Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, October 16, 2018	USDL-18-1660

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                              JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – AUGUST 2018

The number of job openings reached a series high of 7.1 million on the last business day of August, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were little 
changed at 5.8 million and 5.7 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 
2.4 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was little changed at 1.2 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of August, the job openings level reached a series high of 7.1 million. The job 
openings rate was 4.6 percent. The number of job openings was little changed for total nonfarm, total 
private, and government. Job openings increased in federal government (+15,000). The number of job 
openings was little changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires in August reached a series high of 5.8 million. The hires rate was 3.9 percent. The 
number of hires was little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and government. Hires were little 
changed in all industries and in all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.7 million in August. The total separations rate 
was 3.8 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
Total separations increased in state and local government education (+20,000). Total separations was 
little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in August at 3.6 million. The quits rate was 2.4 percent. The 
number of quits was little changed for total private and for government. Quits increased in wholesale 
trade (+24,000) but decreased in professional and business services (-82,000). The number of quits was 
little changed in all four regions. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges edged up to 1.8 million in August (+176,000). The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.2 percent. The number of layoffs and discharges edged up for total private 
(+158,000) and was little changed for government. Layoffs and discharges increased in professional and 
business services (+117,000) and in state and local government education (+20,000), but decreased in 
health care and social assistance (-35,000). The number of layoffs and discharges increased in the West 
region. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in August at 332,000. The other separations level 
was little changed for total private and unchanged for government. Other separations increased in real 
estate and rental and leasing (+8,000) and in arts, entertainment, and recreation (+5,000), but decreased 
in professional and business services (-31,000). The number of other separations increased in the 
Northeast region but decreased in the Midwest region. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in August, hires totaled 67.0 million and 
separations totaled 64.7 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.4 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for September 2018 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, November 6, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

6,044 7,077 7,136 5,507 5,713 5,784 5,345 5,596 5,706

Total private

5,524 6,384 6,464 5,169 5,366 5,440 5,010 5,242 5,344

Mining and logging(1)

29 33 31 31 38 41 21 33 34

Construction(1)

215 275 298 399 373 358 362 337 328

Manufacturing

416 496 488 364 392 372 305 358 352

Durable goods(1)

229 289 286 214 231 207 176 195 197

Nondurable goods(1)

186 207 202 150 161 165 129 162 155

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,107 1,333 1,279 1,035 1,142 1,213 1,016 1,130 1,223

Wholesale trade(1)

199 261 238 147 134 163 146 125 149

Retail trade

651 773 768 687 790 815 680 806 859

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

256 300 273 200 218 236 190 200 216

Information(1)

122 146 149 81 76 73 83 79 80

Financial activities

331 396 426 210 215 219 209 225 228

Finance and insurance

263 309 339 134 136 139 128 145 142

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

68 88 86 77 79 80 80 80 86

Professional and business services

1,038 1,244 1,318 1,156 1,180 1,177 1,119 1,118 1,124

Education and health services

1,192 1,247 1,272 684 701 693 644 664 642

Educational services(1)

109 120 129 102 104 89 75 97 86

Health care and social assistance

1,083 1,127 1,143 582 598 604 569 566 556

Leisure and hospitality

838 993 984 1,002 1,065 1,061 1,005 1,058 1,077

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

86 93 86 166 146 173 168 138 172

Accommodation and food services

752 900 898 836 918 888 836 920 904

Other services(1)

236 220 219 208 184 233 247 240 255

Government

520 693 673 338 347 343 336 354 363

Federal(1)

69 96 111 29 33 33 38 34 31

State and local

452 597 562 309 314 310 297 320 331

State and local education

153 213 200 152 157 162 136 160 180

State and local, excluding education(1)

298 383 363 157 157 148 161 160 151





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.0 4.5 4.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.8

Total private

4.2 4.8 4.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.2

Mining and logging(1)

4.0 4.3 4.0 4.5 5.2 5.5 3.1 4.5 4.6

Construction(1)

3.0 3.7 3.9 5.7 5.1 4.9 5.2 4.7 4.5

Manufacturing

3.2 3.8 3.7 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.4 2.8 2.8

Durable goods(1)

2.9 3.5 3.5 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.5

Nondurable goods(1)

3.8 4.2 4.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 2.7 3.4 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.9 4.6 4.4 3.8 4.1 4.4 3.7 4.1 4.4

Wholesale trade(1)

3.3 4.2 3.8 2.5 2.2 2.7 2.5 2.1 2.5

Retail trade

3.9 4.6 4.6 4.3 5.0 5.1 4.3 5.1 5.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

4.3 4.9 4.4 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.3 3.4 3.7

Information(1)

4.2 5.0 5.1 2.9 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.9

Financial activities

3.8 4.4 4.7 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.7

Finance and insurance

4.0 4.6 5.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.8

Professional and business services

4.8 5.6 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.3

Education and health services

4.9 5.0 5.1 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7

Educational services(1)

2.9 3.1 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.0 2.6 2.3

Health care and social assistance

5.2 5.4 5.4 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

4.9 5.7 5.7 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.2 6.5 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.5 3.8 3.5 7.1 6.2 7.4 7.2 5.9 7.4

Accommodation and food services

5.2 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.6 6.3 6.1 6.6 6.4

Other services(1)

3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.1 4.0 4.3 4.1 4.3

Government

2.3 3.0 2.9 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6

Federal(1)

2.4 3.3 3.8 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.1

State and local

2.3 3.0 2.8 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7

State and local education

1.5 2.0 1.9 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.7

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.2 4.0 3.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.7

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, and federal government data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

6,044 6,840 6,659 6,822 7,077 7,136 4.0 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,524 6,263 6,052 6,183 6,384 6,464 4.2 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8

Mining and logging(3)

29 27 34 27 33 31 4.0 3.6 4.5 3.5 4.3 4.0

Construction(3)

215 243 253 267 275 298 3.0 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9

Manufacturing

416 452 474 475 496 488 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.7

Durable goods(3)

229 281 296 293 289 286 2.9 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods(3)

186 171 178 182 207 202 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.7 4.2 4.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,107 1,298 1,308 1,348 1,333 1,279 3.9 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.4

Wholesale trade(3)

199 214 183 222 261 238 3.3 3.5 3.0 3.6 4.2 3.8

Retail trade

651 771 793 842 773 768 3.9 4.6 4.7 5.0 4.6 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

256 313 332 285 300 273 4.3 5.1 5.4 4.6 4.9 4.4

Information(3)

122 188 132 136 146 149 4.2 6.3 4.5 4.7 5.0 5.1

Financial activities

331 335 350 352 396 426 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.4 4.7

Finance and insurance

263 237 262 244 309 339 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.7 4.6 5.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

68 98 88 108 88 86 3.0 4.2 3.8 4.6 3.8 3.7

Professional and business services

1,038 1,254 1,159 1,155 1,244 1,318 4.8 5.7 5.3 5.2 5.6 5.9

Education and health services

1,192 1,287 1,248 1,295 1,247 1,272 4.9 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.0 5.1

Educational services(3)

109 114 112 147 120 129 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.8 3.1 3.3

Health care and social assistance

1,083 1,173 1,136 1,148 1,127 1,143 5.2 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.4

Leisure and hospitality

838 940 877 931 993 984 4.9 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.7 5.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

86 113 88 86 93 86 3.5 4.6 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.5

Accommodation and food services

752 827 789 845 900 898 5.2 5.6 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.0

Other services(3)

236 239 218 198 220 219 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.6

Government

520 577 607 639 693 673 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.0 2.9

Federal(3)

69 82 97 115 96 111 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.8

State and local

452 495 510 524 597 562 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.8

State and local education

153 175 173 194 213 200 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.8 2.0 1.9

State and local, excluding education(3)

298 320 337 330 383 363 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.5 4.0 3.8

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,046 1,196 1,104 1,174 1,201 1,156 3.7 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.0

South

2,125 2,405 2,414 2,429 2,565 2,689 3.8 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.7

Midwest

1,480 1,656 1,667 1,672 1,707 1,689 4.4 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9

West

1,394 1,582 1,474 1,547 1,604 1,603 4.0 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

5,507 5,581 5,747 5,677 5,713 5,784 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,169 5,236 5,404 5,328 5,366 5,440 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.3

Mining and logging

31 39 42 41 38 41 4.5 5.3 5.7 5.5 5.2 5.5

Construction

399 347 386 360 373 358 5.7 4.8 5.3 5.0 5.1 4.9

Manufacturing

364 358 356 360 392 372 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.9

Durable goods

214 213 208 207 231 207 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.6

Nondurable goods

150 145 149 153 161 165 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,035 1,109 1,099 1,120 1,142 1,213 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4

Wholesale trade

147 128 130 135 134 163 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.7

Retail trade

687 759 738 755 790 815 4.3 4.8 4.6 4.7 5.0 5.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

200 222 231 230 218 236 3.5 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.7 4.0

Information

81 84 89 78 76 73 2.9 3.0 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.6

Financial activities

210 194 202 247 215 219 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.9 2.5 2.6

Finance and insurance

134 127 129 169 136 139 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.7 2.2 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

77 68 73 79 79 80 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.5

Professional and business services

1,156 1,143 1,190 1,160 1,180 1,177 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.6

Education and health services

684 687 723 712 701 693 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9

Educational services

102 103 102 91 104 89 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.8 2.4

Health care and social assistance

582 584 621 620 598 604 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

1,002 1,050 1,081 1,047 1,065 1,061 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.5 6.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

166 171 181 166 146 173 7.1 7.3 7.7 7.1 6.2 7.4

Accommodation and food services

836 879 900 881 918 888 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.3 6.6 6.3

Other services

208 223 236 202 184 233 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.4 3.1 4.0

Government

338 344 343 349 347 343 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5

Federal

29 37 29 30 33 33 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2

State and local

309 308 314 320 314 310 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local education

152 155 147 165 157 162 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education

157 153 167 155 157 148 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

788 806 854 898 936 892 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.2

South

2,217 2,229 2,304 2,286 2,305 2,361 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.3

Midwest

1,217 1,224 1,336 1,245 1,271 1,246 3.7 3.7 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.8

West

1,285 1,322 1,252 1,249 1,201 1,284 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

5,345 5,424 5,419 5,514 5,596 5,706 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,010 5,085 5,093 5,172 5,242 5,344 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2

Mining and logging

21 34 35 34 33 34 3.1 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.6

Construction

362 318 340 350 337 328 5.2 4.4 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5

Manufacturing

305 343 342 337 358 352 2.4 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8

Durable goods

176 198 193 180 195 197 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.5

Nondurable goods

129 145 149 156 162 155 2.7 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,016 1,104 1,073 1,116 1,130 1,223 3.7 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.4

Wholesale trade

146 136 119 131 125 149 2.5 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.5

Retail trade

680 757 726 778 806 859 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.9 5.1 5.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

190 211 228 207 200 216 3.3 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.7

Information

83 85 92 81 79 80 3.0 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.9

Financial activities

209 198 191 234 225 228 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.6 2.7

Finance and insurance

128 122 120 154 145 142 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.3 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

80 76 71 79 80 86 3.7 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.8

Professional and business services

1,119 1,114 1,143 1,132 1,118 1,124 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3

Education and health services

644 641 652 665 664 642 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7

Educational services

75 91 95 71 97 86 2.0 2.5 2.6 1.9 2.6 2.3

Health care and social assistance

569 549 557 594 566 556 2.9 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,005 1,050 1,038 1,018 1,058 1,077 6.2 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.5 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

168 176 166 173 138 172 7.2 7.5 7.1 7.4 5.9 7.4

Accommodation and food services

836 874 872 845 920 904 6.1 6.3 6.3 6.0 6.6 6.4

Other services

247 199 188 207 240 255 4.3 3.4 3.2 3.5 4.1 4.3

Government

336 339 326 341 354 363 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6

Federal

38 35 31 32 34 31 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1

State and local

297 304 295 309 320 331 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7

State and local education

136 160 144 153 160 180 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.7

State and local, excluding education

161 144 150 156 160 151 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

875 802 795 857 773 822 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.8 3.0

South

2,006 2,194 2,173 2,189 2,311 2,303 3.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.2

Midwest

1,190 1,144 1,237 1,236 1,257 1,249 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.8

West

1,276 1,285 1,214 1,232 1,256 1,332 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

3,173 3,349 3,480 3,477 3,608 3,577 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,017 3,166 3,287 3,285 3,422 3,399 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7

Mining and logging

11 22 23 21 21 19 1.6 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.6

Construction

143 154 162 164 178 164 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.3

Manufacturing

187 204 197 206 217 215 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

Durable goods

102 116 111 113 120 122 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5

Nondurable goods

84 88 86 93 96 93 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

656 688 737 751 730 759 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7

Wholesale trade

95 84 86 79 78 102 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.7

Retail trade

463 486 512 550 535 537 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

98 119 138 122 117 120 1.7 2.0 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.0

Information

49 48 56 51 49 51 1.7 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.8

Financial activities

117 97 110 129 141 151 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.8

Finance and insurance

70 45 66 78 77 89 1.1 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

47 52 44 52 64 62 2.1 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.8 2.8

Professional and business services

652 671 692 723 709 627 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.0

Education and health services

390 433 468 440 449 467 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.0

Educational services

42 52 50 34 45 38 1.1 1.4 1.4 0.9 1.2 1.0

Health care and social assistance

348 381 417 407 404 429 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

652 724 714 705 765 777 4.0 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.7 4.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

61 70 71 77 76 75 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.2

Accommodation and food services

592 653 643 629 689 702 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.9 5.0

Other services(3)

160 125 129 95 163 168 2.8 2.1 2.2 1.6 2.8 2.9

Government

156 184 193 192 187 178 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8

Federal

15 16 15 14 14 13 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

140 168 178 178 172 165 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8

State and local education

67 90 93 92 91 87 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8

State and local, excluding education

73 78 85 86 82 78 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

455 460 471 460 442 429 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6

South

1,242 1,385 1,457 1,432 1,504 1,472 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.7

Midwest

679 717 775 819 824 827 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5

West

796 786 777 766 838 849 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

1,805 1,731 1,618 1,652 1,622 1,798 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,686 1,640 1,538 1,568 1,520 1,678 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3

Mining and logging(3)

8 11 10 11 11 13 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.8

Construction

209 156 159 176 151 154 3.0 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.1 2.1

Manufacturing

96 118 124 111 120 117 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

63 69 69 55 60 64 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.8

Nondurable goods

33 49 55 56 60 53 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

296 343 262 290 329 400 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4

Wholesale trade(3)

43 43 21 37 34 42 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7

Retail trade

176 220 163 184 230 278 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

77 80 79 70 66 80 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.4

Information

28 29 25 22 24 25 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9

Financial activities

60 72 72 68 57 53 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6

Finance and insurance

31 50 46 44 43 38 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

29 22 26 23 15 15 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.7 0.7

Professional and business services

407 386 383 341 326 443 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.6 2.1

Education and health services

196 165 146 172 167 132 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6

Educational services

26 33 38 29 42 42 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.1

Health care and social assistance

169 132 108 143 125 90 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

318 303 304 283 263 268 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

101 102 91 94 60 91 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.0 2.6 3.9

Accommodation and food services

217 201 213 189 202 176 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3

Other services

69 59 51 94 72 73 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.6 1.2 1.2

Government

119 91 80 84 102 120 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Federal

13 6 7 6 7 7 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local

106 85 73 78 95 113 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6

State and local education

46 46 33 34 44 64 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6

State and local, excluding education

60 39 40 44 51 49 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

355 263 267 316 277 316 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.2

South

636 680 610 632 685 706 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3

Midwest

434 366 392 334 347 370 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1

West

381 422 349 369 314 405 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

367 344 321 384 365 332 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

306 279 268 319 300 267 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 1 2 2 1 2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2

Construction(3)

9 8 19 10 8 10 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1

Manufacturing

22 21 21 20 22 21 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

11 13 13 13 15 11 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Nondurable goods(3)

12 8 8 7 7 10 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

65 73 74 75 71 64 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Wholesale trade

8 10 12 15 14 5 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

40 52 51 44 41 43 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

16 12 11 15 17 16 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Information(3)

6 8 10 8 5 5 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2

Financial activities

32 29 9 37 27 23 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

27 27 8 33 25 14 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

5 2 1 4 1 9 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4

Professional and business services

60 57 67 69 84 53 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3

Education and health services

58 43 39 52 48 42 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services(3)

7 6 6 8 10 7 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

51 36 32 44 38 36 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

34 24 19 29 30 32 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

6 4 4 3 1 6 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3

Accommodation and food services(3)

28 20 15 27 28 26 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

17 15 8 18 5 14 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2

Government

61 65 52 65 65 65 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

10 13 8 12 13 12 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4

State and local

51 52 44 53 53 53 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

23 25 19 27 25 29 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

State and local, excluding education

29 28 25 26 27 25 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

65 78 57 80 54 78 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

South

128 128 106 124 122 125 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Midwest

76 60 70 83 86 52 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

West

99 77 88 97 103 78 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

6,164 7,439 7,291 4.0 4.8 4.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,623 6,695 6,595 4.3 5.0 4.9

Mining and logging

29 33 31 3.9 4.2 3.9

Construction

215 275 298 2.9 3.5 3.8

Manufacturing

416 496 488 3.2 3.7 3.7

Durable goods

229 289 286 2.9 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

186 207 202 3.8 4.1 4.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,157 1,420 1,322 4.0 4.9 4.5

Wholesale trade

199 261 238 3.2 4.2 3.8

Retail trade

702 859 810 4.2 5.1 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

256 300 273 4.3 4.9 4.5

Information

122 146 149 4.2 5.0 5.1

Financial activities

319 412 422 3.6 4.5 4.6

Finance and insurance

252 324 335 3.8 4.8 5.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

68 88 86 2.9 3.7 3.6

Professional and business services

1,056 1,314 1,357 4.9 5.9 6.0

Education and health services

1,187 1,304 1,266 4.9 5.3 5.1

Educational services

109 120 129 3.1 3.4 3.6

Health care and social assistance

1,078 1,184 1,137 5.2 5.6 5.4

Leisure and hospitality

886 1,076 1,044 5.0 5.9 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

89 95 90 3.3 3.4 3.3

Accommodation and food services

797 980 954 5.3 6.4 6.2

Other services

236 220 219 3.9 3.6 3.6

Government

541 745 696 2.5 3.4 3.2

Federal

69 96 111 2.4 3.3 3.8

State and local

472 648 585 2.5 3.4 3.1

State and local education

174 265 223 1.9 2.9 2.4

State and local, excluding education

298 383 363 3.1 3.9 3.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,110 1,266 1,217 4.0 4.4 4.3

South

2,104 2,759 2,686 3.8 4.8 4.7

Midwest

1,528 1,749 1,737 4.5 5.0 5.0

West

1,422 1,666 1,651 4.0 4.6 4.6

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

6,116 6,172 6,440 4.2 4.1 4.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,504 5,780 5,805 4.4 4.5 4.5

Mining and logging

34 42 45 4.9 5.5 5.9

Construction

401 439 360 5.6 5.9 4.8

Manufacturing

395 432 406 3.1 3.4 3.2

Durable goods

227 248 219 2.9 3.1 2.7

Nondurable goods

167 184 188 3.5 3.8 3.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,050 1,133 1,260 3.8 4.1 4.5

Wholesale trade

147 149 166 2.5 2.5 2.8

Retail trade

709 783 859 4.5 4.9 5.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

194 202 235 3.4 3.5 4.0

Information

81 79 71 2.9 2.8 2.6

Financial activities

214 239 224 2.5 2.8 2.6

Finance and insurance

137 155 142 2.2 2.4 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

77 84 82 3.5 3.7 3.5

Professional and business services

1,187 1,235 1,208 5.7 5.8 5.7

Education and health services

878 802 876 3.8 3.4 3.7

Educational services

201 129 171 6.0 3.8 5.0

Health care and social assistance

677 673 705 3.5 3.4 3.5

Leisure and hospitality

1,070 1,156 1,131 6.4 6.7 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

135 146 143 5.1 5.4 5.4

Accommodation and food services

935 1,010 988 6.6 7.0 6.8

Other services

193 223 223 3.3 3.8 3.8

Government

612 392 636 2.9 1.9 3.0

Federal

28 34 35 1.0 1.2 1.2

State and local

584 357 601 3.2 2.0 3.2

State and local education

429 171 457 4.7 1.9 5.0

State and local, excluding education

155 187 144 1.7 2.0 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

828 1,074 930 3.1 3.9 3.4

South

2,528 2,441 2,700 4.7 4.5 5.0

Midwest

1,359 1,331 1,398 4.2 4.0 4.2

West

1,400 1,326 1,413 4.1 3.9 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

6,365 6,057 6,780 4.3 4.1 4.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,863 5,615 6,243 4.7 4.4 4.9

Mining and logging

23 37 38 3.4 4.9 5.0

Construction

410 378 383 5.7 5.0 5.1

Manufacturing

385 390 443 3.1 3.0 3.5

Durable goods

222 223 252 2.9 2.8 3.2

Nondurable goods

163 167 191 3.4 3.5 4.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,138 1,145 1,353 4.1 4.1 4.9

Wholesale trade

167 136 174 2.8 2.3 2.9

Retail trade

771 808 947 4.9 5.1 6.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

200 201 232 3.5 3.4 4.0

Information

92 83 90 3.3 3.0 3.2

Financial activities

252 224 276 3.0 2.6 3.2

Finance and insurance

166 143 187 2.6 2.3 2.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

87 80 88 3.9 3.5 3.8

Professional and business services

1,223 1,181 1,236 5.9 5.6 5.8

Education and health services

777 794 775 3.4 3.4 3.3

Educational services

115 145 130 3.4 4.2 3.8

Health care and social assistance

662 649 645 3.4 3.3 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

1,282 1,132 1,356 7.6 6.6 7.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

250 131 265 9.5 4.8 10.0

Accommodation and food services

1,033 1,001 1,091 7.3 6.9 7.6

Other services

279 251 294 4.8 4.2 5.0

Government

502 442 537 2.4 2.1 2.5

Federal

42 32 36 1.5 1.2 1.3

State and local

460 409 501 2.5 2.2 2.7

State and local education

197 242 255 2.2 2.7 2.8

State and local, excluding education

263 168 246 2.8 1.8 2.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,088 828 1,022 4.0 3.0 3.7

South

2,366 2,552 2,689 4.4 4.7 4.9

Midwest

1,446 1,318 1,528 4.5 4.0 4.6

West

1,466 1,358 1,542 4.3 4.0 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

3,914 4,077 4,396 2.7 2.7 2.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,673 3,845 4,129 2.9 3.0 3.2

Mining and logging

14 24 23 2.0 3.3 3.0

Construction

191 230 219 2.6 3.1 2.9

Manufacturing

251 254 290 2.0 2.0 2.3

Durable goods

133 145 160 1.7 1.8 2.0

Nondurable goods

118 109 130 2.5 2.3 2.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

792 778 911 2.9 2.8 3.3

Wholesale trade

114 84 127 1.9 1.4 2.1

Retail trade

565 560 647 3.6 3.5 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

112 134 137 2.0 2.3 2.4

Information

61 56 63 2.2 2.0 2.3

Financial activities

136 148 181 1.6 1.7 2.1

Finance and insurance

90 84 119 1.4 1.3 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

47 64 62 2.1 2.8 2.7

Professional and business services

755 781 725 3.7 3.7 3.4

Education and health services

469 527 561 2.0 2.3 2.4

Educational services

69 66 60 2.1 1.9 1.7

Health care and social assistance

400 462 501 2.0 2.3 2.5

Leisure and hospitality

843 884 987 5.0 5.2 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

110 98 134 4.2 3.6 5.1

Accommodation and food services

733 786 853 5.2 5.4 5.9

Other services

160 163 168 2.8 2.7 2.8

Government

241 232 268 1.1 1.1 1.3

Federal

21 14 18 0.7 0.5 0.6

State and local

220 218 250 1.2 1.2 1.3

State and local education

113 126 137 1.2 1.4 1.5

State and local, excluding education

108 92 113 1.2 1.0 1.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

577 496 540 2.1 1.8 2.0

South

1,522 1,728 1,786 2.8 3.2 3.3

Midwest

868 921 1,060 2.7 2.8 3.2

West

947 933 1,011 2.8 2.7 2.9

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

2,060 1,594 2,038 1.4 1.1 1.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,866 1,466 1,840 1.5 1.1 1.4

Mining and logging

8 11 13 1.1 1.5 1.8

Construction

209 140 154 2.9 1.9 2.0

Manufacturing

112 112 133 0.9 0.9 1.0

Durable goods

79 61 82 1.0 0.8 1.0

Nondurable goods

33 51 51 0.7 1.1 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

274 291 374 1.0 1.0 1.3

Wholesale trade

43 34 42 0.7 0.6 0.7

Retail trade

159 207 253 1.0 1.3 1.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

71 50 79 1.3 0.9 1.3

Information

26 22 22 0.9 0.8 0.8

Financial activities

78 55 68 0.9 0.6 0.8

Finance and insurance

42 40 50 0.7 0.6 0.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

35 15 17 1.6 0.7 0.8

Professional and business services

404 313 456 2.0 1.5 2.2

Education and health services

249 219 172 1.1 0.9 0.7

Educational services

39 70 64 1.2 2.0 1.9

Health care and social assistance

211 149 108 1.1 0.8 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

406 218 337 2.4 1.3 2.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

134 32 125 5.1 1.2 4.7

Accommodation and food services

272 186 212 1.9 1.3 1.5

Other services

102 83 111 1.7 1.4 1.9

Government

193 128 199 0.9 0.6 0.9

Federal

12 6 7 0.4 0.2 0.3

State and local

182 122 191 1.0 0.7 1.0

State and local education

59 79 84 0.6 0.9 0.9

State and local, excluding education

123 43 107 1.3 0.5 1.1

REGION(3)

Northeast

446 271 405 1.7 1.0 1.5

South

706 703 770 1.3 1.3 1.4

Midwest

492 307 409 1.5 0.9 1.2

West

416 313 453 1.2 0.9 1.3

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Aug.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)

Total

390 386 346 0.3 0.3 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

323 304 275 0.3 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 1 1 0.3 0.1 0.2

Construction

9 8 10 0.1 0.1 0.1

Manufacturing

22 23 20 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

10 17 10 0.1 0.2 0.1

Nondurable goods

12 7 10 0.2 0.1 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

72 76 68 0.3 0.3 0.2

Wholesale trade

10 18 6 0.2 0.3 0.1

Retail trade

46 41 46 0.3 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

16 17 16 0.3 0.3 0.3

Information

6 5 5 0.2 0.2 0.2

Financial activities

39 21 27 0.5 0.2 0.3

Finance and insurance

34 19 18 0.5 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

5 1 9 0.2 0.1 0.4

Professional and business services

64 87 55 0.3 0.4 0.3

Education and health services

58 48 42 0.3 0.2 0.2

Educational services

7 10 7 0.2 0.3 0.2

Health care and social assistance

51 38 36 0.3 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

34 30 32 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

6 1 6 0.2 0.1 0.2

Accommodation and food services

28 28 26 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services

17 5 14 0.3 0.1 0.2

Government

67 82 71 0.3 0.4 0.3

Federal

9 12 11 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local

58 70 60 0.3 0.4 0.3

State and local education

26 37 34 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local, excluding education

32 33 26 0.3 0.4 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

64 61 77 0.2 0.2 0.3

South

138 122 133 0.3 0.2 0.2

Midwest

86 91 59 0.3 0.3 0.2

West

103 111 77 0.3 0.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: October 16, 2018