Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, March 15, 2019	USDL-19-0404

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – JANUARY 2019

The number of job openings was little changed at 7.6 million on the last business day of January, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were little 
changed at 5.8 million and 5.6 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 
2.3 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was little changed at 1.1 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions. The release also includes 2018 annual estimates for hires and 
separations. The annual number of hires at 68.9 million and the annual number of quits at 40.1 million 
increased in 2018. The annual number of layoffs and discharges at 21.9 million edged up in 2018.

Job Openings

On the last business day of January, the job openings level was little changed at 7.6 million. The job 
openings rate was 4.8 percent. The number of job openings was little changed for total private and 
increased for government (+59,000). Job openings increased in a number of industries, with the largest 
increases in wholesale trade (+91,000), real estate and rental and leasing (+60,000), and information 
(+42,000). The job openings level decreased in other services (-98,000), retail trade (-97,000), and arts, 
entertainment, and recreation (-40,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four 
regions. (See table 1.)

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|                                   Revisions and Methodology Change                                    |
|Job openings, hires, and separations have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current|
|Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. Additionally,    |
|a new methodology for item imputation has been implemented. See the revision section at the end of     |
|this release for more information.                                                                     |
|_______________________________________________________________________________________________________|

Hires

The number of hires was little changed at 5.8 million in January. The hires rate was 3.9 percent. The 
hires level was little changed for total private and for government. The number of hires was little 
changed in all industries and all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.6 million in January. The total separations rate 
was 3.7 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
Total separations increased in real estate and rental and leasing (+20,000) but decreased in federal 
government (-11,000). The number of total separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 
3.)

The number of quits was little changed in January at 3.5 million. The quits rate was 2.3 percent. The 
quits level was little changed for total private but increased for government (+20,000). Quits increased 
in arts, entertainment, and recreation (+19,000) and in state and local government education (+17,000). 
Quits decreased in federal government (-6,000). The number of quits was little changed in all four 
regions. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in January at 1.7 million. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent. The layoffs and discharges level was little changed for total private and 
for government. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all industries and in all four 
regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in January. The other separations level was little 
changed for total private and decreased for government (-10,000). Other separations increased in 
transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+8,000) but decreased in federal government (-6,000). The 
number of other separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in January, hires totaled 69.2 million and 
separations totaled 66.3 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.8 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

Annual Levels and Rates

Calculating annual levels and rates allows additional comparisons across years. Annual levels for hires, 
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the 12 published 
monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment 
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. Consistent with 
BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data and are released with 
the January news release each year. Note that annual estimates are not calculated for job openings 
because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last business day of each month.

In 2018, there were 68.9 million hires, an increase of 3.3 million from 2017. Total separations (the sum 
of quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations) rose by 2.6 million in 2018 to 66.1 million. Quits 
rose for the ninth consecutive year reaching 40.1 million in 2018, up by 2.4 million. Quits comprised 61 
percent of total separations. Layoffs and discharges edged up by 307,000 in 2018 to 21.9 million and 
comprised 33 percent of total separations. Other separations edged down by 44,000 in 2018 to 4.1 
million and comprised 6 percent of total separations. (See tables 13 through 22.)

The annual hires for 2018 was 46.3 percent of the annual average CES employment level. This rate has 
been trending upwards since 2009. The annual total separations rate for 2018 was 44.3 percent. The 
annual rates for the components of total separations were 26.9 percent for quits, 14.7 percent for layoffs 
and discharges, and 2.8 percent for other separations.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for February 2019 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, April 9, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
           Category              | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan.
                                 | 2018 | 2018 | 2019p| 2018 | 2018 | 2019p| 2018 | 2018 | 2019p
---------------------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      LEVELS BY INDUSTRY         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
        (in thousands)           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total............................|6,591 |7,479 |7,581 |5,525 |5,717 |5,801 |5,317 |5,469 |5,550
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private...................|6,025 |6,860 |6,902 |5,194 |5,353 |5,430 |4,983 |5,122 |5,190
  Mining and logging(1)..........|   26 |   29 |   40 |   34 |   39 |   38 |   30 |   34 |   33
  Construction(1)................|  245 |  299 |  302 |  354 |  399 |  428 |  329 |  369 |  391
  Manufacturing..................|  436 |  435 |  452 |  365 |  351 |  356 |  347 |  342 |  342
   Durable goods(1)..............|  261 |  298 |  305 |  217 |  186 |  186 |  201 |  175 |  170
   Nondurable goods(1)...........|  175 |  137 |  146 |  148 |  165 |  170 |  146 |  167 |  172
  Trade, transportation,         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities.................|1,367 |1,482 |1,471 |1,132 |1,176 |1,126 |1,103 |1,134 |1,097
   Wholesale trade...............|  203 |  178 |  269 |  143 |  151 |  128 |  160 |  143 |  137
   Retail trade..................|  873 |  986 |  889 |  763 |  802 |  756 |  736 |  765 |  729
   Transportation, warehousing,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and utilities(1).............|  290 |  318 |  312 |  227 |  224 |  243 |  207 |  226 |  232
  Information(1).................|  123 |  123 |  165 |   89 |   80 |   81 |   97 |   87 |   87
  Financial activities...........|  398 |  380 |  459 |  221 |  201 |  191 |  208 |  180 |  180
   Finance and insurance.........|  314 |  317 |  336 |  155 |  133 |  112 |  146 |  131 |  111
   Real estate and               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    rental and leasing(1)........|   85 |   63 |  123 |   66 |   67 |   78 |   63 |   49 |   69
  Professional and business      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|1,124 |1,391 |1,343 |1,092 |1,144 |1,128 |1,028 |1,116 |1,089
  Education and health           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|1,175 |1,348 |1,393 |  693 |  717 |  730 |  626 |  652 |  674
   Educational services(1).......|  123 |   91 |  120 |  112 |  124 |  108 |   92 |  101 |   98
   Health care and social        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance...................|1,052 |1,258 |1,273 |  581 |  593 |  622 |  534 |  551 |  577
  Leisure and hospitality........|  926 |1,102 |1,105 |1,014 |1,037 |1,110 |1,019 |1,007 |1,065
   Arts, entertainment, and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation...................|   93 |  154 |  114 |  173 |  154 |  183 |  170 |  153 |  155
   Accommodation and food        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.....................|  832 |  948 |  991 |  840 |  883 |  927 |  850 |  853 |  910
  Other services.................|  205 |  271 |  173 |  201 |  209 |  241 |  196 |  201 |  233
 Government......................|  566 |  619 |  678 |  330 |  364 |  372 |  334 |  347 |  359
  Federal(1).....................|  115 |   87 |  122 |   32 |   36 |   36 |   30 |   44 |   33
  State and local................|  452 |  532 |  556 |  298 |  328 |  335 |  304 |  304 |  326
   State and local education.....|  173 |  229 |  223 |  149 |  176 |  166 |  155 |  163 |  166
   State and local, excluding    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    education(1).................|  279 |  304 |  333 |  150 |  152 |  170 |  149 |  141 |  161
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     RATES BY INDUSTRY           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
         (percent)               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total............................|  4.3 |  4.7 |  4.8 |  3.7 |  3.8 |  3.9 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.7
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private...................|  4.6 |  5.1 |  5.1 |  4.1 |  4.2 |  4.2 |  4.0 |  4.0 |  4.1
  Mining and logging(1)..........|  3.6 |  3.8 |  5.0 |  4.9 |  5.1 |  5.0 |  4.2 |  4.5 |  4.3
  Construction(1)................|  3.3 |  3.9 |  3.9 |  5.0 |  5.4 |  5.7 |  4.6 |  5.0 |  5.2
  Manufacturing..................|  3.4 |  3.3 |  3.4 |  2.9 |  2.7 |  2.8 |  2.8 |  2.7 |  2.7
   Durable goods(1)..............|  3.2 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  2.8 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.6 |  2.2 |  2.1
   Nondurable goods(1)...........|  3.6 |  2.8 |  3.0 |  3.1 |  3.5 |  3.6 |  3.1 |  3.5 |  3.6
  Trade, transportation,         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities.................|  4.7 |  5.1 |  5.0 |  4.1 |  4.2 |  4.0 |  4.0 |  4.1 |  3.9
   Wholesale trade...............|  3.4 |  2.9 |  4.4 |  2.4 |  2.6 |  2.2 |  2.7 |  2.4 |  2.3
   Retail trade..................|  5.2 |  5.9 |  5.3 |  4.8 |  5.1 |  4.8 |  4.7 |  4.8 |  4.6
   Transportation, warehousing,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and utilities(1).............|  4.7 |  5.0 |  4.9 |  3.9 |  3.7 |  4.0 |  3.5 |  3.7 |  3.8
  Information(1).................|  4.2 |  4.2 |  5.5 |  3.2 |  2.8 |  2.9 |  3.5 |  3.1 |  3.1
  Financial activities...........|  4.5 |  4.2 |  5.0 |  2.6 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.5 |  2.1 |  2.1
   Finance and insurance.........|  4.8 |  4.8 |  5.0 |  2.5 |  2.1 |  1.8 |  2.3 |  2.1 |  1.8
   Real estate and rental        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and leasing(1)...............|  3.7 |  2.7 |  5.1 |  2.9 |  2.9 |  3.4 |  2.8 |  2.1 |  3.0
  Professional and business      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|  5.1 |  6.1 |  5.9 |  5.3 |  5.4 |  5.3 |  5.0 |  5.3 |  5.1
  Education and health           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|  4.8 |  5.3 |  5.5 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  2.7 |  2.7 |  2.8
   Educational services(1).......|  3.2 |  2.4 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.3 |  2.9 |  2.5 |  2.7 |  2.6
   Health care and social        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance...................|  5.1 |  5.9 |  5.9 |  2.9 |  2.9 |  3.1 |  2.7 |  2.7 |  2.9
   Leisure and hospitality.......|  5.4 |  6.2 |  6.2 |  6.3 |  6.3 |  6.7 |  6.3 |  6.1 |  6.4
    Arts, entertainment, and     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     recreation..................|  3.8 |  5.9 |  4.4 |  7.3 |  6.3 |  7.4 |  7.2 |  6.3 |  6.3
    Accommodation and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services....................|  5.7 |  6.3 |  6.5 |  6.1 |  6.3 |  6.6 |  6.1 |  6.0 |  6.4
   Other services................|  3.4 |  4.4 |  2.9 |  3.5 |  3.6 |  4.1 |  3.4 |  3.4 |  4.0
 Government......................|  2.5 |  2.7 |  2.9 |  1.5 |  1.6 |  1.7 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.6
  Federal(1).....................|  3.9 |  3.0 |  4.2 |  1.1 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.1 |  1.6 |  1.2
  State and local................|  2.3 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  1.5 |  1.7 |  1.7 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.7
   State and local education.....|  1.6 |  2.1 |  2.1 |  1.4 |  1.7 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.6 |  1.6
   State and local, excluding    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    education(1).................|  3.0 |  3.2 |  3.5 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.8 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.7
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  (1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore,
the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
  (p) Preliminary
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment 
Statistics employment estimates, the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors, and to implement a new 
imputation methodology.


                       Revisions to Job Openings and Labor Turnover Data

In accordance with annual practice, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data have 
been revised to reflect annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey employment 
estimates. The JOLTS employment levels (not published) are ratio adjusted to the CES employment 
levels, and the resulting ratios are applied to all JOLTS data elements. The result is the revision of 21 
months of not seasonally adjusted data. Additionally, new seasonal factors have been developed based 
on the full revised JOLTS series and have been applied to the data from January 2014 forward. Also 
effective with this release, JOLTS has implemented a new methodology for item imputation.

Tables B through G below present revised total nonfarm data for January through December 2018. The 
December 2018 revisions also reflect the routine incorporation of additional sample receipts into the 
final December estimates. Tables presenting revisions to total nonfarm data for December 2000 through 
December 2017 will be available later today on the JOLTS website. The website also contains all 
revised seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data. The revision tables and data can be 
accessed through the JOLTS homepage at www.bls.gov/jlt/.

Table B. Revisions in job openings data January 2018 - December 2018,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2018   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    6,230   |  6,591  |    361     |     4.0    |  4.3    |    0.3
February..|    6,074   |  6,530  |    456     |     3.9    |  4.2    |     .3
March.....|    6,638   |  6,894  |    256     |     4.3    |  4.4    |     .1
April.....|    6,840   |  7,106  |    266     |     4.4    |  4.6    |     .2
May.......|    6,659   |  7,126  |    467     |     4.3    |  4.6    |     .3
June......|    6,822   |  7,393  |    571     |     4.4    |  4.7    |     .3
July......|    7,077   |  7,442  |    365     |     4.5    |  4.8    |     .3
August....|    7,293   |  7,342  |     49     |     4.7    |  4.7    |     .0
September.|    6,960   |  7,392  |    432     |     4.4    |  4.7    |     .3
October...|    7,131   |  7,593  |    462     |     4.5    |  4.8    |     .3
November..|    7,166   |  7,626  |    460     |     4.6    |  4.8    |     .2
December..|    7,335   |  7,479  |    144     |     4.7    |  4.7    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table C. Revisions in hires data January 2018 - December 2018,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2018   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    5,568   |  5,525  |    -43     |     3.8    |  3.7    |   -0.1
February..|    5,503   |  5,594  |     91     |     3.7    |  3.8    |     .1
March.....|    5,476   |  5,625  |    149     |     3.7    |  3.8    |     .1
April.....|    5,581   |  5,694  |    113     |     3.8    |  3.8    |     .0
May.......|    5,747   |  5,862  |    115     |     3.9    |  3.9    |     .0
June......|    5,677   |  5,833  |    156     |     3.8    |  3.9    |     .1
July......|    5,713   |  5,833  |    120     |     3.8    |  3.9    |     .1
August....|    5,906   |  5,826  |    -80     |     4.0    |  3.9    |    -.1
September.|    5,696   |  5,670  |    -26     |     3.8    |  3.8    |     .0
October...|    5,928   |  5,877  |    -51     |     4.0    |  3.9    |    -.1
November..|    5,812   |  5,821  |      9     |     3.9    |  3.9    |     .0
December..|    5,907   |  5,717  |   -190     |     3.9    |  3.8    |    -.1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table D. Revisions in total separations data January 2018 - December 2018,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2018   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    5,319   |  5,317  |     -2     |     3.6    |  3.6    |    0.0
February..|    5,172   |  5,270  |     98     |     3.5    |  3.6    |     .1
March.....|    5,321   |  5,446  |    125     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
April.....|    5,424   |  5,467  |     43     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
May.......|    5,419   |  5,502  |     83     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
June......|    5,514   |  5,565  |     51     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
July......|    5,596   |  5,675  |     79     |     3.8    |  3.8    |     .0
August....|    5,779   |  5,600  |   -179     |     3.9    |  3.7    |    -.2
September.|    5,641   |  5,558  |    -83     |     3.8    |  3.7    |    -.1
October...|    5,621   |  5,642  |     21     |     3.8    |  3.8    |     .0
November..|    5,563   |  5,597  |     34     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
December..|    5,545   |  5,469  |    -76     |     3.7    |  3.6    |    -.1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table E. Revisions in quits data January 2018 - December 2018,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2018   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    3,191   |  3,022  |   -169     |     2.2    |  2.0    |   -0.2
February..|    3,208   |  3,176  |    -32     |     2.2    |  2.1    |    -.1
March.....|    3,387   |  3,300  |    -87     |     2.3    |  2.2    |    -.1
April.....|    3,349   |  3,339  |    -10     |     2.3    |  2.2    |    -.1
May.......|    3,480   |  3,342  |   -138     |     2.3    |  2.2    |    -.1
June......|    3,477   |  3,354  |   -123     |     2.3    |  2.3    |     .0
July......|    3,608   |  3,443  |   -165     |     2.4    |  2.3    |    -.1
August....|    3,648   |  3,473  |   -175     |     2.4    |  2.3    |    -.1
September.|    3,564   |  3,393  |   -171     |     2.4    |  2.3    |    -.1
October...|    3,519   |  3,469  |    -50     |     2.3    |  2.3    |     .0
November..|    3,494   |  3,379  |   -115     |     2.3    |  2.3    |     .0
December..|    3,482   |  3,391  |    -91     |     2.3    |  2.3    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table F. Revisions in layoffs and discharges data January 2018 - December 2018,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2018   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    1,784   |  1,934  |    150     |     1.2    |  1.3    |    0.1
February..|    1,619   |  1,763  |    144     |     1.1    |  1.2    |     .1
March.....|    1,546   |  1,771  |    225     |     1.0    |  1.2    |     .2
April.....|    1,731   |  1,788  |     57     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
May.......|    1,618   |  1,811  |    193     |     1.1    |  1.2    |     .1
June......|    1,652   |  1,843  |    191     |     1.1    |  1.2    |     .1
July......|    1,622   |  1,859  |    237     |     1.1    |  1.2    |     .1
August....|    1,790   |  1,809  |     19     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
September.|    1,707   |  1,818  |    111     |     1.1    |  1.2    |     .1
October...|    1,761   |  1,855  |     94     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
November..|    1,753   |  1,889  |    136     |     1.2    |  1.3    |     .1
December..|    1,697   |  1,751  |     54     |     1.1    |  1.2    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table G. Revisions in other separations data January 2018 - December 2018,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2018   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|      344   |    361  |     17     |     0.2    |  0.2    |    0.0
February..|      346   |    331  |    -15     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
March.....|      387   |    375  |    -12     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
April.....|      344   |    340  |     -4     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
May.......|      321   |    349  |     28     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
June......|      384   |    368  |    -16     |      .3    |   .2    |    -.1
July......|      365   |    373  |      8     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
August....|      341   |    319  |    -22     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
September.|      369   |    348  |    -21     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
October...|      341   |    318  |    -23     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
November..|      316   |    328  |     12     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
December..|      366   |    327  |    -39     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

6,591 7,392 7,593 7,626 7,479 7,581 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,025 6,771 6,956 6,962 6,860 6,902 4.6 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.1

Mining and logging(3)

26 34 36 35 29 40 3.6 4.3 4.6 4.4 3.8 5.0

Construction(3)

245 299 278 279 299 302 3.3 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.9

Manufacturing

436 469 500 501 435 452 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.3 3.4

Durable goods(3)

261 297 311 315 298 305 3.2 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.6

Nondurable goods(3)

175 171 189 185 137 146 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.7 2.8 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,367 1,554 1,558 1,642 1,482 1,471 4.7 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.1 5.0

Wholesale trade

203 227 219 217 178 269 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.6 2.9 4.4

Retail trade

873 978 1,080 1,103 986 889 5.2 5.8 6.4 6.5 5.9 5.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

290 349 259 322 318 312 4.7 5.5 4.1 5.0 5.0 4.9

Information(3)

123 110 149 124 123 165 4.2 3.7 5.0 4.2 4.2 5.5

Financial activities

398 353 435 412 380 459 4.5 3.9 4.8 4.6 4.2 5.0

Finance and insurance

314 266 303 324 317 336 4.8 4.0 4.6 4.9 4.8 5.0

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

85 88 132 88 63 123 3.7 3.7 5.5 3.7 2.7 5.1

Professional and business services

1,124 1,352 1,363 1,313 1,391 1,343 5.1 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.1 5.9

Education and health services

1,175 1,282 1,285 1,324 1,348 1,393 4.8 5.1 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.5

Educational services(3)

123 76 92 96 91 120 3.2 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.4 3.1

Health care and social assistance

1,052 1,206 1,192 1,228 1,258 1,273 5.1 5.7 5.6 5.8 5.9 5.9

Leisure and hospitality

926 1,074 1,039 1,050 1,102 1,105 5.4 6.2 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

93 100 94 102 154 114 3.8 4.0 3.7 4.0 5.9 4.4

Accommodation and food services

832 974 944 948 948 991 5.7 6.5 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.5

Other services

205 246 314 282 271 173 3.4 4.0 5.1 4.6 4.4 2.9

Government

566 621 637 665 619 678 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.9

Federal(3)

115 83 101 110 87 122 3.9 2.9 3.5 3.8 3.0 4.2

State and local

452 538 536 554 532 556 2.3 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.7

State and local education

173 220 231 230 229 223 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1

State and local, excluding education(3)

279 318 304 325 304 333 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,141 1,269 1,277 1,284 1,230 1,272 4.0 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.4

South

2,358 2,720 2,862 2,878 2,848 2,847 4.2 4.7 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9

Midwest

1,550 1,744 1,800 1,805 1,767 1,786 4.6 5.0 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.1

West

1,543 1,659 1,655 1,660 1,634 1,676 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.6

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates, the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors, and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

5,525 5,670 5,877 5,821 5,717 5,801 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,194 5,327 5,515 5,447 5,353 5,430 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.2

Mining and logging

34 42 37 32 39 38 4.9 5.6 4.9 4.2 5.1 5.0

Construction

354 378 363 393 399 428 5.0 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.7

Manufacturing

365 336 382 368 351 356 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.8

Durable goods

217 192 228 202 186 186 2.8 2.4 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.3

Nondurable goods

148 145 155 166 165 170 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,132 1,158 1,225 1,183 1,176 1,126 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.0

Wholesale trade

143 141 163 186 151 128 2.4 2.4 2.8 3.2 2.6 2.2

Retail trade

763 797 785 744 802 756 4.8 5.0 5.0 4.7 5.1 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

227 220 277 253 224 243 3.9 3.7 4.6 4.2 3.7 4.0

Information

89 89 85 97 80 81 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.4 2.8 2.9

Financial activities

221 223 170 213 201 191 2.6 2.6 2.0 2.5 2.3 2.2

Finance and insurance

155 148 102 135 133 112 2.5 2.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

66 75 68 79 67 78 2.9 3.3 3.0 3.4 2.9 3.4

Professional and business services

1,092 1,129 1,200 1,136 1,144 1,128 5.3 5.3 5.7 5.4 5.4 5.3

Education and health services

693 669 715 692 717 730 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0

Educational services

112 89 97 106 124 108 3.0 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.3 2.9

Health care and social assistance

581 580 618 586 593 622 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

1,014 1,086 1,114 1,085 1,037 1,110 6.3 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.3 6.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

173 177 191 180 154 183 7.3 7.3 7.9 7.4 6.3 7.4

Accommodation and food services

840 909 923 905 883 927 6.1 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.6

Other services

201 216 224 249 209 241 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.2 3.6 4.1

Government

330 343 362 375 364 372 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7

Federal

32 37 37 44 36 36 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.3

State and local

298 306 325 331 328 335 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7

State and local education

149 158 170 178 176 166 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6

State and local, excluding education

150 148 155 153 152 170 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

846 814 870 924 871 863 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.1

South

2,183 2,310 2,394 2,268 2,204 2,334 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.0 4.2

Midwest

1,212 1,321 1,287 1,312 1,324 1,288 3.7 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9

West

1,283 1,225 1,326 1,318 1,318 1,317 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates, the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors, and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

5,317 5,558 5,642 5,597 5,469 5,550 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,983 5,216 5,279 5,230 5,122 5,190 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.1

Mining and logging

30 37 31 35 34 33 4.2 5.0 4.2 4.6 4.5 4.3

Construction

329 361 344 380 369 391 4.6 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.0 5.2

Manufacturing

347 320 352 361 342 342 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7

Durable goods

201 180 208 203 175 170 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.1

Nondurable goods

146 141 144 157 167 172 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,103 1,174 1,195 1,141 1,134 1,097 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.1 3.9

Wholesale trade

160 135 154 165 143 137 2.7 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.3

Retail trade

736 838 801 741 765 729 4.7 5.3 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

207 201 240 235 226 232 3.5 3.3 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.8

Information

97 92 68 88 87 87 3.5 3.3 2.4 3.1 3.1 3.1

Financial activities

208 209 166 195 180 180 2.5 2.4 1.9 2.3 2.1 2.1

Finance and insurance

146 143 104 132 131 111 2.3 2.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

63 66 63 63 49 69 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.1 3.0

Professional and business services

1,028 1,079 1,161 1,092 1,116 1,089 5.0 5.1 5.5 5.1 5.3 5.1

Education and health services

626 628 663 651 652 674 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8

Educational services

92 95 99 101 101 98 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6

Health care and social assistance

534 532 564 549 551 577 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,019 1,097 1,079 1,056 1,007 1,065 6.3 6.7 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

170 164 176 177 153 155 7.2 6.8 7.2 7.3 6.3 6.3

Accommodation and food services

850 932 904 879 853 910 6.1 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.0 6.4

Other services

196 219 219 233 201 233 3.4 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.4 4.0

Government

334 342 363 367 347 359 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6

Federal

30 36 32 35 44 33 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.2

State and local

304 306 332 332 304 326 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.7

State and local education

155 160 185 184 163 166 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6

State and local, excluding education

149 146 147 147 141 161 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

859 854 816 790 820 791 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9

South

2,121 2,253 2,193 2,253 2,197 2,291 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.2

Midwest

1,117 1,234 1,314 1,347 1,231 1,231 3.4 3.8 4.0 4.1 3.7 3.7

West

1,221 1,216 1,319 1,206 1,221 1,236 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates, the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors, and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

3,022 3,393 3,469 3,379 3,391 3,490 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,853 3,223 3,287 3,184 3,205 3,284 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6

Mining and logging

21 21 19 20 22 18 2.9 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.9 2.4

Construction

155 170 180 174 185 184 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5

Manufacturing

208 202 205 226 211 209 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.6

Durable goods

117 110 112 126 111 106 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.3

Nondurable goods

91 92 93 100 100 103 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

650 763 732 706 715 716 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6

Wholesale trade

92 88 85 95 89 89 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5

Retail trade

451 569 514 480 493 496 2.9 3.6 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

108 107 133 131 133 132 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2

Information

48 41 43 56 43 46 1.7 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.5 1.6

Financial activities

115 125 108 101 106 105 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2

Finance and insurance

75 75 61 64 76 62 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

40 51 47 37 31 43 1.8 2.2 2.1 1.6 1.3 1.9

Professional and business services

550 605 673 625 649 675 2.7 2.9 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.2

Education and health services

377 411 461 451 448 435 1.6 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8

Educational services

48 51 66 52 52 45 1.3 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.2

Health care and social assistance

330 360 395 400 397 389 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

615 739 732 686 706 767 3.8 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

72 81 89 70 56 75 3.0 3.4 3.7 2.9 2.3 3.1

Accommodation and food services

544 658 643 615 650 692 3.9 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.9

Other services

113 144 134 139 120 129 2.0 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.0 2.2

Government

169 170 182 195 186 206 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9

Federal

13 18 16 18 20 14 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.5

State and local

156 152 166 178 166 192 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0

State and local education

81 75 92 96 89 106 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0

State and local, excluding education

76 76 74 81 77 86 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

417 447 406 412 464 452 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6

South

1,203 1,420 1,436 1,391 1,423 1,457 2.2 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6

Midwest

676 747 797 817 744 790 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.4

West

726 778 831 759 760 790 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates, the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors, and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

1,934 1,818 1,855 1,889 1,751 1,723 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,829 1,701 1,731 1,780 1,653 1,624 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

Mining and logging

8 14 10 13 10 13 1.1 1.9 1.3 1.8 1.3 1.7

Construction

167 180 148 192 164 184 2.3 2.4 2.0 2.6 2.2 2.5

Manufacturing

111 101 130 109 111 112 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

67 59 83 60 51 52 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.6

Nondurable goods

44 41 47 49 60 60 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

373 360 409 366 360 312 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.1

Wholesale trade(3)

52 42 58 50 45 39 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7

Retail trade

232 231 256 221 230 190 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

89 87 96 94 85 83 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.4

Information

41 46 21 24 38 31 1.5 1.6 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.1

Financial activities

69 56 34 64 58 53 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.6

Finance and insurance

48 43 20 44 44 33 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

21 13 14 20 14 20 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.9

Professional and business services

418 399 418 426 406 362 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.7

Education and health services

185 162 165 166 155 192 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8

Educational services

40 37 28 45 42 45 1.1 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.2

Health care and social assistance

146 125 136 121 112 147 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

382 314 320 329 279 274 2.4 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

96 75 85 100 96 78 4.0 3.1 3.5 4.1 3.9 3.2

Accommodation and food services

286 239 236 230 183 195 2.1 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.3 1.4

Other services

75 69 75 89 73 90 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.5

Government

106 117 125 110 98 100 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4

Federal

9 7 7 5 9 10 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4

State and local

96 110 118 104 89 89 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local education

51 66 67 63 51 37 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4

State and local, excluding education

45 44 51 42 38 52 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.6

REGION(4)

Northeast

387 341 350 318 303 277 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0

South

782 708 663 720 649 697 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3

Midwest

364 413 442 464 407 378 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.1

West

402 356 401 387 392 371 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates, the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors, and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

361 348 318 328 327 336 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

302 291 261 266 263 282 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

1 2 2 1 2 1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

Construction(3)

8 11 16 14 21 22 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

28 18 16 25 19 21 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2

Durable goods

17 10 12 17 13 12 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Nondurable goods(3)

11 7 4 8 6 9 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

80 52 55 69 59 69 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

16 6 12 20 8 9 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

54 39 31 40 41 44 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

10 7 12 10 9 17 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Information(3)

9 5 3 7 6 10 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4

Financial activities

24 27 24 30 15 22 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Finance and insurance

23 26 23 24 11 16 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

2 2 1 5 4 6 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.3

Professional and business services

60 75 70 41 61 52 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

Education and health services

63 54 38 33 49 47 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Educational services

4 8 5 5 7 7 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

59 47 33 29 42 40 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

22 43 27 41 22 23 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

2 9 2 7 1 1 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0

Accommodation and food services(3)

20 35 25 34 21 23 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Other services(3)

7 5 9 4 9 14 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Government

59 56 57 62 64 54 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Federal

7 11 9 12 15 9 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3

State and local

51 45 48 50 49 45 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

State and local education

23 19 26 26 23 23 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

28 26 21 24 25 22 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(4)

Northeast

55 66 61 61 53 62 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

137 125 95 142 125 137 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Midwest

77 75 74 66 80 62 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

92 82 88 60 70 75 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates, the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors, and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

6,484 6,921 7,484 4.3 4.4 4.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,940 6,321 6,834 4.6 4.7 5.2

Mining and logging

26 29 40 3.7 3.8 5.1

Construction

245 299 302 3.5 3.9 4.1

Manufacturing

436 435 452 3.4 3.3 3.4

Durable goods

261 298 305 3.2 3.6 3.7

Nondurable goods

175 137 146 3.6 2.8 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,245 1,350 1,336 4.4 4.5 4.6

Wholesale trade

219 163 286 3.6 2.7 4.6

Retail trade

735 868 738 4.5 5.1 4.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

290 318 312 4.7 4.8 4.9

Information

123 123 165 4.2 4.1 5.6

Financial activities

431 373 495 4.9 4.1 5.5

Finance and insurance

346 310 372 5.2 4.7 5.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

85 63 123 3.7 2.7 5.2

Professional and business services

1,103 1,275 1,325 5.1 5.6 6.0

Education and health services

1,251 1,294 1,491 5.1 5.1 5.9

Educational services

123 91 120 3.3 2.3 3.2

Health care and social assistance

1,129 1,204 1,372 5.4 5.6 6.4

Leisure and hospitality

868 893 1,053 5.3 5.2 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

93 102 112 4.2 4.3 4.9

Accommodation and food services

776 791 940 5.5 5.4 6.4

Other services

211 250 176 3.6 4.1 2.9

Government

545 600 649 2.4 2.6 2.8

Federal

115 87 122 4.0 3.0 4.2

State and local

430 514 527 2.2 2.5 2.6

State and local education

151 210 194 1.4 1.9 1.8

State and local, excluding education

279 304 333 3.0 3.2 3.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,112 1,154 1,248 4.0 4.0 4.4

South

2,340 2,672 2,830 4.2 4.6 5.0

Midwest

1,475 1,619 1,712 4.4 4.6 5.0

West

1,558 1,476 1,693 4.4 4.1 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

5,250 4,210 5,514 3.6 2.8 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,959 3,991 5,180 4.0 3.1 4.1

Mining and logging

38 27 41 5.5 3.6 5.5

Construction

326 221 395 4.8 3.0 5.6

Manufacturing

380 233 371 3.0 1.8 2.9

Durable goods

234 123 202 3.0 1.5 2.5

Nondurable goods

146 110 168 3.1 2.3 3.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

946 953 936 3.5 3.3 3.4

Wholesale trade

160 113 144 2.8 1.9 2.5

Retail trade

583 612 575 3.7 3.8 3.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

204 228 217 3.5 3.6 3.6

Information

102 60 93 3.7 2.1 3.3

Financial activities

252 138 221 3.0 1.6 2.6

Finance and insurance

180 96 137 2.9 1.5 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

72 42 84 3.3 1.9 3.7

Professional and business services

1,142 938 1,175 5.6 4.4 5.6

Education and health services

725 515 767 3.1 2.1 3.2

Educational services

105 68 103 2.9 1.8 2.8

Health care and social assistance

619 447 664 3.1 2.2 3.3

Leisure and hospitality

845 770 938 5.5 4.8 5.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

120 101 127 5.7 4.5 5.8

Accommodation and food services

725 668 811 5.4 4.8 5.9

Other services

204 135 245 3.6 2.3 4.2

Government

291 219 333 1.3 1.0 1.5

Federal

29 27 33 1.0 1.0 1.2

State and local

262 192 300 1.3 1.0 1.5

State and local education

145 95 163 1.4 0.9 1.6

State and local, excluding education

118 97 138 1.3 1.1 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

763 640 779 2.9 2.3 2.9

South

2,214 1,650 2,360 4.2 3.0 4.4

Midwest

1,095 949 1,159 3.4 2.9 3.6

West

1,178 971 1,216 3.5 2.8 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

5,861 5,139 6,018 4.0 3.4 4.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,562 4,842 5,697 4.5 3.8 4.5

Mining and logging

33 33 38 4.8 4.3 5.1

Construction

366 392 435 5.4 5.4 6.2

Manufacturing

346 287 341 2.8 2.2 2.7

Durable goods

207 143 175 2.6 1.8 2.2

Nondurable goods

140 144 166 3.0 3.0 3.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,487 1,195 1,425 5.4 4.2 5.2

Wholesale trade

168 124 144 2.9 2.1 2.5

Retail trade

963 807 911 6.1 5.0 5.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

356 263 371 6.1 4.2 6.1

Information

123 77 108 4.4 2.7 3.9

Financial activities

244 168 208 2.9 1.9 2.4

Finance and insurance

168 121 126 2.7 1.9 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

76 46 81 3.5 2.0 3.6

Professional and business services

1,155 1,111 1,199 5.7 5.2 5.7

Education and health services

667 557 719 2.9 2.3 3.0

Educational services

90 76 97 2.5 2.0 2.7

Health care and social assistance

577 481 622 2.9 2.4 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

952 858 999 6.2 5.3 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

128 118 115 6.1 5.2 5.3

Accommodation and food services

824 741 883 6.2 5.3 6.5

Other services

188 163 225 3.3 2.8 3.9

Government

298 297 320 1.3 1.3 1.4

Federal

39 45 44 1.4 1.6 1.6

State and local

260 253 277 1.3 1.3 1.4

State and local education

129 127 138 1.2 1.2 1.3

State and local, excluding education

131 126 139 1.5 1.4 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

991 801 889 3.7 2.9 3.3

South

2,338 1,956 2,487 4.4 3.5 4.6

Midwest

1,222 1,210 1,330 3.8 3.6 4.1

West

1,309 1,172 1,312 3.9 3.4 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

3,002 2,908 3,456 2.1 1.9 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,852 2,771 3,273 2.3 2.2 2.6

Mining and logging

20 18 18 2.9 2.4 2.4

Construction

141 157 171 2.1 2.1 2.4

Manufacturing

195 154 197 1.6 1.2 1.5

Durable goods

112 81 102 1.4 1.0 1.3

Nondurable goods

83 73 95 1.8 1.5 2.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

652 657 714 2.4 2.3 2.6

Wholesale trade

97 72 95 1.7 1.2 1.6

Retail trade

461 448 503 2.9 2.7 3.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

94 138 115 1.6 2.2 1.9

Information

53 36 51 1.9 1.3 1.8

Financial activities

115 99 104 1.4 1.2 1.2

Finance and insurance

75 69 61 1.2 1.1 1.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

40 31 43 1.9 1.3 1.9

Professional and business services

599 583 721 2.9 2.7 3.5

Education and health services

398 377 456 1.7 1.6 1.9

Educational services

47 36 44 1.3 0.9 1.2

Health care and social assistance

351 341 412 1.8 1.7 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

567 597 715 3.7 3.7 4.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

55 40 58 2.6 1.8 2.6

Accommodation and food services

512 557 658 3.8 4.0 4.8

Other services

111 93 126 1.9 1.6 2.2

Government

150 137 183 0.7 0.6 0.8

Federal

14 18 14 0.5 0.6 0.5

State and local

136 119 169 0.7 0.6 0.9

State and local education

67 58 89 0.6 0.5 0.8

State and local, excluding education

69 61 80 0.8 0.7 0.9

REGION(3)

Northeast

447 404 479 1.7 1.5 1.8

South

1,201 1,182 1,452 2.3 2.1 2.7

Midwest

648 638 756 2.0 1.9 2.3

West

706 684 768 2.1 2.0 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

2,432 1,915 2,173 1.7 1.3 1.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,346 1,818 2,092 1.9 1.4 1.7

Mining and logging

12 12 19 1.7 1.7 2.5

Construction

216 214 242 3.2 2.9 3.4

Manufacturing

118 113 120 0.9 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

73 48 58 0.9 0.6 0.7

Nondurable goods

45 66 62 1.0 1.4 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

730 485 623 2.7 1.7 2.3

Wholesale trade

52 45 39 0.9 0.8 0.7

Retail trade

426 323 346 2.7 2.0 2.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

252 116 238 4.3 1.8 3.9

Information

61 35 48 2.2 1.2 1.7

Financial activities

95 54 74 1.1 0.6 0.9

Finance and insurance

61 42 42 1.0 0.7 0.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

34 12 32 1.6 0.5 1.4

Professional and business services

474 471 408 2.3 2.2 2.0

Education and health services

205 133 215 0.9 0.6 0.9

Educational services

38 35 45 1.1 0.9 1.2

Health care and social assistance

167 97 171 0.9 0.5 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

364 239 260 2.4 1.5 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

72 77 57 3.4 3.4 2.6

Accommodation and food services

293 163 203 2.2 1.2 1.5

Other services

70 61 84 1.2 1.0 1.5

Government

87 97 81 0.4 0.4 0.4

Federal

12 10 14 0.4 0.4 0.5

State and local

74 87 66 0.4 0.4 0.3

State and local education

44 53 32 0.4 0.5 0.3

State and local, excluding education

30 34 34 0.3 0.4 0.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

479 352 341 1.8 1.3 1.3

South

975 647 877 1.8 1.2 1.6

Midwest

474 490 490 1.5 1.5 1.5

West

503 426 465 1.5 1.2 1.4

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Jan.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)

Total

427 316 389 0.3 0.2 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

365 253 332 0.3 0.2 0.3

Mining and logging

2 2 1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Construction

8 21 22 0.1 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

33 21 24 0.3 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

22 14 15 0.3 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods

11 6 9 0.2 0.1 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

105 54 89 0.4 0.2 0.3

Wholesale trade

18 8 10 0.3 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

77 37 62 0.5 0.2 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

10 9 17 0.2 0.1 0.3

Information

9 6 10 0.3 0.2 0.4

Financial activities

34 14 29 0.4 0.2 0.3

Finance and insurance

32 10 23 0.5 0.2 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2 4 6 0.1 0.2 0.3

Professional and business services

83 58 70 0.4 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

64 47 49 0.3 0.2 0.2

Educational services

5 5 9 0.1 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance

59 42 40 0.3 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

22 22 23 0.1 0.1 0.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.0

Accommodation and food services

20 21 23 0.1 0.1 0.2

Other services

7 9 14 0.1 0.2 0.2

Government

62 63 57 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

12 16 15 0.4 0.6 0.5

State and local

49 46 42 0.3 0.2 0.2

State and local education

18 16 17 0.2 0.1 0.2

State and local, excluding education

32 30 25 0.4 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

64 45 68 0.2 0.2 0.3

South

162 128 158 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

101 81 85 0.3 0.2 0.3

West

100 62 79 0.3 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 13. Annual hires levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

58,955 62,616 63,724 65,669 68,949

INDUSTRY

Total private

55,369 58,548 59,515 61,526 64,569

Mining and logging

393 302 292 373 470

Construction

3,716 3,987 4,067 4,593 4,544

Manufacturing

3,146 3,223 3,351 3,986 4,403

Durable goods

1,846 1,880 1,924 2,238 2,517

Nondurable goods

1,295 1,342 1,426 1,750 1,886

Trade, transportation, and utilities

12,855 13,072 12,866 12,659 13,870

Wholesale trade

1,723 1,643 1,644 1,653 1,754

Retail trade

8,905 9,095 8,798 8,487 9,242

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

2,227 2,332 2,425 2,515 2,874

Information

1,001 979 982 1,020 1,084

Financial activities

2,311 2,370 2,402 2,531 2,516

Finance and insurance

1,536 1,589 1,598 1,657 1,651

Real estate and rental and leasing

774 781 803 870 865

Professional and business services

12,209 12,947 13,332 13,440 13,866

Education and health services

6,928 7,511 7,687 8,010 8,260

Educational services

1,069 1,095 1,114 1,141 1,184

Health care and social assistance

5,859 6,416 6,573 6,866 7,073

Leisure and hospitality

10,585 11,646 12,219 12,227 12,920

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,782 1,845 1,907 2,037 2,227

Accommodation and food services

8,802 9,798 10,312 10,189 10,694

Other services

2,221 2,513 2,313 2,692 2,636

Government

3,589 4,069 4,211 4,143 4,378

Federal

337 413 414 382 420

State and local

3,254 3,652 3,796 3,762 3,962

State and local education

1,554 1,819 1,844 1,826 2,050

State and local, excluding education

1,700 1,834 1,950 1,937 1,913

REGION(2)

Northeast

8,975 9,914 10,194 10,492 10,652

South

23,219 24,459 24,399 25,910 27,208

Midwest

13,202 13,934 14,342 14,348 15,527

West

13,562 14,309 14,791 14,916 15,563

Footnotes
(1) The annual hires level is the total number of hires during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 14. Annual hires rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

42.4 44.1 44.1 44.8 46.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

47.3 48.9 48.7 49.5 51.0

Mining and logging

44.1 37.1 43.7 55.2 64.2

Construction

60.4 61.7 60.4 65.9 62.3

Manufacturing

25.8 26.1 27.1 32.0 34.7

Durable goods

24.1 24.2 24.9 28.9 31.7

Nondurable goods

28.7 29.3 30.7 37.2 39.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

48.8 48.7 47.3 46.2 50.1

Wholesale trade

30.0 28.4 28.4 28.4 30.0

Retail trade

58.0 58.3 55.6 53.6 58.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

42.7 42.9 43.5 43.7 48.1

Information

36.7 35.6 35.1 36.2 38.3

Financial activities

29.0 29.2 29.0 29.9 29.4

Finance and insurance

25.9 26.3 26.0 26.5 26.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

37.8 37.4 37.5 39.7 38.4

Professional and business services

63.8 65.7 66.3 65.5 66.0

Education and health services

32.3 34.1 34.0 34.5 34.9

Educational services

31.3 31.5 31.2 31.1 31.8

Health care and social assistance

32.5 34.6 34.5 35.2 35.5

Leisure and hospitality

72.0 76.8 78.0 76.2 79.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

84.7 85.2 84.7 87.3 93.1

Accommodation and food services

69.9 75.4 76.9 74.3 76.6

Other services

39.9 44.7 40.6 46.7 45.1

Government

16.4 18.5 18.9 18.5 19.5

Federal

12.3 15.0 14.8 13.6 15.0

State and local

17.0 18.9 19.5 19.2 20.2

State and local education

15.2 17.7 17.8 17.6 19.6

State and local, excluding education

19.0 20.4 21.4 21.2 20.8

REGION(2)

Northeast

34.8 37.9 38.4 39.0 38.9

South

45.9 47.3 46.3 48.4 49.9

Midwest

42.5 44.1 44.9 44.5 47.4

West

43.0 44.2 44.6 44.0 45.1

Footnotes
(1) The annual hires rate is the number of hires during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 15. Annual total separations levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

55,931 59,925 61,509 63,454 66,097

INDUSTRY

Total private

52,434 56,008 57,439 59,400 61,907

Mining and logging

358 452 395 328 406

Construction

3,410 3,644 3,923 4,281 4,227

Manufacturing

2,934 3,159 3,366 3,812 4,137

Durable goods

1,689 1,884 1,980 2,120 2,297

Nondurable goods

1,248 1,276 1,386 1,694 1,841

Trade, transportation, and utilities

12,226 12,659 12,482 12,502 13,564

Wholesale trade

1,641 1,626 1,614 1,625 1,684

Retail trade

8,600 8,906 8,626 8,534 9,236

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

1,982 2,127 2,244 2,341 2,642

Information

991 950 929 1,009 1,086

Financial activities

2,197 2,227 2,218 2,386 2,401

Finance and insurance

1,480 1,481 1,468 1,579 1,602

Real estate and rental and leasing

718 745 751 807 797

Professional and business services

11,584 12,430 13,013 13,018 13,301

Education and health services

6,423 6,874 7,102 7,550 7,694

Educational services

984 1,017 1,034 1,063 1,107

Health care and social assistance

5,440 5,858 6,070 6,487 6,589

Leisure and hospitality

10,151 11,149 11,762 11,900 12,545

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,725 1,771 1,824 1,956 2,092

Accommodation and food services

8,426 9,378 9,938 9,942 10,452

Other services

2,163 2,460 2,246 2,610 2,549

Government

3,495 3,915 4,072 4,055 4,188

Federal

330 382 372 402 410

State and local

3,165 3,531 3,699 3,653 3,780

State and local education

1,510 1,764 1,816 1,767 1,932

State and local, excluding education

1,655 1,766 1,884 1,887 1,845

REGION(2)

Northeast

8,907 9,462 9,898 10,298 10,110

South

21,858 23,416 23,647 25,110 26,175

Midwest

12,338 13,351 13,807 13,822 14,703

West

12,829 13,694 14,157 14,225 15,107

Footnotes
(1) The annual total separations level is the total number of total separations during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 16. Annual total separations rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

40.3 42.2 42.6 43.3 44.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

44.8 46.7 47.0 47.8 48.9

Mining and logging

40.2 55.6 59.1 48.5 55.5

Construction

55.4 56.4 58.3 61.4 58.0

Manufacturing

24.1 25.6 27.2 30.6 32.6

Durable goods

22.0 24.3 25.7 27.4 28.9

Nondurable goods

27.7 27.9 29.9 36.1 38.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

46.4 47.2 45.9 45.6 49.0

Wholesale trade

28.6 28.1 27.9 27.9 28.8

Retail trade

56.0 57.0 54.5 53.9 58.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

38.0 39.1 40.2 40.7 44.2

Information

36.4 34.5 33.2 35.8 38.4

Financial activities

27.5 27.4 26.8 28.2 28.0

Finance and insurance

25.0 24.5 23.9 25.2 25.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

35.1 35.7 35.1 36.9 35.3

Professional and business services

60.6 63.1 64.7 63.5 63.3

Education and health services

30.0 31.2 31.4 32.6 32.5

Educational services

28.8 29.3 29.0 29.0 29.7

Health care and social assistance

30.2 31.6 31.8 33.2 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

69.1 73.5 75.1 74.1 76.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

82.0 81.8 81.0 83.8 87.4

Accommodation and food services

66.9 72.2 74.1 72.5 74.9

Other services

38.9 43.8 39.5 45.2 43.6

Government

16.0 17.8 18.3 18.1 18.7

Federal

12.1 13.9 13.3 14.3 14.7

State and local

16.5 18.3 19.0 18.7 19.2

State and local education

14.8 17.2 17.6 17.0 18.5

State and local, excluding education

18.5 19.6 20.7 20.6 20.0

REGION(2)

Northeast

34.6 36.1 37.3 38.2 37.0

South

43.2 45.3 44.9 46.9 48.0

Midwest

39.7 42.3 43.2 42.8 44.9

West

40.7 42.3 42.7 42.0 43.8

Footnotes
(1) The annual total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 17. Annual quits levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

30,415 33,654 35,879 37,692 40,073

INDUSTRY

Total private

28,726 31,786 33,836 35,673 37,913

Mining and logging

180 177 162 173 243

Construction

1,294 1,356 1,490 1,853 2,055

Manufacturing

1,429 1,614 1,779 2,294 2,498

Durable goods

799 920 998 1,262 1,385

Nondurable goods

631 691 780 1,030 1,113

Trade, transportation, and utilities

6,999 7,458 7,701 7,880 8,548

Wholesale trade

900 930 977 1,022 1,049

Retail trade

5,141 5,455 5,578 5,613 6,020

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

958 1,070 1,145 1,243 1,478

Information

445 496 479 519 575

Financial activities

1,159 1,218 1,217 1,366 1,391

Finance and insurance

746 825 809 913 845

Real estate and rental and leasing

412 395 407 456 544

Professional and business services

5,775 6,470 7,140 7,454 7,595

Education and health services

3,877 4,488 4,642 4,917 5,042

Educational services

498 548 569 575 567

Health care and social assistance

3,381 3,940 4,071 4,345 4,474

Leisure and hospitality

6,292 7,143 7,921 7,749 8,470

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

647 670 809 773 912

Accommodation and food services

5,647 6,473 7,114 6,975 7,557

Other services

1,270 1,369 1,308 1,469 1,501

Government

1,689 1,868 2,043 2,021 2,159

Federal

122 140 149 175 189

State and local

1,569 1,728 1,892 1,842 1,974

State and local education

759 871 929 921 1,040

State and local, excluding education

810 857 964 923 931

REGION(2)

Northeast

4,247 4,804 5,130 5,421 5,375

South

12,551 13,766 14,394 15,313 16,312

Midwest

6,760 7,477 7,973 8,113 9,008

West

6,859 7,607 8,383 8,850 9,377

Footnotes
(1) The annual quits level is the total number of quits during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 18. Annual quits rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

21.9 23.7 24.9 25.7 26.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

24.5 26.5 27.7 28.7 29.9

Mining and logging

20.2 21.8 24.3 25.6 33.2

Construction

21.0 21.0 22.1 26.6 28.2

Manufacturing

11.7 13.1 14.4 18.4 19.7

Durable goods

10.4 11.8 12.9 16.3 17.4

Nondurable goods

14.0 15.1 16.8 21.9 23.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26.6 27.8 28.3 28.7 30.9

Wholesale trade

15.7 16.1 16.9 17.6 17.9

Retail trade

33.5 34.9 35.2 35.4 38.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

18.4 19.7 20.5 21.6 24.7

Information

16.3 18.0 17.1 18.4 20.3

Financial activities

14.5 15.0 14.7 16.2 16.2

Finance and insurance

12.6 13.7 13.2 14.6 13.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

20.1 18.9 19.0 20.8 24.1

Professional and business services

30.2 32.9 35.5 36.3 36.2

Education and health services

18.1 20.4 20.5 21.2 21.3

Educational services

14.6 15.8 15.9 15.7 15.2

Health care and social assistance

18.8 21.2 21.3 22.3 22.4

Leisure and hospitality

42.8 47.1 50.6 48.3 51.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

30.8 30.9 35.9 33.1 38.1

Accommodation and food services

44.8 49.8 53.1 50.8 54.2

Other services

22.8 24.4 23.0 25.5 25.7

Government

7.7 8.5 9.2 9.0 9.6

Federal

4.5 5.1 5.3 6.2 6.8

State and local

8.2 9.0 9.7 9.4 10.0

State and local education

7.4 8.5 9.0 8.9 10.0

State and local, excluding education

9.1 9.5 10.6 10.1 10.1

REGION(2)

Northeast

16.5 18.3 19.3 20.1 19.6

South

24.8 26.6 27.3 28.6 29.9

Midwest

21.7 23.7 24.9 25.1 27.5

West

21.7 23.5 25.3 26.1 27.2

Footnotes
(1) The annual quits rate is the number of quits during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 19. Annual layoffs and discharges levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

21,147 21,777 21,243 21,581 21,888

INDUSTRY

Total private

20,074 20,434 19,903 20,242 20,581

Mining and logging

141 241 172 129 141

Construction

1,986 2,136 2,241 2,245 2,016

Manufacturing

1,213 1,278 1,295 1,252 1,387

Durable goods

716 791 802 702 750

Nondurable goods

497 487 494 550 638

Trade, transportation, and utilities

4,061 4,014 3,688 3,730 4,190

Wholesale trade

615 572 493 488 493

Retail trade

2,629 2,586 2,304 2,300 2,681

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

814 862 891 945 1,017

Information

454 344 307 397 430

Financial activities

666 706 707 685 711

Finance and insurance

423 416 419 381 497

Real estate and rental and leasing

243 288 288 302 216

Professional and business services

5,216 5,210 5,199 4,887 4,936

Education and health services

2,039 1,825 1,977 2,062 2,087

Educational services

424 400 395 425 469

Health care and social assistance

1,617 1,424 1,580 1,639 1,616

Leisure and hospitality

3,535 3,714 3,471 3,841 3,762

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,044 1,064 987 1,145 1,134

Accommodation and food services

2,489 2,648 2,484 2,696 2,631

Other services

762 970 848 1,011 921

Government

1,072 1,344 1,341 1,338 1,308

Federal

92 128 121 118 92

State and local

979 1,213 1,222 1,221 1,213

State and local education

484 615 609 556 607

State and local, excluding education

498 597 611 665 606

REGION(2)

Northeast

3,858 3,808 4,028 4,123 3,959

South

7,598 7,892 7,527 8,179 8,334

Midwest

4,664 4,969 4,921 4,863 4,844

West

5,026 5,108 4,765 4,413 4,748

Footnotes
(1) The annual layoffs and discharges level is the total number of layoffs and discharges during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 20. Annual layoffs and discharges rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

15.2 15.4 14.7 14.7 14.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

17.1 17.1 16.3 16.3 16.3

Mining and logging

15.8 29.6 25.7 19.1 19.3

Construction

32.3 33.1 33.3 32.2 27.7

Manufacturing

10.0 10.4 10.5 10.1 10.9

Durable goods

9.3 10.2 10.4 9.1 9.4

Nondurable goods

11.0 10.6 10.6 11.7 13.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

15.4 15.0 13.6 13.6 15.1

Wholesale trade

10.7 9.9 8.5 8.4 8.4

Retail trade

17.1 16.6 14.6 14.5 16.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

15.6 15.9 16.0 16.4 17.0

Information

16.7 12.5 11.0 14.1 15.2

Financial activities

8.3 8.7 8.5 8.1 8.3

Finance and insurance

7.1 6.9 6.8 6.1 7.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

11.9 13.8 13.5 13.8 9.6

Professional and business services

27.3 26.5 25.8 23.8 23.5

Education and health services

9.5 8.3 8.7 8.9 8.8

Educational services

12.4 11.5 11.1 11.6 12.6

Health care and social assistance

9.0 7.7 8.3 8.4 8.1

Leisure and hospitality

24.1 24.5 22.2 23.9 23.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

49.6 49.1 43.8 49.1 47.4

Accommodation and food services

19.8 20.4 18.5 19.7 18.9

Other services

13.7 17.3 14.9 17.5 15.8

Government

4.9 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.8

Federal

3.4 4.6 4.3 4.2 3.3

State and local

5.1 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2

State and local education

4.7 6.0 5.9 5.3 5.8

State and local, excluding education

5.6 6.6 6.7 7.3 6.6

REGION(2)

Northeast

15.0 14.5 15.2 15.3 14.5

South

15.0 15.3 14.3 15.3 15.3

Midwest

15.0 15.7 15.4 15.1 14.8

West

15.9 15.8 14.4 13.0 13.8

Footnotes
(1) The annual layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 21. Annual other separations levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

4,371 4,492 4,388 4,180 4,136

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,637 3,787 3,702 3,484 3,413

Mining and logging

37 34 62 25 21

Construction

131 153 192 181 154

Manufacturing

293 267 292 271 255

Durable goods

177 172 180 155 161

Nondurable goods

117 95 112 112 90

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,163 1,189 1,096 892 829

Wholesale trade

128 127 147 116 143

Retail trade

832 867 744 624 538

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

206 192 207 155 149

Information

89 109 141 95 81

Financial activities

372 306 297 332 298

Finance and insurance

310 242 241 284 259

Real estate and rental and leasing

63 63 57 48 37

Professional and business services

593 752 672 675 773

Education and health services

511 561 485 570 567

Educational services

64 68 65 65 69

Health care and social assistance

445 493 418 506 498

Leisure and hospitality

323 294 370 309 314

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

35 37 27 41 49

Accommodation and food services

289 256 341 271 267

Other services

128 124 89 126 128

Government

736 706 690 698 725

Federal

118 112 102 106 130

State and local

616 593 585 590 592

State and local education

271 281 278 292 286

State and local, excluding education

349 313 306 300 308

REGION(2)

Northeast

800 849 737 746 774

South

1,714 1,759 1,724 1,622 1,530

Midwest

912 907 916 848 853

West

943 978 1,010 966 981

Footnotes
(1) The annual other separations level is the total number of other separations during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Table 22. Annual other separations rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Total

3.1 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

3.1 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.7

Mining and logging

4.2 4.2 9.3 3.7 2.9

Construction

2.1 2.4 2.9 2.6 2.1

Manufacturing

2.4 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.0

Durable goods

2.3 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.0

Nondurable goods

2.6 2.1 2.4 2.4 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

4.4 4.4 4.0 3.3 3.0

Wholesale trade

2.2 2.2 2.5 2.0 2.4

Retail trade

5.4 5.6 4.7 3.9 3.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

3.9 3.5 3.7 2.7 2.5

Information

3.3 4.0 5.0 3.4 2.9

Financial activities

4.7 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.5

Finance and insurance

5.2 4.0 3.9 4.5 4.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

3.1 3.0 2.7 2.2 1.6

Professional and business services

3.1 3.8 3.3 3.3 3.7

Education and health services

2.4 2.5 2.1 2.5 2.4

Educational services

1.9 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.9

Health care and social assistance

2.5 2.7 2.2 2.6 2.5

Leisure and hospitality

2.2 1.9 2.4 1.9 1.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1.7 1.7 1.2 1.8 2.0

Accommodation and food services

2.3 2.0 2.5 2.0 1.9

Other services

2.3 2.2 1.6 2.2 2.2

Government

3.4 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.2

Federal

4.3 4.1 3.6 3.8 4.6

State and local

3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0

State and local education

2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7

State and local, excluding education

3.9 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3

REGION(2)

Northeast

3.1 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.8

South

3.4 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.8

Midwest

2.9 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.6

West

3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8

Footnotes
(1) The annual other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and to implement a new imputation methodology.


Last Modified Date: March 15, 2019