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Economic News Release
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Producer Price Index News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                          USDL 20-0920
8:30 a.m. (EDT), Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Technical information:      (202) 691-7705  *  ppi-info@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ppi
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov   
                              
                              PRODUCER PRICE INDEXES - APRIL 2020

The Producer Price Index for final demand declined 1.3 percent in April, seasonally adjusted, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This decrease is the largest since the index began 
in December 2009. Final demand prices fell 0.2 percent in March and 0.6 percent in February. 
(See table A.) On an unadjusted basis, the final demand index moved down 1.2 percent for the 12 
months ended in April, the largest decline since falling 1.3 percent for the 12 months ended 
November 2015.

In April, over 80 percent of the decrease in the final demand index can be traced to a 3.3-percent 
drop in prices for final demand goods. The index for final demand services moved down 0.2 
percent.

Prices for final demand less foods, energy, and trade services fell 0.9 percent in April, the largest 
decline since the index was introduced in September 2013. For the 12 months ended in April, the 
index for final demand less foods, energy, and trade services moved down 0.3 percent, the first 
12-month decrease.

 ______________________________________________________________________________________________
|     Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on April 2020 Producer Price Index Survey Data    |
|                                                                                              |
|  The Producer Price Index (PPI) response rates for April were consistent with those of March |
|  and February, and no changes in estimation procedures were necessary. Additional information|
|  is available at www.bls.gov/bls/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-bls-price-indexes.htm#PPI.  |                                                    | 
|______________________________________________________________________________________________|

Final Demand

Final demand goods: The index for final demand goods fell 3.3 percent in April, the largest decline 
since the series began in December 2009. Most of the broad-based decrease is attributable to prices 
for final demand energy, which fell 19.0 percent. The indexes for final demand goods less foods and 
energy and for final demand foods moved down 0.4 percent and 0.5 percent, respectively.

Product detail: Two-thirds of the April decrease in the index for final demand goods can be traced to 
prices for gasoline, which dropped 56.6 percent. This is the largest decrease since the series began in 
February 1947. The indexes for jet fuel, diesel fuel, basic organic chemicals, home heating oil, and 
corn also moved lower. In contrast, prices for beef and veal rose 12.6 percent. The indexes for 
distilled and bottled liquor (excluding brandy) and for electric power also increased. (See table 4.)

Final demand services: The index for final demand services fell 0.2 percent in April following a 
0.2-percent advance in March. Leading the decrease, prices for final demand services less trade, 
transportation, and warehousing moved down 0.9 percent. The index for final demand transportation 
and warehousing services declined 3.5 percent. Conversely, margins for final demand trade services 
increased 1.6 percent. (Trade indexes measure changes in margins received by wholesalers and 
retailers.)

Product detail: Leading the April decline in the index for final demand services, prices for portfolio 
management fell 12.0 percent. The indexes for airline passenger services; traveler accommodation 
services; services related to securities brokerage and dealing (partial); hospital outpatient care; and 
apparel, footwear, and accessories retailing also moved lower. In contrast, margins for automotive 
fuels and lubricants retailing rose 41.6 percent. The indexes for inpatient care and for chemicals and 
allied products wholesaling also advanced.

Table A. Monthly and 12-month percent changes in selected final demand price indexes, seasonally adjusted
Month Total
final
demand
Final
demand
less
foods,
energy,
and
trade
Final demand goods Final demand services Change
in final
demand
from 12
months
ago
(unadj.)
Change
in final
demand
less
foods,
energy,
and
trade
from 12
mo. ago
(unadj.)
Total Foods Energy Less
foods
and
energy
Total Trade Transportation
and
warehousing
Other

2019

Apr.

0.4 0.4 0.3 -0.2 1.9 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.3 2.4 2.4

May

0.2 0.3 -0.2 -0.3 -0.5 -0.1 0.3 0.0 0.6 0.4 2.1 2.4

June

-0.2 -0.1 -0.5 0.5 -3.0 -0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 -0.1 1.6 2.1

July

0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.6 1.9

Aug.

0.1 0.1 -0.3 -0.6 -1.4 0.0 0.3 0.9 -0.2 0.2 1.9 1.9

Sept.

-0.3 0.0 -0.2 0.4 -1.4 -0.1 -0.3 -0.9 -0.2 0.0 1.5 1.7

Oct.

0.3 0.0 0.5 1.4 1.8 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.0 1.0 1.5

Nov.

-0.1 0.1 0.3 1.3 -0.1 0.1 -0.3 -1.2 -0.2 0.1 1.0 1.4

Dec.(1)

0.3 0.2 0.2 -0.2 1.1 0.0 0.3 0.6 1.6 0.1 1.4 1.5

2020

Jan.(1)

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.8 -1.2 0.4 2.1 1.5

Feb.

-0.6 -0.1 -0.9 -1.6 -3.6 -0.1 -0.3 -0.7 -0.6 -0.1 1.3 1.4

Mar.

-0.2 -0.2 -1.0 0.0 -6.7 0.2 0.2 1.4 -3.3 0.0 0.7 1.0

Apr.

-1.3 -0.9 -3.3 -0.5 -19.0 -0.4 -0.2 1.6 -3.5 -0.9 -1.2 -0.3

Footnotes
(1) Some of the figures shown above and elsewhere in this release may differ from those previously reported because data for December 2019 have been revised to reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents.

Intermediate Demand by Commodity Type

Within intermediate demand in April, prices for processed goods fell 3.7 percent, the index for 
unprocessed goods dropped 13.7 percent, and prices for services declined 1.6 percent. (See tables B and 
C.)

Processed goods for intermediate demand: The index for processed goods for intermediate demand 
declined 3.7 percent in April, the largest drop since falling 4.1 percent in December 2008. Seventy 
percent of the broad-based April decrease can be attributed to prices for processed energy goods, which 
fell 15.1 percent. The indexes for processed materials less foods and energy and for processed foods and 
feeds moved down 1.5 percent and 0.1 percent, respectively. For the 12 months ended in April, prices for 
processed goods for intermediate demand declined 7.3 percent, the largest decrease since a 7.7-percent 
drop in the 12 months ended October 2015.

Product Detail: A major factor in the April decrease in prices for processed goods for intermediate 
demand was the index for diesel fuel, which dropped 27.8 percent. Prices for gasoline, basic organic 
chemicals, jet fuel, residual fuels, and plastic resins and materials also moved lower. Conversely, the 
index for beef and veal jumped 12.6 percent. Prices for industrial electric power, and for distilled and 
bottled liquor (except brandy) also rose. (See table 5.)

Unprocessed goods for intermediate demand: The index for unprocessed goods for intermediate 
demand moved down 13.7 percent in April, the largest decline since falling 15.4 percent in October 2008. 
Sixty percent of the broad-based April decrease was the result of a 27.5-percent drop in prices for 
unprocessed energy materials. The indexes for unprocessed foodstuffs and feedstuffs and for unprocessed 
nonfood materials less energy also moved down, 9.7 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively. For the 12 
months ended in April, prices for unprocessed goods for intermediate demand decreased 28.2 percent, the 
largest decline since dropping 31.7 percent in the 12 months ended September 2009.

Product Detail: Nearly half of the April decrease in the index for unprocessed goods for intermediate 
demand can be traced to a 48.9-percent drop in prices for crude petroleum. The indexes for slaughter 
chickens, natural gas, corn, iron and steel scrap, and slaughter barrows and gilts also moved lower. In 
contrast, prices for wastepaper jumped 50.4 percent. The indexes for slaughter cows and bulls and for 
wheat also advanced.

Table B. Monthly and 12-month percent changes in selected intermediate demand price indexes for goods by commodity type, seasonally adjusted
Month Processed goods for intermediate demand Unprocessed goods for intermediate demand
Total Foods
and
feeds
Energy
goods
Less
foods
and
energy
Total,
change
from 12
months
ago
(unadj.)
Total Foodstuffs
and
feedstuffs
Energy
materials
Nonfood
materials
less
energy
Total,
change
from 12
months
ago
(unadj.)

2019

Apr.

0.1 0.6 0.8 -0.1 0.9 1.6 4.2 1.1 -2.2 -3.3

May

-0.5 -0.5 -1.3 -0.2 -0.7 -3.0 -2.0 -3.4 -3.7 -8.2

June

-1.0 -0.2 -4.2 -0.3 -2.3 -3.0 -0.5 -6.5 -0.6 -10.0

July

0.1 0.1 1.1 -0.2 -2.3 1.4 0.4 2.0 1.5 -9.7

Aug.

-0.5 0.3 -1.4 -0.3 -3.0 -1.6 -0.5 -3.1 -0.6 -7.7

Sept.

-0.1 0.8 -0.5 -0.2 -3.5 0.0 -0.9 1.5 -0.9 -8.9

Oct.

0.3 0.4 0.1 0.3 -3.8 0.3 5.4 -4.1 -0.8 -11.2

Nov.

0.2 1.4 1.4 -0.2 -2.9 3.1 0.6 7.8 -0.1 -5.1

Dec.(1)

-0.1 0.0 0.5 -0.2 -1.7 1.2 0.5 0.8 3.1 -7.3

2020

Jan.(1)

-0.2 -0.2 -1.0 0.1 -1.0 -0.5 -0.2 -4.2 5.3 -3.2

Feb.

-0.9 -0.6 -4.0 -0.2 -2.1 -7.7 -5.8 -13.6 -1.5 -8.2

Mar.

-1.1 -0.8 -5.9 -0.1 -3.7 -8.0 -3.6 -19.1 1.3 -15.4

Apr.

-3.7 -0.1 -15.1 -1.5 -7.3 -13.7 -9.7 -27.5 -4.3 -28.2

Footnotes
(1) Some of the figures shown above and elsewhere in this release may differ from those previously reported because data for December 2019 have been revised to reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents.

Services for intermediate demand: The index for services for intermediate demand moved down 
1.6 percent in April, the largest decline since the index began December 2009. Leading the decrease, 
prices for services less trade, transportation, and warehousing for intermediate demand fell 2.0 
percent. In addition, the index for transportation and warehousing services for intermediate demand 
moved down 1.4 percent, and margins for trade services for intermediate demand decreased 0.4 
percent. For the 12 months ended in April, the index for services for intermediate demand declined 
1.2 percent, the first 12-month decrease for this index. 

Product Detail: Over a third of the April decrease in the index for services for intermediate demand 
can be traced to prices for portfolio management, which dropped 12.0 percent. The indexes for 
services related to securities brokerage and dealing (partial), business loans (partial), television 
advertising time sales, airline passenger services, and machinery and equipment parts and supplies 
wholesaling also fell. Conversely, margins for automotive fuels and lubricants retailing jumped 41.6 
percent. Prices for temporary help services and for arrangement of freight and cargo transportation 
also increased.   

Table C. Monthly and 12-month percent changes in selected intermediate demand price indexes for services by commodity type, seasonally adjusted
Month Services for intermediate demand
Total Trade Transportation
and
warehousing
Other Total, change
from 12 months
ago (unadj.)

2019

Apr.

0.4 1.1 0.4 0.3 3.1

May

0.1 -0.6 0.4 0.2 2.8

June

0.0 -0.1 0.2 0.0 2.6

July

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.0 2.3

Aug.

0.4 1.4 0.2 0.2 2.7

Sept.

0.2 1.0 0.2 0.0 2.5

Oct.

-0.6 -0.8 0.1 -0.6 1.4

Nov.

-0.1 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 1.3

Dec.(1)

0.5 1.0 0.7 0.3 1.7

2020

Jan.(1)

0.1 0.4 -0.4 0.1 1.7

Feb.

-0.1 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 1.4

Mar.

-0.1 0.7 -1.3 -0.1 1.0

Apr.

-1.6 -0.4 -1.4 -2.0 -1.2

Footnotes
(1) Some of the figures shown above and elsewhere in this release may differ from those previously reported because data for December 2019 have been revised to reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents.

Intermediate Demand by Production Flow

Stage 4 intermediate demand: The index for stage 4 intermediate demand fell 1.8 percent in 
April, the largest decrease since the index began in December 2009. Prices for total goods inputs 
to stage 4 intermediate demand moved down 1.9 percent, and the index for total services inputs 
declined 1.8 percent. (See table D.) Decreases in the indexes for diesel fuel, portfolio 
management, gasoline, business loans (partial), machinery and equipment parts and supplies 
wholesaling, and services related to securities brokerage and dealing (partial) outweighed 
increases in the indexes for gross rents for retail properties, beef and veal, and chemicals and 
allied products wholesaling. (See table 6.) For the 12 months ended in April, prices for stage 4 
intermediate demand declined a record 1.9 percent. 

Stage 3 intermediate demand: The index for stage 3 intermediate demand decreased a record 5.1 
percent in April. Prices for total goods inputs to stage 3 intermediate demand dropped 9.7 percent, 
and the index for total services inputs moved down 1.1 percent. Falling prices for gasoline, jet fuel, 
slaughter chickens, diesel fuel, basic organic chemicals, and services related to securities brokerage 
and dealing (partial) outweighed increases in the indexes for automotive fuels and lubricants 
retailing, slaughter cows and bulls, and chemicals and allied products wholesaling. For the 12 months 
ended in April, prices for stage 3 intermediate demand declined 8.6 percent, the largest 12-month 
drop since the index entered calculation in December 2009.

Stage 2 intermediate demand: Prices for stage 2 intermediate demand declined 4.7 percent in April, 
the largest decrease since the index entered calculation in December 2009. Prices for total goods 
inputs to stage 2 intermediate demand dropped 9.5 percent, and the index for total services inputs 
moved down 1.7 percent. Falling prices for crude petroleum, natural gas, portfolio management, 
services related to securities brokerage and dealing (partial), basic organic chemicals, and television 
advertising time sales outweighed increases in the indexes for temporary help services, automotive 
fuels and lubricants retailing, and wastepaper. For the 12 months ended in April, prices for stage 2 
intermediate demand declined 10.3 percent, the largest decrease since a 12.0-percent drop in the 12 
months ended September 2015.

Stage 1 intermediate demand: The index for stage 1 intermediate demand fell 4.6 percent in April, 
the largest decrease since the index began in December 2009. Prices for total goods inputs to stage 1 
intermediate demand declined 6.9 percent, and the index for total services inputs moved down 1.8 
percent. Falling prices for diesel fuel, basic organic chemicals, gasoline, iron and steel scrap, crude 
petroleum, and business loans (partial) outweighed increases in the indexes for wastepaper, 
automotive fuels and lubricants retailing, and chemicals and allied products wholesaling. For the 12 
months ended in April, prices for stage 1 intermediate demand declined 8.8 percent, the largest 
decrease since dropping 9.4 percent in the 12 months ended October 2015.

Table D. Monthly percent changes in selected intermediate demand price indexes by production flow, seasonally adjusted
Month Stage 4 intermediate
demand
Stage 3 intermediate
demand
Stage 2 intermediate
demand
Stage 1 intermediate
demand
Total Goods
inputs
Services
inputs
Total Goods
inputs
Services
inputs
Total Goods
inputs
Services
inputs
Total Goods
inputs
Services
inputs

2019

Apr.

0.3 0.1 0.6 1.0 1.7 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.0 -0.5 0.6

May

-0.1 -0.3 0.1 -0.3 -0.6 0.0 -0.5 -1.7 0.4 -1.0 -1.7 0.0

June

-0.2 -0.4 0.1 -0.9 -2.0 0.2 -1.3 -2.8 -0.3 -1.2 -2.3 -0.1

July

0.3 0.4 0.2 -0.1 -0.2 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.5 -0.2

Aug.

0.1 -0.4 0.6 0.1 -0.4 0.5 -0.5 -1.4 0.3 -0.4 -1.0 0.7

Sept.

0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.3 -0.9 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.1 -0.2 -0.5 0.3

Oct.

-0.2 0.2 -0.6 0.5 1.6 -0.5 -0.7 -0.9 -0.5 -0.2 0.3 -0.8

Nov.

0.1 0.3 -0.1 0.0 0.3 -0.2 1.1 2.4 0.2 0.2 0.6 -0.5

Dec.(1)

0.3 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7

2020

Jan.(1)

0.1 -0.1 0.2 -0.1 -0.3 0.0 -0.5 -1.3 0.0 0.2 0.5 -0.1

Feb.

-0.4 -0.5 -0.3 -1.4 -2.8 -0.2 -2.1 -5.4 0.2 -1.6 -2.5 -0.5

Mar.

-0.3 -0.4 0.0 -1.4 -2.9 0.2 -2.6 -6.3 -0.1 -1.2 -2.2 -0.2

Apr.

-1.8 -1.9 -1.8 -5.1 -9.7 -1.1 -4.7 -9.5 -1.7 -4.6 -6.9 -1.8

Footnotes
(1) Some of the figures shown above and elsewhere in this release may differ from those previously reported because data for December 2019 have been revised to reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents.

________________
The Producer Price Index for May 2020 is scheduled to be released on Thursday, June 11, 
2020 at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).



                                          Technical Note


Brief Explanation of Producer Price Indexes

   The Producer Price Index (PPI) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a family of 
indexes that measures the average change over time in prices received (price changes) by 
producers for domestically produced goods, services, and construction.  PPIs measure 
price change from the perspective of the seller.  This contrasts with other measures, 
such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI).  CPIs measure price change from the purchaser's 
perspective.  

   More than 10,000 PPIs for individual products and groups of products are released each 
month. PPIs are available for the products of virtually every industry in the mining and 
manufacturing sectors. Over time, new PPIs have been introduced for products of 
industries in the services and construction sectors of the U.S. economy. As of January 
2018, the PPI covered 71 percent of services as measured by 2012 Census revenue, and 
31 percent of construction.

   More than 100,000 price quotations per month are organized into three sets of PPIs: 
(1) Final demand-Intermediate demand (FD-ID) indexes, (2) commodity indexes, and (3) 
indexes for the net output of industries and their products.  The FD-ID structure 
organizes products by class of buyer and degree of fabrication as well as by stage of 
production.  The commodity structure organizes products by similarity of end use or 
product type.  The entire output of various industries is sampled to derive price indexes 
for the net output of industries and their products. 


Final Demand-Intermediate Demand Indexes

   The PPI FD-ID structure measures price change for goods, services, and construction 
sold to final demand and to intermediate demand. The FD-ID system replaced the PPI stage-
of-processing (SOP) system as PPI's primary aggregation model with the release of data 
for January 2014. The FD-ID model expands coverage beyond that of the SOP system through 
the addition of services, construction, exports, and government purchases.  

   Compared with finished goods under the SOP system, the PPI for final demand goods 
includes nearly a 50 percent expansion of coverage. This increase can be traced to the 
addition of government purchases and exports. For overall final demand, expansion to 
include final demand services represents an even larger increase in coverage. In December 
2017, final demand goods were about 33 percent of overall final demand, final demand 
services were roughly 65.5 percent, and final demand construction was about 1.5 percent 
of final demand. Within intermediate demand, coverage of services for intermediate demand 
resulted in about a 45 percent increase in coverage of the intermediate demand portion of 
the economy. 

   FD-ID indexes are constructed from commodity-based producer output price indexes.  
Commodities are allocated to aggregate indexes primarily based on the type of buyer.  The 
main source of data used to determine the type of buyer is the "Use of commodities by 
industries, before redefinition," table from the Benchmark Input-Output Accounts of the 
U.S. In many cases, the same commodity is purchased by different types of buyers.  As a 
result, commodities are often included in several FD-ID indexes.  For example, regular 
gasoline is purchased for personal consumption, export, government use, and business use. 
The PPI program publishes only one commodity index for regular gasoline (wpu057104), 
reflecting sales to all types of buyers, and this index is used in all aggregations 
regardless of whether the gasoline is sold for personal consumption, as an export, to 
government, or to businesses.  Proportions based on BEA "Use of Commodities" data are 
used to allocate the correct portion of the total weight of gasoline to each use 
category.  In cases when buyer type is an important price determining characteristic, 
indexes are created based on specific buyer type. For example, within the PPI category 
for loan services, separate indexes for consumer loans and business loans were 
constructed. For more information relating to the FD-ID structure, see "A new, 
experimental system of indexes from the PPI program" in the February 2011 Monthly Labor 
Review.   

Final Demand:  The final demand portion of the FD-ID structure measures price change for 
commodities sold for personal consumption, capital investment, government, and export.  
The system is composed of six main price indexes: final demand goods; final demand trade 
services; final demand transportation and warehousing services; final demand services 
less trade, transportation, and warehousing; final demand construction; and overall final 
demand. 

   The final demand goods index measures price change for both unprocessed and processed 
goods sold to final demand.  Fresh fruits sold to consumers and computers sold for 
capital investment are examples of transactions included in the final demand goods price 
index. The final demand trade services index measures price change for the retailing and 
wholesaling of merchandise sold to final demand, generally without transformation. (Trade 
indexes measure changes in margins received by wholesalers and retailers.) The final 
demand transportation and warehousing services index tracks price change for 
transportation of passengers, as well as, transportation of cargo sold to final demand, 
and also includes prices for warehousing and storage of goods sold to final demand.  The 
final demand services less trade, transportation, and warehousing index measures price 
change for all services other than trade and transportation sold to final demand.  
Publishing, banking, lodging, and health care are examples of these services.  The final 
demand construction index tracks price change for new construction, as well as 
maintenance and repair construction sold to final demand.  Construction of office 
buildings is an example of a commodity that would be included in the final demand 
construction index.  Lastly, the overall final demand index tracks price change for all 
types of commodities sold to final demand by combining the five final demand component 
indexes described above.

Intermediate Demand: The intermediate demand portion of the FD-ID system tracks price 
change for goods, services, and construction products sold to businesses as inputs to 
production, excluding capital investment. The system includes two parallel treatments of 
intermediate demand. The first treatment organizes intermediate demand commodities by 
type. The second organizes intermediate demand commodities into production stages, with 
the explicit goal of developing a forward-flow model of production and price change. 

   The intermediate demand by commodity type portion of the system organizes commodities 
by similarity of product.  The system is composed of six main price indexes: unprocessed 
goods for intermediate demand; processed goods for intermediate demand; intermediate 
demand trade services; intermediate demand transportation and warehousing services; 
intermediate demand services less trade, transportation, and warehousing; and 
intermediate demand construction.   

   The unprocessed goods for intermediate demand price index measures price change for 
goods sold to businesses as inputs to production that have undergone no fabrication. 
Crude petroleum sold to refineries is an example of an unprocessed good sold to 
intermediate demand.  The processed goods for intermediate demand index tracks price 
change for fabricated goods sold as business inputs.  Examples include car parts sold to 
car manufacturers and gasoline sold to trucking companies.  The index for trade services 
for intermediate demand measures price change for the services of retailing and 
wholesaling goods purchased by businesses as inputs to production. The intermediate 
demand transportation and warehousing services index measures price change for business 
travel, as well as, transportation and warehousing of cargo sold to intermediate demand.  
The intermediate demand services less trade, transportation, and warehousing index 
measures price change for services other than trade, transportation, and warehousing sold 
as inputs to production.  Legal and accounting services purchased by businesses are 
examples of intermediate demand services excluding trade, transportation, and 
warehousing.  Finally, the construction for intermediate demand index measures price 
change for construction purchased by firms as inputs to production.  The index for 
construction for intermediate demand tracks price change for maintenance and repair 
construction purchased by firms.  

   The production flow treatment of intermediate demand is a stage-based system of price 
indexes. These indexes can be used to study price transmission across stages of 
production and final demand. This system is constructed in a manner that maximizes 
forward flow of production between stages, while minimizing back-flow of production. The 
production flow treatment contains four main indexes: intermediate demand stage 1, 
intermediate demand stage 2, intermediate demand stage 3, and intermediate demand stage 
4.   

   Indexes for the four stages were developed by first assigning each industry in the 
economy to one of four stages of production, where industries assigned to the fourth 
stage primarily produce output consumed as final demand, industries in the third stage 
primarily produce output consumed by stage 4 industries, industries assigned to the 
second stage primarily produce output consumed by stage 3 industries, and industries 
assigned to the first stage produce output primarily consumed by stage 2 industries.  The 
four indexes then track prices for the net inputs consumed by industries in each of the 
four stages of production.  The stage 4 intermediate demand index, for example, tracks 
price change for inputs consumed, but not produced, by industries included in the fourth 
stage of production.  Hence, the index tracks price change in inputs to industries that 
primarily produce final demand commodities (stage 4 producers primarily produce 
commodities sold to final demand).  

   Examples of heavily weighted goods-producing industries in stage 4 include the 
manufacture of light trucks and utility vehicles, automobiles, and pharmaceuticals.  
Retail trade, food service and drinking places, and hospitals are examples of heavily 
weighted service industries included in stage 4.  Stage 4 also includes all new 
construction industries.  Examples of goods consumed by stage 4 industries include motor 
vehicle parts, commercial electric power, plastic construction products, biological 
products, and beef and veal.  Engineering services, machinery and equipment wholesaling, 
long distance motor carrying, and legal services constitute examples of services consumed 
by stage 4 industries.

   Examples of highly weighted goods-producing industries included in stage 3 are motor 
vehicle parts manufacturing, animal (except poultry) slaughtering and processing, and 
semiconductor manufacturing.  Services industries classified in stage 3 include wholesale 
trade; insurance carriers; architecture, engineering, and related services; and hotels 
and motels.  Examples of goods consumed by stage 3 industries include slaughter steers 
and heifers, industrial electric power, and hot rolled steel bars, plates, and structural 
shapes.  Services commonly consumed by stage 3 industries include commissions from sales 
of property and casualty insurance, business loans, temporary help services, and 
administrative and general management consulting services.

   Petroleum refineries; electricity generation, transmission, and distribution; natural 
gas distribution; cattle ranching and farming; and plastic materials and resin 
manufacturing are among the goods-based industries assigned to stage 2.  Services 
industries that are heavily weighted in stage 2 include management of companies and 
enterprises; non-depository credit intermediation; insurance agencies and brokerages; and 
services to buildings and dwellings. Goods commonly purchased by stage 2 industries 
include crude oil, natural gas, formula feeds, and primary basic organic chemicals. 
Services that are heavily weighted in the intermediate demand stage 2 index are legal 
services, business loans, and cellular phone and other wireless telecommunication.

   Goods producing industries in stage 1 include oil and gas extraction, paper mills, and 
grain farming.  Real estate, legal services, and advertising services are examples of 
highly weighted services industries included in stage 1.  Examples of goods consumed by 
stage 1 industries are commercial and industrial electric power and gasoline. Services 
commonly consumed by stage 1 industries include solid waste collection, chemicals and 
allied products wholesaling, and guestroom or unit rental.  It should be noted that all 
inputs purchased by stage 1 industries are by definition produced either within stage 1 
or by latter stages of processing, leaving stage 1 less useful for price transmission 
analysis. For additional information on industry stage assignments, see 
https://www.bls.gov/ppi/industryflowstage.htm.


Comparing the PPI with CPI

   Although some data users utilize the PPI as a potential indicator of the Consumer 
Price Index (CPI), there are many reasons why the PPI and the CPI may diverge. The scope 
of the personal consumption portion of the PPI includes all marketable output sold by 
domestic producers for households. The scope of the CPI includes goods and services 
provided by business or government, where explicit user charges are paid by consumers. 
For example, the most heavily weighted item in the CPI, owners' equivalent rent, is 
excluded from the PPI. The scope of the CPI includes imports. The PPI excludes imports. 
The CPI only includes components of personal consumption directly paid for by the 
consumers, while the PPI includes components of personal consumption that may not be paid 
for by consumers. For example, the PPI includes medical services paid for by third 
parties. In contrast to CPI, PPI does not completely cover services. PPIs exclude taxes, 
since they do not represent producer revenue. Conversely, sales and other taxes paid by 
consumers are part of household expenditure and are included in the CPI. Additional 
technical differences between PPI and CPI also exist. For more information see "Comparing 
new final demand producer price indexes with other Government price indexes," Monthly 
Labor Review, January 2014, at https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/.


Commodity Indexes

   The commodity classification of the PPI organizes goods, services, and construction by 
similarity of product or end use, disregarding industry of origin. With the release of 
data for July 2009, PPI expanded its commodity structure to include indexes for services 
and construction products. Prior to this date, the PPI commodity structure only included 
products from goods producing sectors. Table 9 of the PPI Detailed Report includes data 
for commodity indexes, organized in a hierarchal structure, including major groupings, 
subgroups, product classes, sub-product classes, and individual items.


Industry Net-Output Price Indexes

   PPIs for the net output of industries and their products are grouped according to the 
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  Prior to the release of January 
2004, industry-based PPIs were published according to the Standard Industrial 
Classification (SIC) system.  Industry price indexes are compatible with other economic 
time series organized by industry, such as data on employment, wages, and productivity.  
Table 11 of the PPI Detailed Report includes data for NAICS industries and industry 
groups (3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-digit codes), Census product classes (7- and 8-digit codes), 
products (9-digit codes), more detailed sub-products (11-digit codes), and, for some 
industries, indexes for other sources of revenue.

   Indexes may represent one of three kinds of product categories.  Every industry has 
primary product indexes that show changes in prices received by establishments classified 
in the industry for products made primarily, but not necessarily exclusively, by that 
industry. The industry classification of an establishment is determined by which products 
make up a plurality of its total shipment value.  In addition, most industries have 
secondary product indexes that show changes in prices received by establishments for 
products chiefly made in some other industry. Some industries have miscellaneous receipts 
indexes that track price changes for other sources of revenue received by establishments 
within the industry that are not derived from sales of their products; for example, 
resales of purchased materials, or revenues from parking lots owned by a manufacturing 
plant.


Data Collection

   PPIs are constructed using selling prices reported by establishments of all sizes, 
selected by probability sampling, with the probability of selection proportionate to
size. Individual items and transaction terms also are chosen by probability proportionate 
to size. BLS strongly encourages cooperating companies to supply actual transaction 
prices at the time of shipment to minimize the use of list prices. Prices submitted 
by survey respondents are effective on the Tuesday of the week containing the 13th day 
of the month. The survey is conducted online via the BLS Internet Data Collection 
Facility (IDCF).

   Price data are provided on a voluntary and confidential basis; only sworn BLS 
employees are allowed access to individual company price reports.  BLS publishes price 
indexes instead of actual prices.  All PPIs are subject to revision 4 months after 
original publication to reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by 
respondents. 

   BLS periodically updates the PPI sample of survey respondents to better reflect 
current conditions when the structure, membership, technology, or product mix of an 
industry shifts significantly and to spread reporting burden among smaller firms.  
Information on these resampling efforts are noted in the PPI News Release and PPI 
Detailed Report in the months they occur.   

   As part of an ongoing effort to expand coverage to sectors of the economy other than 
mining and manufacturing, an increasing number of service and construction sector 
industries have been introduced into the PPI.  The following list of industries 
introduced since the mid-1990s includes the month and year in which an article describing 
the industry's content appeared in the PPI Detailed Report.

                                                                      PPI
                                                                      Detailed
                                                                      Report
              Title                                           Code    Issue

                                                              SIC             
Wireless telecommunications...................................4812    July 1999
Telephone communications, except radio telephone..............4813    July 1995
Television broadcasting.......................................4833    July 2002
Grocery stores................................................5411    July 2000
Meat and fish (seafood) markets...............................5421    July 2000
Fruit and vegetable markets...................................5431    July 2000
Candy, nut, and confectionery stores..........................5441    July 2000
Retail bakeries...............................................5461    July 2000
Miscellaneous food stores.....................................5499    July 2000
New car dealers...............................................5511    July 2000
Gasoline service stations.....................................5541    January 2002
Boat dealers..................................................5551    January 2002
Recreational vehicle dealers..................................5561    January 2002
Miscellaneous retail..........................................59      January 2001
Security brokers, dealers, and investment bankers.............6211    January 2001
Investment advice.............................................6282    January 2003
Life insurance carriers.......................................6311    January 1999
Property and casualty insurance...............................6331    July 1998
Insurance agencies and brokerages.............................6412    January 2003
Operators and lessors of nonresidential buildings.............6512    January 1996
Real estate agents and managers...............................6531    January 1996
Prepackaged software..........................................7372    January 1998
Data processing services......................................7374    January 2002
Home health care services.....................................8082    January 1997
Legal services................................................8111    January 1997
Engineering design, analysis, and consulting services.........8711    January 1997
Architectural design, analysis, and consulting services.......8712    January 1997
Premiums for property and casualty insurance..................9331    July 1998
                                                         
                                                              NAICS            
New industrial building construction..........................236211  January 2008
New warehouse building construction...........................236221  July 2005
New school construction.......................................236222  July 2006
New office construction.......................................236223  January 2007
New health care building construction.........................236224  January 2013
Concrete contractors, nonresidential building work............23811X  July 2008
Roofing contractors, nonresidential building work.............23816X  July 2008
Electrical contractors, nonresidential building work..........23821X  July 2008
Plumbing / HVAC contractors, nonresidential building work.....23822X  July 2008
Merchant wholesalers, durable goods...........................423     July 2005
Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods........................424     July 2005
Furniture and home furnishings stores.........................442     January 2004
Electronics and appliance stores..............................443     January 2004
Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers...444     January 2004
Clothing and clothing accessories stores......................448     January 2004
Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores.................451     January 2004
General merchandise stores....................................452     January 2004
Miscellaneous store retailers.................................453     January 2004
Internet service providers....................................518111  July 2005
Internet publishing and web search portals....................519130  January 2010
Commercial banking............................................522110  January 2005
Savings institutions..........................................522120  January 2005
Direct health and medical insurance carriers..................524114  July 2004
Construction, mining, and forestry machinery and equipment 
rental and leasing............................................532412  January 2005
Management consulting services................................541610  January 2007
Security guards and patrol services...........................561612  July 2005
Offices of dentists...........................................621210  January 2011
Blood and organ banks.........................................621991  January 2007
Amusement and theme parks.....................................713110  July 2006
Golf courses and country clubs................................713910  July 2006
Fitness and recreational sports centers.......................713940  July 2005
Commercial machinery repair and maintenance...................811310  July 2007


Weights

   Weights for most commodity groupings of the PPI, as well as, weights for 
commodity-based aggregate indexes calculated from commodity groupings, such as FD-ID 
indexes, currently reflect 2012 values of shipments as reported in the Census of 
Manufactures and other sources. From January 2012 to December 2017, PPI weights were 
derived from 2007 shipment values. Industry indexes now are calculated under the 2017 
NAICS structure utilizing 2012 value of shipment weights and 2007 net output ratios. 
The periodic update of the value weights used to calculate the PPI is done to more 
accurately reflect changes in production and marketing patterns in the economy.

   Net output values of shipments are used as weights for industry indexes. Net output 
values refer to the value of shipments from establishments within the industry to buyers 
outside the industry. However, weights for commodity indexes are based on gross shipment 
values, including values of shipments between establishments within the same industry. As 
a result, broad commodity grouping indexes, such as the PPI for All Commodities (which is 
composed of major commodity groupings 01 through 15), are affected by the multiple 
counting of price change at successive stages of processing, which can lead to 
exaggerated or misleading signals about inflation. The intermediate demand by commodity 
type FD-ID indexes partially correct for this defect, but industry indexes, final demand 
FD-ID indexes, and intermediate demand by production flow FD-ID indexes consistently 
correct for this at all levels of aggregation.  Therefore, industry and FD-ID indexes are 
more appropriate than broad commodity groupings for analysis of general price trends.


Price Index Reference Base

   Effective with publication of January 1988 data, many important PPI series (including 
most commodity groups and individual items) were placed on a new reference base, 1982 = 
100.  From 1971 through 1987, the standard reference base for most PPI series was 1967 = 
100.  Except for rounding differences, the shift to the new reference base did not alter 
any previously published percent changes for affected PPI series. (See "Calculating Index 
Changes," below.)  The 1982 reference base is not used for commodity indexes with a base 
later than December 1981 or for industry net output indexes and their products.  The FD-
ID indexes typically have a reference base of November 2009 = 100.

   For further information on the underlying concepts and methodology of the Producer 
Price Index, see chapter 14, "Producer Prices," in the BLS Handbook of Methods.  This 
chapter can be downloaded from the BLS Web site at https://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/homch14.htm.  


Calculating Index Changes

   Each PPI measures price changes from a reference period that equals 100.0.  An 
increase of 5.5 percent from the reference period in the Final Demand Goods Price Index, 
for example, is shown as 105.5.  This change also can be expressed in dollars, as 
follows:  prices received by domestic producers of a sample of final demand goods have 
risen from $100 in November 2009 to $105.50.  Likewise, a current index of 90.0 would 
indicate that prices received by producers of final demand goods are 10 percent lower 
than they were in November 2009.

   Movements of price indexes from one month to another are usually expressed as percent 
changes, rather than as changes in index points.  Index point changes are affected by the 
level of the index in relation to its base period, whereas percent changes are not.  The 
following example shows the computation of index point and percent changes.

   Index point change
      Final Demand Goods Price Index     107.5
      Less previous index                104.0
      Equals index point change            3.5

   Index percent change
      Index point change                   3.5
      Divided by the previous index      104.0
      Equals                             0.034
      Result multiplied by 100           0.034 x 100
      Equals percent change                3.4


Seasonally Adjusted and Unadjusted Data

   Because price data are used for different purposes by different groups, BLS publishes 
seasonally adjusted and unadjusted changes each month.  Seasonally adjusted data are 
preferred for analyzing general price trends in the economy because these data eliminate 
the effect of changes that normally occur at about the same time, and in about the same 
magnitude, every year-such as price movements resulting from normal weather patterns, 
regular production and marketing cycles, model changeovers, seasonal discounts, and 
holidays.  For these reasons, seasonally adjusted data more clearly reveal underlying 
trends.  Unadjusted data are of primary interest to users who need information that can 
be related to actual dollar values of transactions.  Individuals requiring this 
information include marketing specialists, purchasing agents, budget and cost analysts, 
contract specialists, and commodity traders.  It is the unadjusted data that are 
generally cited when escalating long-term contracts such as purchasing agreements or real 
estate leases.  For more information, see Price Adjustment Guide for Contracting Parties, 
on the Web at https://www.bls.gov/ppi/ppiescalation.htm.  

   Seasonal adjustment is accomplished using X-13 ARIMA, a software package published by 
the U.S. Census Bureau.  Each year, the seasonal status of most commodity indexes is 
reevaluated to reflect more recent price behavior. Industry net output indexes are not
seasonally adjusted.  For time series that exhibit seasonal pricing patterns, new 
seasonal factors are estimated and applied to the unadjusted data from the prior 5 years.  
Updated seasonally adjusted indexes replace the most recent 5 years of seasonal data. 

   Seasonal factors may be applied to series using either a direct or an aggregative 
method. Generally, commodity indexes are seasonally adjusted using direct seasonal 
adjustment, which produces a more complete elimination of seasonal movements than does 
the aggregative method.  However, the direct seasonal adjustment process may not yield 
figures that possess additive consistency.  Thus, a seasonally adjusted index for a broad 
category that is directly adjusted may not be logically consistent with all seasonally 
adjusted indexes for its components.  Seasonal movements for FD-ID indexes are derived 
indirectly through an aggregative method that combines movements of a wide variety of 
subproduct class (six-digit) series.

   Seasonally adjusted indexes can become problematic when previously stable and 
predictable price patterns abruptly change.  If the new pattern persists, the seasonal 
adjustment method will eventually reflect it; if the pattern keeps shifting, however, 
seasonally adjusted data will become chronically troublesome.  This problem occurs 
relatively infrequently for farm and food-related products, but has more often affected 
manufactured products such as automobiles and steel.

   Since January 1988, the PPI has used Intervention Analysis Seasonal Adjustment methods 
to enhance the calculation of seasonal factors.  With this technique, outlier values that 
may distort the seasonal pattern are removed from the data prior to applying the standard 
seasonal factor estimation procedure.  For example, a possible economic cause for large 
price movements for petroleum-based products might have been the Persian Gulf War.  In 
this case, intervention techniques allowed for better estimates of seasonally adjusted 
data.  On the whole, very few series have required intervention.  Out of almost 400 
seasonally adjusted series, only 42 were subject to intervention in 2018.

   For more information relating to seasonal adjustment methods, see "Summary of Changes 
to the PPI's Seasonal Adjustment Methodology" in the January 1995 issue of Producer Price 
Indexes, and "PPI and CPI Seasonal Adjustment: an Update" in the July 2010 Monthly Labor 
Review.


Producer Price Index Data on the Internet

   In 1995, the BLS began posting PPI series, news releases, and technical information to 
both a World Wide Web (WWW) site and a file transfer protocol (FTP) site.  During the 
years following the introduction of PPI Internet services, use of these sites eclipsed 
more traditional methods of data dissemination, such as subscriptions to the PPI Detailed 
Report. There were more than 4 million instances of PPI data and tables being downloaded 
from the BLS website during the 12 months ended December 31, 2017.


Retrieving PPI data from the PPI Web site

   PPI data can be obtained from the WWW address (www.bls.gov/ppi). On this page, under 
the tab labeled "Featured PPI databases" links provide the following methods of data 
retrieval:

   Top Picks is a form-based application for both Industry Data and Commodity Data that 
allows the user to quickly obtain PPI time series data by selecting the high-level 
aggregate and other commonly requested time series, including the All Commodities Index 
and the FD-ID indexes (for example, Final Demand).  Within each list, any one-or all-of 
the time series shown can be selected.  A user can modify the date range and output 
options after executing the query, using the reformat button above the data output table.

   One-Screen Data Search and Multi-Screen Data Search are form-based query applications 
for both Industry Data and Commodity Data designed for users unfamiliar with the PPI 
coding structure.  These applications guide a user through the PPI classification by 
listing index titles and do not require knowledge of commodity or industry codes.  Data 
retrieved are based on a query formulated by selecting data characteristics from lists 
provided.  Two options are available to create customized tables, depending on a user's 
browser capability.  The one-screen option is a JavaScript application that uses a single 
screen to guide a user through the available time series data.  The second option is a 
multiple-screen, non-Java-based application.  Both methods allow a user to browse the PPI 
coding structure and select multiple series.  Users can modify the date range and output 
options after executing the query using the reformat button above the data output table.

   Series Report is a form-based application that allows users to input multiple, 
formatted PPI time series identifiers (commodity or industry codes) as inputs in 
extracting data according to a specified set of date ranges and output options.  This 
application provides the most efficient path for users who are familiar with the format 
of PPI time series identifiers.  There are five alphabetic prefixes used to create unique 
PPI time series identifiers:  WP, WD, PC, PD, and ND.  Each provides the user access to a 
different PPI database.  Adding either a "u" (not seasonally adjusted) or an "s" 
(seasonally adjusted) to the end of these prefixes further specifies the type of data 
needed. Examples are provided below.

   For commodity and FD-ID indexes, series identifiers combine a "wpu" prefix (not 
seasonally adjusted) or a "wps" prefix (seasonally adjusted) with a commodity code.  

Commodity code   Provides data for:
wps141101        Passenger cars, seasonally adjusted
wpu141101        Passenger cars, not seasonally adjusted
wpufd4           Final demand, not seasonally adjusted
wpsid63          Services for intermediate demand, seasonally adjusted

   For discontinued commodity indexes, series identifiers combine a "wdu" prefix (not 
seasonally adjusted) or a "wds" prefix (seasonally adjusted) with a commodity code.  

Commodity code   Provides data for:
wds019           Other farm products, seasonally adjusted 
wdu0635          Preparations, ethical (prescription), not seasonally adjusted
wdusi138011      Stainless steel mill products, not seasonally adjusted

   Current price indexes grouped by industry according to NAICS have series identifiers 
that begin with the prefix "pcu." After the prefix, there are 12 digits (the 6-digit 
industry code is listed twice) followed by up to 7 alphanumeric characters identifying 
product detail.  Dashes are used as placeholders for higher-level industry group codes.

Industry-product code,
current NAICS series        Provides data for:
pcu325---325---             Chemical manufacturing 
pcu336110336110             Automobile and light duty motor vehicle manufacturing
pcu621111621111411          Offices of physicians, one- and two-physician practices and 
                            single-specialty group practices, general/family practice

   Discontinued industry-product codes based on SIC combine a "pdu" prefix and "#" 
between the fourth and fifth characters of the product code.  Series identifiers for the 
discontinued dataset use underscores as placeholders to complete a reference to an SIC 
industry group code of fewer than four digits.  (All PPI industry-based indexes organized 
by SIC were discontinued with the introduction of NAICS in 2004.)

Industry-product code,
discontinued SIC series     Provides data for:
pdu28_ _#                   Chemicals and allied products
pdu331_#                    Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling and finishing mills
pdu3711#111                 Passenger cars

   Price indexes for discontinued series grouped by industry according to NAICS have 
identifiers that begin with the prefix "ndu." After the prefix, there are 12 numeric 
digits (the 6-digit industry code is listed twice), and up to 7 additional alphanumeric 
characters that identify product detail.  Dashes are used as placeholders for higher-
level group codes.

Industry-product code,
discontinued NAICS series   Provides data for
ndu212231212231             Lead and zinc ore mining
ndu2122312122312            Lead, zinc concentrates
ndu212231212231214          Lead  concentrates

   Text Files are best suited for users requiring access to either a large volume of time 
series data or other PPI-related documentation, such as seasonal factor tables and 
relative importance tables. The text files can be accessed at https://download.bls.gov/ or 
directly from links on the "PPI Databases" page or the PPI homepage. Data and 
documentation available for download include the following:

                                       Directory:
Industry Data                          /pub/time.series/pc
Industry Data - Discontinued 
                  (NAICS basis)        /pub/time.series/nd
                  (SIC basis)          /pub/time.series/pd
Commodity Data (incl. FD-ID)           /pub/time.series/wp
Commodity Data - Discontinued          /pub/time.series/wd
Special requests                       /pub/special.requests/ppi


Additional information

   The PPI homepage (https://www.bls.gov/ppi) contains additional information regarding PPI 
data and methodology.  The top section of the homepage provides PPI news releases, both 
current and archived, as well as general PPI information.  The "PPI Tables" section found 
beneath the statistics section provides relative importance and seasonal factor tables.  
The remaining sections offer special notices and publications pertaining to PPI 
methodology and applications.

   For questions or comments regarding PPI data classification, methodology, or data 
availability on the Internet, call or e-mail the Section of Index Analysis and Public 
Information at (202) 691-7705 or ppi-info@bls.gov. 



Table 1. Producer price indexes and percent changes for final demand(1) [Nov 2009=100, unless otherwise indicated]
Grouping Other
index
base
Relative
Importance
Dec.
2019(2)
Unadjusted index Unadjusted percent
change to Apr. 2020
from:
Seasonally adjusted
percent change from:
Dec.
2019(3)
Mar.
2020(3)
Apr.
2020(3)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jan. to
Feb.
Feb. to
Mar.
Mar. to
Apr.

Final demand

  100.000 118.4 118.5 117.1 -1.2 -1.2 -0.6 -0.2 -1.3

Final demand goods

  32.794 115.5 114.0 110.5 -5.0 -3.1 -0.9 -1.0 -3.3

Final demand foods

  5.733 120.8 118.9 118.6 0.3 -0.3 -1.6 0.0 -0.5

Finished consumer foods(4)

00/82

4.608 215.1 211.8 212.0 0.8 0.1 -1.4 0.2 -0.1

Finished consumer foods, crude

00/82

0.481 228.5 208.7 209.0 5.2 0.1 -10.3 3.9 0.3

Finished consumer foods, processed

00/82

4.127 214.1 212.5 212.8 0.3 0.1 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1

Government purchased foods

  0.346 123.9 121.6 121.8 -0.7 0.2 -1.0 -0.7 -0.2

Foods for export

  0.779 114.8 113.2 110.1 -1.8 -2.7 -3.3 -0.9 -3.3

Final demand energy

  5.382 102.6 93.9 77.0 -29.6 -18.0 -3.6 -6.7 -19.0

Finished consumer energy goods(4)

00/82

4.379 162.5 150.4 125.1 -27.7 -16.8 -2.8 -6.6 -18.1

Government purchased energy

  0.771 104.6 92.7 73.0 -34.1 -21.3 -6.4 -6.2 -21.2

Energy for export

  0.232 91.2 74.7 50.8 -48.9 -32.0 -9.1 -10.7 -32.4

Final demand goods less foods and energy

  21.679 117.8 118.4 117.9 0.1 -0.4 -0.1 0.2 -0.4

Finished goods less foods and energy(4)

00/82

12.869 208.8 210.0 209.7 1.1 -0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0

Finished consumer goods less foods and energy

00/82

6.965 233.2 234.6 234.5 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0

Nondurable consumer goods less foods and energy

00/82

4.289 300.0 303.2 303.8 1.7 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Durable consumer goods

00/82

2.676 164.2 163.9 163.2 -0.1 -0.4 -0.3 0.4 -0.3

Private capital equipment

00/82

5.904 178.2 179.2 178.8 1.0 -0.2 0.0 0.3 -0.2

Private capital equipment for manufacturing industries

00/82

1.332 181.7 183.0 182.8 1.0 -0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.1

Private capital equipment for nonmanufacturing industries

00/82

4.572 176.9 177.9 177.4 1.1 -0.3 0.0 0.5 -0.2

Government purchased goods, excluding foods and energy

  2.248 115.0 116.0 115.8 0.7 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.3

Government purchased goods excluding foods, energy, and capital equipment

  1.316 117.0 117.7 117.3 0.1 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 -0.4

Government purchased capital equipment

  0.932 111.0 112.3 112.3 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

Goods for export, excluding foods and energy

  6.562 112.7 113.2 111.9 -1.9 -1.1 -0.3 0.0 -1.1

Final demand services

  65.476 119.3 120.3 120.0 0.8 -0.2 -0.3 0.2 -0.2

Final demand trade services(5)

  20.213 119.5 122.0 124.4 3.4 2.0 -0.7 1.4 1.6

Trade of finished goods(4)

  17.497 118.8 121.4 124.1 3.8 2.2 -0.9 1.6 1.9

Trade of personal consumption goods

  14.276 118.5 121.2 124.5 4.8 2.7 -1.6 1.9 2.3

Trade of private capital equipment

  3.221 118.6 121.0 121.3 -0.8 0.2 1.8 0.2 0.2

Trade of government purchased goods

  0.740 124.1 125.0 125.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1

Trade of government purchased goods, excluding capital equipment

  0.459 125.5 125.2 125.3 1.6 0.1 -0.7 0.3 0.1

Trade of government purchased capital equipment

  0.281 121.4 124.2 124.3 -1.4 0.1 1.9 0.2 0.1

Trade of exports

  1.976 125.1 126.3 126.0 0.6 -0.2 0.4 0.3 -0.3

Final demand transportation and warehousing services

  4.727 127.6 121.8 117.6 -6.3 -3.4 -0.6 -3.3 -3.5

Transportation of passengers for final demand

  1.378 125.3 108.1 96.2 -20.3 -11.0 -0.9 -9.8 -11.2

Transportation of private passengers

  0.941 125.3 108.1 96.3 -20.2 -10.9 -0.8 -9.8 -11.2

Transportation of government passengers

  0.142 125.4 108.2 96.4 -20.2 -10.9 -0.9 -9.7 -11.1

Transportation of passengers for export

  0.295 125.3 107.8 95.8 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -9.9 -11.4

Transportation and warehousing of goods for final demand

  3.349 127.6 126.7 125.6 -0.8 -0.9 -0.4 -0.9 -0.8

Transportation and warehousing of finished goods(4)

  2.364 126.5 125.3 124.3 -1.0 -0.8 -0.5 -0.9 -0.8

Transportation and warehousing of personal consumption goods

  1.851 126.8 125.7 124.7 -0.9 -0.8 -0.5 -0.9 -0.8

Transportation and warehousing of private capital equipment

  0.513 125.3 123.8 122.7 -1.3 -0.9 -0.5 -1.0 -0.9

Transportation and warehousing of government purchased goods

  0.246 126.2 125.7 124.8 -0.3 -0.7 -0.4 -0.6 -0.6

Transportation and warehousing of exports

  0.739 131.5 131.3 130.1 -0.3 -0.9 -0.3 -0.7 -0.8

Final demand services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  40.536 118.5 119.4 118.2 0.3 -1.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.9

Finished services less trade, transportation, and warehousing(4)

  36.077 118.9 119.9 118.7 0.3 -1.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.8

Finished consumer services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  32.569 118.8 119.9 118.7 0.3 -1.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.8

Private capital investment services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  3.508 120.2 120.3 119.1 0.2 -1.0 0.2 0.0 -1.0

Government purchased services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  3.013 112.9 113.2 112.1 -0.3 -1.0 -0.1 -0.4 -1.0

Gov. purchased services less trade, transportation, and warehousing, excl. capital investment

  2.912 113.2 113.5 112.3 -0.4 -1.1 0.0 -0.4 -1.0

Government purchased capital investment services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  0.101 104.1 104.7 105.0 2.1 0.3 -0.2 0.8 0.3

Services for export less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  1.446 118.5 120.3 117.4 -2.0 -2.4 0.3 0.4 -2.4

Final demand construction

  1.732 128.9 129.8 130.4 2.8 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.5

Construction for private capital investment

  1.169 129.0 129.8 130.5 2.8 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.5

Construction for government

  0.563 128.4 129.6 130.1 2.8 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.4

Special groupings

Final demand less exports

04/10

87.971 116.9 117.1 115.9 -0.9 -1.0 -0.6 -0.2 -1.1

Final demand less government

04/10

91.931 116.8 117.1 115.8 -0.9 -1.1 -0.5 -0.2 -1.1

Final demand less foods, food and nonalcoholic beverages for immediate consumption, and energy(6)

04/10

88.358 117.9 118.8 118.5 0.6 -0.3 -0.3 0.2 -0.3

Final demand less foods and energy(6)

04/10

88.885 117.9 118.8 118.4 0.6 -0.3 -0.3 0.2 -0.3

Final demand less foods and food and nonalcoholic beverages for immediate consumption(6)

04/10

93.740 116.5 116.7 115.3 -1.3 -1.2 -0.4 -0.3 -1.4

Final demand less foods(6)

04/10

94.267 116.5 116.8 115.3 -1.2 -1.3 -0.4 -0.3 -1.3

Final demand less energy

04/10

94.618 117.8 118.5 118.2 0.6 -0.3 -0.3 0.2 -0.3

Final demand less trade services

01/10

79.787 116.8 116.3 114.1 -2.2 -1.9 -0.4 -0.6 -2.1

Final demand less distributive services(7)

01/10

76.438 116.4 116.0 113.6 -2.3 -2.1 -0.4 -0.6 -2.1

Final demand goods less energy

01/10

27.412 117.3 117.5 117.0 0.2 -0.4 -0.4 0.2 -0.5

Final demand goods less foods

04/10

27.061 111.8 110.4 106.3 -6.1 -3.7 -0.9 -1.2 -3.9

Final demand services less trade services

04/10

45.263 118.4 118.7 117.2 -0.4 -1.3 -0.1 -0.4 -1.2

Final demand distributive services(7)

04/10

23.562 118.4 120.4 122.2 2.8 1.5 -0.7 1.1 1.2

Final demand goods plus final demand distributive services(7)

04/10

56.356 115.1 115.0 113.7 -1.7 -1.1 -0.9 -0.1 -1.4

Final demand less foods, energy, and trade services(6)

08/13

68.672 110.9 111.3 110.2 -0.3 -1.0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.9

Private and government purchased capital equipment

08/13

6.836 108.5 109.2 109.0 1.1 -0.2 0.0 0.4 -0.2

Private and government purchased capital investment services

08/13

7.624 110.2 111.2 110.8 -0.3 -0.4 0.9 0.0 -0.4

Total private and government purchased capital investment

08/13

14.460 110.7 111.6 111.3 0.6 -0.3 0.5 0.1 -0.2

Total finished(4)

01/10

79.904 117.9 118.3 117.2 -0.6 -0.9 -0.5 -0.2 -1.0

Total finished less foods, food and nonalcoholic beverages for immediate consumption, and energy(4)(6)

12/10

70.403 118.1 119.2 119.1 1.1 -0.1 -0.3 0.3 -0.1

Total finished less foods and energy(4)(6)

01/10

70.917 119.0 120.1 119.9 1.0 -0.2 -0.3 0.3 -0.2

Total finished less foods and food and nonalcoholic beverages for immediate consumption(4)(6)

12/10

74.782 116.4 116.9 115.7 -0.8 -1.0 -0.4 -0.2 -1.0

Total finished less foods(4)(6)

01/10

75.296 117.8 118.3 117.1 -0.7 -1.0 -0.4 -0.2 -1.1

Total finished less energy(4)

01/10

75.525 119.1 119.9 119.8 1.0 -0.1 -0.3 0.3 -0.1

Finished goods(4)

00/82

21.856 206.0 203.0 196.5 -5.1 -3.2 -0.9 -1.1 -3.5

Finished goods less energy(4)

00/82

17.477 210.1 210.1 210.0 1.0 0.0 -0.4 0.3 0.0

Finished goods, excluding foods(4)(6)

00/82

17.248 202.9 200.0 191.8 -6.6 -4.1 -0.7 -1.4 -4.4

Finished services(4)

01/10

56.879 118.3 119.5 119.3 1.0 -0.2 -0.3 0.3 -0.2

Private capital investment services

04/10

7.242 118.6 119.6 119.1 -0.3 -0.4 0.9 0.0 -0.5

Finished distributive services(4)(7)

04/10

19.861 117.3 119.5 121.7 3.2 1.8 -0.8 1.2 1.6

Finished services less trade services(4)

04/10

39.382 118.6 119.0 117.6 -0.3 -1.2 -0.2 -0.3 -1.1

Finished services less distributive services(4)(7)

04/10

37.018 118.3 118.8 117.4 -0.2 -1.2 -0.1 -0.3 -1.1

Total private capital investment (goods, services, and construction)

04/10

14.315 117.0 117.8 117.5 0.5 -0.3 0.4 0.2 -0.3

Finished goods plus finished distributive services(4)

04/10

41.717 116.1 116.2 115.4 -1.1 -0.7 -0.9 0.0 -1.0

Total exports

04/10

12.029 113.3 113.1 110.9 -2.8 -1.9 -0.4 -0.4 -1.9

Goods for export

00/82

7.573 188.0 187.4 183.5 -3.4 -2.1 -0.9 -0.3 -2.2

Services for export

04/10

4.456 122.7 122.7 120.6 -1.7 -1.7 0.2 -0.5 -1.7

Total government purchases

04/10

8.069 113.1 112.0 109.4 -3.4 -2.3 -0.7 -0.9 -2.4

Government purchased goods

00/82

3.365 185.4 181.3 173.2 -7.7 -4.5 -1.7 -1.4 -4.6

Government purchased services

04/10

4.141 115.7 115.4 114.2 -0.8 -1.0 0.0 -0.6 -1.0

Total government purchased capital investment (goods, services, construction)

08/13

1.877 111.0 112.4 112.6 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Personal consumption

01/10

65.589 118.1 118.3 117.0 -0.8 -1.1 -0.8 -0.2 -1.2

Personal consumption goods (finished consumer goods)

00/82

15.952 217.6 212.7 203.4 -7.4 -4.4 -1.2 -1.7 -4.8

Personal consumption goods less energy

00/82

11.573 226.2 225.6 225.6 0.9 0.0 -0.6 0.2 0.0

Personal consumption goods less foods

00/82

11.344 216.9 211.5 198.4 -10.5 -6.2 -1.1 -2.4 -6.7

Personal consumption nondurable goods less foods

00/82

8.668 240.3 232.5 213.8 -13.7 -8.0 -1.4 -3.3 -8.7

Personal consumption services

04/10

49.637 117.8 119.0 118.9 1.3 -0.1 -0.5 0.3 -0.1

Personal consumption less trade services

04/10

51.313 117.6 117.1 114.6 -2.5 -2.1 -0.4 -0.8 -2.2

Personal consumption less distributive services(7)

04/10

49.462 117.4 117.0 114.4 -2.6 -2.2 -0.5 -0.8 -2.2

Personal consumption less foods and energy

04/14

56.602 110.3 111.3 111.2 1.2 -0.1 -0.5 0.4 -0.1

Personal consumption less foods, energy, and trade services(5)

04/14

42.326 110.8 111.3 110.2 0.0 -1.0 -0.2 -0.3 -0.8

Personal consumption less foods, energy, and distributive services(7)

04/14

40.475 111.0 111.5 110.4 0.0 -1.0 -0.1 -0.3 -0.8

Personal consumption goods plus personal consumption distributive services(7)

08/13

32.079 106.0 105.9 104.9 -1.6 -0.9 -1.3 -0.1 -1.3

Footnotes
(1) Further information about the Final Demand-Intermediate Demand Aggregation system is available online at https://www.bls.gov/ppi/fdidaggregation.htm.
(2) Comprehensive relative importance figures are initially computed after the publication of December indexes and are recalculated after final December indexes are available. Individual items and subtotals may not add exactly to totals because of rounding differences.
(3) The indexes for December 2019 have been recalculated to incorporate late reports and corrections by respondents. All indexes are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.
(4) PPI defines Total finished as including only the personal consumption and private capital investment portions of final demand.
(5) Trade indexes measure changes in margins received by wholesalers and retailers.
(6) The PPI definition of foods does not include food and beverages for immediate consumption. PPI defines food and beverages for immediate consumption as the service of preparing meals, snacks, and beverages to customer order for immediate on-premises and off-premises consumption.
(7) Distributive services include transportation, warehousing, and trade of goods.

"-" Data not available.


Table 2. Producer price indexes and percent changes for intermediate demand by commodity type(1) [Nov. 2009=100, unless otherwise indicated]
Grouping Other
index
base
Relative
Importance
Dec.
2019(2)
Unadjusted index Unadjusted percent
change to Apr. 2020
from:
Seasonally adjusted
percent change from:
Dec.
2019(3)
Mar.
2020(3)
Apr.
2020(3)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jan. to
Feb.
Feb. to
Mar.
Mar. to
Apr.

Processed goods

Processed goods for intermediate demand

00/82

100.000 196.0 192.3 185.5 -7.3 -3.5 -0.9 -1.1 -3.7

Materials and components for manufacturing

00/82

45.127 182.3 181.6 177.9 -4.6 -2.0 -0.4 -0.3 -2.0

Materials for manufacturing

  27.337 109.2 108.4 104.7 -7.8 -3.4 -0.7 -0.4 -3.5

Materials for food manufacturing

00/82

4.104 199.7 196.4 197.2 0.2 0.4 -0.5 -0.8 0.0

Materials for nondurable manufacturing

00/82

12.582 209.0 205.7 193.0 -11.4 -6.2 -1.1 -1.1 -6.3

Materials for durable manufacturing

00/82

10.651 195.6 196.5 193.8 -6.2 -1.4 -0.4 0.5 -1.4

Components for manufacturing

00/82

17.790 155.7 156.0 156.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0

Components for nondurable manufacturing

  0.749 115.0 114.7 115.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 -0.5 0.4

Components for durable manufacturing

  17.041 110.2 110.4 110.4 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0

Materials and components for construction

00/82

9.167 250.8 253.9 253.1 0.5 -0.3 0.1 0.6 -0.5

Materials for construction

  3.988 124.8 127.3 126.0 0.6 -1.0 0.2 0.8 -1.2

Components for construction

  5.179 123.2 124.0 124.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.0

Processed fuels and lubricants for intermediate demand

00/82

18.465 173.8 156.2 132.8 -27.8 -15.0 -4.0 -5.9 -15.1

Processed fuels and lubricants to manufacturing industries

00/82

4.613 185.3 173.9 163.6 -15.1 -5.9 -1.7 -3.4 -5.3

Processed fuels and lubricants to nonmanufacturing industries

00/82

13.852 170.3 150.8 123.3 -32.0 -18.2 -4.7 -6.7 -18.6

Containers for intermediate demand

00/82

2.994 236.1 236.5 235.8 -0.8 -0.3 0.2 -0.3 -0.3

Supplies for intermediate demand

00/82

24.247 201.1 201.2 200.8 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.0 -0.3

Supplies to manufacturing industries

00/82

2.951 200.1 199.2 198.8 -1.5 -0.2 -0.2 -0.3 -0.2

Supplies to nonmanufacturing industries

00/82

21.296 199.7 200.0 199.5 -0.1 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 -0.4

Supplies to nonmanufacturing industries, feeds

00/82

1.663 176.5 179.0 181.0 1.9 1.1 -1.5 -0.9 0.7

Supplies to nonmanufacturing industries, other than feeds

00/82

19.633 203.6 203.7 203.0 -0.2 -0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.4

Unprocessed goods

Unprocessed goods for intermediate demand

00/82

100.000 187.2 161.2 138.9 -28.2 -13.8 -7.7 -8.0 -13.7

Unprocessed foodstuffs and feedstuffs

00/82

39.019 168.6 158.7 142.7 -16.0 -10.1 -5.8 -3.6 -9.7

Unprocessed nonfood materials

00/82

60.981 191.6 155.0 129.2 -35.8 -16.6 -9.0 -10.9 -16.7

Unprocessed nonfood materials except fuel

00/82

44.021 245.4 198.3 162.3 -37.5 -18.2 -8.2 -14.2 -18.3

Unprocessed nonfood materials except fuel to manufacturing industries

00/82

42.091 226.3 180.6 145.8 -39.3 -19.3 -8.6 -14.9 -19.5

Unprocessed nonfood materials except fuel to nonmanufacturing industries

00/82

1.930 270.8 278.9 279.7 4.6 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1

Unprocessed fuel

00/82

16.960 108.4 88.0 76.9 -31.2 -12.6 -11.3 -0.8 -12.5

Unprocessed fuel to manufacturing industries

00/82

0.643 153.9 135.8 127.3 -19.4 -6.3 -7.2 -0.3 -6.3

Unprocessed fuel to nonmanufacturing industries

00/82

16.317 109.2 88.2 76.9 -31.7 -12.8 -11.6 -0.8 -12.8

Services

Services for intermediate demand

  100.000 121.7 122.1 120.2 -1.2 -1.6 -0.1 -0.1 -1.6

Trade services for intermediate demand(4)

  19.143 127.2 128.1 127.8 2.1 -0.2 -0.4 0.7 -0.4

Trade services for manufacturing industries

12/12

9.477 115.7 116.2 115.5 2.2 -0.6 -0.4 0.7 -0.7

Trade services for nonmanufacturing industries

12/12

9.666 113.8 114.7 114.9 2.0 0.2 -0.3 0.7 0.0

Transportation and warehousing services for intermediate demand

  12.312 130.2 129.0 127.0 -1.2 -1.6 -0.2 -1.3 -1.4

Transportation of passengers for intermediate demand

  1.221 125.3 108.3 96.5 -20.0 -10.9 -0.9 -9.7 -11.1

Transportation of passengers for manufacturing industries

  0.203 125.3 107.8 95.8 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -9.9 -11.4

Transportation of passengers for nonmanufacturing industries

  1.018 125.3 108.4 96.6 -20.0 -10.9 -0.8 -9.7 -11.0

Transportation and warehousing of goods for intermediate demand

  11.091 130.5 131.1 130.2 0.7 -0.7 0.0 -0.5 -0.5

Transportation and warehousing of goods for manufacturing industries

12/12

1.685 109.3 108.4 107.4 -0.6 -0.9 -0.6 -0.6 -0.9

Transportation and warehousing of goods for nonmanufacturing industries

12/12

9.406 116.4 117.2 116.5 1.0 -0.6 0.0 -0.4 -0.4

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing for intermediate demand

  68.544 118.7 119.3 116.9 -2.0 -2.0 0.0 -0.1 -2.0

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing for manufacturing industries

  2.320 110.6 111.7 111.6 1.5 -0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.2

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing for nonmanufacturing industries

  66.224 119.0 119.5 117.1 -2.1 -2.0 -0.1 0.0 -2.2

Construction

Construction for intermediate demand

  100.000 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Special groupings

Processed materials less foods and feeds

00/82

91.293 196.2 192.3 184.8 -8.1 -3.9 -1.0 -1.2 -4.0

Processed foods and feeds

00/82

8.707 194.9 192.7 193.3 0.5 0.3 -0.6 -0.8 -0.1

Processed energy goods

00/82

18.465 174.6 157.0 133.4 -27.8 -15.0 -4.0 -5.9 -15.1

Processed materials less energy

00/82

81.535 199.0 198.9 196.4 -2.6 -1.3 -0.3 -0.1 -1.3

Processed materials less foods and energy

00/82

72.828 199.1 199.3 196.5 -2.9 -1.4 -0.2 -0.1 -1.5

Intermediate distributive services(5)

04/10

30.234 126.0 126.7 126.2 1.5 -0.4 -0.2 0.3 -0.5

Processed goods plus intermediate distributive services

04/10

- 111.8 110.5 107.6 -4.9 -2.6 -0.8 -0.7 -2.7

Unprocessed materials less agricultural products

00/82

58.085 192.5 154.1 128.3 -36.7 -16.7 -9.2 -11.2 -16.8

Unprocessed energy materials(6)

00/82

38.908 143.1 96.0 69.6 -54.1 -27.5 -13.6 -19.1 -27.5

Unprocessed materials less energy

00/82

61.092 208.2 204.3 188.3 -11.0 -7.8 -4.2 -1.8 -7.6

Unprocessed nonfood materials less energy(7)

00/82

22.073 322.3 340.9 327.0 -1.8 -4.1 -1.5 1.3 -4.3

Footnotes
(1) Further information about the Final Demand-Intermediate Demand Aggregation system is available online at https://www.bls.gov/ppi/fdidaggregation.htm
(2) Comprehensive relative importance figures are initially computed after the publication of December indexes and are recalculated after final December indexes are available. Individual items and subtotals may not add exactly to totals because of rounding differences.
(3) The indexes for December 2019 have been recalculated to incorporate late reports and corrections by respondents. All indexes are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.
(4) Trade indexes measure changes in margins received by wholesalers and retailers.
(5) Includes intermediate trade, transportation, and warehousing services.
(6) Includes crude petroleum.
(7) Excludes crude petroleum.

"-" Data not available.


Table 3. Producer price indexes and percent changes for intermediate demand by production flow(1) [Nov. 2009=100, unless otherwise indicated]
Grouping Other
index
base
Relative
Importance
Dec.
2019(2)
Unadjusted index Unadjusted percent
change to Apr. 2020
from:
Seasonally adjusted
percent change from:
Dec.
2019(3)
Mar.
2020(3)
Apr.
2020(3)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jan. to
Feb.
Feb. to
Mar.
Mar. to
Apr.

Stage 4

Stage 4 intermediate demand

  100.000 119.2 118.8 116.9 -1.9 -1.6 -0.4 -0.3 -1.8

Inputs to stage 4 goods producers

  30.504 115.6 115.3 114.2 -0.9 -1.0 -0.3 -0.2 -1.0

Goods

  22.517 112.2 111.8 110.9 -1.6 -0.8 -0.3 -0.2 -0.9

Foods

  2.644 114.3 111.9 109.2 -1.9 -2.4 -1.6 -0.4 -2.7

Energy

  1.073 109.2 106.4 103.6 -8.1 -2.6 -1.3 -0.6 -1.7

Goods excluding foods and energy

  18.800 111.9 111.9 111.3 -1.2 -0.5 0.0 -0.1 -0.6

Services

  7.987 126.4 126.3 124.9 1.3 -1.1 -0.2 -0.2 -1.1

Trade services

  6.408 130.5 130.5 129.0 1.5 -1.1 -0.2 0.1 -1.2

Transportation and warehousing services

  0.239 125.8 118.0 112.6 -8.7 -4.6 -0.9 -4.3 -4.6

Transportation of passengers

  0.090 125.3 107.8 95.8 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -9.9 -11.4

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  0.149 125.6 123.6 122.2 -1.7 -1.1 -1.0 -1.0 -1.1

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  1.340 112.0 113.2 112.8 2.0 -0.4 0.0 0.0 -0.4

Inputs to stage 4 services producers

  50.208 121.1 121.0 118.9 -1.7 -1.7 -0.3 -0.2 -1.7

Goods

  13.237 116.5 115.5 114.2 -2.0 -1.1 -0.6 -0.4 -1.2

Foods

  2.864 123.1 119.5 118.8 -1.3 -0.6 -1.2 -0.8 -1.0

Energy

  2.226 105.8 101.5 95.3 -12.2 -6.1 -1.7 -3.1 -5.5

Goods excluding foods and energy

  8.147 120.0 120.9 120.7 0.7 -0.2 0.0 0.3 -0.2

Services

  36.821 122.6 122.8 120.5 -1.5 -1.9 -0.3 -0.1 -2.0

Trade services

  4.260 123.0 123.7 124.1 2.3 0.3 -0.3 0.6 0.3

Transportation and warehousing services

  2.340 125.8 123.2 120.6 -2.9 -2.1 -0.3 -1.8 -2.0

Transportation of passengers

  0.382 125.1 107.7 95.7 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -10.0 -11.3

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  1.958 126.0 126.3 125.5 0.4 -0.6 -0.2 -0.3 -0.6

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  30.221 121.9 122.2 119.6 -2.0 -2.1 -0.3 0.0 -2.3

Construction

  0.150 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Inputs to stage 4 construction producers

  19.286 119.9 118.8 115.6 -4.4 -2.7 -0.7 -0.6 -3.1

Goods

  13.230 119.8 117.8 113.6 -6.4 -3.6 -0.9 -1.1 -4.0

Energy

  1.673 95.3 75.1 50.8 -50.7 -32.4 -8.3 -12.8 -33.9

Goods excluding foods and energy

  11.557 124.1 125.5 125.0 0.3 -0.4 0.1 0.4 -0.6

Services

  6.056 120.0 120.8 119.8 0.2 -0.8 -0.2 0.3 -1.1

Trade services

  3.229 121.8 123.1 121.9 0.8 -1.0 -0.2 0.8 -1.5

Transportation and warehousing services

  0.836 125.0 122.6 120.9 -2.3 -1.4 -0.7 -1.4 -1.4

Transportation of passengers

  0.043 125.4 110.2 99.8 -17.5 -9.4 -0.8 -8.6 -9.6

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  0.793 124.9 123.2 122.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.7 -1.0 -1.0

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  1.991 117.1 118.3 117.8 -0.1 -0.4 0.1 0.3 -0.4

Stage 3

Stage 3 intermediate demand

  100.000 116.7 114.4 108.7 -8.6 -5.0 -1.4 -1.4 -5.1

Inputs to stage 3 goods producers

  47.784 118.8 116.5 111.7 -7.9 -4.1 -1.5 -1.0 -4.0

Goods

  37.704 115.6 112.5 106.8 -10.3 -5.1 -1.8 -1.4 -4.9

Foods

  11.336 128.7 119.5 106.8 -18.4 -10.6 -5.1 -3.7 -9.7

Energy

  1.900 96.9 92.3 82.9 -21.0 -10.2 -2.1 -3.9 -10.6

Goods excluding foods and energy

  24.468 113.7 113.4 110.8 -5.6 -2.3 -0.2 -0.3 -2.4

Services

  10.014 124.1 124.7 124.1 1.7 -0.5 -0.5 0.8 -0.6

Trade services

  8.229 124.3 125.1 124.6 2.1 -0.4 -0.5 1.0 -0.6

Transportation and warehousing services

  0.636 126.3 125.9 124.6 -0.6 -1.0 -0.2 -0.6 -1.1

Transportation of passengers

  0.033 126.3 111.8 101.8 -16.6 -8.9 -0.7 -8.1 -9.0

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  0.603 126.1 126.6 125.7 0.2 -0.7 -0.2 -0.2 -0.7

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  1.149 113.4 113.8 113.1 0.3 -0.6 -0.7 0.1 -0.6

Construction

  0.066 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Inputs to stage 3 services producers

  50.107 115.5 113.6 107.3 -8.5 -5.5 -1.3 -1.5 -5.9

Goods

  10.569 97.6 88.4 66.8 -36.4 -24.4 -5.4 -7.1 -25.8

Foods

  0.003 138.7 133.5 127.9 -0.9 -4.2 0.3 -1.0 -4.1

Energy

  7.214 91.5 78.7 49.1 -51.8 -37.6 -7.9 -10.6 -39.4

Goods excluding foods and energy

  3.352 110.2 110.1 109.7 -0.4 -0.4 0.0 -0.1 -0.4

Services

  38.457 120.6 121.1 119.7 -0.7 -1.2 -0.1 -0.1 -1.1

Trade services

  3.479 140.8 140.5 141.8 3.0 0.9 -1.1 0.8 0.9

Transportation and warehousing services

  8.528 134.7 136.0 135.2 1.3 -0.6 0.2 -0.4 -0.3

Transportation of passengers

  0.036 125.7 110.2 99.6 -17.8 -9.6 -0.7 -8.7 -9.7

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  8.492 134.9 136.3 135.6 1.3 -0.5 0.2 -0.4 -0.3

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  26.450 116.5 116.8 114.9 -1.9 -1.6 -0.1 0.0 -1.7

Construction

  1.081 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Inputs to stage 3 construction producers

  2.110 112.9 99.8 87.6 -23.9 -12.2 -4.7 -5.4 -12.6

Goods

  1.672 105.3 89.5 75.3 -30.2 -15.9 -6.0 -7.1 -16.3

Energy

  1.033 92.8 69.3 49.2 -48.9 -29.0 -9.9 -12.9 -29.5

Goods excluding foods and energy

  0.639 126.2 127.8 127.3 0.2 -0.4 -0.1 0.9 -0.5

Services

  0.438 127.5 128.8 127.8 0.5 -0.8 -0.1 0.5 -1.2

Trade services

  0.397 129.8 131.2 130.2 0.6 -0.8 0.0 0.5 -1.2

Transportation and warehousing services

  0.002 125.3 107.8 95.8 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -9.9 -11.4

Transportation of passengers

  0.002 125.3 107.8 95.8 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -9.9 -11.4

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  0.039 106.7 107.5 106.9 0.0 -0.6 -0.7 0.5 -0.6

Stage 2

Stage 2 intermediate demand

  100.000 105.8 100.9 96.2 -10.3 -4.7 -2.1 -2.6 -4.7

Inputs to stage 2 goods producers

  43.280 93.4 82.7 75.5 -22.0 -8.7 -5.0 -6.0 -8.8

Goods

  36.433 88.0 76.1 68.1 -26.0 -10.5 -5.9 -7.1 -10.7

Foods

  3.774 112.3 112.5 109.5 -0.1 -2.7 -3.2 -1.8 -3.5

Energy

  13.957 63.5 41.1 28.4 -58.2 -30.9 -14.2 -20.7 -30.9

Goods excluding foods and energy

  18.702 110.7 110.9 108.4 -6.1 -2.3 -0.6 0.2 -2.2

Services

  6.372 122.9 122.6 122.0 0.6 -0.5 0.1 -0.6 -0.4

Trade services

  0.441 126.8 130.6 136.9 9.7 4.8 -0.2 2.8 4.5

Transportation and warehousing services

  3.655 143.7 141.3 139.5 -1.2 -1.3 -0.1 -1.4 -1.1

Transportation of passengers

  0.288 125.7 109.3 98.0 -19.1 -10.3 -0.8 -9.3 -10.5

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  3.367 143.8 142.8 142.0 0.4 -0.6 -0.1 -0.8 -0.4

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  2.276 108.7 110.2 109.8 1.6 -0.4 0.4 0.2 -0.3

Construction

  0.475 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Inputs to stage 2 services producers

  56.721 118.0 118.7 116.4 -1.2 -1.9 0.1 -0.2 -1.9

Goods

  4.821 111.7 110.5 108.3 -3.4 -2.0 -0.7 -0.6 -2.2

Foods

  0.067 92.1 94.0 84.1 -4.2 -10.5 -4.4 -1.3 -10.8

Energy

  0.420 108.5 90.3 72.5 -36.1 -19.7 -6.7 -8.8 -20.3

Goods excluding foods and energy

  4.334 112.2 112.6 112.1 -0.1 -0.4 0.0 0.0 -0.5

Services

  50.392 118.5 119.4 117.1 -1.0 -1.9 0.2 -0.1 -1.8

Trade services

  1.081 124.4 127.6 126.5 0.0 -0.9 1.0 0.2 -1.3

Transportation and warehousing services

  6.664 125.7 124.4 121.8 -1.9 -2.1 -0.1 -1.7 -1.9

Transportation of passengers

  1.060 125.4 108.3 96.4 -20.2 -11.0 -0.8 -9.8 -11.2

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  5.604 126.2 127.8 127.0 1.4 -0.6 0.1 -0.2 -0.4

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  42.647 118.0 119.2 116.9 -0.8 -1.9 0.2 0.1 -1.9

Construction

  1.508 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Stage 1

Stage 1 intermediate demand

  100.000 113.6 111.1 106.2 -8.8 -4.4 -1.6 -1.2 -4.6

Inputs to stage 1 goods producers

  45.176 107.1 105.3 99.9 -10.2 -5.1 -2.0 -1.1 -5.3

Goods

  34.471 102.4 99.8 93.1 -13.8 -6.7 -2.5 -1.8 -6.9

Foods

  2.715 109.7 110.4 104.3 -3.1 -5.5 -3.7 -1.2 -5.9

Energy

  6.209 96.8 79.9 66.4 -35.2 -16.9 -6.8 -8.9 -16.9

Goods excluding foods and energy

  25.547 104.7 105.4 100.3 -9.7 -4.8 -1.4 -0.3 -5.0

Services

  10.699 123.4 124.4 124.0 1.8 -0.3 -0.3 0.9 -0.3

Trade services

  7.761 127.5 129.6 130.5 3.9 0.7 -0.4 1.7 0.6

Transportation and warehousing services

  1.330 128.0 122.8 118.8 -5.5 -3.3 -1.6 -2.4 -3.3

Transportation of passengers

  0.240 125.3 107.8 95.8 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -10.0 -11.3

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  1.090 128.1 125.5 123.3 -2.3 -1.8 -1.8 -0.9 -1.7

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  1.608 103.2 103.9 100.8 -2.4 -3.0 0.9 -0.3 -3.0

Construction

  0.006 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Inputs to stage 1 services producers

  47.728 119.4 115.9 111.3 -8.0 -4.0 -1.4 -1.5 -4.1

Goods

  15.438 110.1 101.5 93.3 -16.8 -8.1 -3.0 -3.8 -8.2

Foods

  0.093 97.7 95.8 95.8 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0

Energy

  7.895 105.9 89.6 74.5 -31.9 -16.9 -5.9 -7.9 -16.8

Goods excluding foods and energy

  7.450 117.3 117.3 116.9 -0.6 -0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.4

Services

  32.285 123.9 123.0 120.3 -4.0 -2.2 -0.6 -0.5 -2.3

Trade services

  4.552 126.8 126.9 127.9 3.1 0.8 -0.7 0.8 0.6

Transportation and warehousing services

  2.691 133.1 120.8 112.4 -13.0 -7.0 -0.4 -6.7 -6.9

Transportation of passengers

  1.708 125.2 107.8 95.7 -20.6 -11.2 -0.9 -9.9 -11.4

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  0.983 134.6 133.1 132.4 -0.1 -0.5 0.3 -1.3 -0.3

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  25.042 122.5 122.7 119.8 -4.3 -2.4 -0.6 -0.1 -2.4

Construction

  0.005 120.0 121.4 120.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Inputs to stage 1 construction producers

  7.097 120.6 120.6 117.8 -3.4 -2.3 -0.5 -0.4 -2.6

Goods

  4.733 119.0 118.3 114.7 -5.0 -3.0 -0.7 -0.8 -3.5

Energy

  0.496 92.6 78.6 53.3 -48.9 -32.2 -6.3 -11.3 -34.7

Goods excluding foods and energy

  4.237 124.0 125.4 125.1 0.6 -0.2 -0.1 0.5 -0.5

Services

  2.364 123.7 124.9 124.1 0.1 -0.6 -0.2 0.3 -1.0

Trade services

  1.709 125.1 127.0 126.2 0.3 -0.6 0.0 0.5 -1.2

Transportation and warehousing services

  0.097 117.5 110.4 104.8 -8.2 -5.1 -3.1 -3.0 -5.0

Transportation of passengers

  0.025 125.3 107.8 95.8 -20.6 -11.1 -0.9 -9.9 -11.4

Transportation and warehousing of goods

  0.072 116.1 112.4 108.8 -4.0 -3.2 -3.8 -0.6 -3.1

Services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

  0.558 118.0 118.7 118.8 0.4 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.1

Special groupings

Total goods inputs to stage 4 intermediate demand

04/10

48.984 112.6 111.6 109.8 -3.0 -1.6 -0.5 -0.4 -1.9

Total services inputs to stage 4 intermediate demand

04/10

50.864 122.2 122.5 120.5 -0.9 -1.6 -0.3 0.0 -1.8

Total construction inputs to stage 4 intermediate demand

04/10

0.150 119.0 120.4 119.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Total foods inputs to stage 4 intermediate demand

04/10

5.508 115.7 112.7 111.1 -1.6 -1.4 -1.4 -0.6 -1.9

Total energy goods inputs to stage 4 intermediate demand

04/10

4.972 97.0 87.8 76.5 -24.6 -12.9 -3.7 -5.6 -13.0

Total goods less foods and energy inputs to stage 4 intermediate demand

04/10

38.504 115.3 115.9 115.4 -0.3 -0.4 0.0 0.2 -0.5

Total goods inputs to stage 3 intermediate demand

04/10

49.945 105.3 100.5 91.0 -17.0 -9.5 -2.8 -2.9 -9.7

Total services inputs to stage 3 intermediate demand

04/10

48.909 119.9 120.5 119.2 -0.3 -1.1 -0.2 0.2 -1.1

Total construction inputs to stage 3 intermediate demand

04/10

1.147 119.0 120.4 119.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Total foods inputs to stage 3 intermediate demand

04/10

11.339 114.6 106.4 95.1 -18.4 -10.6 -5.1 -3.8 -9.7

Total energy goods inputs to stage 3 intermediate demand

04/10

10.147 89.0 77.0 53.0 -45.8 -31.2 -7.0 -9.4 -32.6

Total goods less foods and energy inputs to stage 3 intermediate demand

04/10

28.459 108.4 108.2 106.0 -4.9 -2.0 -0.2 -0.3 -2.0

Total goods inputs to stage 2 intermediate demand

04/10

41.254 86.0 75.6 68.4 -23.7 -9.5 -5.4 -6.3 -9.5

Total services inputs to stage 2 intermediate demand

04/10

56.764 119.8 120.5 118.4 -0.8 -1.7 0.2 -0.1 -1.7

Total construction inputs to stage 2 intermediate demand

04/10

1.983 119.0 120.4 119.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Total foods inputs to stage 2 intermediate demand

04/10

3.841 112.7 113.0 109.8 -0.2 -2.8 -3.2 -1.7 -3.8

Total energy goods inputs to stage 2 intermediate demand

04/10

14.377 62.7 40.9 28.5 -57.4 -30.3 -13.9 -20.3 -30.3

Total goods less foods and energy inputs to stage 2 intermediate demand

04/10

23.036 104.6 104.8 102.8 -5.0 -1.9 -0.5 0.1 -1.8

Total goods inputs to stage 1 intermediate demand

04/10

54.642 95.0 91.4 85.2 -13.9 -6.8 -2.5 -2.2 -6.9

Total services inputs to stage 1 intermediate demand

04/10

45.348 122.8 122.5 120.4 -2.4 -1.7 -0.5 -0.2 -1.8

Total construction inputs to stage 1 intermediate demand

04/10

0.011 119.0 120.4 119.8 1.5 -0.5 0.1 0.2 -0.5

Total foods inputs to stage 1 intermediate demand

04/10

2.808 103.1 103.7 98.2 -3.0 -5.3 -3.6 -1.2 -5.7

Total energy goods inputs to stage 1 intermediate demand

04/10

14.600 97.1 81.4 67.2 -33.9 -17.4 -6.3 -8.4 -17.5

Total goods less foods and energy inputs to stage 1 intermediate demand

04/10

37.234 92.2 92.8 89.6 -6.9 -3.4 -1.0 -0.1 -3.7

Footnotes
(1) Further information about the Final Demand-Intermediate Demand Aggregation system is available online at https://www.bls.gov/ppi/fdidaggregation.htm
(2) Comprehensive relative importance figures are initially computed after the publication of December indexes and are recalculated after final December indexes are available. Individual items and subtotals may not add exactly to totals because of rounding differences.
(3) The indexes for December 2019 have been recalculated to incorporate late reports and corrections by respondents. All indexes are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.

"-" Data not available.


Table 4. Producer price indexes and percent changes for selected commodity groupings by final demand category(1) [1982=100, unless otherwise indicated]
Grouping Commodity
code
Other
index
base
Unadjusted index Unadjusted percent
change to Apr. 2020
from:
Seasonally adjusted
percent change from:
Dec.
2019(2)
Mar.
2020(2)
Apr.
2020(2)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jan. to
Feb.
Feb. to
Mar.
Mar. to
Apr.

Final demand

 

11/09

118.4 118.5 117.1 -1.2 -1.2 -0.6 -0.2 -1.3

Final demand goods

 

11/09

115.5 114.0 110.5 -5.0 -3.1 -0.9 -1.0 -3.3

Final demand foods

 

11/09

120.8 118.9 118.6 0.3 -0.3 -1.6 0.0 -0.5

Fresh fruits and melons(3)

01-11

  153.6 133.8 119.8 -7.3 -10.5 1.0 -2.5 -10.5

Fresh and dry vegetables(3)

01-13

  252.5 215.0 207.7 -7.5 -3.4 -28.9 -1.1 -3.4

Grains

01-2

  149.9 153.1 134.6 -4.7 -12.1 -5.4 -1.2 -12.5

Eggs for fresh use(3)

01-71-07

12/91

153.6 167.7 221.0 111.9 31.8 33.4 26.4 31.8

Oilseeds

01-83-01

  166.4 163.7 159.1 -0.7 -2.8 -5.4 -3.1 -5.2

Bakery products(3)

02-11

  292.8 294.3 294.6 1.2 0.1 -0.1 0.5 0.1

Milled rice(3)

02-13

  208.1 215.1 217.2 6.1 1.0 0.7 1.2 1.0

Pasta products

02-14-02

06/85

203.0 204.3 202.1 -0.9 -1.1 -0.2 -0.2 -1.6

Beef and veal

02-21-01

  202.3 192.6 221.1 0.8 14.8 -2.7 -2.7 12.6

Pork

02-21-04

  156.1 140.9 140.2 2.3 -0.5 -3.7 -3.0 -0.1

Processed young chickens

02-22-03

  158.7 163.6 150.6 -10.4 -7.9 -2.3 0.8 -8.4

Processed turkeys

02-22-06

  150.8 147.5 143.6 3.3 -2.6 1.9 -0.9 -3.0

Finfish and shellfish(3)

02-23

  360.6 341.3 335.7 -7.9 -1.6 -6.6 0.9 -1.6

Dairy products

02-3

  207.9 201.9 192.9 -2.4 -4.5 0.1 -0.9 -4.4

Processed fruits and vegetables(3)

02-4

  208.2 209.5 209.7 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Confectionery end products(3)

02-55

  286.0 285.0 281.7 0.0 -1.2 0.4 0.0 -1.2

Soft drinks(3)

02-62

  215.1 217.4 215.7 0.6 -0.8 0.3 -0.7 -0.8

Roasted coffee(3)

02-63-01

  193.5 193.5 193.3 -0.4 -0.1 -0.2 0.1 -0.1

Shortening and cooking oils(3)

02-78

  238.0 237.5 237.9 -0.6 0.2 0.5 -0.8 0.2

Frozen specialty food(3)

02-85

  185.1 189.8 181.8 -1.5 -4.2 -1.1 4.7 -4.2

Final demand energy

 

11/09

102.6 93.9 77.0 -29.6 -18.0 -3.6 -6.7 -19.0

Liquefied petroleum gas(3)

05-32

  121.2 67.9 49.4 -64.6 -27.2 -11.3 -21.1 -27.2

Residential electric power

05-41

12/90

178.3 179.6 178.7 -0.1 -0.5 0.2 -0.5 0.2

Residential natural gas

05-51

12/90

202.5 200.7 198.2 -2.2 -1.2 0.0 0.0 -0.5

Gasoline

05-71

  174.5 144.0 68.4 -67.0 -52.5 -6.5 -16.8 -56.6

Home heating oil and distillates

05-73-02

  184.2 157.7 102.7 -47.3 -34.9 -11.6 -7.7 -35.6

No. 2 diesel fuel

05-73-03

  231.1 171.6 124.2 -47.7 -27.6 -10.0 -12.6 -27.8

Final demand goods less foods and energy

 

11/09

117.8 118.4 117.9 0.1 -0.4 -0.1 0.2 -0.4

Alcoholic beverages(3)

02-61

  200.3 203.2 206.0 3.0 1.4 0.0 0.3 1.4

Pet food(3)

02-94-02

  273.0 273.1 273.3 1.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Women's, girls', and infants' apparel(3)

03-81-06

12/03

108.8 106.4 107.9 0.9 1.4 -2.4 0.2 1.4

Men's and boys' apparel(3)

03-81-07

12/03

117.9 118.2 118.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 -0.2 0.0

Textile housefurnishings(3)

03-82

  169.1 168.0 168.3 -0.6 0.2 -0.6 -1.6 0.2

Footwear

04-3

  210.4 210.2 210.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 -0.2 -0.1

Industrial chemicals

06-1

  246.9 238.3 211.9 -18.2 -11.1 -1.7 -2.2 -11.5

Pharmaceutical preparations

06-38

06/01

268.1 274.6 274.6 2.1 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.3

Soaps and detergents(3)

06-71

  183.0 183.0 183.4 1.0 0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.2

Cleaning and polishing products(3)

06-72

06/83

203.5 203.6 205.6 3.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0

Cosmetics and other toiletries(3)

06-75

  167.9 167.9 167.9 0.7 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Tires(3)

07-12-01

  148.8 148.5 150.4 1.1 1.3 0.2 0.0 1.3

Consumer, institutional, and commercial products, n.e.c.(3)

07-2B

12/06

137.8 137.6 137.7 -0.5 0.1 0.1 -0.6 0.1

Sanitary paper products(3)

09-15-01

  183.6 183.9 183.6 0.4 -0.2 0.1 -0.5 -0.2

Iron and steel scrap(3)

10-12

  381.2 406.6 343.3 -27.6 -15.6 -7.1 3.2 -15.6

Agricultural machinery and equipment

11-1

  240.6 242.4 242.5 2.4 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2

Construction machinery and equipment

11-2

  234.2 236.5 236.6 2.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.2

Metal cutting machine tools(3)

11-37

  205.1 206.4 206.4 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.0

Metal forming machine tools

11-38

  237.6 241.9 242.6 2.5 0.3 -0.1 0.0 0.5

Tools, dies, jigs, fixtures, and industrial molds(3)

11-39

  154.5 154.7 154.3 -1.7 -0.3 0.3 0.0 -0.3

Pumps, compressors, and equipment

11-41

  267.8 270.5 270.7 1.7 0.1 -0.3 0.6 0.1

Industrial material handling equipment

11-44

  226.4 229.4 229.1 1.9 -0.1 0.0 0.8 0.0

Electronic computers and computer equipment(3)

11-5

12/98

26.1 25.6 25.6 -4.1 0.0 0.4 -0.4 0.0

Textile machinery and equipment(3)

11-62

  172.2 174.2 174.1 1.1 -0.1 1.2 0.0 -0.1

Paper industries machinery(3)

11-64

06/82

228.4 228.4 228.5 0.7 0.0 0.1 -0.3 0.0

Printing trades machinery and equipment(3)

11-65

  165.1 164.8 165.5 0.6 0.4 0.1 -0.1 0.4

Transformers and power regulators(3)

11-74

  236.5 234.8 232.4 0.8 -1.0 0.1 -1.1 -1.0

Communication and related equipment

11-76

12/85

116.7 120.0 119.7 2.9 -0.3 0.1 0.0 -0.3

Electronic components and accessories

11-78

  65.6 65.5 64.6 -0.9 -1.4 0.0 -0.2 -1.4

X-ray and electromedical equipment(3)

11-79-05

  86.3 87.0 86.9 0.3 -0.1 0.2 0.0 -0.1

Oil field and gas field machinery(3)

11-91

  218.3 217.4 217.8 -1.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2

Mining machinery and equipment(3)

11-92

  303.4 305.9 305.6 3.6 -0.1 -0.1 0.3 -0.1

Office and store machines and equipment(3)

11-93

  122.1 122.2 121.8 1.8 -0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.3

Household furniture(3)

12-1

  221.7 221.3 221.9 1.5 0.3 -0.9 -0.1 0.3

Commercial furniture(3)

12-2

  236.2 240.6 239.1 3.7 -0.6 0.6 1.1 -0.6

Floor coverings(3)

12-3

  197.2 198.5 198.5 -0.5 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.0

Household appliances(3)

12-4

  123.7 123.8 124.5 0.6 0.6 1.2 0.1 0.6

Home electronic equipment(3)

12-5

  52.5 52.9 52.8 2.3 -0.2 0.0 0.0 -0.2

Lawn and garden equipment excl. garden tractors(3)

12-66

  150.9 151.1 151.2 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1

Passenger cars

14-11-01

  135.3 134.4 133.8 -1.0 -0.4 0.4 0.4 -0.4

Light motor trucks

14-11-05

  179.2 177.6 174.8 -1.4 -1.6 -1.5 1.3 -1.2

Heavy motor trucks

14-11-06

  232.8 233.8 233.8 0.8 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.0

Motor vehicles parts(3)

14-12

  127.2 127.8 127.7 0.6 -0.1 0.4 0.3 -0.1

Truck trailers(3)

14-14

  227.0 226.4 224.7 0.4 -0.8 0.0 0.0 -0.8

Travel trailers and campers

14-16

06/84

217.9 219.0 219.0 2.1 0.0 -0.5 0.0 0.0

Aircraft

14-21

  308.0 309.8 310.3 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Ships(3)

14-31

12/85

229.7 230.4 230.4 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Railroad equipment(3)

14-4

  204.0 204.3 204.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Toys, games, and children's vehicles(3)

15-11

  158.5 159.6 159.6 2.4 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.0

Sporting and athletic goods

15-12

  144.8 145.6 145.6 3.2 0.0 -0.3 0.3 0.0

Cigarettes(3)

15-21

  1,148.8 1,168.4 1,168.4 4.8 0.0 0.9 0.8 0.0

Mobile homes(3)

15-5

  324.9 330.1 330.1 1.7 0.0 -0.2 1.5 0.0

Medical, surgical & personal aid devices

15-6

  183.9 185.1 185.7 1.9 0.3 -0.4 1.0 0.3

Jewelry, platinum and karat gold(3)

15-94-02

  233.9 240.7 239.5 3.8 -0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5

Costume jewelry and novelties(3)

15-94-04

  202.0 202.6 202.6 5.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0

Final demand services

 

11/09

119.3 120.3 120.0 0.8 -0.2 -0.3 0.2 -0.2

Final demand trade services(4)

 

11/09

119.5 122.0 124.4 3.4 2.0 -0.7 1.4 1.6

Machinery and equipment parts and supplies wholesaling(3)

57-11-02

03/09

132.8 132.2 129.5 0.9 -2.0 0.2 -0.9 -2.0

Machinery and vehicle wholesaling(3)

57-11-03

05/19

96.9 100.7 101.1 - 0.4 2.8 0.2 0.4

Professional and commercial equipment wholesaling(3)

57-11-04

05/19

93.5 92.7 92.4 - -0.3 0.5 0.4 -0.3

Furnishings wholesaling(3)

57-2

03/09

101.1 102.3 102.6 10.3 0.3 0.0 1.4 0.3

Chemicals and allied products wholesaling(3)

57-5

03/09

110.5 113.8 116.3 3.7 2.2 0.3 1.2 2.2

Paper and plastics products wholesaling(3)

57-6

03/09

142.9 141.0 142.8 5.3 1.3 -0.3 0.9 1.3

Apparel wholesaling(3)

57-7

03/09

122.2 120.8 123.6 2.0 2.3 0.6 -0.7 2.3

Food and alcohol wholesaling(3)

57-8

06/09

114.9 115.2 115.3 0.7 0.1 -1.5 1.8 0.1

Food and alcohol retailing

58-1

03/09

134.1 137.6 139.2 3.0 1.2 -0.5 1.4 1.0

Health, beauty, and optical goods retailing(3)

58-2

03/09

125.8 125.6 124.2 2.3 -1.1 -1.0 -2.1 -1.1

Apparel, jewelry, footwear, and accessories retailing

58-3

06/09

112.0 115.5 115.1 -0.2 -0.3 -11.7 8.1 -2.3

Computer hardware, software, and supplies retailing(3)

58-4

03/09

93.3 93.6 98.4 1.9 5.1 4.8 -0.5 5.1

TV, video, and photographic equipment and supplies retailing(3)

58-5

03/09

52.4 58.6 61.9 8.6 5.6 7.1 -0.2 5.6

Automobiles retailing (Partial)

58-61-01

03/09

75.0 77.3 80.7 -0.2 4.4 4.2 -3.6 1.0

Automotive parts, including tires, retailing(3)

58-61-02

03/09

115.2 113.0 114.5 -0.4 1.3 -0.7 -0.2 1.3

RVs, trailers, and campers retailing(3)

58-8

03/09

106.1 106.1 90.0 -15.7 -15.2 0.1 0.0 -15.2

Sporting goods, including boats, retailing(3)

58-9

03/09

112.1 115.7 116.8 1.7 1.0 -0.8 1.8 1.0

Lawn, garden, and farm equipment and supplies retailing(3)

58-A

03/09

113.1 111.1 111.9 4.3 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.7

Furniture retailing(3)

58-B

03/09

104.6 109.0 107.4 2.9 -1.5 1.1 1.3 -1.5

Flooring and floor coverings retailing(3)

58-C

03/09

101.8 100.3 101.5 1.1 1.2 -0.6 -2.0 1.2

Hardware, building materials, and supplies retailing

58-D

03/09

123.9 126.5 124.7 -2.2 -1.4 1.0 -0.3 -1.7

Major household appliances retailing

58-E

03/09

94.8 99.0 101.9 0.8 2.9 0.1 -2.0 2.1

Fuels and lubricants retailing(3)

58-F

06/09

172.0 215.3 291.4 80.8 35.3 3.7 17.2 35.3

Cleaning supplies and paper products retailing(3)

58-G

03/09

149.2 145.5 151.3 3.7 4.0 1.3 -2.0 4.0

Book retailing(3)

58-H

03/09

126.7 124.7 127.7 7.3 2.4 -3.2 0.6 2.4

Final demand transportation and warehousing services

 

11/09

127.6 121.8 117.6 -6.3 -3.4 -0.6 -3.3 -3.5

Rail transportation of freight and mail(3)

30-11

12/08

129.0 129.5 128.7 0.2 -0.6 -0.2 -0.2 -0.6

Truck transportation of freight(3)

30-12

06/09

125.8 124.2 123.2 -1.4 -0.8 -0.5 -1.1 -0.8

Air transportation of freight(3)

30-14

12/08

113.8 111.1 109.9 -1.8 -1.1 -1.2 -0.9 -1.1

Courier, messenger, and U.S. postal services

30-16

06/09

146.4 151.3 150.2 3.1 -0.7 0.1 0.2 -0.3

Rail transportation of passengers

30-21

12/08

127.6 127.8 127.8 2.4 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1

Airline passenger services

30-22

12/08

123.1 106.0 94.1 -20.7 -11.2 -0.9 -10.0 -11.3

Final demand services less trade, transportation, and warehousing

 

11/09

118.5 119.4 118.2 0.3 -1.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.9

Sales of books(3)

33-11

  392.5 407.4 402.8 2.2 -1.1 -0.6 2.5 -1.1

Sales and subscriptions of periodicals and newspapers(3)

33-12

06/09

126.2 133.9 132.6 6.8 -1.0 0.2 3.7 -1.0

Application software publishing(3)

34-2

06/09

101.3 101.9 102.4 1.3 0.5 -1.6 2.7 0.5

Advertising space sales in periodicals, newspapers, directories, and mailing lists(3)

36-1

06/09

101.9 101.2 98.8 -3.3 -2.4 0.0 -0.3 -2.4

Residential wired telecommunication services

37-11

06/09

139.8 142.2 146.0 4.4 2.7 0.5 1.2 2.7

Wireless telecommunication services

37-2

06/09

65.2 64.6 65.3 0.3 1.1 2.9 -2.0 0.5

Cable and satellite subscriber services(3)

37-3

12/08

135.3 138.4 139.2 2.6 0.6 2.3 -0.2 0.6

Internet access services(3)

37-4

03/09

93.3 93.4 93.4 -1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Bundled wired telecommunications access services(3)

37-5

12/11

111.0 114.9 111.9 2.2 -2.6 0.0 0.0 -2.6

Consumer loans (partial)

39-12

06/09

109.5 115.1 114.3 -3.5 -0.7 -3.3 5.7 -2.6

Deposit services (partial)(3)

39-2

04/09

65.9 61.1 61.7 -10.6 1.0 -1.6 -7.7 1.0

Other credit intermediation, incl. trust services (partial)(3)

39-3

04/09

104.0 106.6 105.9 4.4 -0.7 1.0 0.1 -0.7

Securities brokerage, dealing, investment advice, and related services(3)

40-1

06/09

144.0 155.7 144.2 -11.6 -7.4 3.6 4.8 -7.4

Portfolio management(3)

40-2

12/08

225.6 229.4 201.8 -7.0 -12.0 0.3 -0.8 -12.0

Life insurance(3)

41-11-01

03/09

104.4 104.5 104.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Disability insurance, including accidental death(3)

41-11-02

03/09

104.0 103.9 103.9 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Health and medical insurance

41-11-03

03/09

135.9 136.3 136.4 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

Property and casualty insurance(3)

41-11-04

03/09

125.3 125.5 125.6 2.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Annuities(3)

41-2

03/09

117.4 117.6 117.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0

Residential property sales and leases, brokerage fees and commissions

43-21

12/08

148.9 148.8 148.7 3.4 -0.1 0.4 0.3 0.1

Passenger car rental

44-1

03/09

85.4 84.8 66.4 -23.1 -21.7 0.0 -4.4 -20.5

Legal services

45-1

03/09

136.0 140.1 140.4 4.4 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.3

Tax preparation and planning

45-21-02

04/09

119.4 119.3 118.9 1.5 -0.3 0.8 0.7 -0.1

Architectural and engineering services(3)

45-3

06/09

118.0 118.8 119.0 0.7 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

45-4

06/09

103.8 102.6 99.2 -5.3 -3.3 -0.2 -2.0 -3.2

Arrangement of flights (partial)(3)

47-1

06/09

106.0 106.1 105.0 1.3 -1.0 -0.8 -0.9 -1.0

Arrangement of vehicle rentals and lodging(3)

47-2

12/08

81.0 74.8 77.7 -11.2 3.9 -5.8 2.2 3.9

Arrangement of cruises and tours(3)

47-3

12/08

102.7 108.4 102.4 -20.0 -5.5 1.0 7.3 -5.5

Physician care

51-11-01

03/09

110.4 110.3 110.8 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.5

Medical laboratory and diagnostic imaging care(3)

51-11-02

03/09

95.5 94.6 94.7 -0.7 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.1

Home health and hospice care(3)

51-11-03

12/08

113.4 114.2 114.4 2.1 0.2 1.1 0.4 0.2

Hospital outpatient care

51-11-04

12/08

132.1 134.5 133.3 2.5 -0.9 1.0 -0.7 -0.9

Dental care

51-11-05

06/10

117.0 117.9 117.6 1.1 -0.3 0.4 0.0 -0.3

Hospital inpatient care

51-21-01

12/08

131.1 132.0 132.3 2.8 0.2 -0.3 0.4 0.5

Nursing home care

51-21-02

12/08

128.3 130.0 130.4 4.3 0.3 1.3 0.5 0.5

Traveler accommodation services

53-11

06/09

117.6 113.9 100.3 -17.8 -11.9 -10.0 -2.2 -9.7

Food and beverages for immediate consumption services (partial)(3)

54-1

06/09

120.6 120.7 120.8 0.2 0.1 -2.6 0.5 0.1

Motor vehicle repair and maintenance (partial)

55-2

12/08

139.7 140.7 140.9 2.8 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.1

Membership dues and admissions and recreation facility use fees (partial)

56-1

06/09

124.8 125.2 125.7 -0.2 0.4 0.0 -0.2 0.7

Recreational activity instruction fees (partial)(3)

56-2

12/08

120.2 121.8 123.3 2.8 1.2 0.0 1.2 1.2

Gaming receipts (partial)(3)

56-3

12/08

106.5 105.5 107.8 -1.8 2.2 1.0 -2.9 2.2

Mining services(3)

60-1

06/85

230.4 230.1 221.7 -5.2 -3.7 0.8 -0.9 -3.7

Final demand construction

 

11/09

128.9 129.8 130.4 2.8 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.5

New warehouse building construction(3)

80-11-01

12/04

162.0 162.9 162.6 2.4 -0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2

New school building construction(3)

80-11-02

12/05

172.1 173.7 174.9 3.4 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.7

New office building construction(3)

80-11-03

06/06

144.7 145.4 145.9 2.7 0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3

New industrial building construction(3)

80-11-04

06/07

137.7 138.4 139.8 3.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0

New health care building construction(3)

80-11-05

06/12

117.9 118.9 119.5 2.6 0.5 0.5 -0.3 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Further information about the Final Demand-Intermediate Demand Aggregation system is available online at https://www.bls.gov/ppi/fdidaggregation.htm
(2) The indexes for December 2019 have been recalculated to incorporate late reports and corrections by respondents. All indexes are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.
(3) Not seasonally adjusted.
(4) Trade indexes measure changes in margins received by wholesalers and retailers.

"-" Data not available.
NOTE: The term "(partial)" denotes incomplete coverage of the index category.


Table 5. Producer price indexes and percent changes for selected commodity groupings of intermediate demand by commodity type category(1) [1982=100, unless otherwise indicated]
Grouping Commodity
code
Other
index
base
Unadjusted index Unadjusted percent
change to Apr. 2020
from:
Seasonally adjusted
percent change from:
Dec.
2019(2)
Mar.
2020(2)
Apr.
2020(2)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Jan. to
Feb.
Feb. to
Mar.
Mar. to
Apr.

Processed goods for intermediate demand

    196.0 192.3 185.5 -7.3 -3.5 -0.9 -1.1 -3.7

Processed foods and feeds

    194.9 192.7 193.3 0.5 0.3 -0.6 -0.8 -0.1

Meats

02-21

  184.8 175.6 185.5 1.0 5.6 -2.6 -2.2 4.2

Processed poultry

02-22

  153.9 153.4 153.3 -1.0 -0.1 -1.3 1.0 -1.5

Dairy products

02-3

  207.9 201.9 192.9 -2.4 -4.5 0.1 -0.9 -4.4

Processed fruits and vegetables(3)

02-4

  208.2 209.5 209.7 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Refined sugar and byproducts(3)

02-53

  179.4 183.5 182.3 5.1 -0.7 1.2 0.5 -0.7

Fats and oils(3)

02-7

  235.0 234.8 235.5 -1.1 0.3 1.3 -1.4 0.3

Prepared animal feeds

02-9

  188.8 190.8 192.4 1.6 0.8 -1.8 0.0 0.7

Processed materials less foods and feeds

    196.2 192.3 184.8 -8.1 -3.9 -1.0 -1.2 -4.0

Synthetic fibers(3)

03-1

  130.8 128.2 127.7 -3.0 -0.4 -0.1 -1.3 -0.4

Processed yarns and threads(3)

03-2

  139.4 139.3 137.9 -3.4 -1.0 0.1 0.1 -1.0

Finished fabrics(3)

03-4

  161.3 160.9 160.8 -0.3 -0.1 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Liquefied petroleum gas(3)

05-32

  121.2 67.9 49.4 -64.6 -27.2 -11.3 -21.1 -27.2

Commercial electric power

05-42

  191.9 193.3 192.6 -1.0 -0.4 0.1 -0.8 0.7

Industrial electric power

05-43

  232.5 233.5 233.7 -2.1 0.1 0.0 0.5 1.6

Commercial natural gas

05-52

12/90

193.4 187.1 181.0 -6.6 -3.3 -0.4 -0.3 -1.6

Industrial natural gas

05-53

12/90

149.5 136.9 130.5 -12.9 -4.7 -2.8 0.8 -2.1

Natural gas to electric utilities

05-54

12/90

145.6 128.4 122.5 -21.7 -4.6 -2.0 0.2 -4.1

Gasoline

05-71

  174.5 144.0 68.4 -67.0 -52.5 -6.5 -16.8 -56.6

Jet fuel(3)

05-72-03

  200.3 161.1 82.0 -61.0 -49.1 -16.5 -8.2 -49.1

No. 2 diesel fuel

05-73-03

  231.1 171.6 124.2 -47.7 -27.6 -10.0 -12.6 -27.8

Residual fuels(3)

05-74

  114.4 116.1 56.1 -66.1 -51.7 -0.9 -6.6 -51.7

Finished lubricants(3)

05-76

  439.6 438.7 439.1 2.8 0.1 -0.2 -0.2 0.1

Lubricating oil base stocks(3)

05-78

06/09

118.8 99.5 86.5 -24.7 -13.1 2.5 -17.8 -13.1

Asphalt

05-81-02

06/85

170.6 195.8 144.3 -39.1 -26.3 -1.2 -2.5 -30.1

Basic inorganic chemicals(3)

06-13

  276.6 271.8 270.7 -3.7 -0.4 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4

Basic organic chemicals

06-14

  243.1 233.9 203.3 -20.7 -13.1 -1.9 -2.5 -13.5

Prepared paint(3)

06-21

  301.6 303.0 303.7 2.6 0.2 0.0 -0.1 0.2

Paint materials(3)

06-22

  262.4 262.9 263.1 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.1

Medicinal and botanical chemicals(3)

06-31

  180.8 184.9 185.5 2.3 0.3 0.0 0.7 0.3

Biological products, including diagnostics

06-37

  276.6 280.0 279.8 1.5 -0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.3

Fats and oils, inedible

06-4

  195.7 198.6 190.2 -1.2 -4.2 -2.5 -2.1 -5.2

Nitrogenates

06-52-01

  232.9 236.6 236.7 -14.3 0.0 -1.0 -0.3 -0.7

Phosphates

06-52-02

  156.1 163.4 163.4 -19.4 0.0 -1.3 2.4 -0.5

Other agricultural chemicals(3)

06-53

  194.8 194.8 189.4 -7.8 -2.8 0.2 -0.6 -2.8

Plastic resins and materials

06-6

  217.3 219.9 209.4 -6.9 -4.8 -0.2 0.2 -4.1

Industrial gases(3)

06-79-03

  281.7 277.1 275.8 -0.8 -0.5 -1.9 -0.6 -0.5

Adhesives and sealants(3)

06-79-04

12/83

267.4 269.3 269.2 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0

Synthetic rubber(3)

07-11-02

  198.5 201.9 192.0 -9.3 -4.9 1.1 -1.5 -4.9

Tires(3)

07-12-01

  148.8 148.5 150.4 1.1 1.3 0.2 0.0 1.3

Plastic construction products(3)

07-21

  228.8 232.1 231.4 0.7 -0.3 -0.1 1.4 -0.3

Unsupported plastic film, sheet, other shapes(3)

07-22

  220.0 218.9 220.8 -0.1 0.9 1.1 -1.0 0.9

Parts for manufacturing from plastics(3)

07-26

  154.0 152.2 153.3 0.5 0.7 0.1 -1.0 0.7

Plastic packaging products(3)

07-2A

12/06

115.2 113.7 113.6 -3.5 -0.1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.1

Softwood lumber

08-11

  220.6 239.5 212.7 -0.7 -11.2 2.0 3.7 -10.8

Hardwood lumber(3)

08-12

  204.7 205.8 203.6 -8.9 -1.1 0.1 1.7 -1.1

Millwork

08-2

  264.5 267.7 268.4 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.1

Plywood(3)

08-3

  194.9 198.8 201.5 -5.4 1.4 -0.2 1.8 1.4

Paper(3)

09-13

  199.9 195.1 195.8 -2.9 0.4 -2.3 0.4 0.4

Paperboard(3)

09-14

  260.9 255.8 255.3 -6.5 -0.2 -1.7 -0.2 -0.2

Paper boxes and containers(3)

09-15-03

  269.0 268.7 267.9 -0.6 -0.3 0.4 -0.3 -0.3

Building paper and board(3)

09-2

  206.6 224.2 212.8 4.4 -5.1 -1.7 11.4 -5.1

Commercial printing(3)

09-47

06/82

178.2 179.0 179.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0

Foundry and forge shop products(3)

10-15

  211.3 212.1 212.3 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.1

Steel mill products(3)

10-17

  187.4 190.7 188.8 -11.0 -1.0 0.3 1.3 -1.0

Primary nonferrous metals(3)

10-22

  184.2 183.2 175.3 -6.5 -4.3 -2.3 0.2 -4.3

Secondary nonferrous metals(3)

10-24

  239.5 234.3 247.6 5.8 5.7 -1.1 -3.5 5.7

Aluminum mill shapes(3)

10-25-01

  191.7 186.2 177.9 -12.1 -4.5 -2.4 -0.7 -4.5

Copper and brass mill shapes(3)

10-25-02

  386.7 374.9 358.9 -12.5 -4.3 -3.2 -1.8 -4.3

Nonferrous wire and cable(3)

10-26

  245.0 242.0 239.8 -5.3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.2 -0.9

Nonferrous foundry shop products

10-28

  211.5 211.4 210.9 -2.2 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.3

Metal containers(3)

10-3

  162.5 163.4 162.9 -1.7 -0.3 0.0 -1.0 -0.3

Hardware(3)

10-4

  225.7 226.8 226.7 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0

Plumbing fixtures and brass fittings

10-5

  284.1 287.6 287.4 2.3 -0.1 0.3 0.2 0.0

Heating equipment(3)

10-6

  283.0 281.9 284.4 2.2 0.9 -0.3 -0.2 0.9

Fabricated structural metal products

10-7

  237.2 238.9 238.8 -1.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 -0.5

Bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, and washers(3)

10-81

00/82

210.4 211.9 212.1 1.7 0.1 -0.8 -0.1 0.1

Lighting fixtures(3)

10-83

00/82

186.2 187.3 187.5 3.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1

Fabricated ferrous wire products(3)

10-88

06/82

251.4 251.9 252.5 -2.4 0.2 0.4 -0.2 0.2

Other miscellaneous metal products(3)

10-89

  166.8 165.9 166.0 -0.5 0.1 -0.6 0.1 0.1

Fluid power equipment(3)

11-43

  267.1 269.9 270.0 1.8 0.0 -0.1 0.5 0.0

Mechanical power transmission equipment(3)

11-45

  280.6 282.3 282.6 1.9 0.1 0.6 -0.1 0.1

Air conditioning and refrigeration equipment

11-48

  201.2 200.2 203.5 1.5 1.6 -0.4 -0.4 1.6

Metal valves, except fluid power

11-49-02

12/82

341.9 343.5 346.0 1.8 0.7 -0.2 -0.5 0.6

Ball and roller bearings(3)

11-49-05

  282.0 283.2 282.5 1.4 -0.2 -0.2 0.6 -0.2

Wiring devices(3)

11-71

  239.2 239.7 240.8 1.6 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.5

Motors, generators, motor generator sets(3)

11-73

  222.7 222.2 222.2 0.5 0.0 0.0 -0.6 0.0

Switchgear, switchboard, and industrial controls equip.(3)

11-75

  233.2 234.5 234.9 2.2 0.2 0.0 -0.2 0.2

Electronic components and accessories

11-78

  65.6 65.5 64.6 -0.9 -1.4 0.0 -0.2 -1.4

Internal combustion engines(3)

11-94

  169.6 170.8 170.7 0.9 -0.1 0.2 0.0 -0.1

Machine shop products(3)

11-95

  195.2 194.8 195.1 0.9 0.2 0.1 -0.4 0.2

Flat glass(3)

13-11

  137.3 138.9 138.6 1.4 -0.2 0.4 0.4 -0.2

Cement

13-22

  258.0 256.8 262.3 1.4 2.1 0.2 0.3 0.5

Concrete products

13-3

  273.5 278.5 280.0 3.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.1

Asphalt felts and coatings(3)

13-6

  246.8 249.5 247.5 1.6 -0.8 -0.8 1.6 -0.8

Paving mixtures and blocks(3)

13-94

  311.6 330.3 315.7 -1.2 -4.4 0.3 -1.9 -4.4

Motor vehicle parts(3)

14-12

  127.2 127.8 127.7 0.6 -0.1 0.4 0.3 -0.1

Aircraft engines and engine parts

14-23

12/85

230.3 230.8 231.3 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2

Aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment, n.e.c.

14-25

06/85

189.9 190.7 191.2 1.6 0.3 0.1 -0.1 0.3

Medical, surgical, and personal aid devices

15-6

  183.9 185.1 185.7 1.9 0.3 -0.4 1.0 0.3

Unprocessed goods for intermediate demand

    187.2 161.2 138.9 -28.2 -13.8 -7.7 -8.0 -13.7

Unprocessed foodstuffs and feedstuffs

    168.6 158.7 142.7 -16.0 -10.1 -5.8 -3.6 -9.7

Wheat(3)

01-21

  141.1 142.7 150.2 10.8 5.3 -3.9 -4.7 5.3

Corn

01-22-02

  151.0 154.4 126.0 -10.6 -18.4 -6.5 -0.2 -19.1

Slaughter cattle

01-31

  171.5 164.5 160.1 -11.9 -2.7 -4.1 -10.5 0.1

Slaughter hogs

01-32

  74.4 71.5 57.0 -42.5 -20.3 -10.2 4.4 -17.4

Slaughter chickens

01-41-02

  228.7 213.8 115.6 -56.5 -45.9 -7.6 -10.4 -48.2

Slaughter turkeys

01-42

  201.0 205.9 213.2 13.8 3.5 -1.8 0.3 2.7

Raw milk

01-6

  157.9 133.2 126.9 -6.0 -4.7 -6.0 0.6 -3.8

Alfalfa hay

01-81

  328.0 308.7 323.5 -13.8 4.8 -2.1 -5.0 -0.4

Oilseeds

01-83-01

  166.4 163.7 159.1 -0.7 -2.8 -5.4 -3.1 -5.2

Raw cane sugar and byproducts(3)

02-52-01

  161.2 168.4 169.5 11.5 0.7 1.9 1.5 0.7

Unprocessed nonfood materials

    191.6 155.0 129.2 -35.8 -16.6 -9.0 -10.9 -16.7

Raw cotton(3)

01-51

  99.1 91.8 78.5 -32.4 -14.5 -4.3 -10.5 -14.5

Hides and skins

04-1

  122.7 105.7 93.4 -31.0 -11.6 -6.7 -13.8 -8.6

Coal

05-1

  196.4 189.2 188.6 -5.8 -0.3 -2.2 -3.1 -0.3