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Economic News Release
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Productivity and Costs by Industry: Manufacturing and Mining Industries News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, April 29, 2021                            USDL-21-0725

Technical information: (202) 691-5606  •  productivity@bls.gov   •  www.bls.gov/lpc 
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                  		PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY
			    MANUFACTURING AND MINING INDUSTRIES – 2020

Labor productivity rose in 41 of the 86 NAICS four-digit manufacturing industries in 2020, 
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The footwear industry had the largest 
productivity gain with an increase of 14.5 percent. Three out of the four industries in the 
mining sector posted productivity declines in 2020, with the greatest decline occurring in 
the metal ore mining industry with a decrease of 6.7 percent.

Although more mining and manufacturing industries recorded productivity gains in 2020 than 
2019, declines in both output and hours worked were widespread. Output fell in over 90 
percent of detailed industries in 2020 and 87 percent had declines in hours worked. 
Seventy-two industries had declines in both output and hours worked in 2020. This was the 
greatest number of such industries since 2009. Within this set of industries, 35 had increasing 
labor productivity.

Labor Productivity Trends in NAICS 3-Digit Industries, 2020

Manufacturing
    • Labor productivity increased in 9 of the 21 NAICS 3-digit manufacturing industries in 2020 
      as hours worked fell in all 21 industries and output declined in 19.
    • Both output and hours worked fell by over 5.0 percent in 13 industries.
    • The apparel industry had the largest productivity gain, 10.1 percent.
    • The furniture and related products industry had the largest productivity decline, 7.4 percent.

Mining
    • Labor productivity rose by 3.4 percent in the oil and gas extraction industry as hours worked 
      declined more than output.
    • The mining, except oil and gas industry had a productivity decline of 5.0 percent. Output fell 
      12.6 percent in 2020 while hours worked declined 8.0 percent.  
 
Trends in Unit Labor Costs in 2020

Unit labor costs increase when hourly compensation growth exceeds productivity growth.

Manufacturing
    • In manufacturing, unit labor costs increased in 18 of the 21 NAICS 3-digit industries. The 
      three industries with declines in unit labor costs were all nondurable manufacturers with the 
      largest decline occurring in apparel. 
    • Twenty-six NAICS 4-digit manufacturing industries had declines in unit labor costs. Of these, 
      nearly three quarters also recorded growth in productivity.

Mining
    • Unit labor costs declined in the oil and gas extraction industry by 1.7 percent but increased 
      in the mining, except oil and gas industry by 2.6 percent.
    • Unit labor costs rose in 3 of the 4 NAICS 4-digit mining industries measured. All three of 
      these industries recorded declines in hourly compensation along with even greater declines in 
      productivity.

Long-Term Trends in Labor Productivity and Unit Labor Costs 

Labor Productivity
    • Over the entire 1987-2020 period, labor productivity rose in 83 of the 91 manufacturing and 
      mining industries. Output rose in 50 industries while hours worked increased in only 14. In 
      the 14 industries where hours worked increased, they rose at a slow pace, 0.7 percent per year 
      on average.
    • During the more recent 2007-2020 period, productivity increased in just 38 industries. These 
      increases are predominantly the result of a decline in hours worked rather than an increase in 
      output, as hours worked fell in 79 NAICS 4-digit manufacturing and mining industries while 
      output increased in only 11. Oil and gas extraction had the greatest average annual growth in 
      output over this period, 6.0 percent. 

Unit Labor Costs
    • During the 1987-2020 period, unit labor costs increased in 78 of the 86 NAICS 4-digit 
      manufacturing industries. All five mining industries saw an increase in unit labor costs. 
    • From 2007 to 2020, unit labor costs increased in 82 of the 86 manufacturing industries and in 
      3 of the 5 mining industries. Unit labor costs increased the most in the pharmaceutical and 
      medicine industry. 

The computer and peripheral equipment industry recorded the largest productivity gain as well as the 
largest unit labor cost decline during both the 1987-2020 and 1987-2007 periods. However, between 2007 
and 2020, the oil and gas extraction industry posted the greatest productivity growth and the largest 
unit labor cost decline.

Additional Information

Manufacturing industry output measures for 2019 and earlier years are constructed primarily using data 
from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the U.S. Census Bureau together with data on price 
changes primarily from BLS. These measures have been revised due to the release of the 2017 Economic 
Census Summary Series and the 2019 Annual Survey of Manufactures. Manufacturing industry output for 2020 
is estimated based on historical relationships between BLS sectoral output, BLS price indexes, and data 
on industrial production from the Federal Reserve Board.

Mining industry output measures are constructed primarily using data from the U.S. Energy Information 
Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey’s Mineral Commodity Summaries and Mineral Yearbooks. The 
data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration are usually revised on a monthly schedule while the 
U.S. Geological Survey’s publications are released annually. 

The COVID-19 pandemic did not impact the availability of source data used to construct productivity 
measures in this release. Data source providers continued to collect and publish high quality industry 
data for 2020. Additional information can be found on the BLS website at 
https://www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-productivity-and-costs-statistics.htm#Industry-Productivity

Access the productivity data dashboard at www.bls.gov/lpc/lpc_by_industry_dashboard.xlsx for
    • Additional industries and sectors
    • Detailed data series: indexes of productivity and related measures; rates of change; and levels of industry 
      employment, hours worked, nominal value of production, and labor compensation
    • Additional years and long-term data
    
Subscribe to productivity news releases on the BLS website at 
https://subscriptions.bls.gov/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 
(202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

                                       Technical Note

Labor Productivity: Labor productivity describes the relationship between real output and the labor 
hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period in the amount 
of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity measures relate output 
in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not measure the specific 
contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, 
including: changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the 
use of purchased services inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of 
production; the characteristics and effort of the workforce; and managerial skill. 

Unit Labor Costs: Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of output. 
The unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of nominal industry labor compensation 
by an index of real industry output. Unit labor costs also describe the relationship between compensation 
per hour worked (hourly compensation) and real output per hour worked (labor productivity). When 
hourly compensation growth outpaces productivity, unit labor costs increase. Alternatively, when 
productivity growth exceeds hourly compensation, unit labor costs decrease. 

Output: Industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the various products 
(in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is usually derived by deflating 
nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for some industries it is measured by 
physical quantities of output. Industry output reflects sectoral value of production, derived by adjusting 
shipments for changes in inventories and removing intra-industry transactions. Industry output measures 
are constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Census 
Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with data on price changes primarily from BLS. Data 
from the Bureau of Economic Analysis at the U.S. Department of Commerce is used in part to construct 
intra-industry transactions. Other data sources include the Energy Information Administration at the 
U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Geological Survey at the U.S. Department of the Interior. 
Manufacturing industry output for 2020 is estimated based on historical relationships between BLS 
sectoral output, BLS price indexes, and data on industrial production from the Federal Reserve Board.

Labor Hours: Labor hours are measured as annual hours worked by all employed persons in an 
industry. Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current Employment 
Statistics (CES) survey and Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number of total and 
production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are supplemented 
with CPS data on self-employed and unpaid family workers to estimate industry employment. Hours 
worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on the average weekly hours 
paid of production workers, CPS data on hours of nonproduction, self-employed, and unpaid family 
workers, and ratios of hours worked to hours paid based on data from the National Compensation 
Survey (NCS). For some industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or further 
disaggregated using data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the 
Census Bureau, or other sources. Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of workers 
and then are directly aggregated; no adjustments for labor composition are made.
Labor Compensation: Labor compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a 
measure of the cost to the employer of securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, wages, 
commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in kind. 
Supplemental payments include both legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary 
programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of federal old age and survivors’ insurance, 
unemployment compensation, and workers’ compensation. Payments for voluntary programs include all 
programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the employer portion of private health 
insurance and pension plans. Industry compensation measures are constructed primarily using data from 
the BLS QCEW and the economic censuses of the Census Bureau at the U.S. Department of Commerce.









Table 1. Recent labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2020
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2019-2020
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours
worked
Labor compen-
sation
Hourly compen-
sation

Mining

Mining

21

584.7 13.9 -10.8 -7.3 -18.6 -17.3 1.6

Oil and gas extraction

211

138.6 3.4 -1.7 -5.6 -8.7 -7.2 1.6

Oil and gas extraction

2111

138.6 3.4 -1.7 -5.6 -8.7 -7.2 1.6

Mining, except oil and gas

212

179.4 -5.0 2.6 -12.6 -8.0 -10.3 -2.5

Coal mining

2121

41.6 -3.8 2.9 -24.7 -21.8 -22.5 -0.9

Metal ore mining

2122

41.9 -6.7 5.5 -8.9 -2.4 -3.9 -1.6

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

95.9 -4.3 1.4 -7.1 -3.0 -5.9 -3.0

Nondurable Manufacturing

Food

311

1,666.2 -0.3 5.7 -1.4 -1.0 4.3 5.3

Animal food

3111

67.4 -9.6 9.3 -0.7 9.8 8.5 -1.2

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

61.8 -1.3 5.1 -0.9 0.3 4.2 3.8

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

73.9 1.6 0.0 -1.3 -2.8 -1.3 1.5

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

170.6 4.3 6.7 -1.3 -5.4 5.3 11.3

Dairy products

3115

152.8 0.8 2.4 -0.3 -1.1 2.2 3.3

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

540.4 -2.8 8.8 -0.3 2.5 8.5 5.8

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

32.4 10.7 -5.8 1.3 -8.5 -4.6 4.2

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

338.8 0.4 2.1 -3.3 -3.7 -1.3 2.5

Other food products

3119

228.1 0.7 8.7 -3.5 -4.2 4.9 9.5

Beverages and tobacco products

312

281.8 1.6 1.1 0.3 -1.3 1.4 2.7

Beverages

3121

270.4 3.1 0.0 1.5 -1.5 1.5 3.1

Tobacco

3122

11.4 -7.3 2.1 -2.6 5.1 -0.6 -5.4

Textile mills

313

101.0 0.2 -2.3 -9.5 -9.7 -11.6 -2.1

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

23.6 7.5 -8.9 -10.0 -16.3 -18.0 -2.0

Fabric mills

3132

48.7 3.1 -2.3 -7.0 -9.7 -9.1 0.7

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

28.7 -11.0 2.5 -13.4 -2.7 -11.2 -8.7

Textile product mills

314

116.6 -5.1 1.1 -9.0 -4.2 -8.0 -4.0

Textile furnishings mills

3141

50.2 -6.9 -1.6 -8.8 -2.0 -10.2 -8.3

Other textile product mills

3149

66.4 -3.7 3.6 -9.4 -5.9 -6.1 -0.2

Apparel

315

105.4 10.1 -10.7 -7.1 -15.6 -17.0 -1.6

Apparel knitting mills

3151

8.4 3.0 -8.5 -11.4 -14.0 -18.9 -5.8

Cut and sew apparel

3152

84.5 12.7 -11.6 -6.6 -17.1 -17.4 -0.3

Accessories and other apparel

3159

12.5 -1.5 -5.6 -7.2 -5.8 -12.4 -7.0

Leather and allied products

316

30.4 3.0 -7.9 0.3 -2.6 -7.6 -5.1

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

4.8 1.6 -7.5 2.1 0.4 -5.5 -5.9

Footwear

3162

11.5 14.5 -12.2 0.6 -12.2 -11.7 0.5

Other leather products

3169

14.1 -7.4 -2.2 -1.3 6.6 -3.5 -9.4

Paper

322

357.0 -2.1 0.7 -2.8 -0.7 -2.1 -1.4

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

92.6 1.6 0.8 -3.8 -5.3 -3.0 2.5

Converted paper products

3222

264.4 -3.5 0.7 -2.4 1.2 -1.7 -2.9

Printing and related support activities

323

397.8 2.0 0.8 -10.9 -12.7 -10.2 2.8

Printing and related support activities

3231

397.8 2.0 0.8 -10.9 -12.7 -10.2 2.8

Petroleum and coal products

324

106.5 0.8 13.1 -15.5 -16.2 -4.4 14.1

Petroleum and coal products

3241

106.5 0.8 13.1 -15.5 -16.2 -4.4 14.1

Chemicals

325

860.9 -1.2 6.5 -3.9 -2.8 2.4 5.3

Basic chemicals

3251

150.1 -2.2 1.6 -4.9 -2.8 -3.4 -0.6

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

91.8 -1.6 -2.9 -2.1 -0.5 -5.0 -4.5

Agricultural chemicals

3253

37.2 5.3 8.2 -2.8 -7.8 5.1 14.0

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

318.7 -3.1 10.4 -2.6 0.5 7.6 7.0

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

64.2 2.9 10.7 -11.4 -13.8 -1.8 13.9

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

119.9 -3.5 6.3 -2.1 1.4 4.1 2.6

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

79.0 5.0 2.4 -6.3 -10.8 -4.1 7.4

Plastics and rubber products

326

715.5 -0.4 3.9 -7.1 -6.8 -3.5 3.6

Plastics products

3261

581.5 1.7 3.4 -5.0 -6.6 -1.7 5.2

Rubber products

3262

134.0 -10.1 7.9 -16.9 -7.6 -10.4 -3.0

Durable Manufacturing

Wood products

321

413.2 5.1 2.0 -2.4 -7.1 -0.4 7.1

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

96.9 12.2 -2.7 0.8 -10.2 -1.8 9.2

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

78.7 -1.2 1.9 -2.3 -1.1 -0.5 0.6

Other wood products

3219

237.6 3.5 4.8 -4.5 -7.7 0.2 8.5

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

410.8 -0.2 2.8 -5.6 -5.4 -3.0 2.6

Clay products and refractories

3271

42.0 1.1 -7.9 -0.8 -1.9 -8.7 -6.9

Glass and glass products

3272

80.0 0.6 -3.1 -5.1 -5.7 -8.0 -2.5

Cement and concrete products

3273

194.5 -1.9 9.6 -7.9 -6.1 1.0 7.5

Lime and gypsum products

3274

15.3 2.2 -1.2 -3.7 -5.7 -4.9 0.9

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

79.0 2.4 -1.3 -3.1 -5.4 -4.4 1.0

Primary metals

331

357.4 -2.2 3.0 -13.2 -11.3 -10.6 0.8

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

83.2 -2.3 2.8 -12.8 -10.8 -10.3 0.5

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

55.4 -4.1 7.3 -15.1 -11.5 -9.0 2.8

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

56.9 2.2 1.1 -8.7 -10.7 -7.7 3.3

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

58.2 -6.5 11.4 -16.7 -10.9 -7.2 4.1

Foundries

3315

103.7 -0.6 -3.2 -12.7 -12.2 -15.5 -3.8

Fabricated metal products

332

1,418.7 -1.4 3.5 -9.3 -8.0 -6.1 2.0

Forging and stamping

3321

91.1 -4.5 0.4 -12.2 -8.0 -11.8 -4.2

Cutlery and handtools

3322

35.0 4.7 -4.1 -3.3 -7.7 -7.3 0.5

Architectural and structural metals

3323

389.2 -1.6 3.3 -5.2 -3.6 -2.1 1.6

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

90.2 6.9 -6.8 0.5 -6.0 -6.3 -0.3

Hardware

3325

24.6 -4.9 8.5 -10.3 -5.7 -2.7 3.2

Spring and wire products

3326

40.7 0.3 -1.5 -8.2 -8.5 -9.6 -1.3

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

345.7 -9.2 15.2 -19.8 -11.7 -7.6 4.6

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

131.8 -2.4 6.7 -14.8 -12.7 -9.1 4.1

Other fabricated metal products

3329

270.4 0.8 1.2 -7.1 -7.8 -5.9 2.0

Machinery

333

1,068.5 -1.7 4.3 -10.3 -8.7 -6.4 2.5

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

204.8 -6.2 4.8 -15.5 -9.9 -11.5 -1.8

Industrial machinery

3332

118.3 -2.8 4.2 -2.3 0.5 1.8 1.3

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

88.0 -0.2 3.9 -8.3 -8.1 -4.8 3.7

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

134.4 0.9 -1.8 -1.4 -2.3 -3.2 -1.0

Metalworking machinery

3335

165.0 -1.2 9.5 -16.7 -15.7 -8.8 8.2

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

90.8 10.4 0.2 -9.7 -18.2 -9.5 10.7

Other general purpose machinery

3339

267.2 -4.6 6.4 -11.2 -6.9 -5.6 1.4

Computer and electronic products

334

1,084.4 1.1 2.9 -0.4 -1.5 2.5 4.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

162.2 9.9 8.9 -0.8 -9.7 8.0 19.7

Communications equipment

3342

87.4 -9.5 0.1 -1.7 8.6 -1.6 -9.3

Audio and video equipment

3343

21.9 0.6 -0.4 -3.5 -4.2 -3.9 0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

376.0 -2.2 0.8 0.3 2.5 1.1 -1.4

Electronic instruments

3345

423.4 3.3 1.8 -0.3 -3.5 1.5 5.1

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

13.5 -2.0 1.6 -3.4 -1.4 -1.9 -0.5

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

382.1 -1.6 3.6 -6.8 -5.3 -3.5 1.9

Electric lighting equipment

3351

42.6 -5.0 1.0 -7.5 -2.6 -6.6 -4.1

Household appliances

3352

60.1 3.5 -1.1 1.7 -1.8 0.5 2.4

Electrical equipment

3353

135.3 -3.1 5.2 -9.6 -6.6 -4.8 1.9

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

144.1 -2.6 6.1 -8.4 -6.0 -2.7 3.4

Transportation equipment

336

1,591.6 -4.4 9.1 -15.8 -11.9 -8.2 4.2

Motor vehicles

3361

187.5 7.0 13.4 -18.4 -23.7 -7.4 21.4

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

151.7 -0.2 -2.3 -8.4 -8.1 -10.5 -2.5

Motor vehicle parts

3363

540.4 -9.9 5.8 -20.1 -11.3 -15.4 -4.7

Aerospace products and parts

3364

513.0 -5.2 10.5 -13.8 -9.0 -4.7 4.8

Railroad rolling stock

3365

23.7 -1.6 -1.8 -2.0 -0.4 -3.7 -3.4

Ship and boat building

3366

139.1 6.6 4.8 -7.0 -12.7 -2.5 11.7

Other transportation equipment

3369

36.2 1.5 -1.3 -2.4 -3.8 -3.7 0.1

Furniture and related products

337

378.5 -7.4 10.1 -13.8 -6.9 -5.0 2.0

Household and institutional furniture

3371

241.7 -2.9 5.3 -8.7 -5.9 -3.9 2.2

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

102.9 -14.7 20.8 -23.2 -9.9 -7.2 3.0

Other furniture related products

3379

33.9 -2.3 1.8 -6.1 -3.9 -4.4 -0.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

640.2 1.3 2.2 -7.7 -8.8 -5.6 3.5

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

325.3 -1.0 3.4 -8.0 -7.1 -4.9 2.4

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

314.9 3.8 0.4 -7.2 -10.6 -6.9 4.2






Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2020
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 1987-2020
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours
worked
Labor compen-
sation
Hourly compen-
sation

Mining

Mining

21

584.7 1.9 1.8 1.4 -0.5 3.3 3.7

Oil and gas extraction

211

138.6 3.0 1.9 1.8 -1.2 3.7 5.0

Oil and gas extraction

2111

138.6 3.0 1.9 1.8 -1.2 3.7 5.0

Mining, except oil and gas

212

179.4 1.1 1.7 -0.4 -1.4 1.3 2.8

Coal mining

2121

41.6 1.4 1.0 -2.2 -3.6 -1.2 2.5

Metal ore mining

2122

41.9 0.1 3.4 0.3 0.2 3.7 3.5

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

95.9 1.1 2.1 0.7 -0.3 2.9 3.2

Support activities for mining(1)

213

352.6 2.8 1.6 4.9 2.1 6.6 4.4

Support activities for mining(1)

2131

352.6 2.8 1.6 4.9 2.1 6.6 4.4

Nondurable Manufacturing

Food

311

1,666.2 0.6 1.9 1.1 0.5 3.1 2.6

Animal food

3111

67.4 1.0 2.1 1.5 0.5 3.7 3.2

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

61.8 1.6 1.3 0.8 -0.8 2.2 3.0

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

73.9 1.2 1.9 0.5 -0.7 2.5 3.2

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

170.6 0.9 2.0 0.7 -0.1 2.7 2.9

Dairy products

3115

152.8 1.0 2.0 1.1 0.2 3.2 3.0

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

540.4 0.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 3.7 2.4

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

32.4 1.5 2.3 0.4 -1.1 2.7 3.8

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

338.8 0.0 1.8 0.2 0.1 2.0 1.8

Other food products

3119

228.1 0.2 2.3 2.0 1.7 4.3 2.5

Beverages and tobacco products

312

281.8 -0.5 2.7 -0.2 0.2 2.4 2.2

Beverages

3121

270.4 0.3 2.0 1.1 0.8 3.1 2.3

Tobacco

3122

11.4 2.0 1.6 -2.8 -4.7 -1.2 3.6

Textile mills

313

101.0 2.3 -0.1 -2.5 -4.7 -2.6 2.2

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

23.6 2.2 -0.8 -2.1 -4.2 -2.9 1.4

Fabric mills

3132

48.7 2.6 0.3 -2.9 -5.3 -2.6 2.8

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

28.7 0.8 0.9 -3.3 -4.0 -2.4 1.7

Textile product mills

314

116.6 0.4 2.3 -2.0 -2.3 0.3 2.6

Textile furnishings mills

3141

50.2 0.0 2.1 -2.7 -2.8 -0.6 2.2

Other textile product mills

3149

66.4 1.2 2.0 -0.7 -1.9 1.3 3.2

Apparel

315

105.4 0.2 1.2 -6.3 -6.5 -5.2 1.4

Apparel knitting mills

3151

8.4 0.0 1.5 -7.4 -7.4 -6.0 1.6

Cut and sew apparel

3152

84.5 0.5 1.1 -6.2 -6.6 -5.2 1.6

Accessories and other apparel

3159

12.5 -2.4 2.2 -5.9 -3.6 -3.8 -0.2

Leather and allied products

316

30.4 0.8 1.8 -3.8 -4.5 -2.0 2.6

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

4.8 0.7 0.4 -2.7 -3.4 -2.3 1.2

Footwear

3162

11.5 1.3 2.1 -4.6 -5.8 -2.6 3.3

Other leather products

3169

14.1 -0.3 2.4 -3.5 -3.2 -1.2 2.1

Paper

322

357.0 1.5 1.4 -0.3 -1.8 1.1 2.9

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

92.6 2.1 1.0 -0.8 -2.8 0.2 3.1

Converted paper products

3222

264.4 1.3 1.7 0.1 -1.2 1.8 3.0

Printing and related support activities

323

397.8 1.1 1.2 -1.1 -2.1 0.1 2.3

Printing and related support activities

3231

397.8 1.1 1.2 -1.1 -2.1 0.1 2.3

Petroleum and coal products

324

106.5 1.9 2.7 0.6 -1.3 3.4 4.7

Petroleum and coal products

3241

106.5 1.9 2.7 0.6 -1.3 3.4 4.7

Chemicals

325

860.9 0.8 2.4 0.4 -0.4 2.8 3.2

Basic chemicals

3251

150.1 1.6 1.7 0.2 -1.3 1.9 3.3

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

91.8 1.6 1.9 0.2 -1.4 2.1 3.6

Agricultural chemicals

3253

37.2 1.5 2.5 0.2 -1.3 2.7 4.0

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

318.7 -1.0 4.0 0.8 1.8 4.8 3.0

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

64.2 0.2 2.8 -0.6 -0.8 2.1 3.0

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

119.9 1.2 1.4 1.1 -0.1 2.5 2.6

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

79.0 1.7 1.3 -0.3 -2.0 1.0 3.1

Plastics and rubber products

326

715.5 1.3 1.5 0.9 -0.4 2.4 2.9

Plastics products

3261

581.5 1.3 1.6 1.2 -0.1 2.8 2.9

Rubber products

3262

134.0 1.3 1.4 -0.2 -1.5 1.2 2.8

Durable Manufacturing

Wood products

321

413.2 0.8 2.2 -0.3 -1.0 1.9 3.0

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

96.9 1.7 1.3 0.2 -1.5 1.5 3.1

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

78.7 0.4 1.9 -0.2 -0.6 1.7 2.3

Other wood products

3219

237.6 0.5 2.6 -0.5 -1.0 2.2 3.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

410.8 0.6 1.9 -0.1 -0.7 1.8 2.5

Clay products and refractories

3271

42.0 0.8 1.3 -1.3 -2.2 -0.1 2.1

Glass and glass products

3272

80.0 1.9 0.7 0.2 -1.7 0.9 2.7

Cement and concrete products

3273

194.5 -0.3 2.6 -0.1 0.2 2.4 2.2

Lime and gypsum products

3274

15.3 0.9 3.1 -0.6 -1.5 2.5 4.0

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

79.0 0.7 1.8 0.6 -0.2 2.4 2.6

Primary metals

331

357.4 1.8 0.8 -0.2 -2.0 0.6 2.6

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

83.2 2.8 -0.3 0.3 -2.4 0.0 2.5

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

55.4 0.3 2.3 -0.5 -0.8 1.8 2.6

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

56.9 1.9 1.1 -0.1 -2.0 1.0 3.1

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

58.2 1.1 2.3 -0.7 -1.8 1.6 3.5

Foundries

3315

103.7 1.4 1.1 -0.8 -2.2 0.2 2.5

Fabricated metal products

332

1,418.7 0.8 1.8 0.4 -0.4 2.2 2.6

Forging and stamping

3321

91.1 1.9 0.6 0.6 -1.2 1.2 2.5

Cutlery and handtools

3322

35.0 1.2 1.3 -1.1 -2.3 0.2 2.6

Architectural and structural metals

3323

389.2 0.4 2.2 0.7 0.3 3.0 2.7

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

90.2 1.1 1.2 0.5 -0.6 1.7 2.3

Hardware

3325

24.6 0.5 1.6 -2.3 -2.8 -0.7 2.1

Spring and wire products

3326

40.7 1.7 1.2 -0.4 -2.1 0.8 2.9

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

345.7 1.2 1.7 1.4 0.2 3.2 2.9

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

131.8 1.4 1.2 1.3 -0.1 2.6 2.7

Other fabricated metal products

3329

270.4 0.3 2.0 -0.4 -0.7 1.6 2.4

Machinery

333

1,068.5 1.5 1.2 0.6 -0.8 1.9 2.7

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

204.8 1.4 1.2 1.1 -0.3 2.3 2.6

Industrial machinery

3332

118.3 1.3 1.4 0.7 -0.6 2.2 2.8

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

88.0 1.2 1.2 -0.5 -1.7 0.6 2.4

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

134.4 1.2 1.3 0.6 -0.5 2.0 2.5

Metalworking machinery

3335

165.0 1.4 1.2 -0.2 -1.6 1.0 2.6

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

90.8 1.5 0.6 0.7 -0.8 1.3 2.2

Other general purpose machinery

3339

267.2 1.5 1.8 0.8 -0.6 2.7 3.3

Computer and electronic products

334

1,084.4 8.0 -4.6 5.9 -1.9 1.0 3.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

162.2 13.1 -11.4 9.7 -3.0 -2.8 0.2

Communications equipment

3342

87.4 4.5 -1.3 1.6 -2.8 0.3 3.2

Audio and video equipment

3343

21.9 2.3 1.2 -1.2 -3.4 0.0 3.6

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

376.0 11.5 -7.6 10.0 -1.4 1.6 3.0

Electronic instruments

3345

423.4 2.8 0.5 1.3 -1.4 1.8 3.2

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

13.5 0.0 0.3 -3.6 -3.6 -3.3 0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

382.1 1.6 1.4 -0.2 -1.7 1.2 3.0

Electric lighting equipment

3351

42.6 1.7 1.5 -0.4 -2.1 1.1 3.2

Household appliances

3352

60.1 3.1 -0.3 0.5 -2.5 0.2 2.8

Electrical equipment

3353

135.3 1.4 1.4 -0.5 -1.9 0.9 2.8

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

144.1 0.7 2.3 -0.3 -1.0 1.9 3.0

Transportation equipment

336

1,591.6 2.1 0.3 1.1 -1.0 1.4 2.4

Motor vehicles

3361

187.5 2.6 0.4 1.2 -1.4 1.5 3.0

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

151.7 1.2 2.1 1.4 0.3 3.6 3.3

Motor vehicle parts

3363

540.4 2.3 -0.7 1.7 -0.5 1.0 1.5

Aerospace products and parts

3364

513.0 1.7 1.0 0.1 -1.6 1.1 2.7

Railroad rolling stock

3365

23.7 2.6 0.4 2.6 0.0 3.0 3.1

Ship and boat building

3366

139.1 1.6 1.7 0.6 -1.0 2.3 3.4

Other transportation equipment

3369

36.2 3.6 -0.3 3.4 -0.2 3.1 3.3

Furniture and related products

337

378.5 0.9 1.9 -0.7 -1.6 1.3 2.9

Household and institutional furniture

3371

241.7 0.8 1.9 -1.0 -1.7 1.0 2.7

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

102.9 0.7 2.3 -0.6 -1.3 1.7 3.0

Other furniture related products

3379

33.9 1.8 1.1 0.5 -1.3 1.6 2.9

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

640.2 1.5 1.5 1.1 -0.4 2.6 3.1

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

325.3 1.9 1.3 2.5 0.6 3.9 3.2

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

314.9 1.1 1.6 -0.1 -1.2 1.5 2.7

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industry 2131 average annual percent changes are for 1987-2018. Employment is for 2018.


Last Modified Date: April 29, 2021