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Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, November 5, 2019	USDL-19-1907

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – SEPTEMBER 2019

The number of job openings edged down to 7.0 million (-277,000) on the last business day of 
September, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations 
were little changed at 5.9 million and 5.8 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate and the 
layoffs and discharges rate were little changed at 2.3 percent and 1.3 percent, respectively. This release 
includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector 
by industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of September, the job openings level edged down to 7.0 million (-277,000). 
The job openings rate was 4.4 percent. The number of job openings edged down for total private 
(-262,000) and was little changed for government. The job openings level decreased in health care and 
social assistance (-124,000), retail trade (-102,000), and federal government (-19,000). Job openings 
increased in information (+25,000). The number of job openings decreased in the Northeast region. (See 
table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was little changed at 5.9 million in September and the hires rate was unchanged at 
3.9 percent. The number of hires was little changed for total private and for government. The hires level 
decreased in federal government (-30,000). The number of hires was little changed in all four regions. 
(See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.8 million in September and the rate was 
unchanged at 3.8 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for 
government. The total separations level was little changed in all industries and in all four regions. (See 
table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in September at 3.5 million as was the rate at 2.3 percent. The 
quits level was little changed for total private and for government. Quits decreased in accommodation 
and food services (-74,000) and in real estate and rental and leasing (-19,000). The number of quits 
decreased in the Northeast and South regions. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges edged up in September to 2.0 million (+152,000). The layoffs 
and discharges rate was 1.3 percent. The layoffs and discharges level edged up for total private 
(+151,000) and was little changed for government. The number of layoffs and discharges increased in 
accommodation and food services (+72,000) and in health care and social assistance (+42,000). The 
layoffs and discharges level was little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in September. The other separations level was also 
little changed for total private and for government. Other separations increased in accommodation and 
food services (+15,000) and in nondurable goods manufacturing (+5,000). The number of other 
separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in September, hires totaled 69.9 million 
and separations totaled 67.4 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.5 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for October 2019 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, December 17, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

7,392 7,301 7,024 5,670 5,884 5,934 5,558 5,732 5,808

Total private

6,771 6,562 6,300 5,327 5,489 5,565 5,216 5,385 5,454

Mining and logging(1)

34 33 32 42 21 24 37 28 24

Construction(1)

299 384 338 378 414 426 361 415 418

Manufacturing

469 470 469 336 337 351 320 320 357

Durable goods(1)

297 321 309 192 192 202 180 183 206

Nondurable goods(1)

171 149 161 145 145 149 141 137 151

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,554 1,337 1,275 1,158 1,173 1,196 1,174 1,202 1,215

Wholesale trade

227 193 202 141 145 160 135 145 164

Retail trade

978 816 714 797 782 790 838 817 814

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

349 327 359 220 245 246 201 241 237

Information(1)

110 137 162 89 95 89 92 94 79

Financial activities

353 377 356 223 235 222 209 240 213

Finance and insurance

266 269 262 148 148 141 143 151 131

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

88 107 94 75 86 82 66 89 82

Professional and business services

1,352 1,305 1,267 1,129 1,163 1,226 1,079 1,145 1,187

Education and health services

1,282 1,330 1,191 669 686 716 628 633 655

Educational services(1)

76 135 120 89 94 93 95 98 92

Health care and social assistance

1,206 1,195 1,071 580 593 622 532 535 563

Leisure and hospitality

1,074 929 964 1,086 1,135 1,145 1,097 1,110 1,115

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

100 120 143 177 161 165 164 159 153

Accommodation and food services

974 809 821 909 973 979 932 951 962

Other services

246 261 245 216 229 170 219 199 190

Government

621 739 724 343 396 369 342 347 355

Federal(1)

83 121 102 37 70 40 36 40 41

State and local

538 618 622 306 325 329 306 307 314

State and local education

220 218 231 158 169 169 160 153 157

State and local, excluding education(1)

318 400 391 148 156 160 146 154 156





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.7 4.6 4.4 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.8

Total private

5.1 4.8 4.7 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.2

Mining and logging(1)

4.3 4.3 4.1 5.6 2.8 3.3 5.0 3.7 3.2

Construction(1)

3.9 4.9 4.3 5.1 5.5 5.7 4.9 5.5 5.6

Manufacturing

3.6 3.5 3.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.8

Durable goods(1)

3.6 3.8 3.7 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.6

Nondurable goods(1)

3.5 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

5.3 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.4

Wholesale trade

3.7 3.2 3.3 2.4 2.4 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.8

Retail trade

5.8 4.9 4.3 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.3 5.2 5.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

5.5 5.1 5.5 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.3 3.9 3.9

Information(1)

3.7 4.6 5.4 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.3 2.8

Financial activities

3.9 4.2 3.9 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.8 2.4

Finance and insurance

4.0 4.1 4.0 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.7 4.4 3.9 3.3 3.7 3.5 2.9 3.8 3.5

Professional and business services

6.0 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.1 5.3 5.5

Education and health services

5.1 5.2 4.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.7

Educational services(1)

2.0 3.4 3.0 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.4

Health care and social assistance

5.7 5.5 4.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

6.2 5.3 5.5 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4.0 4.7 5.5 7.3 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.5 6.2

Accommodation and food services

6.5 5.4 5.4 6.5 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.8

Other services

4.0 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.9 2.9 3.7 3.3 3.2

Government

2.7 3.2 3.1 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6

Federal(1)

2.9 4.1 3.5 1.3 2.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4

State and local

2.7 3.0 3.0 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local education

2.1 2.0 2.1 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.3 4.1 4.0 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

7,392 7,384 7,248 7,174 7,301 7,024 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,771 6,680 6,560 6,462 6,562 6,300 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.7

Mining and logging(3)

34 30 29 41 33 32 4.3 3.8 3.7 5.2 4.3 4.1

Construction(3)

299 376 331 360 384 338 3.9 4.8 4.2 4.6 4.9 4.3

Manufacturing

469 503 515 513 470 469 3.6 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.5

Durable goods(3)

297 320 322 317 321 309 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7

Nondurable goods(3)

171 183 193 196 149 161 3.5 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.0 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,554 1,352 1,390 1,256 1,337 1,275 5.3 4.6 4.8 4.3 4.6 4.4

Wholesale trade

227 220 213 169 193 202 3.7 3.6 3.5 2.8 3.2 3.3

Retail trade

978 815 863 793 816 714 5.8 4.9 5.2 4.8 4.9 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

349 317 314 294 327 359 5.5 4.9 4.9 4.6 5.1 5.5

Information(3)

110 107 129 177 137 162 3.7 3.7 4.4 5.9 4.6 5.4

Financial activities

353 352 378 379 377 356 3.9 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.9

Finance and insurance

266 266 260 249 269 262 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.1 4.0

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

88 86 118 130 107 94 3.7 3.6 4.8 5.3 4.4 3.9

Professional and business services

1,352 1,313 1,292 1,238 1,305 1,267 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.5

Education and health services

1,282 1,329 1,322 1,287 1,330 1,191 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.2 4.7

Educational services(3)

76 122 127 135 135 120 2.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.0

Health care and social assistance

1,206 1,207 1,195 1,152 1,195 1,071 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.3 5.5 4.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,074 1,027 913 959 929 964 6.2 5.8 5.2 5.4 5.3 5.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

100 110 104 101 120 143 4.0 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.7 5.5

Accommodation and food services

974 916 809 858 809 821 6.5 6.0 5.4 5.7 5.4 5.4

Other services

246 292 261 252 261 245 4.0 4.7 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.0

Government

621 704 688 712 739 724 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.1

Federal(3)

83 110 110 127 121 102 2.9 3.8 3.8 4.3 4.1 3.5

State and local

538 595 578 585 618 622 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0

State and local education

220 212 217 212 218 231 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1

State and local, excluding education(3)

318 383 360 373 400 391 3.3 4.0 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.0

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,269 1,271 1,231 1,172 1,348 1,203 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.6 4.1

South

2,720 2,754 2,641 2,634 2,765 2,673 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.8 4.6

Midwest

1,744 1,697 1,689 1,690 1,569 1,540 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.5 4.4

West

1,659 1,662 1,688 1,677 1,620 1,607 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

5,670 5,760 5,716 5,978 5,884 5,934 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,327 5,398 5,377 5,620 5,489 5,565 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.3

Mining and logging

42 27 21 23 21 24 5.6 3.5 2.8 3.1 2.8 3.3

Construction

378 387 413 374 414 426 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.0 5.5 5.7

Manufacturing

336 340 336 338 337 351 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7

Durable goods

192 193 194 190 192 202 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5

Nondurable goods

145 147 142 148 145 149 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,158 1,161 1,177 1,233 1,173 1,196 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.3

Wholesale trade

141 164 154 169 145 160 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.7

Retail trade

797 770 798 804 782 790 5.0 4.9 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

220 227 225 260 245 246 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.2 4.0 4.0

Information

89 99 93 94 95 89 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.1

Financial activities

223 217 219 256 235 222 2.6 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.7 2.6

Finance and insurance

148 139 128 163 148 141 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.6 2.3 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

75 78 91 94 86 82 3.3 3.4 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.5

Professional and business services

1,129 1,172 1,112 1,180 1,163 1,226 5.3 5.5 5.2 5.5 5.4 5.7

Education and health services

669 675 676 750 686 716 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.9

Educational services

89 98 93 108 94 93 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.5 2.4

Health care and social assistance

580 577 583 642 593 622 2.9 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

1,086 1,100 1,114 1,150 1,135 1,145 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.9 6.8 6.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

177 167 128 155 161 165 7.3 6.8 5.2 6.3 6.6 6.7

Accommodation and food services

909 933 986 995 973 979 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.0 6.8 6.9

Other services

216 220 217 221 229 170 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 2.9

Government

343 361 339 358 396 369 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6

Federal

37 32 33 37 70 40 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.5 1.4

State and local

306 329 306 322 325 329 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7

State and local education

158 171 166 172 169 169 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local, excluding education

148 158 140 150 156 160 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

814 957 891 964 935 898 3.0 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.2

South

2,310 2,261 2,293 2,420 2,306 2,358 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.3

Midwest

1,321 1,233 1,249 1,274 1,285 1,302 4.0 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9

West

1,225 1,308 1,283 1,320 1,358 1,377 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

5,558 5,557 5,513 5,810 5,732 5,808 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,216 5,208 5,174 5,473 5,385 5,454 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.2

Mining and logging

37 24 24 27 28 24 5.0 3.2 3.1 3.6 3.7 3.2

Construction

361 390 407 376 415 418 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.5 5.6

Manufacturing

320 334 331 326 320 357 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.8

Durable goods

180 188 180 177 183 206 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.6

Nondurable goods

141 147 151 149 137 151 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.9 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,174 1,134 1,118 1,217 1,202 1,215 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.4 4.3 4.4

Wholesale trade

135 148 152 165 145 164 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.8

Retail trade

838 768 767 807 817 814 5.3 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

201 219 199 246 241 237 3.3 3.6 3.3 4.0 3.9 3.9

Information

92 91 90 95 94 79 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.3 2.8

Financial activities

209 211 219 231 240 213 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.4

Finance and insurance

143 134 125 140 151 131 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

66 78 94 91 89 82 2.9 3.4 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.5

Professional and business services

1,079 1,139 1,059 1,148 1,145 1,187 5.1 5.3 4.9 5.3 5.3 5.5

Education and health services

628 622 611 682 633 655 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.7

Educational services

95 95 89 91 98 92 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.4

Health care and social assistance

532 527 522 590 535 563 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,097 1,047 1,096 1,144 1,110 1,115 6.7 6.3 6.6 6.9 6.6 6.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

164 173 136 150 159 153 6.8 7.0 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.2

Accommodation and food services

932 874 960 994 951 962 6.7 6.1 6.7 7.0 6.7 6.8

Other services

219 215 218 226 199 190 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.3 3.2

Government

342 349 339 336 347 355 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6

Federal

36 34 33 37 40 41 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4

State and local

306 315 306 300 307 314 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6

State and local education

160 178 174 158 153 157 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5

State and local, excluding education

146 137 132 142 154 156 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

854 924 896 870 914 844 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.0

South

2,253 2,078 2,114 2,237 2,287 2,269 4.1 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.1

Midwest

1,234 1,216 1,224 1,298 1,195 1,304 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.6 3.9

West

1,216 1,339 1,278 1,404 1,336 1,391 3.5 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.8 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

3,393 3,478 3,462 3,668 3,601 3,498 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,223 3,277 3,278 3,487 3,419 3,310 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6

Mining and logging

21 15 13 14 14 11 2.9 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.5

Construction

170 168 186 177 182 188 2.3 2.2 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.5

Manufacturing

202 203 203 195 197 216 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.7

Durable goods

110 114 114 103 114 125 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.6

Nondurable goods

92 89 89 92 83 91 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

763 784 745 771 777 752 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.7

Wholesale trade

88 105 90 89 87 88 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Retail trade

569 543 540 545 554 533 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

107 136 115 137 136 131 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.1

Information

41 57 50 43 49 41 1.5 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.4

Financial activities

125 118 137 138 152 126 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.4

Finance and insurance

75 73 77 88 92 84 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

51 45 60 50 61 42 2.2 2.0 2.6 2.1 2.6 1.8

Professional and business services

605 619 621 679 646 658 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.0 3.1

Education and health services

411 406 412 485 459 444 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.8

Educational services

51 51 54 61 56 51 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.3

Health care and social assistance

360 355 359 424 402 392 1.8 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.0 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

739 761 782 822 831 753 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.0 4.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

81 73 77 80 83 79 3.4 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.2

Accommodation and food services

658 688 705 742 748 674 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.3 4.7

Other services

144 144 128 165 113 121 2.5 2.4 2.1 2.8 1.9 2.0

Government

170 202 183 181 181 188 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Federal

18 16 14 17 18 17 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

State and local

152 186 170 164 164 170 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9

State and local education

75 103 98 88 87 91 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9

State and local, excluding education

76 82 71 75 77 80 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

447 496 507 502 546 468 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.7

South

1,420 1,381 1,392 1,479 1,440 1,347 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.4

Midwest

747 802 763 836 759 815 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.4

West

778 799 800 852 856 867 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

1,818 1,773 1,711 1,788 1,812 1,964 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,701 1,683 1,615 1,698 1,709 1,860 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4

Mining and logging

14 8 8 12 10 12 1.9 1.1 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.6

Construction

180 211 211 183 218 220 2.4 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.9 2.9

Manufacturing

101 112 109 112 104 116 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9

Durable goods

59 61 55 63 57 68 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8

Nondurable goods

41 51 54 49 48 49 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

360 297 313 372 368 397 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.4

Wholesale trade(3)

42 34 56 63 54 67 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.1

Retail trade

231 194 184 216 227 242 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

87 70 73 93 88 88 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.4

Information

46 28 28 42 38 33 1.6 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.2

Financial activities

56 65 63 63 59 60 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Finance and insurance

43 35 31 27 33 26 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

13 30 31 36 26 34 0.6 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.5

Professional and business services

399 469 376 410 441 464 1.9 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2

Education and health services

162 170 164 159 137 178 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7

Educational services

37 36 30 26 36 36 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.9

Health care and social assistance

125 134 134 133 100 142 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

314 257 272 296 257 326 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.5 2.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

75 97 57 67 71 69 3.1 4.0 2.3 2.8 2.9 2.8

Accommodation and food services

239 160 215 229 186 258 1.7 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.8

Other services

69 65 71 49 76 54 1.2 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.3 0.9

Government

117 90 97 91 102 104 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Federal

7 7 8 7 10 10 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

State and local

110 83 89 84 93 94 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

State and local education

66 50 53 44 43 43 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local, excluding education

44 33 36 41 49 51 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

341 371 316 308 314 314 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

South

708 579 601 624 717 785 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4

Midwest

413 349 397 396 375 413 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2

West

356 474 397 460 406 452 1.0 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

348 306 340 353 320 346 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

291 248 281 288 256 283 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 1 3 1 3 1 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.1

Construction(3)

11 10 9 17 16 10 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Manufacturing

18 19 19 19 19 24 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

Durable goods

10 13 12 12 12 13 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

7 6 7 8 6 11 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

52 53 60 75 58 67 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

6 9 5 13 4 9 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

39 31 43 45 37 39 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

7 13 11 17 17 19 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Information(3)

5 5 11 11 6 5 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2

Financial activities

27 28 20 30 28 27 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

26 26 17 25 26 21 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

2 2 3 5 2 6 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3

Professional and business services

75 51 62 59 58 65 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

54 46 35 38 37 34 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Educational services

8 8 5 4 5 5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

47 39 30 33 33 29 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

43 29 42 26 22 35 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

9 3 2 3 5 5 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

Accommodation and food services(3)

35 26 39 24 16 31 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2

Other services(3)

5 5 20 12 10 15 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3

Government

56 58 59 65 64 63 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

11 11 11 13 12 14 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5

State and local

45 46 48 52 51 49 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

State and local education

19 24 23 26 23 23 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

26 22 25 26 28 26 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

66 58 73 61 54 61 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

125 118 121 134 130 137 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Midwest

75 64 64 66 61 76 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

82 66 81 92 74 72 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

7,502 7,413 7,095 4.8 4.7 4.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,889 6,662 6,373 5.1 4.9 4.7

Mining and logging

34 33 32 4.3 4.2 4.0

Construction

299 384 338 3.8 4.7 4.2

Manufacturing

469 470 469 3.5 3.5 3.5

Durable goods

297 321 309 3.6 3.8 3.7

Nondurable goods

171 149 161 3.5 3.0 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,712 1,424 1,408 5.8 4.9 4.8

Wholesale trade

221 179 194 3.6 2.9 3.2

Retail trade

1,142 918 855 6.8 5.5 5.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

349 327 359 5.5 5.1 5.5

Information

110 137 162 3.8 4.6 5.4

Financial activities

351 384 357 3.9 4.2 3.9

Finance and insurance

263 277 263 4.0 4.2 4.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

88 107 94 3.7 4.3 3.8

Professional and business services

1,404 1,331 1,301 6.2 5.8 5.7

Education and health services

1,246 1,315 1,155 5.0 5.2 4.5

Educational services

76 135 120 2.0 3.7 3.1

Health care and social assistance

1,170 1,180 1,035 5.5 5.4 4.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,028 937 910 5.9 5.1 5.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

80 118 117 3.2 4.1 4.5

Accommodation and food services

948 819 792 6.3 5.3 5.2

Other services

238 245 240 3.9 3.9 3.9

Government

613 751 722 2.7 3.4 3.1

Federal

83 121 102 2.9 4.1 3.5

State and local

530 630 620 2.6 3.2 3.0

State and local education

212 230 229 2.0 2.4 2.1

State and local, excluding education

318 400 391 3.3 4.1 4.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,317 1,404 1,239 4.6 4.8 4.3

South

2,722 2,746 2,676 4.7 4.7 4.6

Midwest

1,784 1,597 1,552 5.1 4.6 4.4

West

1,679 1,666 1,628 4.6 4.5 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

5,723 6,481 6,009 3.8 4.3 4.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,278 5,797 5,546 4.1 4.5 4.3

Mining and logging

43 23 25 5.7 3.0 3.3

Construction

353 411 406 4.7 5.3 5.3

Manufacturing

342 363 362 2.7 2.8 2.8

Durable goods

192 202 205 2.4 2.5 2.5

Nondurable goods

150 161 158 3.1 3.3 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,171 1,220 1,225 4.2 4.4 4.4

Wholesale trade

137 146 158 2.3 2.4 2.7

Retail trade

792 830 795 5.1 5.3 5.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

242 244 272 4.0 4.0 4.4

Information

89 95 88 3.2 3.3 3.1

Financial activities

204 243 204 2.4 2.8 2.3

Finance and insurance

134 153 128 2.1 2.4 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

70 90 76 3.1 3.8 3.2

Professional and business services

1,104 1,181 1,205 5.2 5.5 5.6

Education and health services

727 848 774 3.1 3.5 3.2

Educational services

144 171 149 3.9 4.8 3.9

Health care and social assistance

583 678 625 2.9 3.3 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

1,040 1,185 1,099 6.3 6.8 6.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

144 127 135 5.9 4.6 5.3

Accommodation and food services

897 1,059 964 6.4 7.2 6.7

Other services

205 227 159 3.5 3.8 2.7

Government

445 683 463 2.0 3.2 2.0

Federal

39 72 42 1.4 2.5 1.5

State and local

406 611 421 2.1 3.3 2.1

State and local education

273 456 273 2.6 4.9 2.6

State and local, excluding education

133 155 148 1.4 1.6 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

882 957 958 3.2 3.4 3.4

South

2,292 2,590 2,328 4.2 4.7 4.2

Midwest

1,315 1,420 1,315 4.0 4.3 3.9

West

1,234 1,514 1,409 3.6 4.3 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

5,900 6,822 6,172 3.9 4.5 4.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,514 6,293 5,765 4.3 4.8 4.5

Mining and logging

36 31 23 4.7 4.0 3.0

Construction

371 459 439 4.9 5.9 5.7

Manufacturing

334 398 375 2.6 3.1 2.9

Durable goods

188 232 217 2.3 2.9 2.7

Nondurable goods

147 165 159 3.1 3.4 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,148 1,367 1,186 4.2 4.9 4.3

Wholesale trade

139 165 165 2.4 2.8 2.8

Retail trade

825 939 804 5.3 6.0 5.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

183 264 217 3.0 4.4 3.5

Information

97 106 81 3.5 3.7 2.8

Financial activities

203 287 206 2.4 3.3 2.4

Finance and insurance

138 196 127 2.2 3.1 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

65 91 80 2.8 3.8 3.4

Professional and business services

1,084 1,201 1,199 5.1 5.5 5.5

Education and health services

626 768 652 2.6 3.2 2.7

Educational services

95 156 92 2.6 4.4 2.4

Health care and social assistance

531 612 560 2.7 3.0 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,363 1,403 1,392 8.2 8.1 8.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

275 260 254 11.2 9.5 10.1

Accommodation and food services

1,088 1,143 1,139 7.7 7.8 7.9

Other services

252 274 213 4.3 4.6 3.6

Government

386 528 407 1.7 2.4 1.8

Federal

37 46 45 1.3 1.6 1.6

State and local

349 483 362 1.8 2.6 1.8

State and local education

136 222 130 1.3 2.4 1.2

State and local, excluding education

212 260 232 2.3 2.7 2.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,014 1,148 1,010 3.7 4.1 3.6

South

2,319 2,665 2,318 4.2 4.8 4.2

Midwest

1,293 1,466 1,387 3.9 4.4 4.2

West

1,273 1,542 1,458 3.7 4.4 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

3,615 4,478 3,697 2.4 3.0 2.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,435 4,215 3,504 2.7 3.2 2.7

Mining and logging

24 18 13 3.2 2.4 1.7

Construction

182 228 204 2.4 2.9 2.7

Manufacturing

208 263 225 1.6 2.0 1.7

Durable goods

115 151 131 1.4 1.9 1.6

Nondurable goods

92 113 94 1.9 2.3 2.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

796 947 777 2.9 3.4 2.8

Wholesale trade

92 107 91 1.6 1.8 1.5

Retail trade

596 679 559 3.8 4.3 3.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

108 161 128 1.8 2.7 2.1

Information

47 63 42 1.7 2.2 1.5

Financial activities

129 178 129 1.5 2.0 1.5

Finance and insurance

78 118 88 1.2 1.8 1.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

51 61 42 2.2 2.6 1.8

Professional and business services

614 723 671 2.9 3.3 3.1

Education and health services

426 565 452 1.8 2.3 1.9

Educational services

59 91 58 1.6 2.6 1.5

Health care and social assistance

366 473 393 1.8 2.3 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

852 1,075 862 5.2 6.2 5.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

113 157 110 4.6 5.7 4.4

Accommodation and food services

739 918 752 5.2 6.3 5.2

Other services

158 153 129 2.7 2.6 2.2

Government

180 264 193 0.8 1.2 0.9

Federal

19 22 19 0.7 0.8 0.7

State and local

162 241 174 0.8 1.3 0.9

State and local education

69 133 78 0.7 1.4 0.7

State and local, excluding education

92 108 96 1.0 1.1 1.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

517 686 531 1.9 2.5 1.9

South

1,477 1,761 1,377 2.7 3.2 2.5

Midwest

804 985 889 2.4 3.0 2.7

West

817 1,046 900 2.4 3.0 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

1,945 2,001 2,138 1.3 1.3 1.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,793 1,808 1,984 1.4 1.4 1.5

Mining and logging

10 9 9 1.4 1.2 1.3

Construction

178 214 225 2.4 2.8 2.9

Manufacturing

110 117 126 0.9 0.9 1.0

Durable goods

63 70 73 0.8 0.9 0.9

Nondurable goods

47 46 53 1.0 1.0 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

300 358 342 1.1 1.3 1.2

Wholesale trade

42 54 67 0.7 0.9 1.1

Retail trade

190 218 206 1.2 1.4 1.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

68 86 70 1.1 1.4 1.1

Information

46 38 34 1.6 1.3 1.2

Financial activities

50 72 54 0.6 0.8 0.6

Finance and insurance

38 43 22 0.6 0.7 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

12 29 32 0.5 1.2 1.4

Professional and business services

397 419 463 1.9 1.9 2.1

Education and health services

146 164 166 0.6 0.7 0.7

Educational services

28 59 29 0.8 1.7 0.8

Health care and social assistance

118 106 137 0.6 0.5 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

467 306 495 2.8 1.8 2.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

153 98 139 6.2 3.6 5.5

Accommodation and food services

314 208 356 2.2 1.4 2.5

Other services

89 111 68 1.5 1.9 1.2

Government

152 193 154 0.7 0.9 0.7

Federal

7 12 11 0.2 0.4 0.4

State and local

145 181 144 0.7 1.0 0.7

State and local education

52 61 35 0.5 0.6 0.3

State and local, excluding education

93 120 109 1.0 1.3 1.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

427 400 410 1.6 1.4 1.5

South

728 768 816 1.3 1.4 1.5

Midwest

416 408 424 1.3 1.2 1.3

West

374 425 489 1.1 1.2 1.4

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Sept.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)

Total

340 342 337 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

286 270 278 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

1 3 1 0.2 0.4 0.1

Construction

11 16 10 0.1 0.2 0.1

Manufacturing

17 17 24 0.1 0.1 0.2

Durable goods

9 11 13 0.1 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

7 6 11 0.2 0.1 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

52 62 66 0.2 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

6 4 7 0.1 0.1 0.1

Retail trade

39 41 40 0.2 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

7 17 19 0.1 0.3 0.3

Information

5 6 5 0.2 0.2 0.2

Financial activities

24 37 23 0.3 0.4 0.3

Finance and insurance

22 34 17 0.4 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2 2 6 0.1 0.1 0.3

Professional and business services

73 58 65 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

55 39 34 0.2 0.2 0.1

Educational services

8 6 5 0.2 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance

47 33 29 0.2 0.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

43 22 35 0.3 0.1 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

9 5 5 0.3 0.2 0.2

Accommodation and food services

35 16 31 0.2 0.1 0.2

Other services

5 10 15 0.1 0.2 0.3

Government

54 72 60 0.2 0.3 0.3

Federal

12 12 16 0.4 0.4 0.5

State and local

42 60 44 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local education

16 29 17 0.1 0.3 0.2

State and local, excluding education

27 32 27 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

71 62 68 0.3 0.2 0.2

South

114 136 125 0.2 0.2 0.2

Midwest

74 73 75 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

82 71 69 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: November 05, 2019