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Economic News Release
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Productivity and Costs by Industry: Manufacturing and Mining Industries News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, June 25, 2020                                                  USDL-20-1276

Technical information:  (202) 691-5606  •  productivity@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/lpc 
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov



                                  PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY:
                               MANUFACTURING AND MINING INDUSTRIES, 2019

Labor productivity declines were widespread among manufacturing industries in 2019, with decreases 
in 54 of the 86 four-digit NAICS industries. Of the 51 industries in durable manufacturing, 31 had 
productivity decreases in 2019 led by a 7.8 percent decline in the productivity of the HVAC and 
commercial refrigeration equipment industry. Nondurable manufacturing also had widespread declines in 
2019 with productivity falling in 23 of 35 industries, led by a 13.1-percent decline in the other leather 
products industry. All four industries in the mining sector posted productivity declines in 2019 led by the 
coal mining industry with a decrease of 6.6 percent.

Labor Productivity Trends in NAICS 3-Digit Industries, 2019

Manufacturing
      * Labor productivity decreased in 18 of the 21 NAICS 3-digit manufacturing industries in 2019, 
        as output declined in 17 industries and hours worked rose in 10.
      * The food industry had the largest productivity gain, 0.6 percent, as output increased and hours 
        decreased.
      * The leather and allied products industry had the largest productivity decline, 9.8 percent, as 
        output fell and hours worked increased, each by 5.1 percent.
Mining
      * Labor productivity declined 2.3 percent in the oil and gas extraction industry where an 
        increase in hours worked outpaced growth in output.
      * The mining, except oil and gas industry had a productivity decline of 3.8 percent, as hours 
        worked increased while output declined.  

Trends in Unit Labor Costs in 2019

Unit labor costs, which reflect the total labor costs required to produce a unit of output, rose in 77 of the 
86 NAICS 4-digit manufacturing industries. Of the 51 industries in durable manufacturing, 45 
experienced rising unit labor costs, led by the railroad rolling stock industry which increased 10.7 
percent. Nondurable manufacturing also experienced widespread increases in unit labor costs with 32 of 
the 35 industries recording an increase, led by the textile furnishings mills industry with a rise of 17.6 
percent. Of the four industries in the mining sector, three had increases in unit labor costs led by the coal 
mining industry which increased 7.0 percent.

Unit Labor Cost Trends in NAICS 3-Digit Industries, 2019

Manufacturing
      * Employers experience increased unit labor costs when hourly compensation growth exceeds 
        productivity growth. Unit labor costs increased in 20 of the 21 manufacturing industries, as 
        hourly compensation growth outpaced that of productivity. Textile mills was the exception 
        and had a decrease in unit labor costs due to hourly compensation declines that exceeded 
        productivity declines.
Mining
      * Unit labor costs declined in the oil and gas extraction industry 3.4 percent, as productivity 
        decreased 2.3 percent and hourly compensation decreased 5.6 percent.
      * The mining, except oil and gas industry saw a 5.6-percent increase in unit labor costs, as 
        hourly compensation rose 1.7 percent while productivity dropped 3.8 percent.
	
Long-Term Trends in Labor Productivity and Unit Labor Costs 

Labor Productivity
      * Over the entire 1987-2019 period, labor productivity rose in 83 of the 91 manufacturing 
        and mining industries. Output rose in 58 industries, while hours worked increased in only 
        17. In the 17 industries where hours worked increased, they rose at a slow pace, 0.7 percent 
        per year on average.
      * During the more recent 2007-19 period, which included the Great Recession of 2007-09, 
        productivity increased in 45 industries. These increases are predominantly the result of a 
        decline in hours worked rather than an increase in output, as hours worked fell in 35 of 
        these industries while output increased in only 18.

Unit Labor Costs
      * During the 1987-2019 period, unit labor costs increased in 76 of the 86 NAICS 4-digit 
        manufacturing industries. All five mining industries saw an increase in unit labor costs.
      * From 2007 to 2019, unit labor costs increased in 79 of the 86 manufacturing industries and in 3 
        of the 5 mining industries. Unit labor costs increased the most in the beverages industry. 

The computer and peripheral equipment industry recorded the largest productivity gain as well as the 
largest unit labor cost decline during both the 1987-2019 and 1987-2007 periods. However, between 
2007 and 2019, the oil and gas extraction industry posted the greatest productivity growth and the 
largest unit labor cost decline.	

Additional Information

Time periods for data covered by this release precede, and are therefore not impacted by, the COVID-19 
pandemic.

Manufacturing industry output measures for 2018 and earlier years are constructed primarily using data 
from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the U.S. Census Bureau together with data on price 
changes primarily from BLS. These measures have been revised due to the release of the 2017 
Economic Census and the 2018 Annual Survey of Manufactures. Manufacturing industry output for 
2019 is estimated based on historical relationships between BLS sectoral output, BLS price indexes, and 
data on industrial production from the Federal Reserve Board.

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                                       Technical Note

Labor Productivity: Labor productivity describes the relationship between real output and the labor 
hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period in the amount 
of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity measures relate output 
in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not measure the specific 
contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, 
including: changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the 
use of purchased services inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of 
production; the characteristics and effort of the workforce; and managerial skill. 

Unit Labor Costs: Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of output. 
The unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of nominal industry labor compensation 
by an index of real industry output. Unit labor costs also describe the relationship between compensation 
per hour worked (hourly compensation) and real output per hour worked (labor productivity). When 
hourly compensation growth outpaces productivity, unit labor costs increase. Alternatively, when 
productivity growth exceeds hourly compensation, unit labor costs decrease. 

Output: Industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the various products 
(in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is usually derived by deflating 
nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for some industries it is measured by 
physical quantities of output. Industry output reflects sectoral value of production, derived by adjusting 
shipments for changes in inventories and removing intra-industry transactions. Industry output measures 
are constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Census 
Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with data on price changes primarily from BLS. Data 
from the Bureau of Economic Analysis at the U.S. Department of Commerce is used in part to construct 
intra-industry transactions. Other data sources include the Energy Information Administration at the 
U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Geological Survey at the U.S. Department of the Interior. 
Manufacturing industry output for 2019 is estimated based on historical relationships between BLS 
sectoral output, BLS price indexes, and data on industrial production from the Federal Reserve Board.

Labor Hours: Labor hours are measured as annual hours worked by all employed persons in an 
industry. Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current Employment 
Statistics (CES) survey and Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number of total and 
production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are supplemented 
with CPS data on self-employed and unpaid family workers to estimate industry employment. Hours 
worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on the average weekly hours 
paid of production workers, CPS data on hours of nonproduction, self-employed, and unpaid family 
workers, and ratios of hours worked to hours paid based on data from the National Compensation 
Survey (NCS). For some industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or further 
disaggregated using data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the 
Census Bureau, or other sources. Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of workers 
and then are directly aggregated; no adjustments for labor composition are made.
Labor Compensation: Labor compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a 
measure of the cost to the employer of securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, wages, 
commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in kind. 
Supplemental payments include both legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary 
programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of federal old age and survivors’ insurance, 
unemployment compensation, and workers’ compensation. Payments for voluntary programs include all 
programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the employer portion of private health 
insurance and pension plans. Industry compensation measures are constructed primarily using data from 
the BLS QCEW and the economic censuses of the Census Bureau at the U.S. Department of Commerce.









Table 1. Recent labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2019
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2018-2019
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours
worked
Labor compen-
sation
Hourly compen-
sation

Mining

Mining

21

699.0 5.4 -1.7 8.2 2.6 6.3 3.6

Oil and gas extraction

211

151.1 -2.3 -3.4 11.0 13.6 7.3 -5.6

Oil and gas extraction

2111

151.1 -2.3 -3.4 11.0 13.6 7.3 -5.6

Mining, except oil and gas

212

194.9 -3.8 5.6 -1.7 2.1 3.8 1.7

Coal mining

2121

51.9 -6.6 7.0 -6.4 0.1 0.1 -0.1

Metal ore mining

2122

42.3 -3.2 5.7 -3.0 0.1 2.5 2.4

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

100.7 -1.7 5.1 2.2 4.0 7.4 3.3

Nondurable Manufacturing

Food

311

1,684.3 0.6 2.3 0.1 -0.4 2.4 2.8

Animal food

3111

64.5 -6.3 1.6 -0.5 6.2 1.1 -4.8

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

60.7 8.1 3.2 -0.9 -8.3 2.3 11.6

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

79.2 3.8 5.4 -1.1 -4.7 4.3 9.4

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

175.8 0.3 5.1 -0.9 -1.2 4.2 5.5

Dairy products

3115

157.1 -6.8 5.7 -0.4 6.9 5.3 -1.5

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

534.4 3.4 2.3 2.4 -1.0 4.7 5.8

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

35.5 -0.9 6.1 -0.4 0.5 5.7 5.1

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

347.3 -0.4 1.5 -1.0 -0.6 0.5 1.1

Other food products

3119

229.8 0.8 -3.1 -0.6 -1.4 -3.7 -2.3

Beverages and tobacco products

312

289.1 -1.4 7.9 -3.5 -2.2 4.1 6.4

Beverages

3121

278.3 -1.2 7.9 -3.0 -1.8 4.6 6.6

Tobacco

3122

10.8 6.7 1.9 -4.6 -10.6 -2.8 8.8

Textile mills

313

113.5 -2.3 -0.8 -0.3 2.1 -1.1 -3.1

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

28.6 -2.4 -0.6 -3.3 -0.9 -3.9 -3.1

Fabric mills

3132

55.0 -0.3 -6.1 5.7 6.0 -0.7 -6.3

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

29.9 -6.9 9.6 -8.4 -1.6 0.4 2.1

Textile product mills

314

123.3 -4.3 12.5 -10.3 -6.3 0.9 7.7

Textile furnishings mills

3141

52.9 -7.1 17.6 -14.1 -7.5 1.0 9.2

Other textile product mills

3149

70.4 0.3 6.1 -4.9 -5.2 0.9 6.4

Apparel

315

124.1 -0.7 6.8 -6.9 -6.3 -0.6 6.1

Apparel knitting mills

3151

10.3 0.4 4.0 -7.8 -8.2 -4.1 4.4

Cut and sew apparel

3152

100.4 0.1 6.3 -7.1 -7.2 -1.2 6.4

Accessories and other apparel

3159

13.4 -6.9 13.1 -4.6 2.5 7.9 5.2

Leather and allied products

316

32.4 -9.8 7.5 -5.1 5.1 1.9 -3.0

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

5.0 -12.9 9.8 -7.7 6.0 1.4 -4.3

Footwear

3162

13.4 -4.8 7.0 -2.5 2.4 4.3 1.9

Other leather products

3169

14.0 -13.1 6.0 -6.2 7.9 -0.6 -7.9

Paper

322

366.0 0.0 5.0 -2.8 -2.8 2.0 5.0

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

96.8 -5.7 5.0 -3.6 2.3 1.2 -1.0

Converted paper products

3222

269.2 2.4 5.1 -2.5 -4.8 2.4 7.6

Printing and related support activities

323

445.7 -2.6 4.4 -4.1 -1.5 0.1 1.7

Printing and related support activities

3231

445.7 -2.6 4.4 -4.1 -1.5 0.1 1.7

Petroleum and coal products

324

115.2 -4.2 4.7 -1.2 3.2 3.4 0.2

Petroleum and coal products

3241

115.2 -4.2 4.7 -1.2 3.2 3.4 0.2

Chemicals

325

864.2 -3.4 7.2 -1.4 2.1 5.8 3.6

Basic chemicals

3251

153.8 -4.1 6.5 -2.5 1.7 3.9 2.1

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

96.3 -0.1 4.4 -0.8 -0.6 3.6 4.3

Agricultural chemicals

3253

36.6 -2.8 5.3 -1.4 1.4 3.8 2.4

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

309.7 -6.7 9.1 -1.1 5.9 7.8 1.8

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

65.4 -2.9 5.9 -0.8 2.2 5.1 2.8

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

116.2 2.4 9.0 -1.6 -4.0 7.2 11.6

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

86.2 -0.7 0.5 1.0 1.7 1.5 -0.2

Plastics and rubber products

326

741.6 -1.9 4.7 -2.6 -0.7 1.9 2.7

Plastics products

3261

602.8 -2.6 4.5 -2.4 0.1 2.0 1.9

Rubber products

3262

138.8 0.9 5.2 -3.4 -4.2 1.7 6.2

Durable Manufacturing

Wood products

321

445.1 -3.5 5.1 -1.5 2.1 3.5 1.4

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

106.3 -4.0 1.7 -0.1 4.1 1.6 -2.4

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

83.0 -5.0 7.0 -1.9 3.2 5.0 1.7

Other wood products

3219

255.8 -3.1 6.1 -2.3 0.8 3.7 2.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

435.9 -1.0 2.7 -0.5 0.5 2.2 1.7

Clay products and refractories

3271

45.6 -2.8 -6.1 6.0 9.1 -0.4 -8.7

Glass and glass products

3272

87.4 2.0 5.4 -4.0 -5.9 1.2 7.6

Cement and concrete products

3273

203.9 -1.0 1.7 1.7 2.8 3.5 0.7

Lime and gypsum products

3274

16.6 -1.3 6.6 -1.9 -0.6 4.6 5.3

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

82.4 -1.2 4.3 -3.5 -2.3 0.7 3.1

Primary metals

331

385.2 -0.8 5.9 -1.9 -1.1 3.9 5.0

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

86.4 -1.1 6.4 -1.1 0.0 5.2 5.2

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

57.7 2.1 3.2 -1.1 -3.1 2.2 5.4

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

59.9 0.4 7.0 -0.9 -1.3 6.1 7.5

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

62.0 -3.6 9.2 -4.5 -0.8 4.3 5.2

Foundries

3315

119.2 -2.0 5.0 -2.8 -0.8 2.0 2.9

Fabricated metal products

332

1,513.3 -0.1 3.4 0.0 0.1 3.4 3.3

Forging and stamping

3321

101.1 -1.4 5.9 -3.0 -1.6 2.7 4.4

Cutlery and handtools

3322

38.1 0.9 6.2 -4.7 -5.6 1.2 7.2

Architectural and structural metals

3323

401.9 0.5 1.6 2.1 1.6 3.8 2.1

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

96.3 -0.6 4.3 0.6 1.2 5.0 3.7

Hardware

3325

25.9 1.5 3.4 -2.5 -4.0 0.8 5.0

Spring and wire products

3326

44.5 0.5 3.6 -2.1 -2.6 1.4 4.1

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

375.1 -1.7 5.2 -2.2 -0.6 2.9 3.5

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

142.0 -0.4 1.8 1.8 2.3 3.6 1.4

Other fabricated metal products

3329

288.4 1.3 3.0 1.0 -0.2 4.1 4.3

Machinery

333

1,135.7 -1.2 3.4 -1.1 0.1 2.2 2.1

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

221.7 3.1 0.9 1.9 -1.2 2.8 4.0

Industrial machinery

3332

119.2 -2.9 4.1 -5.0 -2.2 -1.1 1.1

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

94.7 -1.9 6.4 -1.8 0.1 4.5 4.4

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

138.3 -7.8 9.3 -4.1 4.0 4.8 0.7

Metalworking machinery

3335

184.6 -2.2 1.7 -2.0 0.2 -0.3 -0.5

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

99.8 1.2 -2.1 1.9 0.7 -0.2 -0.9

Other general purpose machinery

3339

277.4 -2.1 6.5 -2.0 0.1 4.3 4.2

Computer and electronic products

334

1,088.5 -0.8 1.8 1.3 2.1 3.1 1.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

163.8 -7.7 6.0 -1.5 6.8 4.4 -2.2

Communications equipment

3342

83.6 6.9 -0.5 4.1 -2.6 3.6 6.4

Audio and video equipment

3343

21.1 30.5 -24.5 36.3 4.4 2.9 -1.5

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

379.6 -0.1 0.9 -0.2 0.0 0.7 0.8

Electronic instruments

3345

427.9 -2.3 3.9 1.0 3.4 5.0 1.5

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

12.5 32.1 -25.4 21.6 -8.0 -9.3 -1.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

409.0 0.2 6.2 -1.5 -1.8 4.5 6.4

Electric lighting equipment

3351

46.7 7.1 2.0 -4.6 -10.9 -2.6 9.3

Household appliances

3352

63.0 2.0 7.2 -4.7 -6.6 2.2 9.3

Electrical equipment

3353

148.1 0.6 5.7 0.7 0.1 6.5 6.4

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

151.2 -2.3 6.9 -1.1 1.2 5.7 4.5

Transportation equipment

336

1,742.8 -1.5 5.7 -2.2 -0.7 3.4 4.1

Motor vehicles

3361

237.5 -2.1 4.0 -1.7 0.4 2.2 1.8

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

167.0 -5.4 5.9 -8.5 -3.3 -3.2 0.1

Motor vehicle parts

3363

599.3 -0.6 4.9 -4.7 -4.1 -0.1 4.2

Aerospace products and parts

3364

534.9 -2.2 6.8 0.2 2.4 6.9 4.4

Railroad rolling stock

3365

24.3 4.2 10.7 -1.9 -5.9 8.6 15.3

Ship and boat building

3366

142.7 -6.7 5.1 -0.8 6.4 4.3 -2.0

Other transportation equipment

3369

37.1 0.4 9.7 -3.2 -3.6 6.1 10.1

Furniture and related products

337

410.1 -0.3 2.3 -1.9 -1.6 0.3 2.0

Household and institutional furniture

3371

260.6 3.0 -0.6 -0.4 -3.3 -1.0 2.4

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

114.6 -4.1 4.5 -1.3 2.9 3.2 0.2

Other furniture related products

3379

34.9 -7.2 9.4 -9.8 -2.9 -1.3 1.6

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

677.8 -0.5 3.8 0.5 1.0 4.3 3.3

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

332.5 0.9 3.7 1.8 0.9 5.6 4.7

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

345.3 -2.4 3.8 -1.3 1.1 2.4 1.3






Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2019
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 1987-2019
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours
worked
Labor compen-
sation
Hourly compen-
sation

Mining

Mining

21

699.0 1.5 2.3 1.7 0.2 4.0 3.8

Oil and gas extraction

211

151.1 2.9 2.0 2.0 -0.9 4.0 4.9

Oil and gas extraction

2111

151.1 2.9 2.0 2.0 -0.9 4.0 4.9

Mining, except oil and gas

212

194.9 1.3 1.6 0.1 -1.2 1.7 2.9

Coal mining

2121

51.9 1.5 1.1 -1.5 -2.9 -0.4 2.6

Metal ore mining

2122

42.3 0.5 3.2 0.7 0.2 4.0 3.7

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

100.7 1.3 2.0 1.0 -0.2 3.1 3.4

Support activities for mining(1)

213

352.6 2.9 1.5 5.0 2.1 6.5 4.4

Support activities for mining(1)

2131

352.6 2.9 1.5 5.0 2.1 6.5 4.4

Nondurable Manufacturing

Food

311

1,684.3 0.7 1.8 1.2 0.5 3.0 2.5

Animal food

3111

64.5 1.4 1.8 1.6 0.2 3.5 3.3

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

60.7 1.7 1.3 0.9 -0.8 2.1 3.0

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

79.2 1.1 2.1 0.5 -0.6 2.7 3.3

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

175.8 0.8 1.9 0.9 0.0 2.8 2.8

Dairy products

3115

157.1 1.0 2.1 1.2 0.2 3.3 3.1

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

534.4 0.6 1.7 1.8 1.1 3.5 2.4

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

35.5 1.2 2.6 0.3 -0.9 2.9 3.8

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

347.3 0.0 1.8 0.2 0.3 2.0 1.7

Other food products

3119

229.8 0.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 4.1 2.1

Beverages and tobacco products

312

289.1 -0.6 2.8 -0.3 0.3 2.6 2.2

Beverages

3121

278.3 0.1 2.2 1.1 0.9 3.2 2.3

Tobacco

3122

10.8 2.4 1.8 -2.7 -5.0 -1.0 4.2

Textile mills

313

113.5 2.5 -0.1 -2.2 -4.6 -2.3 2.4

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

28.6 2.3 -0.6 -1.7 -3.9 -2.3 1.6

Fabric mills

3132

55.0 2.9 0.0 -2.4 -5.1 -2.3 2.9

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

29.9 1.1 1.1 -3.1 -4.2 -2.1 2.1

Textile product mills

314

123.3 0.2 2.6 -2.0 -2.3 0.5 2.8

Textile furnishings mills

3141

52.9 0.0 2.6 -2.8 -2.8 -0.2 2.6

Other textile product mills

3149

70.4 1.0 2.2 -0.8 -1.8 1.4 3.2

Apparel

315

124.1 -0.3 1.9 -6.5 -6.2 -4.7 1.6

Apparel knitting mills

3151

10.3 -0.3 2.1 -7.4 -7.1 -5.4 1.8

Cut and sew apparel

3152

100.4 -0.1 1.8 -6.4 -6.3 -4.7 1.7

Accessories and other apparel

3159

13.4 -2.5 2.7 -5.8 -3.4 -3.3 0.2

Leather and allied products

316

32.4 0.6 2.2 -4.0 -4.6 -1.9 2.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

5.0 0.6 0.9 -3.0 -3.6 -2.1 1.5

Footwear

3162

13.4 0.8 2.5 -4.8 -5.6 -2.4 3.3

Other leather products

3169

14.0 -0.1 2.8 -3.7 -3.5 -1.0 2.6

Paper

322

366.0 1.5 1.5 -0.3 -1.8 1.2 3.1

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

96.8 2.1 1.2 -0.7 -2.8 0.4 3.3

Converted paper products

3222

269.2 1.4 1.8 0.1 -1.3 1.8 3.2

Printing and related support activities

323

445.7 1.1 1.2 -0.7 -1.8 0.5 2.4

Printing and related support activities

3231

445.7 1.1 1.2 -0.7 -1.8 0.5 2.4

Petroleum and coal products

324

115.2 1.9 2.5 1.2 -0.7 3.7 4.5

Petroleum and coal products

3241

115.2 1.9 2.5 1.2 -0.7 3.7 4.5

Chemicals

325

864.2 1.0 2.2 0.7 -0.4 2.9 3.3

Basic chemicals

3251

153.8 1.8 1.6 0.5 -1.3 2.1 3.5

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

96.3 2.1 1.8 0.6 -1.5 2.5 4.0

Agricultural chemicals

3253

36.6 1.6 2.1 0.5 -1.1 2.6 3.7

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

309.7 -0.8 3.8 1.0 1.8 4.8 3.0

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

65.4 0.4 2.6 -0.1 -0.5 2.5 3.0

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

116.2 1.2 1.5 1.0 -0.2 2.6 2.8

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

86.2 2.0 1.0 0.2 -1.7 1.2 3.0

Plastics and rubber products

326

741.6 1.4 1.4 1.2 -0.2 2.6 2.8

Plastics products

3261

602.8 1.2 1.5 1.4 0.1 2.9 2.8

Rubber products

3262

138.8 1.8 1.1 0.4 -1.3 1.5 2.9

Durable Manufacturing

Wood products

321

445.1 0.8 2.1 -0.1 -0.9 2.0 2.9

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

106.3 1.6 1.2 0.4 -1.2 1.6 2.8

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

83.0 0.5 1.9 -0.1 -0.6 1.8 2.4

Other wood products

3219

255.8 0.6 2.5 -0.2 -0.8 2.3 3.1

Nonmetallic mineral products

327

435.9 0.7 1.9 0.1 -0.5 2.0 2.6

Clay products and refractories

3271

45.6 1.1 1.3 -1.0 -2.1 0.3 2.4

Glass and glass products

3272

87.4 1.9 1.0 0.3 -1.6 1.3 3.0

Cement and concrete products

3273

203.9 -0.1 2.3 0.3 0.4 2.6 2.2

Lime and gypsum products

3274

16.6 0.8 3.3 -0.6 -1.3 2.7 4.1

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

82.4 0.6 2.0 0.7 0.0 2.7 2.6

Primary metals

331

385.2 2.0 0.8 0.3 -1.7 1.1 2.9

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

86.4 3.2 -0.4 1.0 -2.2 0.6 2.9

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

57.7 0.6 2.1 0.1 -0.5 2.2 2.8

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

59.9 2.0 1.2 0.2 -1.7 1.4 3.2

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

62.0 1.3 2.3 -0.3 -1.5 1.9 3.5

Foundries

3315

119.2 1.5 1.2 -0.4 -1.8 0.8 2.7

Fabricated metal products

332

1,513.3 0.9 1.7 0.8 -0.1 2.5 2.7

Forging and stamping

3321

101.1 2.1 0.7 1.1 -1.0 1.8 2.8

Cutlery and handtools

3322

38.1 1.1 1.6 -1.1 -2.2 0.4 2.7

Architectural and structural metals

3323

401.9 0.6 2.2 1.0 0.4 3.2 2.8

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

96.3 1.0 1.5 0.6 -0.4 2.1 2.5

Hardware

3325

25.9 0.7 1.4 -2.0 -2.7 -0.6 2.2

Spring and wire products

3326

44.5 1.9 1.3 0.0 -1.9 1.3 3.2

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

375.1 1.6 1.3 2.3 0.6 3.6 2.9

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

142.0 1.6 1.0 1.9 0.3 3.0 2.6

Other fabricated metal products

3329

288.4 0.4 2.0 0.0 -0.5 2.0 2.5

Machinery

333

1,135.7 1.7 1.1 1.1 -0.6 2.2 2.8

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

221.7 1.8 1.0 1.8 0.0 2.8 2.8

Industrial machinery

3332

119.2 1.5 1.3 0.8 -0.7 2.1 2.7

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

94.7 1.1 1.2 -0.4 -1.4 0.8 2.2

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

138.3 1.1 1.5 0.6 -0.5 2.1 2.6

Metalworking machinery

3335

184.6 1.7 0.8 0.6 -1.1 1.4 2.5

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

99.8 1.8 0.3 1.6 -0.2 1.9 2.1

Other general purpose machinery

3339

277.4 1.7 1.7 1.3 -0.4 3.1 3.5

Computer and electronic products

334

1,088.5 8.4 -4.8 6.3 -1.9 1.2 3.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

163.8 13.2 -11.9 10.1 -2.8 -3.1 -0.3

Communications equipment

3342

83.6 5.1 -1.2 1.8 -3.1 0.6 3.9

Audio and video equipment

3343

21.1 3.2 0.4 -0.2 -3.3 0.2 3.7

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

379.6 12.0 -7.9 10.4 -1.5 1.7 3.2

Electronic instruments

3345

427.9 3.0 0.5 1.6 -1.4 2.1 3.5

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

12.5 1.3 -0.4 -2.4 -3.7 -2.8 0.9

Electrical equipment and appliances

335

409.0 1.7 1.4 0.0 -1.6 1.4 3.0

Electric lighting equipment

3351

46.7 1.9 1.3 -0.2 -2.1 1.1 3.2

Household appliances

3352

63.0 3.0 -0.1 0.3 -2.6 0.2 2.9

Electrical equipment

3353

148.1 1.7 1.3 0.0 -1.7 1.3 3.1

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

151.2 0.7 2.1 -0.1 -0.8 2.0 2.9

Transportation equipment

336

1,742.8 2.4 0.1 1.7 -0.6 1.8 2.4

Motor vehicles

3361

237.5 2.5 0.1 1.9 -0.6 2.0 2.6

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

167.0 1.1 2.2 1.7 0.6 3.9 3.3

Motor vehicle parts

3363

599.3 2.7 -0.9 2.5 -0.2 1.6 1.7

Aerospace products and parts

3364

534.9 2.1 0.7 0.7 -1.3 1.4 2.7

Railroad rolling stock

3365

24.3 3.0 0.7 3.0 0.1 3.7 3.7

Ship and boat building

3366

142.7 1.5 1.8 0.8 -0.7 2.6 3.3

Other transportation equipment

3369

37.1 3.8 -0.2 3.6 -0.1 3.4 3.5

Furniture and related products

337

410.1 1.3 1.6 -0.1 -1.4 1.5 2.9

Household and institutional furniture

3371

260.6 1.1 1.6 -0.5 -1.6 1.2 2.8

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

114.6 1.3 1.7 0.3 -1.0 2.1 3.1

Other furniture related products

3379

34.9 1.7 1.3 0.4 -1.2 1.7 3.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

677.8 1.7 1.4 1.5 -0.1 3.0 3.1

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

332.5 2.2 1.2 3.1 0.9 4.3 3.4

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

345.3 1.1 1.6 0.1 -0.9 1.7 2.7

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industry 2131 average annual percent changes are for 1987-2018. Employment is for 2018.


Last Modified Date: June 25, 2020