Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, July 9, 2019	USDL-19-1249

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                            JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – MAY 2019

The number of job openings was little changed at 7.3 million on the last business day of May, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires fell to 5.7 million and separations 
edged down to 5.5 million. Within separations, the quits and the layoffs and discharges rates were 
unchanged at 2.3 percent and 1.2 percent, respectively. This release includes estimates of the number 
and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by four 
geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of May, the job openings level was little changed at 7.3 million. The job 
openings rate was 4.6 percent. The number of job openings was little changed for total private and 
decreased for government (-54,000). The job openings level increased in other services (+77,000). Job 
openings decreased in a number of industries with the largest decreases in construction (-65,000), 
transportation, warehousing, and utilities (-60,000), and real estate and rental and leasing (-49,000). The 
number of job openings increased in the Northeast region. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires decreased to 5.7 million (-266,000) in May. The hires rate was 3.8 percent. The 
hires level fell for total private (-262,000) and was little changed for government. Hires decreased in 
professional and business services (-129,000). The number of hires was little changed in all four regions. 
(See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations edged down to 5.5 million (-192,000) in May. The total separations 
rate was 3.6 percent. The number of total separations edged down for total private (-204,000) and was 
little changed for government. The total separations level decreased in professional and business 
services (-95,000). The number of total separations decreased in the South region. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in May at 3.4 million. The quits rate was 2.3 percent. The quits 
level edged down for total private (-117,000) and increased for government (+25,000). Quits decreased 
in professional and business services (-92,000) and real estate and rental and leasing (-16,000), but 
increased in state and local government education (+18,000). The number of quits decreased in the 
South region. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in May at 1.8 million. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.2 percent. The layoffs and discharges level was little changed for total private and 
for government. The number of layoffs and discharges increased in arts, entertainment, and recreation 
(+36,000). The layoffs and discharges level fell in the South region. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in May. The other separations level was little 
changed for total private and for government. Other separations decreased in professional and business 
services (-26,000), information (-10,000), and nondurable goods manufacturing (-7,000). The other 
separations level increased in transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+8,000). The number of other 
separations fell in the West region. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in May, hires totaled 69.5 million and 
separations totaled 66.9 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.6 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for June 2019 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, August 6, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

7,126 7,372 7,323 5,862 5,991 5,725 5,502 5,687 5,495

Total private

6,525 6,635 6,640 5,510 5,613 5,351 5,166 5,335 5,131

Mining and logging(1)

28 32 30 45 28 25 37 31 23

Construction(1)

279 434 369 397 420 403 354 405 407

Manufacturing

470 496 509 374 367 345 345 357 336

Durable goods(1)

293 318 323 214 212 201 194 205 192

Nondurable goods(1)

177 179 185 160 155 144 151 152 144

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,526 1,435 1,336 1,133 1,146 1,161 1,077 1,137 1,143

Wholesale trade

216 262 225 137 156 164 121 136 148

Retail trade

973 818 816 753 756 770 726 781 773

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

338 355 295 243 234 227 230 219 222

Information(1)

120 130 98 103 87 96 103 105 92

Financial activities

371 354 307 219 235 206 208 225 197

Finance and insurance

282 224 226 143 144 129 134 135 122

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

90 130 81 76 91 78 74 90 75

Professional and business services

1,238 1,260 1,326 1,175 1,253 1,124 1,144 1,174 1,079

Education and health services

1,246 1,254 1,325 679 726 682 626 637 626

Educational services(1)

107 147 131 99 108 102 95 91 97

Health care and social assistance

1,139 1,107 1,194 581 618 579 532 546 529

Leisure and hospitality

974 1,022 1,048 1,114 1,129 1,096 1,037 1,067 1,030

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

113 105 114 194 161 176 174 147 171

Accommodation and food services

860 917 934 921 968 920 863 919 860

Other services

272 217 294 270 223 213 234 197 198

Government

600 737 683 352 379 373 336 353 364

Federal(1)

109 151 110 27 38 33 30 32 33

State and local

491 587 573 325 340 340 306 321 331

State and local education

159 215 216 157 171 178 155 165 185

State and local, excluding education(1)

332 372 357 169 170 162 150 156 147





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.6 4.7 4.6 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.6

Total private

4.9 4.9 4.9 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.0

Mining and logging(1)

3.7 4.0 3.8 6.2 3.7 3.4 5.1 4.1 3.0

Construction(1)

3.7 5.5 4.7 5.5 5.6 5.4 4.9 5.4 5.4

Manufacturing

3.6 3.7 3.8 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.6

Durable goods(1)

3.6 3.8 3.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.4

Nondurable goods(1)

3.6 3.6 3.7 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

5.2 4.9 4.6 4.1 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.1

Wholesale trade

3.6 4.2 3.6 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.1 2.3 2.5

Retail trade

5.8 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.6 4.9 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

5.4 5.5 4.6 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.6 3.6

Information(1)

4.1 4.4 3.4 3.6 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.3

Financial activities

4.2 3.9 3.4 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.3

Finance and insurance

4.3 3.4 3.5 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.1 2.1 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.8 5.3 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.3 3.9 3.2

Professional and business services

5.6 5.6 5.8 5.6 5.9 5.2 5.5 5.5 5.0

Education and health services

5.0 4.9 5.2 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6

Educational services(1)

2.8 3.7 3.4 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.6

Health care and social assistance

5.4 5.2 5.5 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

5.6 5.8 5.9 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4.5 4.1 4.4 8.1 6.5 7.1 7.3 6.0 6.9

Accommodation and food services

5.8 6.1 6.1 6.6 6.8 6.5 6.2 6.5 6.0

Other services

4.5 3.5 4.7 4.6 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.3 3.3

Government

2.6 3.2 2.9 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.6

Federal(1)

3.8 5.1 3.8 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2

State and local

2.4 2.9 2.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7

State and local education

1.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.8

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.5 3.9 3.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

7,126 7,625 7,142 7,474 7,372 7,323 4.6 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,525 6,929 6,437 6,772 6,635 6,640 4.9 5.1 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.9

Mining and logging(3)

28 38 27 28 32 30 3.7 4.8 3.5 3.5 4.0 3.8

Construction(3)

279 313 287 364 434 369 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.7 5.5 4.7

Manufacturing

470 458 480 461 496 509 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.8

Durable goods(3)

293 295 305 304 318 323 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.9

Nondurable goods(3)

177 163 175 158 179 185 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.6 3.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,526 1,454 1,340 1,385 1,435 1,336 5.2 5.0 4.6 4.7 4.9 4.6

Wholesale trade

216 264 220 220 262 225 3.6 4.3 3.6 3.6 4.2 3.6

Retail trade

973 881 861 825 818 816 5.8 5.3 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

338 309 258 340 355 295 5.4 4.8 4.1 5.3 5.5 4.6

Information(3)

120 136 133 137 130 98 4.1 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.4 3.4

Financial activities

371 433 334 356 354 307 4.2 4.8 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.4

Finance and insurance

282 291 268 234 224 226 4.3 4.4 4.1 3.6 3.4 3.5

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

90 142 65 122 130 81 3.8 5.8 2.8 5.0 5.3 3.4

Professional and business services

1,238 1,472 1,424 1,413 1,260 1,326 5.6 6.5 6.3 6.2 5.6 5.8

Education and health services

1,246 1,372 1,212 1,355 1,254 1,325 5.0 5.4 4.8 5.3 4.9 5.2

Educational services(3)

107 117 100 111 147 131 2.8 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.7 3.4

Health care and social assistance

1,139 1,254 1,112 1,244 1,107 1,194 5.4 5.8 5.2 5.8 5.2 5.5

Leisure and hospitality

974 1,077 988 1,035 1,022 1,048 5.6 6.1 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

113 109 106 106 105 114 4.5 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.4

Accommodation and food services

860 969 882 929 917 934 5.8 6.4 5.9 6.1 6.1 6.1

Other services

272 175 214 238 217 294 4.5 2.9 3.5 3.9 3.5 4.7

Government

600 696 705 702 737 683 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.9

Federal(3)

109 121 130 117 151 110 3.8 4.1 4.5 4.0 5.1 3.8

State and local

491 576 575 585 587 573 2.4 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.8

State and local education

159 226 224 228 215 216 1.5 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0

State and local, excluding education(3)

332 350 350 357 372 357 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.7

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,197 1,281 1,201 1,224 1,065 1,258 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.2 3.7 4.3

South

2,586 2,836 2,698 2,846 2,827 2,736 4.5 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.9 4.7

Midwest

1,768 1,827 1,641 1,729 1,796 1,724 5.1 5.2 4.7 5.0 5.1 4.9

West

1,575 1,681 1,602 1,675 1,684 1,606 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

5,862 5,829 5,695 5,697 5,991 5,725 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,510 5,434 5,333 5,345 5,613 5,351 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.2

Mining and logging

45 35 35 39 28 25 6.2 4.6 4.6 5.2 3.7 3.4

Construction

397 433 367 364 420 403 5.5 5.8 4.9 4.9 5.6 5.4

Manufacturing

374 377 351 357 367 345 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.7

Durable goods

214 190 192 190 212 201 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.5

Nondurable goods

160 187 159 167 155 144 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,133 1,127 1,143 1,094 1,146 1,161 4.1 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.1 4.2

Wholesale trade

137 138 147 134 156 164 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.8

Retail trade

753 748 744 725 756 770 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

243 241 252 235 234 227 4.1 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7

Information

103 82 85 95 87 96 3.6 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.1 3.4

Financial activities

219 192 197 191 235 206 2.6 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.4

Finance and insurance

143 112 133 131 144 129 2.3 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

76 80 64 60 91 78 3.4 3.5 2.8 2.6 3.9 3.3

Professional and business services

1,175 1,120 1,175 1,173 1,253 1,124 5.6 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.9 5.2

Education and health services

679 724 715 720 726 682 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.8

Educational services

99 113 99 93 108 102 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.9 2.7

Health care and social assistance

581 611 617 627 618 579 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,114 1,116 1,079 1,106 1,129 1,096 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

194 181 178 171 161 176 8.1 7.3 7.2 6.9 6.5 7.1

Accommodation and food services

921 935 901 935 968 920 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.6 6.8 6.5

Other services

270 228 186 205 223 213 4.6 3.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.6

Government

352 395 362 352 379 373 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

Federal

27 35 36 39 38 33 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.2

State and local

325 360 326 313 340 340 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7

State and local education

157 184 169 170 171 178 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7

State and local, excluding education

169 176 157 144 170 162 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

914 879 884 895 944 950 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.4

South

2,302 2,334 2,360 2,342 2,368 2,268 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.1

Midwest

1,344 1,300 1,258 1,195 1,304 1,226 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.7

West

1,302 1,316 1,193 1,265 1,374 1,281 3.8 3.8 3.4 3.6 3.9 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

5,502 5,532 5,576 5,508 5,687 5,495 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,166 5,146 5,206 5,171 5,335 5,131 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.0

Mining and logging

37 31 37 38 31 23 5.1 4.1 4.9 5.1 4.1 3.0

Construction

354 387 364 350 405 407 4.9 5.2 4.9 4.7 5.4 5.4

Manufacturing

345 355 347 364 357 336 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.6

Durable goods

194 174 192 204 205 192 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.4

Nondurable goods

151 180 154 161 152 144 3.2 3.8 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,077 1,098 1,114 1,115 1,137 1,143 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1

Wholesale trade

121 141 141 138 136 148 2.1 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.5

Retail trade

726 735 720 738 781 773 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.9 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

230 222 253 239 219 222 3.9 3.6 4.2 3.9 3.6 3.6

Information

103 93 89 91 105 92 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.8 3.3

Financial activities

208 184 182 172 225 197 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.6 2.3

Finance and insurance

134 113 140 120 135 122 2.1 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.1 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

74 71 42 51 90 75 3.3 3.1 1.8 2.2 3.9 3.2

Professional and business services

1,144 1,085 1,122 1,150 1,174 1,079 5.5 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.0

Education and health services

626 662 710 683 637 626 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6

Educational services

95 87 110 91 91 97 2.6 2.3 2.9 2.4 2.4 2.6

Health care and social assistance

532 575 600 592 546 529 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

1,037 1,043 1,044 1,014 1,067 1,030 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.4 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

174 151 166 132 147 171 7.3 6.1 6.7 5.3 6.0 6.9

Accommodation and food services

863 892 878 882 919 860 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.5 6.0

Other services

234 208 197 193 197 198 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Government

336 386 370 337 353 364 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6

Federal

30 32 36 41 32 33 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.2

State and local

306 353 335 297 321 331 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.7

State and local education

155 182 172 156 165 185 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.8

State and local, excluding education

150 172 162 140 156 147 1.6 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

837 770 779 856 816 896 3.1 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.2

South

2,128 2,280 2,378 2,315 2,344 2,070 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.2 3.8

Midwest

1,295 1,224 1,203 1,160 1,236 1,203 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.6

West

1,243 1,258 1,216 1,177 1,292 1,326 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

3,342 3,483 3,447 3,461 3,516 3,425 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,154 3,282 3,259 3,278 3,327 3,210 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.5

Mining and logging

20 19 21 23 19 16 2.8 2.5 2.7 3.0 2.5 2.1

Construction

163 185 184 149 145 174 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.9 2.3

Manufacturing

197 212 211 222 224 205 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6

Durable goods

115 110 118 118 130 117 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4

Nondurable goods

82 101 93 104 93 88 1.7 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.0 1.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

731 727 729 738 744 778 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8

Wholesale trade

88 87 88 102 93 101 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.7

Retail trade

510 512 494 500 524 547 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

133 128 147 137 126 130 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.1

Information

53 51 48 52 58 56 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.0

Financial activities

114 102 97 104 145 122 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.4

Finance and insurance

66 64 75 67 82 74 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

48 38 22 37 64 48 2.1 1.7 0.9 1.6 2.7 2.0

Professional and business services

636 664 645 656 647 555 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.6

Education and health services

420 433 461 467 425 411 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7

Educational services

52 39 58 47 50 51 1.4 1.0 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.3

Health care and social assistance

368 394 403 420 375 360 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 1.8 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

698 753 748 735 773 752 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.6 4.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

73 74 80 82 83 69 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.3 2.8

Accommodation and food services

625 679 668 653 691 684 4.5 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.8

Other services

122 137 114 132 147 142 2.1 2.3 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.4

Government

188 201 188 184 190 215 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0

Federal

14 14 17 22 15 15 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.5

State and local

173 187 171 162 175 200 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.0

State and local education

92 105 96 94 90 108 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0

State and local, excluding education

82 82 75 68 85 92 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.0

REGION(4)

Northeast

476 441 425 513 448 486 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.7

South

1,337 1,448 1,489 1,425 1,478 1,366 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.5

Midwest

734 797 754 757 791 787 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4

West

794 797 779 767 799 787 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

1,811 1,695 1,784 1,693 1,830 1,760 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,720 1,562 1,664 1,601 1,726 1,669 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3

Mining and logging

15 11 14 15 11 6 2.1 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.5 0.8

Construction

174 181 169 181 240 222 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4 3.2 3.0

Manufacturing

127 123 118 122 111 112 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

65 52 61 76 64 62 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8

Nondurable goods

62 70 56 46 47 50 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

278 305 324 326 351 305 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1

Wholesale trade(3)

23 43 42 30 36 37 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

171 179 190 207 234 197 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

84 82 92 88 80 71 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2

Information

38 32 30 24 33 32 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.2 1.1

Financial activities

84 57 48 32 54 48 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.6

Finance and insurance

60 33 31 22 31 22 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

25 24 17 10 23 26 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.4 1.0 1.1

Professional and business services

430 358 423 422 451 475 2.1 1.7 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2

Education and health services

159 175 193 164 170 172 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

Educational services

38 42 46 38 35 39 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.0

Health care and social assistance

121 133 147 126 135 133 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

321 263 274 262 263 247 2.0 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

97 74 84 48 63 99 4.1 3.0 3.4 1.9 2.5 4.0

Accommodation and food services

224 189 189 214 201 147 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.0

Other services

94 59 72 54 43 50 1.6 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.9

Government

91 132 120 92 104 92 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4

Federal

7 10 6 7 6 7 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local

84 122 114 86 97 85 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4

State and local education

42 53 53 38 52 51 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

State and local, excluding education

43 70 61 48 46 33 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4

REGION(4)

Northeast

298 280 282 291 325 350 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3

South

652 676 750 748 727 583 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1

Midwest

493 365 385 331 379 348 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.0

West

368 374 368 322 398 479 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.4

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

349 355 346 354 341 310 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

292 302 284 293 282 251 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 1 3 1 1 1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2

Construction(3)

17 21 11 21 21 11 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1

Manufacturing

21 21 18 21 22 19 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Durable goods

13 12 13 10 10 13 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

8 9 5 11 12 5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

68 66 61 51 42 60 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

10 11 10 6 7 10 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

44 43 36 30 24 30 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

14 12 14 15 12 20 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Information(3)

12 11 11 15 15 5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.2

Financial activities

10 25 37 35 26 27 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

9 16 34 31 23 25 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

1 9 3 5 4 1 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

78 63 55 72 75 49 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2

Education and health services

47 54 55 52 43 43 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

5 6 6 5 6 7 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

42 48 49 46 37 36 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

18 28 22 18 30 32 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

4 3 1 3 2 3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

14 25 21 14 28 29 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

18 13 10 7 7 5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Government

57 53 62 61 60 58 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

9 8 13 12 10 11 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local

48 44 49 49 49 47 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

22 24 23 25 23 25 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

26 20 26 24 26 22 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(4)

Northeast

62 49 72 53 42 60 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

138 157 139 142 138 121 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Midwest

68 62 64 72 67 68 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

81 87 70 87 94 60 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

7,100 7,739 7,230 4.5 4.9 4.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,495 7,017 6,554 4.9 5.2 4.8

Mining and logging

28 32 30 3.8 4.1 3.8

Construction

279 434 369 3.7 5.6 4.7

Manufacturing

470 496 509 3.6 3.7 3.8

Durable goods

293 318 323 3.6 3.8 3.9

Nondurable goods

177 179 185 3.6 3.6 3.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,502 1,407 1,269 5.2 4.9 4.4

Wholesale trade

214 277 222 3.5 4.5 3.6

Retail trade

950 775 752 5.7 4.7 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

338 355 295 5.4 5.6 4.6

Information

120 130 98 4.1 4.4 3.4

Financial activities

355 388 284 4.0 4.3 3.2

Finance and insurance

265 257 204 4.0 3.9 3.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

90 130 81 3.8 5.4 3.4

Professional and business services

1,246 1,325 1,319 5.6 5.8 5.8

Education and health services

1,205 1,351 1,272 4.8 5.3 5.0

Educational services

107 147 131 2.8 3.6 3.3

Health care and social assistance

1,097 1,205 1,141 5.2 5.6 5.3

Leisure and hospitality

1,032 1,203 1,102 5.9 6.8 6.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

139 150 142 5.4 5.9 5.3

Accommodation and food services

893 1,053 959 6.0 6.9 6.2

Other services

258 251 302 4.2 4.1 4.8

Government

605 722 676 2.6 3.1 2.9

Federal

109 151 110 3.8 5.1 3.8

State and local

496 571 567 2.4 2.8 2.8

State and local education

163 199 209 1.5 1.8 1.9

State and local, excluding education

332 372 357 3.5 3.9 3.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,192 1,124 1,263 4.2 3.9 4.3

South

2,559 2,974 2,671 4.5 5.1 4.6

Midwest

1,800 1,857 1,746 5.2 5.3 5.0

West

1,549 1,784 1,551 4.3 4.9 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

6,520 6,423 6,331 4.4 4.3 4.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,142 6,124 5,939 4.9 4.8 4.6

Mining and logging

49 32 26 6.7 4.2 3.4

Construction

514 593 526 7.0 8.0 7.0

Manufacturing

410 375 379 3.2 2.9 3.0

Durable goods

239 217 227 3.0 2.7 2.8

Nondurable goods

172 158 152 3.6 3.3 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,172 1,134 1,205 4.3 4.1 4.4

Wholesale trade

133 163 165 2.3 2.8 2.8

Retail trade

814 768 837 5.2 4.9 5.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

225 203 203 3.8 3.4 3.4

Information

103 84 102 3.7 3.0 3.6

Financial activities

248 253 236 2.9 2.9 2.7

Finance and insurance

159 142 142 2.5 2.2 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

89 112 94 4.0 4.9 4.1

Professional and business services

1,238 1,381 1,185 5.9 6.5 5.5

Education and health services

651 712 633 2.8 2.9 2.6

Educational services

79 81 80 2.1 2.1 2.1

Health care and social assistance

572 630 553 2.9 3.1 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,399 1,313 1,367 8.5 7.9 8.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

306 228 281 12.4 9.5 11.1

Accommodation and food services

1,093 1,084 1,085 7.8 7.7 7.5

Other services

357 247 280 6.1 4.2 4.7

Government

377 299 392 1.7 1.3 1.7

Federal

34 37 39 1.2 1.3 1.4

State and local

344 262 353 1.7 1.3 1.8

State and local education

104 88 116 1.0 0.8 1.1

State and local, excluding education

240 174 237 2.6 1.9 2.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,047 1,042 1,118 3.8 3.8 4.0

South

2,448 2,479 2,396 4.5 4.5 4.3

Midwest

1,629 1,431 1,452 5.0 4.3 4.4

West

1,396 1,470 1,365 4.0 4.2 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

5,531 5,506 5,555 3.7 3.6 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,136 5,253 5,111 4.1 4.1 4.0

Mining and logging

38 32 23 5.2 4.3 3.1

Construction

335 380 393 4.6 5.2 5.2

Manufacturing

351 359 338 2.8 2.8 2.6

Durable goods

193 212 192 2.4 2.6 2.4

Nondurable goods

158 148 146 3.4 3.1 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,054 1,080 1,112 3.8 3.9 4.0

Wholesale trade

114 144 143 2.0 2.4 2.4

Retail trade

733 746 780 4.6 4.8 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

206 191 190 3.5 3.2 3.1

Information

98 111 93 3.5 4.0 3.3

Financial activities

201 241 194 2.3 2.8 2.2

Finance and insurance

131 147 121 2.1 2.3 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

70 94 74 3.1 4.1 3.2

Professional and business services

1,173 1,204 1,109 5.6 5.6 5.2

Education and health services

659 606 656 2.8 2.5 2.7

Educational services

124 64 126 3.3 1.6 3.3

Health care and social assistance

536 542 530 2.7 2.7 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

1,003 1,043 997 6.1 6.3 5.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

135 134 131 5.5 5.6 5.1

Accommodation and food services

868 909 866 6.2 6.4 6.0

Other services

225 195 195 3.8 3.3 3.3

Government

395 253 444 1.7 1.1 1.9

Federal

27 28 28 1.0 1.0 1.0

State and local

368 224 417 1.8 1.1 2.1

State and local education

229 94 273 2.1 0.9 2.5

State and local, excluding education

139 130 144 1.5 1.4 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

765 759 827 2.8 2.7 3.0

South

2,250 2,335 2,173 4.1 4.2 3.9

Midwest

1,270 1,137 1,196 3.9 3.4 3.6

West

1,246 1,274 1,359 3.6 3.6 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

3,446 3,512 3,543 2.3 2.3 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,218 3,362 3,272 2.5 2.6 2.5

Mining and logging

21 20 16 2.8 2.6 2.1

Construction

162 147 171 2.2 2.0 2.3

Manufacturing

210 232 212 1.7 1.8 1.7

Durable goods

119 139 121 1.5 1.7 1.5

Nondurable goods

92 93 92 1.9 2.0 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

744 743 797 2.7 2.7 2.9

Wholesale trade

84 101 99 1.4 1.7 1.7

Retail trade

537 515 582 3.4 3.3 3.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

122 128 116 2.1 2.1 1.9

Information

53 59 56 1.9 2.1 2.0

Financial activities

116 150 123 1.4 1.7 1.4

Finance and insurance

68 87 75 1.1 1.4 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

48 64 48 2.1 2.8 2.0

Professional and business services

648 658 561 3.1 3.1 2.6

Education and health services

426 420 415 1.8 1.7 1.7

Educational services

56 41 55 1.5 1.0 1.4

Health care and social assistance

370 379 360 1.9 1.9 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

719 781 776 4.3 4.7 4.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

69 69 64 2.8 2.9 2.5

Accommodation and food services

650 713 712 4.6 5.0 4.9

Other services

119 151 144 2.0 2.6 2.4

Government

229 149 271 1.0 0.7 1.2

Federal

14 14 13 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

215 135 258 1.1 0.7 1.3

State and local education

125 55 153 1.2 0.5 1.4

State and local, excluding education

90 80 105 1.0 0.9 1.1

REGION(3)

Northeast

478 439 500 1.7 1.6 1.8

South

1,385 1,508 1,415 2.5 2.7 2.6

Midwest

771 760 824 2.4 2.3 2.5

West

812 804 803 2.3 2.3 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

1,728 1,665 1,696 1.2 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,625 1,609 1,587 1.3 1.3 1.2

Mining and logging

16 12 6 2.2 1.6 0.8

Construction

155 213 211 2.1 2.9 2.8

Manufacturing

120 105 108 0.9 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

61 62 59 0.8 0.8 0.7

Nondurable goods

59 43 49 1.2 0.9 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

237 295 253 0.9 1.1 0.9

Wholesale trade

23 36 37 0.4 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

143 208 162 0.9 1.3 1.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

71 50 54 1.2 0.8 0.9

Information

34 37 31 1.2 1.3 1.1

Financial activities

74 60 42 0.9 0.7 0.5

Finance and insurance

53 33 18 0.8 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

21 27 25 0.9 1.2 1.1

Professional and business services

452 472 505 2.2 2.2 2.4

Education and health services

185 146 196 0.8 0.6 0.8

Educational services

62 19 63 1.7 0.5 1.6

Health care and social assistance

123 126 134 0.6 0.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

266 232 189 1.6 1.4 1.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

62 64 64 2.5 2.7 2.5

Accommodation and food services

204 168 125 1.4 1.2 0.9

Other services

88 37 46 1.5 0.6 0.8

Government

103 56 109 0.5 0.2 0.5

Federal

4 4 4 0.1 0.1 0.2

State and local

99 52 105 0.5 0.3 0.5

State and local education

73 26 86 0.7 0.2 0.8

State and local, excluding education

26 26 19 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

233 279 273 0.8 1.0 1.0

South

712 695 626 1.3 1.3 1.1

Midwest

429 316 301 1.3 1.0 0.9

West

354 375 496 1.0 1.1 1.4

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019(p)

Total

357 329 316 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

294 282 251 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 1 1 0.2 0.1 0.2

Construction

17 21 11 0.2 0.3 0.1

Manufacturing

21 22 18 0.2 0.2 0.1

Durable goods

13 11 13 0.2 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

8 12 5 0.2 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

74 42 62 0.3 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

7 7 6 0.1 0.1 0.1

Retail trade

53 23 36 0.3 0.1 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

14 12 20 0.2 0.2 0.3

Information

12 15 5 0.4 0.5 0.2

Financial activities

11 31 29 0.1 0.4 0.3

Finance and insurance

9 27 27 0.1 0.4 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

1 4 1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

73 73 43 0.3 0.3 0.2

Education and health services

48 40 44 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

6 3 9 0.2 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance

42 37 36 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

18 30 32 0.1 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4 2 3 0.2 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services

14 28 29 0.1 0.2 0.2

Other services

18 7 5 0.3 0.1 0.1

Government

63 47 64 0.3 0.2 0.3

Federal

9 10 10 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local

54 37 55 0.3 0.2 0.3

State and local education

30 13 35 0.3 0.1 0.3

State and local, excluding education

24 24 20 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

54 41 53 0.2 0.1 0.2

South

153 131 132 0.3 0.2 0.2

Midwest

70 62 72 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

80 95 59 0.2 0.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: July 09, 2019