansas

48 47 57 3.4 3.3 3.9

Kentucky

102 81 89 5.3 4.1 4.4

Louisiana

84 103 85 4.4 5.3 4.3

Maine

24 20 20 3.8 3.2 3.2

Maryland

95 116 109 3.5 4.3 4.0

Massachusetts

110 94 106 3.0 2.5 2.8

Michigan

157 122 139 3.7 2.8 3.2

Minnesota

97 91 97 3.4 3.1 3.3

Mississippi

52 53 48 4.5 4.5 4.1

Missouri

122 93 96 4.2 3.1 3.2

Montana

24 21 26 4.8 4.1 5.1

Nebraska

41 30 39 4.0 2.9 3.8

Nevada

51 60 60 3.5 3.9 3.9

New Hampshire

29 29 24 4.3 4.2 3.4

New Jersey

142 129 138 3.4 3.0 3.2

New Mexico

34 31 34 4.0 3.6 3.9

New York

310 201 234 3.3 2.1 2.4

North Carolina

211 171 182 4.5 3.5 3.7

North Dakota

17 14 19 4.0 3.2 4.4

Ohio

187 179 219 3.4 3.2 3.9

Oklahoma

82 64 69 4.9 3.7 4.0

Oregon

71 68 75 3.6 3.4 3.8

Pennsylvania

177 157 190 3.0 2.6 3.1

Rhode Island

19 18 16 3.8 3.7 3.3

South Carolina

111 106 95 5.0 4.6 4.1

South Dakota

14 14 20 3.2 3.1 4.3

Tennessee

155 171 131 4.8 5.2 4.0

Texas

540 475 527 4.1 3.4 3.8

Utah

73 57 77 4.4 3.4 4.5

Vermont

13 11 12 4.5 3.6 4.1

Virginia

185 161 150 4.6 3.9 3.6

Washington

124 114 136 3.6 3.2 3.7

West Virginia

31 28 30 4.4 4.1 4.3

Wisconsin

107 83 104 3.7 2.8 3.5

Wyoming

14 11 16 4.9 3.8 5.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,657 3,444 3,869 3.1 2.2 2.5


Alabama

74 61 61 3.5 2.8 2.9

Alaska

11 7 8 3.6 2.3 2.6

Arizona

108 91 116 3.6 2.9 3.7

Arkansas

40 37 37 3.1 2.8 2.7

California

462 319 361 2.6 1.8 2.0

Colorado

96 62 77 3.4 2.2 2.7

Connecticut

43 30 36 2.6 1.8 2.1

Delaware

14 13 14 3.0 2.6 3.0

District of Columbia

17 12 14 2.2 1.6 1.8

Florida

333 270 312 3.6 2.8 3.2

Georgia

196 146 143 4.1 3.0 2.9

Hawaii

16 12 12 2.7 1.8 1.9

Idaho

28 20 30 3.4 2.4 3.6

Illinois

152 122 133 2.5 2.0 2.2

Indiana

129 75 103 4.1 2.3 3.2

Iowa

50 30 39 3.2 1.9 2.4

Kansas

37 31 33 2.6 2.2 2.3

Kentucky

74 58 68 3.8 2.9 3.4

Louisiana

63 72 59 3.3 3.7 3.0

Maine

18 12 14 2.8 2.0 2.2

Maryland

70 78 79 2.6 2.9 2.9

Massachusetts

84 49 70 2.3 1.3 1.9

Michigan

127 77 85 3.0 1.8 1.9

Minnesota

70 63 65 2.4 2.2 2.2

Mississippi

37 37 35 3.2 3.1 3.0

Missouri

92 66 64 3.2 2.2 2.1

Montana

18 13 17 3.5 2.6 3.2

Nebraska

32 20 24 3.1 2.0 2.3

Nevada

39 39 41 2.7 2.5 2.7

New Hampshire

21 19 16 3.1 2.7 2.3

New Jersey

105 76 98 2.5 1.8 2.3

New Mexico

26 20 21 3.0 2.4 2.5

New York

188 138 138 2.0 1.4 1.4

North Carolina

151 105 136 3.2 2.1 2.8

North Dakota

13 9 12 3.0 2.1 2.7

Ohio

140 120 128 2.6 2.2 2.3

Oklahoma

57 44 49 3.4 2.6 2.8

Oregon

54 46 49 2.8 2.3 2.5

Pennsylvania

127 102 137 2.2 1.7 2.2

Rhode Island

13 11 11 2.7 2.2 2.3

South Carolina

83 77 68 3.8 3.4 3.0

South Dakota

11 10 12 2.5 2.1 2.6

Tennessee

110 89 98 3.4 2.7 2.9

Texas

413 347 390 3.1 2.5 2.8

Utah

52 37 52 3.1 2.2 3.0

Vermont

10 6 9 3.2 2.1 2.8

Virginia

124 111 107 3.1 2.7 2.6

Washington

94 74 91 2.7 2.1 2.5

West Virginia

22 20 21 3.2 2.9 3.0

Wisconsin

81 56 64 2.8 1.9 2.1

Wyoming

10 7 10 3.6 2.4 3.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
Apr.
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,236 1,514 1,449 0.8 1.0 0.9


Alabama

26 20 17 1.2 0.9 0.8

Alaska

3 3 10 1.0 1.0 3.1

Arizona

19 29 37 0.6 0.9 1.2

Arkansas

12 15 12 0.9 1.1 0.8

California

122 202 131 0.7 1.1 0.7

Colorado

33 36 43 1.2 1.3 1.5

Connecticut

11 15 13 0.7 0.9 0.8

Delaware

5 5 5 1.1 1.1 1.0

District of Columbia

7 5 5 0.9 0.6 0.7

Florida

53 92 89 0.6 0.9 0.9

Georgia

61 61 40 1.3 1.3 0.8

Hawaii

4 5 5 0.6 0.8 0.8

Idaho

8 8 14 0.9 0.9 1.6

Illinois

41 69 82 0.7 1.1 1.3

Indiana

21 28 39 0.7 0.9 1.2

Iowa

10 12 15 0.6 0.8 1.0

Kansas

8 13 19 0.6 0.9 1.3

Kentucky

23 20 17 1.2 1.0 0.9

Louisiana

17 28 23 0.9 1.4 1.2

Maine

5 7 5 0.8 1.1 0.8

Maryland

20 32 23 0.7 1.2 0.9

Massachusetts

19 41 29 0.5 1.1 0.8

Michigan

24 42 47 0.6 1.0 1.1

Minnesota

22 24 26 0.8 0.8 0.9

Mississippi

11 12 11 1.0 1.1 0.9

Missouri

25 22 27 0.9 0.7 0.9

Montana

5 6 8 1.0 1.2 1.5

Nebraska

7 8 12 0.7 0.8 1.1

Nevada

10 17 16 0.7 1.1 1.0

New Hampshire

6 9 6 0.9 1.3 0.9

New Jersey

29 48 32 0.7 1.1 0.7

New Mexico

6 8 9 0.8 0.9 1.0

New York

105 48 80 1.1 0.5 0.8

North Carolina

52 55 39 1.1 1.1 0.8

North Dakota

3 4 6 0.8 0.9 1.3

Ohio

37 33 64 0.7 0.6 1.1

Oklahoma

20 17 17 1.2 1.0 1.0

Oregon

13 17 20 0.7 0.9 1.0

Pennsylvania

41 50 41 0.7 0.8 0.7

Rhode Island

5 7 4 0.9 1.3 0.8

South Carolina

23 24 24 1.1 1.1 1.0

South Dakota

2 3 7 0.5 0.7 1.4

Tennessee

37 76 27 1.1 2.3 0.8

Texas

97 115 115 0.7 0.8 0.8

Utah

18 15 22 1.1 0.9 1.3

Vermont

3 4 3 1.0 1.4 1.0

Virginia

56 42 37 1.4 1.0 0.9

Washington

22 32 34 0.6 0.9 0.9

West Virginia

7 7 7 1.0 1.0 1.0

Wisconsin

21 22 32 0.7 0.7 1.1

Wyoming

3 3 5 1.0 1.0 1.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: June 21, 2023