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Economic News Release
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JOLTS JLT Program Links

State Job Openings and Labor Turnover News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, July 26, 2023	USDL-23-1639
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870    JoltsInfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov

                           STATE JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER  MAY 2023

Job openings rates decreased in 12 states on the last business day of May, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Hires rates increased in 5 states and decreased in 2 states. Total separations 
rates increased in 9 states and decreased in 7 states. Nationally, the job openings rate decreased while 
hires and total separations rates changed little in May.

This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, total separations, quits, and 
layoffs and discharges for the total nonfarm sector and for all states and the District of Columbia. 

Job Openings

In May, job openings rates decreased in 12 states and were little changed in 38 states and the District of 
Columbia. The largest decreases in job openings rates occurred in Colorado (-1.4 percentage points) as 
well as in Arizona and Hawaii (-0.9 point each). Over the month, the national job openings rate 
decreased (-0.3 point). (See table 1.)

The number of job openings decreased in 15 states and was little changed in 35 states and the District 
of Columbia in May. The largest decreases in the job openings level occurred in Florida (-63,000), 
Pennsylvania (-54,000), and Colorado (-47,000). Nationally, the number of job openings decreased over 
the month (-496,000). (See table 1.)

Hires

In May, hires rates increased in 5 states, decreased in 2 states, and were little changed in 43 states and 
the District of Columbia. The largest increases in the hires rates occurred in Alaska (+1.0 percentage 
point) and in Louisiana and North Dakota (+0.9 point each). The decreases occurred in New Hampshire 
(-1.2 points) and Massachusetts (-0.6 point). The national hires rate was little changed over the month. 
(See table 2.)

The number of hires increased in 6 states, decreased in 3 states, and was little changed in 41 states and 
the District of Columbia in May. The largest increases in the hires level occurred in Washington 
(+23,000), Louisiana (+18,000), and Oregon (+16,000). The decreases occurred in Massachusetts  
(-23,000), New Hampshire (-8,000), and Rhode Island (-4,000). Nationally, the number of hires was 
little changed over the month. (See table 2.)

Total Separations

In May, total separations rates increased in 9 states, decreased in 7 states, and were little changed in 34 
states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in total separations rates occurred in Delaware 
(+1.5 percentage points), Alabama (+1.2 points), and Maine (+1.1 points). The largest decreases 
occurred in Alaska (-2.5 points), North Dakota (-1.2 points), and South Dakota (-1.1 points). Over the 
month, the national total separations rate was little changed. (See table 3.)

In May, the number of total separations increased in 11 states, decreased in 9 states, and was little 
changed in 30 states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases occurred in Texas (+76,000), 
New York (+61,000), and Georgia (+48,000). The largest decreases in the total separations level 
occurred in Illinois (-34,000), New Jersey (-22,000), and Arizona (-20,000). Nationally, the number of 
total separations was little changed. (See table 3.)
 
Quits

In May, quits rates increased in 9 states, decreased in 1 state, and were little changed in 40 states and 
the District of Columbia. The largest increases in quits rates occurred in Alabama and Delaware  
(+1.0 percentage point each) as well as in Arkansas, Louisiana, Maine, New York, Texas, and Utah 
(+0.6 point each). The decrease occurred in Iowa (-0.5 point). Over the month, the national quits rate 
increased (+0.2 point). (See table 4.)

The number of quits increased in 10 states, decreased in 1 state, and was little changed in 39 states and 
the District of Columbia in May. The largest increases in the quits level occurred in Texas (+73,000), 
New York (+55,000), and Alabama (+22,000). The decrease occurred in Iowa (-8,000). Nationally, the 
number of quits increased (+250,000). (See table 4.)
 
Layoffs and Discharges

In May, layoffs and discharges rates decreased in 9 states, increased in 2 states, and were little changed 
in 39 states and the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in layoffs and discharges rates occurred 
in Alaska (-2.2 percentage points) and North Dakota (-0.9 point), as well as in Kansas and South Dakota 
(-0.7 point each). The increases occurred in Mississippi (+0.7 point) and Georgia (+0.6 point). Over the 
month, the national layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged. (See table 5.)

The number of layoffs and discharges decreased in 10 states, increased in 3 states, and was little 
changed in 37 states and the District of Columbia in May. The largest decreases in the layoffs and 
discharges levels occurred in Ohio (-23,000) as well as in Illinois and Virginia (-17,000 each). The 
increases occurred in Georgia (+31,000), Mississippi (+8,000), and New Hampshire (+3,000). 
Nationally, the number of layoffs and discharges was little changed. (See table 5.)

Annual Levels and Rates

Annual estimates for state data series are published concurrently with the state annual revisions. 
Calculating annual levels and rates allows additional comparisons across years. (See tables 11 through 
20.)

The annual average level of job openings is the average of the 12 monthly levels. Annual levels for 
hires, total separations, quits, and layoffs and discharges are the sum of the 12 monthly levels. 

Annual average rates for job openings are computed by dividing the sum of the 12 monthly job opening 
levels by the sum of the 12 monthly Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment levels plus the 
sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100. 

Annual average rates for hires, total separations, quits, and layoffs and discharges are computed by 
dividing the sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS levels for each data element by the sum of the 12 monthly 
CES employment levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.

For more information, please see the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) interactive 
charts at www.bls.gov/charts/state-job-openings-and-labor-turnover/state-job-openings-rates.htm#.  

______________	
State Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for June 2023 are scheduled to be 
released on Wednesday, August 16, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|		Upcoming Changes to State Estimates from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover		  |
|						Survey							  | 
|													  |
|Effective with the release of May 2023 data on July 26, 2023, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover 	  |
|Survey (JOLTS) state estimates will be benchmarked, or revised, to incorporate the annual updates to     |
|the Current Employment Statistics state employment estimates, Quarterly Census of Employment and 	  |
|Wages (QCEW) updates through fourth quarter 2022, revised JOLTS national data, and revised JOLTS 	  |
|seasonal adjustment factors. In 2022, state estimates were benchmarked in June with the release of April |
|data. The change in the release date from June to July is being made to incorporate QCEW data through    |
|the fourth quarter of 2022. Not seasonally adjusted data and seasonally adjusted data from January 2018  |
|forward are subject to revision. Additional historical data may also be revised due to benchmarking.     |
|													  |
|JOLTS will introduce several changes to the monthly news release tables beginning with the May 2023 	  |
|news release. Significance tables A through E will be removed from the news release and provided as 	  |
|supplemental tables on the JOLTS website. JOLTS will also introduce over-the-month change columns 	  |
|for levels and rates to tables 1 through 5. Also, two tables will be added to present annual average job |
|openings levels and rates. (Annual estimates of levels and rates are published each year with the annual |
|benchmark.) 												  |
|													  |
|Also effective with the release of May 2023 data, JOLTS will modify its estimation methodology to 	  |
|reduce variance. State data from January 2018 forward is subject to revision. 				  |
|													  |
|Additional information about these changes is available at www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts-2023-changes.htm.	  |
|_________________________________________________________________________________________________________|
    

Technical Note

This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The JOLTS 
program provides information on labor demand and turnover. Additional information about the JOLTS program can 
be found at www.bls.gov/jlt/. State estimates are published for job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
total separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well as civilian federal, state, 
and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Starting with data for January 2023, 
industries are classified in accordance with the 2022 North American Industry Classification System.

Definitions

Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that 
includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and 
hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of 
unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on strike for the entire pay period, and employees 
on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, 
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by 
the establishment where they are working. JOLTS does not publish employment estimates but uses the reported 
employment for validation of the other reported data elements.

Job Openings. Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the reference month. 
A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions: 
* A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-
time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal. 
* The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate during that time. 
* The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position. Active recruiting 
means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in newspapers, on 
television, or on the radio; posting internet notices, posting "help wanted" signs, networking, or making "word-
of-mouth" announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; 
or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or similar sources.

Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs. Also 
excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future; positions for which employees 
have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work; and positions to be filled by employees of 
temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is 
computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that 
quotient by 100.

Hires. Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly hired and 
rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees; employees 
who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension from pay status) lasting more than 7 
days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated; workers who 
were hired and separated during the month, and transfers from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions 
within the reporting location, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee 
leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by 
employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations. Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month and is 
reported by type of separation:  quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include employees who 
left voluntarily, with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs and discharges includes 
involuntary separations initiated by the employer, such as layoffs with no intent to rehire; layoffs (formal 
suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, 
downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or short-term employees; 
and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return the next season). Other 
separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. 
Other separations comprise less than 8 percent of total separations. Other separations rates are generally very low, 
and other separations variance estimates are relatively high. Consequently, the other separations component is not 
published for states. 

Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; employees of temporary help 
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The separations rate is computed by 
dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits and layoffs and 
discharges rates are computed similarly.

State Estimation Method

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of approximately 21,000 nonfarm business and 
government establishments. The sample is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment size 
class. The JOLTS sample of 21,000 establishments does not directly support the production of sample-based state 
estimates. However, state estimates have been produced by combining the available sample with model-based 
estimates.

The state estimates consist of four major estimating models; the Composite Regional model (an unpublished 
intermediate model), the Synthetic model (an unpublished intermediate model), the Composite Synthetic model 
(published historical series through the most current benchmark year), and the Extended Composite Synthetic model 
(published current-year monthly series). The Composite Regional model uses JOLTS microdata, JOLTS regional 
published estimates, and Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment data. The Composite Synthetic model 
uses JOLTS microdata and Synthetic model estimates derived from monthly employment changes in microdata from 
the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and JOLTS published regional data. The Extended 
Composite Synthetic model extends the Composite Synthetic estimates by ratio-adjusting the Composite Synthetic 
model by the ratio of the current Composite Regional model estimate to the Composite Regional model estimate 
from the previous year.

The Extended Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the Composite Regional model) is used 
to extend the Composite Synthetic estimates because all of the inputs required by this model are available at the time 
monthly estimate are produced. In contrast, the Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the 
Synthetic model) can only be produced when the latest QCEW data are available. The Extended Composite 
Synthetic model estimates are used to extend the Composite Synthetic model estimates during the annual JOLTS
retabulation process. The extension of the Composite Synthetic model using current data-based Composite Regional 
model estimates ensures that the Composite Synthetic model estimates reflect current economic trends.

The Composite Regional approach calculates state-level JOLTS estimates from JOLTS microdata using sample 
weights and the adjustments for non-response. The Composite Regional estimate is then benchmarked to CES state-
supersector employment to produce state-supersector estimates. The JOLTS sample, by itself, cannot ensure a 
reasonably sized sample for each state-supersector cell. The small JOLTS sample results in several state-supersector 
cells that lack enough data to produce a reasonable estimate. To overcome this issue, the state-level estimates 
derived directly from the JOLTS sample are augmented using JOLTS regional estimates when the number of 
respondents is low (that is, less than 30). This approach is known as a composite estimate, which leverages the small 
JOLTS sample to the greatest extent possible and supplements that with a model-based estimate. Previous research 
has found that regional industry estimates are a good proxy at finer levels of geographical detail. That is, one can 
make a reliable prediction of JOLTS estimates at the regional-level using only national industry-level JOLTS rates. 
The assumption in this approach is that one can make a good prediction of JOLTS estimates at the state-level using 
only regional industry-level JOLTS rates.)

In this approach, the JOLTS microdata-based estimate is used, without model augmentation, in all state-
supersector cells that have 30 or more respondents. The JOLTS regional estimate will be used, without a sample-
based component, in all state-supersector cells that have fewer than five respondents. In all state-supersector cells 
with 5 to 30 respondents, an estimate is calculated that is a composition of a weighted estimate of the microdata-
based estimate and a weighted estimate of the JOLTS regional estimate. The weight assigned to the JOLTS data in 
those cells is proportional the number of JOLTS respondents in the cell (weight=n/30, where n is the number of 
respondents). The sum of state estimates within a region is made equal to the aligned regional JOLTS published 
regional estimates.

Seasonal adjustment. BLS uses the seasonal adjustment program (X-13ARIMA-SEATS) to seasonally adjust 
the JOLTS series. Each month, a concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology uses all relevant data, up to and 
including the current month, to calculate new seasonal adjustment factors. Moving averages are used as seasonal 
filters in seasonal adjustment. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and multiplicative models, as well 
as regression with autocorrelated errors (REGARIMA) modeling, to improve the seasonal adjustment factors at the 
beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series. 

Annual estimates and benchmarking. The JOLTS state estimates utilize and leverage data from three BLS 
programs; JOLTS, CES, and QCEW. These state estimates are published as a historical series made up of a 
historical annually revised benchmark component of the Composite Synthetic model and a current component of the 
Extended Composite Synthetic model that provides monthly "real-time" estimates between lagged benchmarks.

The JOLTS employment levels are ratio-adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are 
applied to all JOLTS data elements.

The seasonally adjusted estimates are recalculated for the most recent 5 years to reflect updated seasonal 
adjustment factors. These annual updates result in revisions to both the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally 
adjusted JOLTS data series for the period since the last benchmark was established.

Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the 
12 published monthly levels. 

Annual average levels for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 published monthly levels 
by 12. 

Annual average rates for hires, total separations quits, and layoffs and discharges are calculated by dividing the 
sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published levels for each data element by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published 
employment levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100. 

Annual average rates for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published 
levels by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published employment levels plus the sum of the 12 monthly job openings 
levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.)

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to two types of error:  sampling error and nonsampling error.

Sampling error can result when a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed. There is a chance that 
the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling 
error, varies with the sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. This means that there is a 90-percent chance 
that the true population mean will fall into the interval created by the sample mean plus or minus 1.65 standard 
errors. Estimates of median standard errors are released monthly as part of the significant change tables on the 
JOLTS webpage. Standard errors are updated annually with the most recent 5 years of data. For sampling error 
estimates, see www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a segment of the population, the 
inability to obtain data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a 
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors from 
the employment benchmark data used in estimation. The JOLTS program uses quality control procedures to reduce 
nonsampling error in the survey's design. 

The JOLTS state variance estimates account for both sampling error and the error attributable to modeling. A 
small area domain model uses a Bayesian approach to develop estimates of JOLTS state variance. The small area 
model uses QCEW-based JOLTS synthetic model data to generate a Bayesian prior distribution, then updates the 
prior distribution using JOLTS microdata and sample-based variance estimates at the state and US Census regional 
level to generate a Bayesian posterior distribution. Once the Bayesian posterior distribution has been generated, 
estimates of JOLTS state variances are made by drawing 2,500 estimates from the Bayesian posterior distribution. 
This Bayesian approach thus indirectly accounts for sampling error and directly for model error.

Other information

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications 
relay services.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

11,443 9,974 9,745 10,320 9,824 -496 7.0 6.0 5.9 6.2 5.9 -0.3


Alabama

157 142 131 145 138 -7 6.9 6.2 5.8 6.3 6.0 -0.3

Alaska

31 27 26 28 26 -2 8.9 7.7 7.4 7.9 7.4 -0.5

Arizona

237 190 206 240 208 -32 7.1 5.7 6.1 7.1 6.2 -0.9

Arkansas

109 98 97 101 101 0 7.6 6.8 6.7 6.9 6.9 0.0

California

1,347 980 895 1,043 1,005 -38 7.1 5.2 4.7 5.5 5.3 -0.2

Colorado

235 241 214 259 212 -47 7.6 7.7 6.9 8.2 6.8 -1.4

Connecticut

115 95 100 97 85 -12 6.5 5.3 5.6 5.4 4.8 -0.6

Delaware

38 36 36 37 36 -1 7.5 7.0 6.9 7.1 6.9 -0.2

District of Columbia

45 39 46 40 45 5 5.6 4.8 5.6 4.9 5.5 0.6

Florida

633 634 662 669 606 -63 6.3 6.1 6.4 6.4 5.9 -0.5

Georgia

407 436 383 385 368 -17 7.8 8.2 7.3 7.3 7.0 -0.3

Hawaii

40 35 33 38 32 -6 6.1 5.2 5.0 5.7 4.8 -0.9

Idaho

65 54 55 57 57 0 7.3 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.3 0.0

Illinois

449 411 401 423 429 6 7.0 6.3 6.2 6.5 6.5 0.0

Indiana

216 169 175 193 182 -11 6.4 5.0 5.1 5.6 5.3 -0.3

Iowa

115 99 94 107 100 -7 6.8 5.9 5.6 6.3 5.9 -0.4

Kansas

101 90 84 97 91 -6 6.7 5.9 5.5 6.3 5.9 -0.4

Kentucky

164 133 138 145 146 1 7.7 6.3 6.4 6.8 6.8 0.0

Louisiana

159 151 143 148 157 9 7.7 7.2 6.8 7.0 7.4 0.4

Maine

47 44 49 44 40 -4 6.9 6.4 7.1 6.4 5.8 -0.6

Maryland

218 199 200 206 204 -2 7.5 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.9 -0.1

Massachusetts

326 259 282 298 271 -27 8.2 6.5 7.0 7.3 6.7 -0.6

Michigan

365 261 250 296 256 -40 7.7 5.6 5.4 6.3 5.5 -0.8

Minnesota

227 192 180 206 210 4 7.2 6.0 5.7 6.5 6.6 0.1

Mississippi

88 83 84 91 87 -4 7.0 6.6 6.7 7.2 6.9 -0.3

Missouri

225 198 187 190 176 -14 7.1 6.3 5.9 6.0 5.6 -0.4

Montana

48 39 37 41 37 -4 8.6 7.0 6.7 7.3 6.7 -0.6

Nebraska

74 65 57 69 63 -6 6.8 5.9 5.2 6.2 5.7 -0.5

Nevada

109 105 100 113 107 -6 6.8 6.4 6.1 6.8 6.5 -0.3

New Hampshire

52 47 49 47 41 -6 7.1 6.3 6.5 6.3 5.5 -0.8

New Jersey

274 268 240 232 210 -22 6.1 5.8 5.3 5.1 4.6 -0.5

New Mexico

69 63 61 71 67 -4 7.5 6.8 6.6 7.6 7.2 -0.4

New York

515 429 430 460 435 -25 5.2 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.3 -0.2

North Carolina

395 370 372 379 388 9 7.6 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 0.1

North Dakota

33 27 29 29 30 1 7.2 5.9 6.3 6.3 6.5 0.2

Ohio

399 309 347 393 380 -13 6.7 5.2 5.8 6.5 6.3 -0.2

Oklahoma

124 123 119 128 128 0 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.9 6.9 0.0

Oregon

145 126 120 126 122 -4 7.0 6.0 5.7 6.0 5.8 -0.2

Pennsylvania

492 421 420 399 345 -54 7.6 6.5 6.4 6.1 5.3 -0.8

Rhode Island

39 33 33 33 28 -5 7.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 5.4 -0.8

South Carolina

182 175 182 172 178 6 7.5 7.1 7.4 7.0 7.2 0.2

South Dakota

35 29 29 31 31 0 7.2 5.9 5.9 6.3 6.3 0.0

Tennessee

266 255 244 252 239 -13 7.6 7.2 6.9 7.1 6.7 -0.4

Texas

1,019 880 821 819 846 27 7.1 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.7 0.1

Utah

126 104 105 113 109 -4 7.0 5.7 5.8 6.2 5.9 -0.3

Vermont

24 21 20 21 19 -2 7.3 6.4 6.1 6.4 5.8 -0.6

Virginia

314 329 328 315 307 -8 7.2 7.4 7.3 7.1 6.9 -0.2

Washington

240 203 187 213 189 -24 6.4 5.3 4.9 5.6 5.0 -0.6

West Virginia

61 56 54 55 55 0 8.0 7.4 7.2 7.3 7.3 0.0

Wisconsin

226 182 188 205 182 -23 7.1 5.7 5.9 6.4 5.7 -0.7

Wyoming

24 20 20 22 19 -3 7.8 6.5 6.5 7.1 6.2 -0.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,545 6,150 6,066 6,101 6,208 107 4.3 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.0 0.1


Alabama

90 99 90 93 105 12 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.9 0.6

Alaska

22 20 20 18 21 3 6.9 6.1 6.2 5.5 6.5 1.0

Arizona

159 138 147 148 154 6 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.7 4.9 0.2

Arkansas

65 64 59 61 65 4 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.8 0.3

California

663 592 579 539 524 -15 3.8 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 -0.1

Colorado

140 125 117 128 124 -4 4.9 4.3 4.0 4.4 4.3 -0.1

Connecticut

60 55 59 59 66 7 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.9 0.4

Delaware

23 25 24 24 24 0 4.9 5.2 5.0 5.0 4.9 -0.1

District of Columbia

25 25 27 24 27 3 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.1 3.5 0.4

Florida

439 372 383 404 400 -4 4.7 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.1 -0.1

Georgia

270 239 235 230 212 -18 5.6 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.3 -0.4

Hawaii

23 23 23 21 21 0 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.3 0.0

Idaho

44 38 42 41 43 2 5.4 4.5 5.0 4.8 5.1 0.3

Illinois

279 252 241 248 263 15 4.6 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.3 0.3

Indiana

140 146 131 151 156 5 4.4 4.5 4.0 4.6 4.8 0.2

Iowa

64 61 57 60 64 4 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.8 4.0 0.2

Kansas

53 59 51 59 59 0 3.8 4.1 3.5 4.1 4.1 0.0

Kentucky

95 103 93 84 91 7 4.9 5.2 4.6 4.2 4.5 0.3

Louisiana

89 104 95 85 103 18 4.6 5.3 4.9 4.3 5.2 0.9

Maine

25 25 28 25 24 -1 3.9 3.9 4.3 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Maryland

109 113 116 107 111 4 4.0 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.1 0.2

Massachusetts

128 128 130 135 112 -23 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.0 -0.6

Michigan

153 161 164 153 166 13 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.7 0.2

Minnesota

104 107 111 117 116 -1 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.9 3.9 0.0

Mississippi

53 57 48 52 55 3 4.6 4.8 4.1 4.4 4.7 0.3

Missouri

117 107 109 105 118 13 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.5 4.0 0.5

Montana

29 29 28 25 29 4 5.7 5.6 5.4 4.8 5.6 0.8

Nebraska

39 48 36 41 42 1 3.8 4.6 3.4 3.9 4.0 0.1

Nevada

80 64 72 67 66 -1 5.4 4.2 4.7 4.4 4.3 -0.1

New Hampshire

30 28 31 37 29 -8 4.4 4.0 4.4 5.3 4.1 -1.2

New Jersey

168 154 203 167 158 -9 4.0 3.6 4.7 3.9 3.6 -0.3

New Mexico

36 37 38 34 38 4 4.3 4.3 4.4 3.9 4.4 0.5

New York

356 310 297 281 286 5 3.8 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.9 0.0

North Carolina

222 219 180 213 209 -4 4.6 4.5 3.7 4.4 4.3 -0.1

North Dakota

19 18 18 17 21 4 4.5 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.8 0.9

Ohio

253 201 210 222 215 -7 4.6 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Oklahoma

86 81 79 79 78 -1 5.1 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5 -0.1

Oregon

84 82 85 72 88 16 4.3 4.1 4.3 3.6 4.4 0.8

Pennsylvania

196 182 185 198 200 2 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.3 0.1

Rhode Island

21 21 23 25 21 -4 4.2 4.2 4.6 5.0 4.2 -0.8

South Carolina

115 111 99 110 111 1 5.1 4.9 4.3 4.8 4.8 0.0

South Dakota

19 20 19 19 19 0 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Tennessee

150 145 149 160 161 1 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.9 0.1

Texas

669 610 599 624 635 11 5.0 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.6 0.1

Utah

72 71 71 70 78 8 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.5 0.4

Vermont

12 12 13 15 13 -2 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.8 4.2 -0.6

Virginia

164 177 178 169 166 -3 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.0 -0.1

Washington

132 133 124 129 152 23 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.6 4.2 0.6

West Virginia

34 35 36 32 33 1 4.9 5.0 5.1 4.6 4.7 0.1

Wisconsin

108 111 98 111 121 10 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.7 4.0 0.3

Wyoming

16 15 15 14 14 0 5.7 5.2 5.2 4.8 4.8 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,025 5,841 5,994 5,660 5,871 211 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.8 0.2


Alabama

92 96 90 76 101 25 4.4 4.5 4.2 3.5 4.7 1.2

Alaska

17 19 19 26 18 -8 5.3 5.8 5.9 8.0 5.5 -2.5

Arizona

140 128 141 142 122 -20 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.5 3.9 -0.6

Arkansas

57 62 62 54 63 9 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.0 4.6 0.6

California

720 592 636 505 525 20 4.1 3.3 3.5 2.8 2.9 0.1

Colorado

128 120 134 116 111 -5 4.5 4.1 4.6 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Connecticut

55 51 59 56 63 7 3.3 3.0 3.5 3.3 3.7 0.4

Delaware

26 25 24 21 28 7 5.5 5.2 5.0 4.3 5.8 1.5

District of Columbia

23 30 24 21 26 5 3.0 3.9 3.1 2.7 3.3 0.6

Florida

457 422 404 397 403 6 4.9 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 0.0

Georgia

277 246 219 192 240 48 5.8 5.0 4.5 3.9 4.9 1.0

Hawaii

21 21 22 19 21 2 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.0 3.3 0.3

Idaho

36 39 39 44 37 -7 4.4 4.6 4.6 5.2 4.4 -0.8

Illinois

237 207 227 243 209 -34 3.9 3.4 3.7 4.0 3.4 -0.6

Indiana

117 140 133 145 134 -11 3.7 4.3 4.1 4.5 4.1 -0.4

Iowa

60 60 59 69 58 -11 3.8 3.8 3.7 4.3 3.6 -0.7

Kansas

50 54 58 65 55 -10 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.5 3.8 -0.7

Kentucky

89 93 92 89 95 6 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.7 0.3

Louisiana

92 103 103 82 101 19 4.8 5.3 5.3 4.2 5.1 0.9

Maine

23 25 29 22 29 7 3.6 3.9 4.5 3.4 4.5 1.1

Maryland

98 129 131 110 115 5 3.6 4.7 4.8 4.0 4.2 0.2

Massachusetts

97 105 119 114 106 -8 2.6 2.8 3.2 3.0 2.8 -0.2

Michigan

156 132 153 148 162 14 3.6 3.0 3.5 3.3 3.6 0.3

Minnesota

104 98 106 102 100 -2 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Mississippi

51 53 52 52 62 10 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.4 5.3 0.9

Missouri

112 101 108 112 110 -2 3.8 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.7 -0.1

Montana

28 28 30 29 28 -1 5.5 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.4 -0.2

Nebraska

40 34 38 43 38 -5 3.9 3.3 3.6 4.1 3.7 -0.4

Nevada

59 65 68 66 66 0 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.3 0.0

New Hampshire

31 25 35 25 29 4 4.5 3.6 5.0 3.6 4.1 0.5

New Jersey

141 128 158 150 128 -22 3.3 3.0 3.7 3.5 3.0 -0.5

New Mexico

35 36 36 35 33 -2 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.0 3.8 -0.2

New York

296 265 262 231 292 61 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.4 3.0 0.6

North Carolina

207 197 190 197 199 2 4.3 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.1 0.1

North Dakota

19 17 18 22 17 -5 4.5 3.9 4.1 5.1 3.9 -1.2

Ohio

192 199 195 229 218 -11 3.5 3.6 3.5 4.1 3.9 -0.2

Oklahoma

70 84 71 67 71 4 4.1 4.9 4.1 3.9 4.1 0.2

Oregon

73 79 82 81 78 -3 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.9 -0.2

Pennsylvania

203 170 189 176 191 15 3.4 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.1 0.2

Rhode Island

19 18 22 20 22 2 3.8 3.6 4.4 4.0 4.5 0.5

South Carolina

100 100 103 91 102 11 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.0 4.4 0.4

South Dakota

19 18 19 23 18 -5 4.2 3.9 4.1 5.0 3.9 -1.1

Tennessee

142 148 158 133 147 14 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.0 4.4 0.4

Texas

532 569 520 476 552 76 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.4 4.0 0.6

Utah

64 66 68 70 82 12 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.7 0.6

Vermont

12 12 15 11 14 3 4.0 3.9 4.9 3.6 4.5 0.9

Virginia

149 153 177 173 169 -4 3.7 3.7 4.3 4.2 4.1 -0.1

Washington

115 127 139 131 122 -9 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.4 -0.2

West Virginia

31 37 34 34 34 0 4.4 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.9 0.0

Wisconsin

97 97 107 112 113 1 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.7 3.8 0.1

Wyoming

15 15 15 16 16 0 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.5 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,208 3,980 3,842 3,765 4,015 250 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.6 0.2


Alabama

61 72 63 55 77 22 2.9 3.4 2.9 2.6 3.6 1.0

Alaska

12 12 11 11 12 1 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.4 3.7 0.3

Arizona

108 88 95 103 94 -9 3.5 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.0 -0.3

Arkansas

39 45 42 37 45 8 2.9 3.3 3.1 2.7 3.3 0.6

California

473 384 359 341 347 6 2.7 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 0.0

Colorado

88 79 77 77 77 0 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 0.0

Connecticut

36 33 34 35 41 6 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.4 0.3

Delaware

18 17 16 15 20 5 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.1 4.1 1.0

District of Columbia

16 22 16 14 18 4 2.1 2.9 2.1 1.8 2.3 0.5

Florida

339 284 279 290 286 -4 3.6 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 -0.1

Georgia

197 194 151 142 158 16 4.1 4.0 3.1 2.9 3.2 0.3

Hawaii

15 14 14 12 14 2 2.5 2.2 2.2 1.9 2.2 0.3

Idaho

27 25 25 27 26 -1 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Illinois

147 126 135 144 134 -10 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.2 -0.2

Indiana

90 95 88 94 90 -4 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.8 -0.1

Iowa

44 39 37 45 37 -8 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.8 2.3 -0.5

Kansas

36 36 37 36 37 1 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 0.1

Kentucky

65 68 65 65 70 5 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.5 0.3

Louisiana

59 77 70 57 69 12 3.1 4.0 3.6 2.9 3.5 0.6

Maine

15 16 16 15 19 4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.9 0.6

Maryland

68 87 86 75 77 2 2.5 3.2 3.1 2.7 2.8 0.1

Massachusetts

70 67 63 71 66 -5 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.8 -0.1

Michigan

118 84 94 89 105 16 2.7 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.4 0.4

Minnesota

72 65 68 68 71 3 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 0.1

Mississippi

36 39 35 37 39 2 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.3 0.2

Missouri

79 67 72 73 78 5 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 0.1

Montana

20 18 17 18 19 1 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.7 0.2

Nebraska

25 22 23 26 24 -2 2.5 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.3 -0.2

Nevada

42 44 43 45 47 2 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.1 0.2

New Hampshire

21 15 21 15 17 2 3.1 2.1 3.0 2.1 2.4 0.3

New Jersey

79 84 91 92 82 -10 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.1 1.9 -0.2

New Mexico

23 23 22 22 23 1 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.6 0.1

New York

179 168 164 140 195 55 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.4 2.0 0.6

North Carolina

145 137 123 138 134 -4 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.7 -0.1

North Dakota

11 11 10 13 12 -1 2.6 2.5 2.3 3.0 2.8 -0.2

Ohio

130 127 133 126 142 16 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.5 0.3

Oklahoma

48 60 48 48 50 2 2.8 3.5 2.8 2.8 2.9 0.1

Oregon

53 50 51 52 54 2 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 0.1

Pennsylvania

156 100 118 121 122 1 2.6 1.6 1.9 2.0 2.0 0.0

Rhode Island

12 12 13 13 13 0 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.6 0.0

South Carolina

74 75 73 66 73 7 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.9 3.2 0.3

South Dakota

14 11 12 13 12 -1 3.1 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.6 -0.2

Tennessee

104 105 99 98 103 5 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.1 0.1

Texas

399 439 376 339 412 73 3.0 3.2 2.7 2.4 3.0 0.6

Utah

47 46 44 48 58 10 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.8 3.4 0.6

Vermont

8 8 8 7 9 2 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.9 0.6

Virginia

104 109 120 107 120 13 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.9 0.3

Washington

79 80 84 87 85 -2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.3 -0.1

West Virginia

22 27 24 23 23 0 3.2 3.9 3.4 3.3 3.3 0.0

Wisconsin

72 65 67 69 72 3 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 0.1

Wyoming

11 10 9 10 10 0 3.9 3.5 3.1 3.5 3.5 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)
May
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2023 -
May 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,482 1,557 1,845 1,590 1,555 -35 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.0


Alabama

24 19 22 17 20 3 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.1

Alaska

4 6 6 12 5 -7 1.3 1.8 1.8 3.7 1.5 -2.2

Arizona

26 34 36 34 21 -13 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.7 -0.4

Arkansas

14 13 16 14 15 1 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.1

California

197 176 249 136 147 11 1.1 1.0 1.4 0.8 0.8 0.0

Colorado

30 34 45 33 30 -3 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.0 -0.1

Connecticut

15 16 22 15 17 2 0.9 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.1

Delaware

6 6 7 5 7 2 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.4 0.4

District of Columbia

6 6 6 5 6 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.2

Florida

95 118 107 89 99 10 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.1

Georgia

70 42 57 42 73 31 1.5 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.5 0.6

Hawaii

5 6 7 5 6 1 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.2

Idaho

8 12 11 14 10 -4 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.2 -0.5

Illinois

75 68 86 84 67 -17 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.1 -0.3

Indiana

21 38 39 45 37 -8 0.7 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.1 -0.3

Iowa

13 17 18 21 18 -3 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.1 -0.2

Kansas

10 15 17 25 15 -10 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.0 -0.7

Kentucky

20 21 22 20 21 1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.0

Louisiana

28 22 29 22 25 3 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.1 1.3 0.2

Maine

7 6 11 6 8 2 1.1 0.9 1.7 0.9 1.2 0.3

Maryland

24 33 37 28 33 5 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.2 0.2

Massachusetts

23 32 52 34 31 -3 0.6 0.9 1.4 0.9 0.8 -0.1

Michigan

33 41 53 53 52 -1 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.0

Minnesota

27 28 32 30 24 -6 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.0 0.8 -0.2

Mississippi

12 11 13 12 20 8 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.7 0.7

Missouri

27 29 29 34 26 -8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9 -0.2

Montana

6 8 10 8 7 -1 1.2 1.5 1.9 1.5 1.4 -0.1

Nebraska

13 11 12 15 12 -3 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.2 -0.2

Nevada

14 18 22 18 17 -1 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.1 -0.1

New Hampshire

8 8 13 7 10 3 1.2 1.1 1.9 1.0 1.4 0.4

New Jersey

55 40 61 49 34 -15 1.3 0.9 1.4 1.1 0.8 -0.3

New Mexico

9 11 11 9 8 -1 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.0 0.9 -0.1

New York

98 84 83 78 84 6 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.1

North Carolina

53 51 56 50 54 4 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.1

North Dakota

7 5 6 8 4 -4 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.8 0.9 -0.9

Ohio

48 62 50 85 62 -23 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.5 1.1 -0.4

Oklahoma

17 19 20 15 18 3 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.1

Oregon

15 24 26 24 20 -4 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.0 -0.2

Pennsylvania

35 64 66 45 58 13 0.6 1.0 1.1 0.7 0.9 0.2

Rhode Island

6 6 8 6 7 1 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.4 0.2

South Carolina

20 19 25 21 23 2 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.1

South Dakota

4 6 5 9 6 -3 0.9 1.3 1.1 2.0 1.3 -0.7

Tennessee

31 34 53 28 38 10 1.0 1.0 1.6 0.8 1.1 0.3

Texas

107 106 127 114 118 4 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.0

Utah

14 17 19 18 21 3 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.2

Vermont

3 4 7 3 4 1 1.0 1.3 2.3 1.0 1.3 0.3

Virginia

38 33 48 59 42 -17 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.0 -0.4

Washington

28 41 46 35 29 -6 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.0 0.8 -0.2

West Virginia

7 8 8 9 9 0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.3 0.0

Wisconsin

20 26 31 38 35 -3 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.2 -0.1

Wyoming

4 4 5 5 4 -1 1.4 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.4 -0.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

11,297 10,856 9,566 6.9 6.5 5.8


Alabama

156 149 135 6.9 6.5 5.9

Alaska

45 28 37 12.2 8.1 10.2

Arizona

217 235 185 6.6 6.9 5.6

Arkansas

105 101 96 7.3 6.9 6.5

California

1,329 1,066 994 7.0 5.6 5.2

Colorado

226 266 202 7.3 8.4 6.5

Connecticut

124 101 92 6.9 5.7 5.1

Delaware

36 45 34 7.1 8.5 6.5

District of Columbia

41 42 41 5.1 5.1 5.0

Florida

637 707 600 6.4 6.8 5.8

Georgia

393 405 348 7.6 7.6 6.6

Hawaii

34 36 26 5.2 5.4 4.0

Idaho

67 62 59 7.5 6.8 6.5

Illinois

448 462 421 6.9 7.0 6.4

Indiana

214 216 177 6.3 6.2 5.1

Iowa

112 125 96 6.6 7.3 5.6

Kansas

94 103 83 6.2 6.7 5.4

Kentucky

158 150 139 7.5 6.9 6.5

Louisiana

150 153 146 7.2 7.2 6.9

Maine

52 45 44 7.5 6.6 6.4

Maryland

208 220 191 7.1 7.4 6.5

Massachusetts

342 306 283 8.5 7.5 7.0

Michigan

377 321 259 7.9 6.8 5.5

Minnesota

237 234 217 7.4 7.3 6.7

Mississippi

85 93 84 6.8 7.3 6.6

Missouri

219 208 167 6.9 6.5 5.3

Montana

52 43 40 9.2 7.7 7.1

Nebraska

72 75 60 6.5 6.7 5.4

Nevada

106 121 104 6.7 7.3 6.3

New Hampshire

53 46 40 7.1 6.3 5.4

New Jersey

265 224 196 5.9 5.0 4.3

New Mexico

57 75 56 6.3 8.0 6.0

New York

518 473 430 5.2 4.7 4.2

North Carolina

393 397 385 7.6 7.5 7.3

North Dakota

35 30 32 7.6 6.4 6.8

Ohio

406 430 380 6.8 7.1 6.3

Oklahoma

115 132 117 6.4 7.1 6.3

Oregon

130 121 109 6.3 5.7 5.2

Pennsylvania

503 406 347 7.7 6.2 5.3

Rhode Island

41 35 29 7.5 6.6 5.6

South Carolina

179 187 173 7.4 7.6 7.0

South Dakota

39 32 34 7.9 6.5 6.9

Tennessee

265 265 235 7.6 7.4 6.6

Texas

991 877 814 6.9 6.0 5.5

Utah

121 122 105 6.7 6.6 5.7

Vermont

25 22 19 7.6 6.6 6.0

Virginia

300 327 287 6.9 7.3 6.5

Washington

218 243 172 5.8 6.3 4.5

West Virginia

57 56 50 7.5 7.4 6.6

Wisconsin

222 219 176 7.0 6.8 5.5

Wyoming

29 22 24 9.3 7.0 7.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 7. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

7,231 6,277 6,850 4.7 4.0 4.4


Alabama

100 91 115 4.8 4.2 5.4

Alaska

39 17 37 12.0 5.3 11.3

Arizona

156 159 152 5.0 5.0 4.8

Arkansas

71 58 71 5.3 4.3 5.2

California

658 541 511 3.7 3.0 2.8

Colorado

163 140 144 5.7 4.8 5.0

Connecticut

73 69 79 4.3 4.1 4.7

Delaware

26 27 26 5.5 5.7 5.4

District of Columbia

25 23 28 3.3 2.9 3.6

Florida

461 393 425 4.9 4.0 4.4

Georgia

307 227 240 6.4 4.7 4.9

Hawaii

22 19 20 3.5 3.0 3.2

Idaho

52 42 50 6.3 5.0 5.9

Illinois

309 234 297 5.1 3.8 4.8

Indiana

157 151 175 4.9 4.7 5.3

Iowa

78 62 78 4.9 3.9 4.9

Kansas

58 54 65 4.1 3.8 4.5

Kentucky

101 87 96 5.2 4.3 4.8

Louisiana

100 82 113 5.2 4.2 5.8

Maine

36 28 33 5.6 4.4 5.2

Maryland

113 113 115 4.2 4.1 4.2

Massachusetts

150 147 128 4.1 3.9 3.4

Michigan

189 159 203 4.3 3.6 4.5

Minnesota

138 125 151 4.7 4.2 5.0

Mississippi

56 48 57 4.8 4.1 4.8

Missouri

122 104 124 4.1 3.5 4.2

Montana

39 27 38 7.6 5.3 7.4

Nebraska

42 41 45 4.1 3.9 4.3

Nevada

92 65 76 6.2 4.2 4.9

New Hampshire

35 45 32 5.1 6.5 4.6

New Jersey

182 175 170 4.3 4.1 3.9

New Mexico

37 38 39 4.3 4.3 4.5

New York

420 302 329 4.4 3.1 3.4

North Carolina

258 216 241 5.4 4.4 4.9

North Dakota

25 16 28 5.8 3.8 6.4

Ohio

294 227 260 5.3 4.1 4.6

Oklahoma

89 79 81 5.3 4.6 4.7

Oregon

86 71 89 4.4 3.6 4.5

Pennsylvania

229 246 227 3.8 4.0 3.7

Rhode Island

26 30 24 5.1 6.2 4.9

South Carolina

125 110 121 5.6 4.8 5.2

South Dakota

28 20 29 6.1 4.3 6.2

Tennessee

167 164 177 5.1 4.9 5.4

Texas

713 649 682 5.3 4.7 4.9

Utah

80 74 88 4.8 4.3 5.1

Vermont

16 17 16 5.1 5.5 5.1

Virginia

173 174 174 4.3 4.2 4.2

Washington

133 137 153 3.8 3.8 4.2

West Virginia

39 34 38 5.5 4.8 5.5

Wisconsin

125 104 138 4.2 3.5 4.6

Wyoming

23 13 21 8.1 4.7 7.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

5,924 5,578 5,707 3.9 3.6 3.7


Alabama

94 78 103 4.5 3.6 4.8

Alaska

18 19 17 5.4 6.1 5.3

Arizona

154 157 130 5.0 5.0 4.1

Arkansas

57 51 62 4.3 3.7 4.6

California

712 510 510 4.0 2.8 2.8

Colorado

122 128 102 4.2 4.4 3.5

Connecticut

47 54 54 2.8 3.2 3.2

Delaware

26 20 29 5.6 4.1 6.0

District of Columbia

23 20 26 3.0 2.6 3.3

Florida

484 409 429 5.2 4.2 4.4

Georgia

276 195 240 5.8 4.0 4.9

Hawaii

21 19 21 3.4 3.0 3.3

Idaho

34 48 34 4.1 5.7 4.0

Illinois

219 218 190 3.6 3.6 3.1

Indiana

123 151 137 3.8 4.7 4.2

Iowa

62 66 57 3.9 4.1 3.6

Kansas

53 58 57 3.7 4.0 3.9

Kentucky

83 84 89 4.2 4.2 4.4

Louisiana

92 82 102 4.8 4.2 5.2

Maine

20 20 25 3.1 3.2 3.9

Maryland

84 100 97 3.1 3.7 3.5

Massachusetts

81 109 89 2.2 2.9 2.4

Michigan

159 140 163 3.6 3.2 3.7

Minnesota

99 98 96 3.4 3.3 3.2

Mississippi

51 47 62 4.4 4.0 5.3

Missouri

111 103 107 3.8 3.5 3.6

Montana

27 27 27 5.4 5.2 5.2

Nebraska

42 40 40 4.1 3.8 3.8

Nevada

58 62 63 3.9 4.0 4.1

New Hampshire

28 23 26 4.1 3.3 3.7

New Jersey

111 135 102 2.6 3.1 2.4

New Mexico

34 34 31 4.0 3.9 3.6

New York

273 225 269 2.9 2.3 2.8

North Carolina

209 191 201 4.3 3.9 4.1

North Dakota

21 20 18 4.8 4.6 4.0

Ohio

198 211 220 3.6 3.8 3.9

Oklahoma

69 67 69 4.1 3.8 4.0

Oregon

68 76 70 3.5 3.8 3.5

Pennsylvania

192 173 172 3.2 2.8 2.8

Rhode Island

18 17 20 3.6 3.4 4.0

South Carolina

93 88 96 4.2 3.9 4.2

South Dakota

19 20 18 4.3 4.5 3.8

Tennessee

145 130 149 4.5 3.9 4.5

Texas

539 496 556 4.0 3.6 4.0

Utah

64 77 81 3.8 4.5 4.7

Vermont

16 12 18 5.2 4.0 5.9

Virginia

148 162 168 3.6 3.9 4.1

Washington

98 144 101 2.8 4.0 2.8

West Virginia

30 34 33 4.3 4.9 4.7

Wisconsin

103 110 116 3.5 3.7 3.9

Wyoming

14 16 14 5.1 5.6 5.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,226 3,820 4,036 2.8 2.5 2.6


Alabama

62 59 79 3.0 2.7 3.7

Alaska

13 8 12 3.9 2.6 3.7

Arizona

115 113 99 3.7 3.6 3.1

Arkansas

39 37 45 2.9 2.7 3.3

California

489 356 358 2.8 2.0 2.0

Colorado

87 77 74 3.0 2.7 2.6

Connecticut

33 35 38 2.0 2.1 2.2

Delaware

18 14 20 3.8 2.9 4.1

District of Columbia

15 13 17 2.0 1.7 2.2

Florida

351 311 299 3.7 3.2 3.1

Georgia

197 150 158 4.1 3.1 3.2

Hawaii

15 12 14 2.5 2.0 2.3

Idaho

25 30 24 3.1 3.6 2.8

Illinois

138 129 125 2.3 2.1 2.0

Indiana

95 105 95 3.0 3.2 2.9

Iowa

47 47 40 3.0 2.9 2.5

Kansas

39 35 39 2.7 2.4 2.7

Kentucky

61 65 66 3.1 3.2 3.3

Louisiana

61 58 72 3.2 2.9 3.7

Maine

14 14 18 2.3 2.2 2.9

Maryland

60 73 68 2.2 2.7 2.5

Massachusetts

62 72 58 1.7 1.9 1.6

Michigan

122 86 109 2.8 2.0 2.4

Minnesota

71 66 71 2.4 2.2 2.4

Mississippi

38 35 41 3.2 2.9 3.5

Missouri

78 67 76 2.6 2.3 2.5

Montana

21 17 20 4.1 3.2 3.8

Nebraska

26 25 26 2.6 2.4 2.4

Nevada

42 42 45 2.8 2.7 2.9

New Hampshire

21 15 17 3.1 2.2 2.4

New Jersey

70 92 73 1.6 2.1 1.7

New Mexico

22 21 22 2.6 2.5 2.5

New York

176 138 193 1.8 1.4 2.0

North Carolina

140 142 131 2.9 2.9 2.7

North Dakota

12 12 12 2.8 2.8 2.8

Ohio

138 124 151 2.5 2.2 2.7

Oklahoma

50 47 51 2.9 2.7 3.0

Oregon

50 49 50 2.6 2.5 2.5

Pennsylvania

159 128 123 2.6 2.1 2.0

Rhode Island

13 11 14 2.6 2.3 2.7

South Carolina

69 66 69 3.1 2.9 3.0

South Dakota

14 12 12 3.2 2.7 2.6

Tennessee

108 97 107 3.3 2.9 3.2

Texas

409 354 426 3.1 2.6 3.1

Utah

48 51 60 2.9 3.0 3.5

Vermont

12 8 13 3.9 2.8 4.4

Virginia

103 107 120 2.5 2.6 2.9

Washington

68 91 72 1.9 2.5 2.0

West Virginia

22 24 23 3.1 3.4 3.3

Wisconsin

78 69 78 2.6 2.3 2.6

Wyoming

11 10 10 3.8 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,383 1,468 1,385 0.9 0.9 0.9


Alabama

26 16 21 1.2 0.8 1.0

Alaska

4 9 4 1.1 2.9 1.2

Arizona

34 38 25 1.1 1.2 0.8

Arkansas

14 12 14 1.0 0.9 1.0

California

177 125 123 1.0 0.7 0.7

Colorado

26 46 23 0.9 1.6 0.8

Connecticut

11 14 12 0.6 0.8 0.7

Delaware

7 5 8 1.4 1.0 1.6

District of Columbia

7 5 7 0.9 0.6 0.9

Florida

111 84 113 1.2 0.9 1.2

Georgia

70 39 73 1.5 0.8 1.5

Hawaii

5 5 5 0.7 0.8 0.8

Idaho

7 15 8 0.9 1.8 0.9

Illinois

69 72 58 1.2 1.2 0.9

Indiana

22 41 36 0.7 1.3 1.1

Iowa

12 16 14 0.7 1.0 0.9

Kansas

11 20 15 0.8 1.4 1.0

Kentucky

18 17 19 0.9 0.8 0.9

Louisiana

27 22 23 1.4 1.1 1.2

Maine

4 5 5 0.7 0.7 0.8

Maryland

19 22 25 0.7 0.8 0.9

Massachusetts

16 29 21 0.4 0.8 0.6

Michigan

30 48 49 0.7 1.1 1.1

Minnesota

24 27 21 0.8 0.9 0.7

Mississippi

11 10 18 0.9 0.9 1.6

Missouri

28 32 25 1.0 1.1 0.8

Montana

5 8 6 1.0 1.6 1.1

Nebraska

13 12 12 1.3 1.2 1.1

Nevada

14 17 15 0.9 1.1 1.0

New Hampshire

6 6 7 0.9 0.9 1.0

New Jersey

35 34 21 0.8 0.8 0.5

New Mexico

9 10 7 1.1 1.1 0.8

New York

78 75 63 0.8 0.8 0.6

North Carolina

62 42 61 1.3 0.9 1.2

North Dakota

7 6 4 1.7 1.5 0.9

Ohio

44 69 54 0.8 1.2 0.9

Oklahoma

15 16 15 0.9 1.0 0.9

Oregon

14 22 17 0.7 1.1 0.8

Pennsylvania

25 36 39 0.4 0.6 0.6

Rhode Island

4 4 5 0.8 0.8 1.0

South Carolina

20 19 22 0.9 0.8 1.0

South Dakota

4 7 4 0.8 1.6 0.9

Tennessee

30 26 35 0.9 0.8 1.1

Texas

101 121 108 0.8 0.9 0.8

Utah

13 21 18 0.8 1.2 1.0

Vermont

3 3 4 1.1 0.9 1.2

Virginia

38 50 41 0.9 1.2 1.0

Washington

24 43 22 0.7 1.2 0.6

West Virginia

7 8 8 0.9 1.1 1.2

Wisconsin

19 35 31 0.6 1.2 1.0

Wyoming

3 5 3 1.0 1.7 1.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Annual average job openings levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

7,104 7,161 6,364 9,967 11,168


Alabama

93 96 96 141 154

Alaska

22 23 18 28 31

Arizona

151 159 148 207 241

Arkansas

57 62 57 85 100

California

756 767 671 1,035 1,252

Colorado

141 147 110 196 223

Connecticut

67 65 59 96 115

Delaware

22 23 21 32 37

District of Columbia

27 31 29 43 45

Florida

440 419 379 602 672

Georgia

231 233 233 381 415

Hawaii

29 31 25 38 39

Idaho

38 40 37 57 66

Illinois

287 276 236 372 441

Indiana

168 157 139 216 220

Iowa

79 75 65 100 116

Kansas

80 72 62 87 102

Kentucky

90 90 95 147 160

Louisiana

84 92 90 131 152

Maine

33 31 27 43 46

Maryland

135 140 139 201 209

Massachusetts

165 170 144 245 284

Michigan

227 218 193 336 325

Minnesota

162 140 113 179 222

Mississippi

52 53 55 81 88

Missouri

156 148 119 185 211

Montana

26 27 24 39 46

Nebraska

53 50 45 63 72

Nevada

69 67 65 107 106

New Hampshire

32 32 31 51 54

New Jersey

188 183 186 279 268

New Mexico

44 47 39 63 68

New York

391 389 338 547 554

North Carolina

243 282 215 337 375

North Dakota

24 26 19 28 31

Ohio

278 275 237 353 406

Oklahoma

77 82 82 114 127

Oregon

95 102 93 138 145

Pennsylvania

287 276 250 406 448

Rhode Island

24 24 21 35 38

South Carolina

118 113 110 168 180

South Dakota

23 22 19 29 32

Tennessee

150 141 144 223 261

Texas

541 576 484 855 987

Utah

78 80 70 104 121

Vermont

17 16 13 22 24

Virginia

198 220 199 278 321

Washington

156 163 134 202 230

West Virginia

38 40 43 54 62

Wisconsin

150 154 131 189 227

Wyoming

16 17 13 21 24

Footnotes
(1) The annual average job openings level is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels divided by 12.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 12. Annual average job openings rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

4.6 4.5 4.3 6.4 6.8


Alabama

4.3 4.4 4.6 6.4 6.8

Alaska

6.3 6.5 5.7 8.3 8.9

Arizona

5.0 5.1 4.9 6.5 7.2

Arkansas

4.3 4.6 4.3 6.2 7.0

California

4.2 4.2 4.0 5.8 6.6

Colorado

4.9 5.0 4.0 6.7 7.2

Connecticut

3.8 3.7 3.6 5.6 6.5

Delaware

4.6 4.6 4.6 6.5 7.3

District of Columbia

3.3 3.8 3.8 5.5 5.5

Florida

4.8 4.5 4.3 6.3 6.7

Georgia

4.8 4.8 5.0 7.6 8.0

Hawaii

4.2 4.5 4.3 6.1 6.0

Idaho

4.9 5.0 4.7 6.7 7.3

Illinois

4.5 4.3 4.0 6.0 6.8

Indiana

5.1 4.7 4.4 6.5 6.4

Iowa

4.7 4.5 4.2 6.1 6.9

Kansas

5.3 4.8 4.4 5.9 6.7

Kentucky

4.5 4.4 4.9 7.2 7.5

Louisiana

4.1 4.4 4.6 6.5 7.3

Maine

5.0 4.7 4.2 6.5 6.8

Maryland

4.7 4.8 5.1 7.0 7.1

Massachusetts

4.3 4.4 4.0 6.5 7.2

Michigan

4.9 4.7 4.6 7.4 6.9

Minnesota

5.2 4.5 3.9 5.9 7.0

Mississippi

4.3 4.3 4.7 6.6 7.0

Missouri

5.1 4.8 4.1 6.1 6.7

Montana

5.2 5.3 4.9 7.3 8.2

Nebraska

4.9 4.6 4.4 5.9 6.6

Nevada

4.8 4.5 4.8 7.2 6.7

New Hampshire

4.6 4.5 4.6 7.1 7.3

New Jersey

4.3 4.2 4.6 6.5 5.9

New Mexico

5.0 5.2 4.7 7.2 7.4

New York

3.9 3.8 3.7 5.7 5.5

North Carolina

5.1 5.8 4.7 6.8 7.3

North Dakota

5.1 5.6 4.4 6.3 6.7

Ohio

4.8 4.7 4.3 6.1 6.8

Oklahoma

4.4 4.6 4.8 6.5 6.9

Oregon

4.7 5.0 4.8 6.8 6.9

Pennsylvania

4.6 4.3 4.3 6.6 7.0

Rhode Island

4.6 4.6 4.3 6.8 7.2

South Carolina

5.2 4.9 5.0 7.2 7.4

South Dakota

5.1 4.8 4.3 6.3 6.5

Tennessee

4.7 4.3 4.6 6.7 7.4

Texas

4.1 4.3 3.8 6.3 6.8

Utah

4.9 4.9 4.4 6.1 6.7

Vermont

5.0 4.8 4.4 7.0 7.2

Virginia

4.7 5.2 4.9 6.6 7.3

Washington

4.4 4.5 3.9 5.7 6.1

West Virginia

5.0 5.3 6.1 7.4 8.1

Wisconsin

4.8 4.9 4.4 6.1 7.1

Wyoming

5.2 5.6 4.7 7.1 7.6

Footnotes
(1) The annual average job openings rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels and the sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 13. Annual hires levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

68,620 70,028 72,588 76,006 77,201


Alabama

982 955 1,006 1,162 1,236

Alaska

227 235 213 230 250

Arizona

1,552 1,500 1,510 1,581 1,841

Arkansas

655 677 668 750 774

California

6,891 7,019 7,958 7,947 7,715

Colorado

1,381 1,383 1,468 1,545 1,564

Connecticut

609 684 769 722 737

Delaware

251 256 249 268 301

District of Columbia

277 288 240 277 282

Florida

3,597 4,246 4,271 4,834 4,919

Georgia

2,365 2,248 2,388 2,912 3,171

Hawaii

265 284 299 299 286

Idaho

397 430 494 485 525

Illinois

2,878 2,554 2,791 3,160 3,054

Indiana

1,725 1,722 1,670 1,720 1,698

Iowa

674 682 716 759 750

Kansas

642 651 588 685 681

Kentucky

1,016 987 1,126 1,208 1,174

Louisiana

1,018 1,069 981 1,131 1,144

Maine

314 303 305 312 318

Maryland

1,150 1,265 1,176 1,135 1,375

Massachusetts

1,370 1,494 1,500 1,551 1,558

Michigan

2,035 2,014 2,415 2,474 2,112

Minnesota

1,196 1,179 1,167 1,216 1,317

Mississippi

573 577 635 666 690

Missouri

1,293 1,337 1,430 1,399 1,350

Montana

276 285 312 333 359

Nebraska

481 472 474 493 477

Nevada

695 704 947 953 895

New Hampshire

316 318 320 350 359

New Jersey

1,599 1,645 2,190 1,936 1,920

New Mexico

375 440 399 478 455

New York

3,460 3,570 3,646 3,672 3,720

North Carolina

2,506 2,813 2,662 2,817 2,796

North Dakota

218 240 227 236 228

Ohio

2,524 2,527 2,790 2,638 2,692

Oklahoma

943 880 870 936 1,045

Oregon

957 1,006 1,003 1,032 1,064

Pennsylvania

2,445 2,460 2,502 2,533 2,374

Rhode Island

227 237 265 268 263

South Carolina

1,188 1,204 1,241 1,244 1,330

South Dakota

218 207 206 229 235

Tennessee

1,822 1,663 1,748 1,771 1,965

Texas

6,881 6,854 6,418 7,206 7,443

Utah

942 854 839 853 932

Vermont

160 160 155 156 157

Virginia

1,699 1,931 1,923 1,974 2,058

Washington

1,469 1,638 1,554 1,576 1,650

West Virginia

404 380 386 392 425

Wisconsin

1,317 1,325 1,317 1,331 1,342

Wyoming

172 181 163 179 187

Footnotes
(1) The annual hires level is the sum of the 12 monthly hires levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 14. Annual average hires rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

3.8 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.2


Alabama

4.0 3.8 4.2 4.7 4.9

Alaska

5.8 5.9 5.9 6.2 6.5

Arizona

4.5 4.2 4.4 4.4 5.0

Arkansas

4.3 4.4 4.5 4.9 4.8

California

3.3 3.4 4.1 4.0 3.6

Colorado

4.2 4.1 4.6 4.7 4.5

Connecticut

3.0 3.4 4.1 3.7 3.7

Delaware

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.3

District of Columbia

2.9 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.1

Florida

3.4 3.9 4.2 4.5 4.4

Georgia

4.3 4.0 4.5 5.3 5.5

Hawaii

3.4 3.6 4.4 4.2 3.9

Idaho

4.5 4.7 5.5 5.1 5.3

Illinois

3.9 3.5 4.1 4.5 4.2

Indiana

4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.4

Iowa

3.5 3.6 4.0 4.1 4.0

Kansas

3.8 3.8 3.6 4.1 4.0

Kentucky

4.4 4.2 5.1 5.3 5.0

Louisiana

4.3 4.5 4.4 5.0 5.0

Maine

4.1 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.1

Maryland

3.5 3.8 3.8 3.6 4.2

Massachusetts

3.1 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.5

Michigan

3.8 3.8 5.0 4.9 4.0

Minnesota

3.4 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.7

Mississippi

4.1 4.2 4.8 4.9 4.9

Missouri

3.7 3.8 4.3 4.1 3.8

Montana

4.8 4.9 5.5 5.6 5.9

Nebraska

3.9 3.8 4.0 4.1 3.9

Nevada

4.2 4.1 6.2 5.8 5.0

New Hampshire

3.9 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.4

New Jersey

3.2 3.3 4.7 4.0 3.8

New Mexico

3.7 4.3 4.2 4.9 4.5

New York

3.0 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.3

North Carolina

4.6 5.1 5.0 5.1 4.9

North Dakota

4.2 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.4

Ohio

3.8 3.8 4.4 4.1 4.1

Oklahoma

4.7 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.1

Oregon

4.1 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.5

Pennsylvania

3.4 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.3

Rhode Island

3.8 3.9 4.8 4.7 4.4

South Carolina

4.6 4.6 5.0 4.8 4.9

South Dakota

4.2 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.3

Tennessee

4.9 4.4 4.8 4.8 5.0

Texas

4.6 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.6

Utah

5.2 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.6

Vermont

4.2 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.3

Virginia

3.5 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.2

Washington

3.6 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9

West Virginia

4.7 4.4 4.8 4.8 5.1

Wisconsin

3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.8

Wyoming

5.0 5.2 5.0 5.4 5.5

Footnotes
(1) The annual average hires rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly hires levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 15. Annual total separations levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

66,174 68,001 80,842 69,032 72,273


Alabama

927 947 1,019 1,106 1,136

Alaska

233 250 225 226 253

Arizona

1,448 1,421 1,535 1,470 1,712

Arkansas

631 645 693 689 704

California

6,728 7,411 8,936 7,132 7,635

Colorado

1,399 1,375 1,763 1,490 1,502

Connecticut

564 622 855 617 654

Delaware

237 248 268 253 280

District of Columbia

259 269 307 245 296

Florida

3,732 4,052 4,888 4,409 4,921

Georgia

2,193 2,219 2,692 2,869 3,100

Hawaii

260 296 368 258 253

Idaho

372 411 454 450 490

Illinois

2,605 2,354 3,345 2,782 2,718

Indiana

1,667 1,708 1,856 1,615 1,601

Iowa

662 672 780 710 717

Kansas

647 629 688 621 634

Kentucky

961 929 1,178 1,123 1,063

Louisiana

985 1,085 1,136 1,040 1,072

Maine

296 280 325 294 289

Maryland

1,178 1,242 1,294 1,040 1,328

Massachusetts

1,243 1,305 1,745 1,376 1,326

Michigan

1,938 1,991 2,705 2,161 1,868

Minnesota

1,159 1,109 1,408 1,107 1,242

Mississippi

580 589 678 677 685

Missouri

1,231 1,304 1,626 1,352 1,341

Montana

267 303 306 311 342

Nebraska

471 450 521 462 444

Nevada

680 698 1,200 770 793

New Hampshire

303 290 345 325 349

New Jersey

1,560 1,729 2,456 1,669 1,843

New Mexico

372 432 468 404 421

New York

3,328 3,420 4,303 3,184 3,339

North Carolina

2,441 2,647 2,678 2,616 2,525

North Dakota

209 232 283 210 216

Ohio

2,570 2,497 3,054 2,422 2,533

Oklahoma

895 894 942 871 891

Oregon

937 1,044 1,170 943 959

Pennsylvania

2,422 2,374 3,011 2,268 2,277

Rhode Island

214 224 284 226 239

South Carolina

1,090 1,206 1,240 1,153 1,219

South Dakota

213 202 230 204 209

Tennessee

1,642 1,443 1,818 1,730 1,876

Texas

6,600 6,397 7,029 6,380 6,699

Utah

923 869 814 793 848

Vermont

150 150 177 148 147

Virginia

1,560 1,814 1,943 1,739 1,877

Washington

1,410 1,504 1,723 1,296 1,514

West Virginia

377 386 419 377 403

Wisconsin

1,241 1,250 1,472 1,236 1,295

Wyoming

165 189 181 175 187

Footnotes
(1) The annual total separations level is the sum of the 12 monthly total separations levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 16. Annual average total separations rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

3.7 3.8 4.7 3.9 3.9


Alabama

3.8 3.8 4.3 4.5 4.5

Alaska

5.9 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.6

Arizona

4.2 4.0 4.5 4.1 4.6

Arkansas

4.1 4.2 4.6 4.5 4.4

California

3.3 3.5 4.6 3.5 3.6

Colorado

4.3 4.1 5.5 4.5 4.4

Connecticut

2.8 3.1 4.5 3.2 3.3

Delaware

4.3 4.4 5.1 4.6 4.9

District of Columbia

2.7 2.8 3.4 2.8 3.2

Florida

3.5 3.8 4.8 4.1 4.4

Georgia

4.0 4.0 5.1 5.2 5.4

Hawaii

3.3 3.7 5.5 3.7 3.4

Idaho

4.2 4.5 5.0 4.7 4.9

Illinois

3.6 3.2 4.9 4.0 3.8

Indiana

4.4 4.5 5.2 4.4 4.2

Iowa

3.5 3.5 4.3 3.8 3.8

Kansas

3.8 3.7 4.2 3.8 3.7

Kentucky

4.1 4.0 5.3 4.9 4.5

Louisiana

4.1 4.5 5.1 4.6 4.7

Maine

3.9 3.7 4.5 3.9 3.8

Maryland

3.6 3.7 4.2 3.3 4.1

Massachusetts

2.8 2.9 4.3 3.2 3.0

Michigan

3.6 3.7 5.6 4.3 3.6

Minnesota

3.3 3.1 4.2 3.2 3.5

Mississippi

4.2 4.2 5.1 5.0 4.9

Missouri

3.5 3.7 4.9 4.0 3.8

Montana

4.6 5.2 5.4 5.3 5.6

Nebraska

3.8 3.7 4.4 3.8 3.6

Nevada

4.1 4.1 7.8 4.7 4.4

New Hampshire

3.7 3.5 4.5 4.1 4.2

New Jersey

3.1 3.4 5.3 3.4 3.6

New Mexico

3.7 4.2 4.9 4.1 4.1

New York

2.9 2.9 4.1 2.9 2.9

North Carolina

4.5 4.8 5.1 4.7 4.4

North Dakota

4.0 4.4 5.7 4.2 4.2

Ohio

3.9 3.7 4.8 3.7 3.8

Oklahoma

4.4 4.4 4.8 4.4 4.4

Oregon

4.1 4.5 5.3 4.2 4.1

Pennsylvania

3.4 3.3 4.5 3.3 3.2

Rhode Island

3.6 3.7 5.1 3.9 4.0

South Carolina

4.2 4.6 5.0 4.5 4.5

South Dakota

4.1 3.8 4.5 3.9 3.8

Tennessee

4.5 3.9 5.0 4.6 4.8

Texas

4.4 4.2 4.8 4.2 4.1

Utah

5.1 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.2

Vermont

4.0 4.0 5.1 4.2 4.0

Virginia

3.2 3.7 4.2 3.7 3.8

Washington

3.5 3.6 4.4 3.2 3.6

West Virginia

4.4 4.5 5.2 4.6 4.8

Wisconsin

3.5 3.5 4.3 3.6 3.6

Wyoming

4.8 5.4 5.5 5.2 5.5

Footnotes
(1) The annual average total separations rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly total separations levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 17. Annual quits levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

40,308 42,125 35,904 47,680 50,596


Alabama

576 604 570 768 822

Alaska

146 154 101 159 168

Arizona

964 974 786 1,113 1,297

Arkansas

398 421 377 493 504

California

4,080 4,366 3,459 4,755 5,240

Colorado

887 893 722 1,022 1,018

Connecticut

308 336 300 400 434

Delaware

145 154 136 178 202

District of Columbia

151 163 149 153 200

Florida

2,295 2,626 2,467 3,206 3,605

Georgia

1,414 1,449 1,420 2,027 2,213

Hawaii

169 195 158 181 179

Idaho

237 273 218 331 345

Illinois

1,577 1,520 1,477 1,855 1,765

Indiana

1,024 1,040 849 1,161 1,156

Iowa

399 415 363 495 508

Kansas

418 411 323 443 449

Kentucky

615 588 595 784 778

Louisiana

633 702 569 745 761

Maine

153 153 129 195 191

Maryland

648 768 593 692 887

Massachusetts

665 747 592 886 903

Michigan

1,213 1,285 1,142 1,495 1,341

Minnesota

683 709 555 781 876

Mississippi

364 376 357 486 482

Missouri

777 814 816 988 930

Montana

174 179 141 223 240

Nebraska

296 292 261 321 306

Nevada

444 458 413 509 553

New Hampshire

162 161 126 206 211

New Jersey

840 978 913 1,076 1,159

New Mexico

248 289 210 284 290

New York

1,707 1,783 1,503 1,938 2,127

North Carolina

1,503 1,635 1,259 1,776 1,762

North Dakota

126 146 122 140 143

Ohio

1,614 1,616 1,364 1,657 1,682

Oklahoma

586 601 470 616 648

Oregon

606 657 471 669 675

Pennsylvania

1,353 1,337 1,086 1,449 1,551

Rhode Island

115 122 94 145 155

South Carolina

719 751 666 813 899

South Dakota

125 128 104 146 149

Tennessee

1,099 943 929 1,202 1,341

Texas

4,046 4,095 3,531 4,615 5,065

Utah

605 559 395 589 621

Vermont

82 81 59 92 98

Virginia

1,031 1,119 935 1,224 1,306

Washington

815 883 710 908 1,028

West Virginia

242 245 211 265 293

Wisconsin

729 804 640 895 905

Wyoming

106 118 79 123 131

Footnotes
(1) The annual quits level is the sum of the 12 monthly quits levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 18. Annual average quits rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

2.3 2.3 2.1 2.7 2.8


Alabama

2.3 2.4 2.4 3.1 3.2

Alaska

3.7 3.9 2.8 4.3 4.4

Arizona

2.8 2.8 2.3 3.1 3.5

Arkansas

2.6 2.7 2.5 3.2 3.2

California

2.0 2.1 1.8 2.4 2.5

Colorado

2.7 2.7 2.3 3.1 3.0

Connecticut

1.5 1.7 1.6 2.1 2.2

Delaware

2.6 2.7 2.6 3.3 3.6

District of Columbia

1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.2

Florida

2.2 2.4 2.4 3.0 3.2

Georgia

2.6 2.6 2.7 3.7 3.8

Hawaii

2.1 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.4

Idaho

2.7 3.0 2.4 3.5 3.5

Illinois

2.2 2.1 2.2 2.7 2.4

Indiana

2.7 2.7 2.4 3.1 3.0

Iowa

2.1 2.2 2.0 2.7 2.7

Kansas

2.5 2.4 2.0 2.7 2.6

Kentucky

2.7 2.5 2.7 3.4 3.3

Louisiana

2.6 2.9 2.6 3.3 3.3

Maine

2.0 2.0 1.8 2.6 2.5

Maryland

2.0 2.3 1.9 2.2 2.7

Massachusetts

1.5 1.7 1.5 2.1 2.0

Michigan

2.3 2.4 2.4 3.0 2.6

Minnesota

1.9 2.0 1.7 2.3 2.5

Mississippi

2.6 2.7 2.7 3.6 3.4

Missouri

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.9 2.6

Montana

3.0 3.1 2.5 3.8 3.9

Nebraska

2.4 2.4 2.2 2.7 2.5

Nevada

2.7 2.7 2.7 3.1 3.1

New Hampshire

2.0 2.0 1.6 2.6 2.6

New Jersey

1.7 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3

New Mexico

2.5 2.8 2.2 2.9 2.9

New York

1.5 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.9

North Carolina

2.8 3.0 2.4 3.2 3.1

North Dakota

2.4 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.8

Ohio

2.4 2.4 2.2 2.6 2.5

Oklahoma

2.9 2.9 2.4 3.1 3.2

Oregon

2.6 2.8 2.1 3.0 2.9

Pennsylvania

1.9 1.8 1.6 2.1 2.2

Rhode Island

1.9 2.0 1.7 2.5 2.6

South Carolina

2.8 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.3

South Dakota

2.4 2.4 2.0 2.8 2.7

Tennessee

3.0 2.5 2.6 3.2 3.4

Texas

2.7 2.7 2.4 3.0 3.1

Utah

3.3 3.0 2.1 3.0 3.1

Vermont

2.2 2.1 1.7 2.6 2.7

Virginia

2.1 2.3 2.0 2.6 2.7

Washington

2.0 2.1 1.8 2.2 2.4

West Virginia

2.8 2.9 2.6 3.2 3.5

Wisconsin

2.0 2.2 1.9 2.6 2.5

Wyoming

3.1 3.4 2.4 3.7 3.8

Footnotes
(1) The annual average quits rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly quits levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 19. Annual layoffs and discharges levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

21,807 21,875 40,830 17,103 17,564


Alabama

289 271 389 266 254

Alaska

70 83 107 51 70

Arizona

420 377 680 299 338

Arkansas

199 190 268 160 164

California

2,131 2,533 4,926 1,815 1,871

Colorado

433 410 916 407 382

Connecticut

210 245 510 174 176

Delaware

79 80 118 62 65

District of Columbia

89 83 141 66 69

Florida

1,213 1,215 2,235 970 1,029

Georgia

650 634 1,130 670 715

Hawaii

76 85 193 60 58

Idaho

114 119 221 98 120

Illinois

911 712 1,713 792 807

Indiana

572 593 924 359 360

Iowa

218 223 373 171 169

Kansas

193 182 326 141 150

Kentucky

294 279 524 280 231

Louisiana

300 325 506 235 250

Maine

122 108 180 80 77

Maryland

452 385 636 277 356

Massachusetts

475 473 1,079 397 346

Michigan

610 589 1,440 527 434

Minnesota

405 324 782 240 305

Mississippi

181 181 285 156 163

Missouri

370 418 743 278 344

Montana

78 108 151 75 85

Nebraska

146 131 229 109 113

Nevada

205 211 734 226 205

New Hampshire

119 110 205 96 111

New Jersey

592 606 1,436 495 568

New Mexico

97 119 235 92 101

New York

1,365 1,403 2,561 983 977

North Carolina

796 868 1,267 685 618

North Dakota

72 73 148 60 60

Ohio

793 748 1,553 639 704

Oklahoma

260 239 416 203 194

Oregon

284 336 638 227 218

Pennsylvania

901 885 1,794 679 591

Rhode Island

85 89 174 66 69

South Carolina

318 390 494 275 249

South Dakota

74 62 112 45 52

Tennessee

469 425 813 437 451

Texas

2,205 1,999 3,166 1,366 1,340

Utah

278 266 382 162 183

Vermont

57 54 112 42 38

Virginia

445 580 912 402 461

Washington

493 516 929 308 400

West Virginia

113 118 184 90 87

Wisconsin

428 372 744 272 323

Wyoming

50 60 91 43 47

Footnotes
(1) The annual layoffs and discharges level is the sum of the 12 monthly layoffs and discharges levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 20. Annual average layoffs and discharges rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

TOTAL U.S.

1.2 1.2 2.4 1.0 1.0


Alabama

1.2 1.1 1.6 1.1 1.0

Alaska

1.8 2.1 2.9 1.4 1.8

Arizona

1.2 1.1 2.0 0.8 0.9

Arkansas

1.3 1.2 1.8 1.0 1.0

California

1.0 1.2 2.5 0.9 0.9

Colorado

1.3 1.2 2.9 1.2 1.1

Connecticut

1.0 1.2 2.7 0.9 0.9

Delaware

1.4 1.4 2.2 1.1 1.1

District of Columbia

0.9 0.9 1.6 0.7 0.8

Florida

1.2 1.1 2.2 0.9 0.9

Georgia

1.2 1.1 2.1 1.2 1.2

Hawaii

1.0 1.1 2.9 0.9 0.8

Idaho

1.3 1.3 2.4 1.0 1.2

Illinois

1.2 1.0 2.5 1.1 1.1

Indiana

1.5 1.6 2.6 1.0 0.9

Iowa

1.1 1.2 2.1 0.9 0.9

Kansas

1.1 1.1 2.0 0.9 0.9

Kentucky

1.3 1.2 2.4 1.2 1.0

Louisiana

1.3 1.4 2.3 1.0 1.1

Maine

1.6 1.4 2.5 1.1 1.0

Maryland

1.4 1.2 2.1 0.9 1.1

Massachusetts

1.1 1.1 2.6 0.9 0.8

Michigan

1.1 1.1 3.0 1.0 0.8

Minnesota

1.1 0.9 2.3 0.7 0.9

Mississippi

1.3 1.3 2.1 1.1 1.2

Missouri

1.1 1.2 2.2 0.8 1.0

Montana

1.4 1.9 2.7 1.3 1.4

Nebraska

1.2 1.1 1.9 0.9 0.9

Nevada

1.2 1.2 4.8 1.4 1.1

New Hampshire

1.5 1.3 2.7 1.2 1.3

New Jersey

1.2 1.2 3.1 1.0 1.1

New Mexico

1.0 1.2 2.4 0.9 1.0

New York

1.2 1.2 2.4 0.9 0.9

North Carolina

1.5 1.6 2.4 1.2 1.1

North Dakota

1.4 1.4 3.0 1.2 1.2

Ohio

1.2 1.1 2.5 1.0 1.1

Oklahoma

1.3 1.2 2.1 1.0 1.0

Oregon

1.2 1.4 2.9 1.0 0.9

Pennsylvania

1.2 1.2 2.7 1.0 0.8

Rhode Island

1.4 1.5 3.1 1.1 1.2

South Carolina

1.2 1.5 2.0 1.1 0.9

South Dakota

1.4 1.2 2.2 0.9 1.0

Tennessee

1.3 1.1 2.3 1.2 1.2

Texas

1.5 1.3 2.1 0.9 0.8

Utah

1.5 1.4 2.1 0.8 0.9

Vermont

1.5 1.4 3.3 1.2 1.0

Virginia

0.9 1.2 2.0 0.8 0.9

Washington

1.2 1.2 2.4 0.8 0.9

West Virginia

1.3 1.4 2.3 1.1 1.0

Wisconsin

1.2 1.0 2.2 0.8 0.9

Wyoming

1.5 1.7 2.8 1.3 1.4

Footnotes
(1) The annual average layoffs and discharges rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly layoffs and discharges levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Last Modified Date: July 26, 2023