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Economic News Release
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Productivity and Costs News Release



Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                                   USDL 20-0814
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 7, 2020

Technical information: (202) 691-5606 •  Productivity@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/lpc
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902 •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                     PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS 
                                First Quarter 2020, Preliminary

Nonfarm business sector labor productivity decreased 2.5 percent in the first quarter of 2020, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today, as output decreased 6.2 percent and hours worked decreased 
3.8 percent. (All quarterly percent changes in this release are seasonally adjusted annual rates.) From the 
first quarter of 2019 to the first quarter of 2020, productivity increased 0.3 percent, reflecting a 0.1-
percent increase in output and a 0.2-percent decrease in hours worked. (See table A1.) 

Unit labor costs in the nonfarm business sector increased 4.8 percent in the first quarter of 2020, as 
hourly compensation increased 2.2 percent and productivity decreased 2.5 percent. Unit labor costs 
increased 1.5 percent over the last four quarters. (See table 2.) 

========================================================================================================
                Coronavirus (COVID-19) impact on First Quarter 2020 Productivity Data

BLS quarterly estimates of labor productivity combine output data with hours worked data based 
primarily on the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. The reference period for the CES largely 
predated many of the COVID-19-related job losses that occurred in the latter part of March. To capture 
these job losses, adjustments were made to March employment, based on the Department of Labor’s 
Employment and Training Administration weekly reports of the number of initial claims for 
unemployment insurance benefits. Hours and related measures--including labor productivity--for the 
first quarter of 2020 reflect these adjustments. For more information see www.bls.gov/bls/productivity-
and-costs-adjusting-march-2020-employment-and-hours-to-account-for-effects-of-covid-19.htm.
========================================================================================================

Labor productivity, or output per hour, is calculated by dividing an index of real output by an index of 
hours worked by all persons, including employees, proprietors, and unpaid family workers. BLS 
calculates unit labor costs as the ratio of hourly compensation to labor productivity. Increases in hourly 
compensation tend to increase unit labor costs, and increases in output per hour tend to reduce them. 

The 2.5-percent decline in nonfarm business sector labor productivity in the first quarter of 2020 was 
the largest quarterly decline since the fourth quarter of 2015, when output per hour decreased 2.9 
percent. It reflects the largest decline in output since the first quarter of 2009 (-6.5 percent) and the 
largest decline in hours worked since the third quarter of 2009 (-4.4 percent). Productivity had increased 
in 15 of the 16 quarters between fourth-quarter 2015 and first-quarter 2020.

Manufacturing sector labor productivity decreased 3.3 percent in the first quarter of 2020, as output 
decreased 7.1 percent and hours worked decreased 3.9 percent. Total manufacturing sector productivity 
declined 1.7 percent over the last four quarters, as output decreased 2.4 percent and hours worked 
decreased 0.7 percent. (See tables A1 and 3.) Productivity decreased 8.3 percent in the durable 
manufacturing sector in the first quarter of 2020, reflecting an 11.9-percent decrease in output and a 3.9-
percent decrease in hours worked. Productivity increased 2.1 percent in the nondurable manufacturing 
sector, as output decreased 1.8 percent and hours worked decreased 3.8 percent. (See tables A1, 4, and 
5.) Unit labor costs in the total manufacturing sector increased 3.6 percent in the first quarter of 2020, 
and increased 2.9 percent from the same quarter a year ago. (See table A1.)

The concepts, sources, and methods used for the manufacturing output series differ from those used in 
the business and nonfarm business output series; these output measures are not directly comparable. See 
the Technical Notes for a more detailed explanation. 

Preliminary fourth-quarter and annual 2019 measures were announced today for the nonfinancial 
corporate sector. Productivity increased 2.8 percent in the fourth quarter of 2019 and increased 1.7 
percent over the last four quarters. Annual average productivity increased 1.8 percent from 2018 to 
2019. The historical average annual rate of productivity growth in the nonfinancial corporate sector 
between 1947 and 2019 is 2.1 percent. (See tables A2, C1, and 6.)

Revised measures        

Hours and related measures for all sectors were revised to incorporate updated ratios of hours worked to 
hours paid by detailed industry, provided by the BLS National Compensation Survey. Percent changes 
were affected back to 2015 but revisions were small. Measures of real hourly compensation for all 
sectors also were revised from 2015 forward due to incorporation of the revised Consumer Price Index 
Research Series Using Current Methods.

Table B1 presents previous and revised productivity and related measures for the business, nonfarm 
business, and manufacturing sectors for the fourth quarter of 2019.

In the fourth quarter of 2019, nonfarm business sector productivity increased 1.2 percent, output 
increased 2.4 percent, and hours worked increased 1.2 percent; the same rates reported March 5. 
Nonfarm business unit labor costs were also not revised, increasing 0.9 percent. Total manufacturing 
sector productivity decreased 0.7 percent in the fourth quarter of 2019, a slightly smaller decline than 
previously reported. Unit labor costs in the manufacturing sector increased 3.5 percent during the fourth 
quarter, slightly less than previously reported. Labor productivity was revised down slightly in the 
durable manufacturing sector to a decrease of 1.0 percent, and was revised up in the nondurable 
manufacturing sector to a decrease of 1.0 percent. (See table B1.)

Annual average rates of productivity growth in the nonfarm business and manufacturing sectors were not 
revised for 2019. (See table 2.) 

Quarterly and annual data for all sectors for recent years appear in tables 1-6. Full historical annual and 
quarterly measures can be found at www.bls.gov/lpc/#data.
______________
The revised Productivity and Costs news release for first-quarter 2020 is scheduled to be released 
on Thursday, June 4, 2020 at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).





=========================================================================================================================
Table A1. Labor productivity growth and related measures - preliminary first-quarter 2020
(percent change from previous quarter at annual rate and from same quarter a year ago)

                                                Labor                   Hours    Hourly         Real hourly    Unit labor
Sector                  Percent change from:    productivity   Output   worked   compensation   compensation   costs
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nonfarm business        Previous quarter          -2.5         -6.2     -3.8        2.2             0.9          4.8
                        A year ago                 0.3          0.1     -0.2        1.7            -0.4          1.5
                        
Business                Previous quarter          -2.3         -6.0     -3.8        1.9             0.7          4.4
                        A year ago                 0.3          0.1     -0.2        1.7            -0.4          1.4
                        
Manufacturing           Previous quarter          -3.3         -7.1     -3.9        0.2            -1.0          3.6
                        A Year ago                -1.7         -2.4     -0.7        1.1            -1.0          2.9
 Durable
 manufacturing          Previous quarter          -8.3        -11.9     -3.9       -2.2            -3.4          6.6
                        A year ago                -2.5         -3.7     -1.2        0.5            -1.6          3.0
 Nondurable
 manufacturing          Previous quarter           2.1         -1.8     -3.8        5.0             3.7          2.8
                        A year ago                -1.3         -1.1      0.2        2.5             0.3          3.8
=========================================================================================================================


=========================================================================================================================
Table A2. Labor productivity growth and related measures - preliminary fourth-quarter 2019
(percent change from previous quarter at annual rate and from same quarter a year ago)

                                                Labor                   Hours    Hourly         Real hourly    Unit labor
Sector               Percent change from:       productivity   Output   worked   compensation   compensation   costs
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nonfinancial         Previous quarter              2.8          4.1      1.2        2.4             0.0         -0.4
corporate            A year ago                    1.7          2.6      0.9        3.6             1.5          1.8
=========================================================================================================================


=========================================================================================================================
Table B1. Labor productivity growth and related measures - revised fourth-quarter 2019
(percent change from previous quarter at annual rate)

                                                Labor                   Hours    Hourly         Real hourly    Unit labor
Sector                                          productivity   Output   worked   compensation   compensation   costs
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nonfarm business        Revised                    1.2          2.4      1.2        2.1            -0.3          0.9
                   Previously published            1.2          2.4      1.2        2.1            -0.2          0.9
                        
Business                Revised                    1.0          2.4      1.4        1.9            -0.5          0.9
                   Previously published            1.0          2.4      1.4        1.9            -0.5          0.9
                        
Manufacturing           Revised                   -0.7         -0.2      0.5        2.7             0.3          3.5
                   Previously published           -0.8         -0.4      0.4        2.8             0.4          3.6

 Durable                Revised                   -1.0         -1.4     -0.4        4.1             1.6          5.1
 manufacturing     Previously published           -0.9         -1.4     -0.5        4.2             1.7          5.1
                                                                        
 Nondurable             Revised                   -1.0          1.1      2.1        0.4            -2.0          1.3
 manufacturing     Previously published           -1.2          0.8      2.0        0.4            -1.9          1.6
=========================================================================================================================


=========================================================================================================================
Table C1. Labor productivity growth and related measures - annual average changes: 2015-2019

                                                Labor                   Hours    Hourly         Real hourly    Unit labor
Sector                  Year                    productivity   Output   worked   compensation   compensation   costs
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nonfinancial            2019                       1.8          2.8      0.9        3.4             1.5          1.5
corporate               2018                       0.0          1.9      1.9        3.4             1.0          3.4
                        2017                       0.3          2.0      1.7        3.3             1.1          3.0
                        2016                      -1.1          0.3      1.5        1.1            -0.2          2.3
                        2015                       1.2          3.4      2.2        3.0             2.8          1.8
========================================================================================================================



					TECHNICAL NOTES


Labor Hours

Hours worked data for the labor productivity and cost measures include hours worked for all persons 
working in the sector—wage and salary workers, the self-employed and unpaid family workers. The 
primary source of hours and employment data is the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) 
program, which provides monthly survey data on the number of jobs held by wage and salary workers in 
nonfarm establishments, counting a person who is employed by two or more establishments at each 
place of employment. The CES also provides average weekly paid hours of production and 
nonsupervisory workers in these establishments. Weekly paid hours are adjusted to hours worked using 
data from the National Compensation Survey (NCS) for 1996 forward and data from the BLS Hours at 
Work survey, conducted for this purpose, prior to 1990. Between 1990 and 1995, weekly paid hours are 
adjusted to hours at work using a combination of NCS and Hours at Work survey data. The Office of 
Productivity and Technology estimates average weekly hours at work for nonproduction and supervisory 
workers using information from the Current Population Survey (CPS), the CES, and the NCS.

Data from the CPS are used to estimate hours worked for farm labor, nonfarm proprietors, and nonfarm 
unpaid family workers. Using CPS information on employment and hours worked at primary jobs and 
all other jobs, separately, the BLS productivity measures assign all hours worked to the appropriate 
industrial sector. Hours for government enterprises are derived from the CPS, the CES, and the National 
Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the 
Department of Commerce. 

Detailed hours data are presented in the table “Hours Worked in Total U.S. Economy and Subsectors” 
on the BLS website (https://www.bls.gov/lpc/special_requests/us_total_hrs_emp.xlsx).

Output

Business sector output is a chain-type, current-weighted index constructed after excluding from gross 
domestic product (GDP) the following outputs: general government, nonprofit institutions, and private 
households (including owner-occupied housing). Corresponding exclusions also are made in labor hours 
worked. Business output accounted for about 78 percent of the value of GDP in 2019. Nonfarm 
business, which excludes farming, accounted for about 77 percent of GDP in 2019.

Annual indexes for manufacturing and its durable and nondurable goods components are constructed by 
deflating current-dollar industry value of production data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census with 
deflators from the BLS. These deflators are based on data from the BLS Producer Price Index program 
and other sources. The industry shipments are aggregated using annual weights, and intrasector 
transactions are removed. Quarterly manufacturing output measures are based on the indexes of 
industrial production prepared monthly by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 
adjusted to be consistent with annual indexes of manufacturing sector output prepared by BLS. 

Nonfinancial corporate output is a chain-type, current-weighted index calculated on the basis of the 
costs incurred and the incomes earned from production.  The output measure excludes the following 
outputs from GDP: general government; nonprofit institutions; private households; unincorporated 
business; and those corporations classified as offices of bank holding companies, offices of other 
holding companies, or offices in the finance and insurance sector. Nonfinancial corporations accounted 
for about 50 percent of the value of GDP in 2019. 


Labor Productivity

The measure describes the relationship between real output and the labor time involved in its production. 
Measures of labor productivity growth show the changes from period to period in the amount of goods 
and services produced per hour worked. They reflect the joint effects of many influences, including 
changes in technology; capital investment; level of output; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; 
the organization of production; managerial skill; and the characteristics and effort of the work force.

Labor Compensation

The measure includes accrued wages and salaries, supplements, employer contributions to employee 
benefit plans, and taxes. Estimates of labor compensation by major sector, required for measures of 
hourly compensation and unit labor costs, are based primarily on employee compensation data from the 
NIPA, prepared by the BEA. The compensation of employees in general government, nonprofit 
institutions and private households are subtracted from compensation of employees in domestic 
industries to derive employee compensation for the business sector. The labor compensation of 
proprietors cannot be explicitly identified and must be estimated. This is done by assuming that 
proprietors have the same hourly compensation as employees in the same sector. The quarterly labor 
productivity and cost measures do not contain estimates of compensation for unpaid family workers.  
      
Unit Labor Costs

These measures describe the relationship between compensation per hour and labor productivity, or real 
output per hour, and can be used as an indicator of inflationary pressure on producers. Increases in 
hourly compensation increase unit labor costs; labor productivity increases offset compensation 
increases and lower unit labor costs. 

Presentation of the data

The quarterly data in this release are presented in three ways: as percent changes from the previous 
quarter presented at a compound annual rate, as percent changes from the corresponding quarter of the 
previous year, and as index number series where 2012=100. Annual data are presented both as index 
number series and percent changes from the previous year.  

The index numbers and rates of change reported in the productivity and costs news release are rounded 
to one decimal place. All percent changes in this release and on the BLS web site are calculated using 
index numbers to three decimal places. A complete historical series of these index numbers are available 
at the BLS web site, www.bls.gov/data/home.htm, or by contacting the BLS Division of Major Sector 
Productivity (Telephone 202-691-5606 or email productivity@bls.gov).

For a more detailed explanation of methodology see "Technical Information About the Major Sector 
Productivity and Costs Methods" at www.bls.gov/lpc/lpcmethods.pdf.
      
Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Voice 
phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1. Business sector: Labor productivity, hourly compensation, unit labor costs, and prices,
seasonally adjusted.
                                                          Real
                                               Hourly     hourly                Unit       Implicit
Year          Labor                            compen-    compen-     Unit      nonlabor   price
and           produc-               Hours      sation     sation      labor     payments   deflator
quarter       tivity     Output     worked     (1)        (2)         costs     (3)        (4)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Percent change from previous quarter at annual rate (5)

2020 I        -2.3        -6.0       -3.8        1.9        0.7        4.4       -4.3        0.5  

2019 ANNUAL    2.0 r       2.7        0.7 r      3.7        1.9 r      1.7        0.9        1.4  

2019 IV        1.0         2.4        1.4        1.9       -0.5        0.9        1.0        1.0 r
     III      -0.4         2.4        2.7        0.0 r     -1.8 r      0.3        2.5        1.2  
     II        3.0 r       2.0       -0.9 r      3.0 r      0.0 r      0.1        7.0        3.0  
     I         4.0 r       3.9        0.0 r      9.9 r      8.9 r      5.7       -7.3       -0.1  

2018 ANNUAL    1.5 r       3.4        1.9        3.4 r      0.9        1.9        2.8        2.3  

2018 IV        0.4         1.2        0.8 r      1.0 r     -0.2 r      0.6        2.1        1.2  
     III       1.3 r       3.4        2.1 r      3.1 r      0.9 r      1.8        1.1        1.5  
     II        2.7 r       4.0        1.3        1.0       -1.2       -1.6       10.8        3.6  
     I         1.3         2.9        1.6        4.7        1.4        3.4        0.1        2.0  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Percent change from corresponding quarter of previous year

2020 I         0.3         0.1       -0.2        1.7       -0.4        1.4        1.5        1.4  

2019 ANNUAL    2.0 r       2.7        0.7 r      3.7        1.9 r      1.7        0.9        1.4  

2019 IV        1.9 r       2.7        0.8        3.6        1.6 r      1.7        0.7        1.3  
     III       1.7         2.4        0.6 r      3.4 r      1.6 r      1.6        0.9        1.3  
     II        2.1         2.7        0.5 r      4.2 r      2.3 r      2.0        0.6        1.4  
     I         2.1 r       3.1        1.0 r      3.7 r      2.0 r      1.6        1.5        1.5  

2018 ANNUAL    1.5 r       3.4        1.9        3.4 r      0.9        1.9        2.8        2.3  

2018 IV        1.4         2.9        1.4 r      2.4        0.2        1.0        3.4        2.1  
     III       1.3         3.6        2.2 r      3.3 r      0.6        1.9        3.1        2.4  
     II        1.8         3.7        1.9        3.7        1.0        1.9        3.5        2.6  
     I         1.3         3.4        2.1        4.0        1.8        2.7        1.0        2.0  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Indexes 2012=100

2020 I       107.9       120.7      111.9      121.4      107.6      112.5      108.9      110.9  

2019 ANNUAL  108.2 r     121.6 r    112.3 r    120.2 r    107.7 r    111.1 r    109.1 r    110.2 r

2019 IV      108.5 r     122.6 r    113.0 r    120.8 r    107.4 r    111.3 r    110.1 r    110.8 r
     III     108.3 r     121.9      112.6 r    120.3 r    107.5 r    111.1 r    109.8 r    110.5  
     II      108.4 r     121.2      111.8 r    120.3 r    108.0 r    111.0 r    109.1 r    110.2  
     I       107.6 r     120.6      112.1 r    119.4 r    108.0 r    111.0 r    107.3 r    109.4  

2018 ANNUAL  106.1 r     118.3      111.5 r    115.9 r    105.7 r    109.2 r    108.1 r    108.7  

2018 IV      106.5 r     119.4      112.1 r    116.6 r    105.7 r    109.4 r    109.3 r    109.4  
     III     106.4 r     119.0      111.8 r    116.3 r    105.8 r    109.3 r    108.8 r    109.1  
     II      106.1 r     118.0      111.3 r    115.4 r    105.6 r    108.8 r    108.5 r    108.7  
     I       105.4 r     116.9      110.9 r    115.1 r    105.9 r    109.2 r    105.7 r    107.7  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes following Table 6.                                                        May 7, 2020
r=revised                                                        Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



Table 2. Nonfarm business sector: Labor productivity, hourly compensation, unit labor costs, and
prices, seasonally adjusted.
                                                          Real
                                               Hourly     hourly                Unit       Implicit
Year          Labor                            compen-    compen-     Unit      nonlabor   price
and           produc-               Hours      sation     sation      labor     payments   deflator
quarter       tivity     Output     worked     (1)        (2)         costs     (3)        (4)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Percent change from previous quarter at annual rate (5)

2020 I        -2.5        -6.2       -3.8        2.2        0.9        4.8       -4.5        0.7  

2019 ANNUAL    1.9         2.7        0.7 r      3.7 r      1.9 r      1.7        1.0        1.4  

2019 IV        1.2         2.4        1.2        2.1       -0.3 r      0.9        0.9        0.9  
     III      -0.3         2.3        2.6 r     -0.1       -1.8 r      0.2        2.4        1.2  
     II        2.7 r       1.9       -0.7        2.7       -0.3        0.1        7.1 r      3.1  
     I         3.9 r       3.9        0.1 r      9.8 r      8.8 r      5.7       -7.1        0.0  

2018 ANNUAL    1.4         3.5        2.0        3.3 r      0.8        1.8        3.0        2.3  

2018 IV        0.6 r       1.2        0.7        1.2        0.0 r      0.7        1.8        1.2  
     III       1.7 r       3.5        1.8        3.4 r      1.2 r      1.6        1.9        1.7  
     II        2.1 r       4.0        1.8 r      0.5       -1.6 r     -1.5       10.8        3.6  
     I         0.9         2.9        2.0        4.2 r      0.9        3.2        0.3 r      2.0  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Percent change from corresponding quarter of previous year

2020 I         0.3         0.1       -0.2        1.7       -0.4        1.5        1.4        1.4  

2019 ANNUAL    1.9         2.7        0.7 r      3.7 r      1.9 r      1.7        1.0        1.4  

2019 IV        1.8         2.7 r      0.8        3.6 r      1.5        1.7        0.7        1.3  
     III       1.7 r       2.4        0.7        3.4 r      1.6 r      1.6        0.9        1.3  
     II        2.2 r       2.6        0.4 r      4.2        2.4 r      2.0        0.8        1.5  
     I         2.0         3.2        1.1 r      3.7 r      2.0 r      1.6        1.7        1.6  

2018 ANNUAL    1.4         3.5        2.0        3.3 r      0.8        1.8        3.0        2.3  

2018 IV        1.3         2.9        1.6        2.3        0.1 r      1.0        3.6        2.1  
     III       1.4         3.6        2.2 r      3.3 r      0.6        1.9        3.4        2.5  
     II        1.7         3.8        2.1        3.5        0.8        1.8        3.7        2.6  
     I         1.3         3.5        2.2        3.9        1.7        2.6        1.2        2.0  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Indexes 2012=100

2020 I       107.6       120.4      111.9      121.5      107.7      113.0      109.9      111.6  

2019 ANNUAL  107.9 r     121.3 r    112.4 r    120.2 r    107.8 r    111.4 r    110.2 r    110.9  

2019 IV      108.3 r     122.4 r    113.0 r    120.9 r    107.5 r    111.7 r    111.2 r    111.4  
     III     108.0 r     121.6      112.7 r    120.3 r    107.5 r    111.4 r    110.9 r    111.2  
     II      108.0 r     120.9      111.9 r    120.3 r    108.0 r    111.3 r    110.3 r    110.9  
     I       107.3 r     120.4      112.1 r    119.5 r    108.1 r    111.3 r    108.4 r    110.0  

2018 ANNUAL  105.8 r     118.1      111.6 r    115.9 r    105.8 r    109.5 r    109.1 r    109.3  

2018 IV      106.3 r     119.2      112.1 r    116.7 r    105.8 r    109.8 r    110.4 r    110.0  
     III     106.2 r     118.8      111.9 r    116.3 r    105.9 r    109.6 r    109.9 r    109.7  
     II      105.7 r     117.8      111.4 r    115.4 r    105.5 r    109.1 r    109.4 r    109.3  
     I       105.2 r     116.7      110.9 r    115.2 r    106.0 r    109.6 r    106.6 r    108.3  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes following Table 6.                                                        May 7, 2020
r=revised                                                        Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



Table 3. Manufacturing sector: Labor productivity, hourly compensation, and unit labor costs,
seasonally adjusted.
                                                                             Real
Year              Labor                                       Hourly         hourly          Unit
and               produc-                      Hours          compensa-      compensa-       labor
quarter           tivity        Output         worked         tion (1)       tion (2)        costs
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Percent change from previous quarter at annual rate (5)

2020 I            -3.3           -7.1           -3.9            0.2           -1.0            3.6  

2019 ANNUAL        0.1            0.0           -0.1            3.2            1.4 r          3.1  

2019 IV           -0.7 r         -0.2 r          0.5 r          2.7 r          0.3 r          3.5 r
     III          -0.5            0.9            1.4           -1.2           -3.0           -0.7  
     II           -2.3           -3.1           -0.9            2.7 r         -0.3            5.2  
     I             1.3 r         -1.7           -3.1            8.3            7.4 r          6.9  

2018 ANNUAL        0.4            2.3            1.9            2.2           -0.3            1.8  

2018 IV            0.9            1.6            0.6            3.5            2.2 r          2.5  
     III           0.3            4.0            3.7            2.3            0.2 r          2.0  
     II            1.4            2.7            1.3           -4.7           -6.7           -6.0  
     I             0.0            1.9            1.9            4.7 r          1.3 r          4.7  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Percent change from corresponding quarter of previous year

2020 I            -1.7           -2.4           -0.7            1.1           -1.0            2.9  

2019 ANNUAL        0.1            0.0           -0.1            3.2            1.4 r          3.1  

2019 IV           -0.6           -1.1           -0.5            3.1            1.0 r          3.7  
     III          -0.1           -0.6           -0.5            3.3            1.5 r          3.4  
     II            0.1            0.1            0.1            4.2            2.3            4.1  
     I             1.0            1.6            0.6            2.3            0.6            1.3  

2018 ANNUAL        0.4            2.3            1.9            2.2           -0.3            1.8  

2018 IV            0.6            2.5            1.9            1.4           -0.8            0.7  
     III           1.2            3.4            2.2            1.8           -0.8            0.6  
     II           -0.3 r          1.7            2.0 r          1.7           -1.0            1.9  
     I            -0.1            1.4            1.6            3.9            1.6            4.0  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Indexes 2012=100

2020 I            97.5          102.9          105.5          116.9          103.6          119.9  

2019 ANNUAL       98.7 r        104.9 r        106.4 r        116.2 r        104.2 r        117.8 r

2019 IV           98.3 r        104.8 r        106.6 r        116.8 r        103.9 r        118.8 r
     III          98.5 r        104.9          106.5 r        116.1 r        103.8 r        117.8 r
     II           98.6 r        104.6          106.1 r        116.4 r        104.6 r        118.0 r
     I            99.2 r        105.5          106.3 r        115.6 r        104.6 r        116.6  

2018 ANNUAL       98.6 r        104.9          106.4 r        112.6 r        102.8 r        114.3  

2018 IV           98.9 r        105.9          107.1 r        113.3 r        102.8 r        114.6  
     III          98.6 r        105.5          107.0 r        112.4 r        102.2 r        113.9  
     II           98.6 r        104.5          106.0 r        111.7 r        102.2 r        113.4  
     I            98.2 r        103.8          105.7 r        113.1 r        104.0 r        115.1  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes following Table 6.                                                        May 7, 2020
r=revised                                                        Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



Table 4. Durable manufacturing sector: Labor productivity, hourly compensation, and unit labor
costs, seasonally adjusted.
                                                                             Real
Year              Labor                                       Hourly         hourly          Unit
and               produc-                      Hours          compensa-      compensa-       labor
quarter           tivity        Output         worked         tion (1)       tion (2)        costs
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Percent change from previous quarter at annual rate (5)

2020 I            -8.3          -11.9           -3.9           -2.2           -3.4            6.6  

2019 ANNUAL        0.5            0.7            0.2            3.0            1.2 r          2.5  

2019 IV           -1.0 r         -1.4           -0.4 r          4.1 r          1.6 r          5.1  
     III           0.5 r          1.5            1.1           -2.1 r         -3.9           -2.6  
     II           -0.7           -2.3           -1.6            2.4 r         -0.7            3.1  
     I             0.3 r         -2.7           -3.0 r          8.9 r          7.9 r          8.5  

2018 ANNUAL        0.8 r          3.0            2.2            2.6            0.2            1.9  

2018 IV            1.6            4.7            3.1            2.6            1.4 r          1.0  
     III           2.2 r          5.8            3.6 r          2.0           -0.1 r         -0.1  
     II            0.2            2.2            2.0           -4.4           -6.4           -4.6  
     I             0.8 r          3.9            3.1            4.6            1.3            3.8  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Percent change from corresponding quarter of previous year

2020 I            -2.5           -3.7           -1.2            0.5           -1.6            3.0  

2019 ANNUAL        0.5            0.7            0.2            3.0            1.2 r          2.5  

2019 IV           -0.2 r         -1.2           -1.0            3.2            1.2 r          3.5  
     III           0.4            0.3           -0.1            2.9 r          1.1 r          2.4  
     II            0.8            1.3            0.5            3.9            2.1 r          3.1  
     I             1.1 r          2.5            1.4            2.2 r          0.6 r          1.1  

2018 ANNUAL        0.8 r          3.0            2.2            2.6            0.2            1.9  

2018 IV            1.2 r          4.2            2.9 r          1.2 r         -1.0 r          0.0  
     III           1.6 r          4.1            2.5            2.3           -0.3            0.7  
     II           -0.2            2.0            2.2            2.2           -0.5            2.4  
     I             0.5            1.7            1.2            5.0            2.7            4.5  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Indexes 2012=100

2020 I            97.7          103.1          105.5          117.1          103.8          119.9  

2019 ANNUAL      100.0 r        106.6 r        106.6 r        117.0 r        104.9 r        117.0 r

2019 IV           99.8 r        106.4 r        106.6 r        117.8 r        104.7 r        118.0 r
     III         100.1 r        106.8 r        106.7 r        116.6 r        104.3 r        116.5 r
     II          100.0 r        106.4          106.4 r        117.2 r        105.3 r        117.3 r
     I           100.1 r        107.0          106.8 r        116.6 r        105.5 r        116.4 r

2018 ANNUAL       99.5 r        105.9          106.4 r        113.6 r        103.7 r        114.2  

2018 IV          100.1 r        107.7          107.6 r        114.1 r        103.5 r        114.0 r
     III          99.7 r        106.5          106.8 r        113.4 r        103.1 r        113.7  
     II           99.1 r        105.0          105.9 r        112.8 r        103.2 r        113.8  
     I            99.1 r        104.4          105.4 r        114.1 r        104.9 r        115.1  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes following Table 6.                                                        May 7, 2020
r=revised                                                        Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



Table 5. Nondurable manufacturing sector: Labor productivity, hourly compensation, and unit labor
costs, seasonally adjusted.
                                                                             Real
Year              Labor                                       Hourly         hourly          Unit
and               produc-                      Hours          compensa-      compensa-       labor
quarter           tivity        Output         worked         tion (1)       tion (2)        costs
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Percent change from previous quarter at annual rate (5)

2020 I             2.1           -1.8           -3.8            5.0            3.7            2.8  

2019 ANNUAL       -0.2 r         -0.7           -0.5 r          3.4 r          1.6 r          3.7  

2019 IV           -1.0 r          1.1 r          2.1 r          0.4           -2.0 r          1.3 r
     III          -1.7            0.2            2.0 r          0.8 r         -1.0 r          2.6  
     II           -4.4           -4.0            0.5 r          3.8 r          0.7 r          8.6  
     I             2.5 r         -0.7           -3.2 r          7.3 r          6.3 r          4.6  

2018 ANNUAL        0.1            1.5            1.4 r          1.2           -1.2            1.1  

2018 IV            1.7 r         -1.6           -3.3 r          4.4 r          3.1 r          2.6  
     III          -1.6            2.2            3.9 r          3.0 r          0.9 r          4.7  
     II            3.0 r          3.1            0.1 r         -5.5           -7.6 r         -8.3  
     I            -0.1           -0.1            0.0            4.4            1.1            4.5  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Percent change from corresponding quarter of previous year

2020 I            -1.3           -1.1            0.2            2.5            0.3            3.8  

2019 ANNUAL       -0.2 r         -0.7           -0.5 r          3.4 r          1.6 r          3.7  

2019 IV           -1.2           -0.9            0.3 r          3.0 r          1.0            4.3  
     III          -0.5 r         -1.5           -1.0 r          4.0 r          2.2 r          4.6  
     II           -0.5 r         -1.1           -0.6 r          4.6 r          2.7 r          5.1  
     I             1.4 r          0.7           -0.7 r          2.2 r          0.5 r          0.8  

2018 ANNUAL        0.1            1.5            1.4 r          1.2           -1.2            1.1  

2018 IV            0.7 r          0.9            0.1            1.5 r         -0.7            0.7  
     III           1.0 r          2.6            1.6 r          0.8           -1.8           -0.2  
     II           -0.2            1.3            1.6 r          0.7           -2.0 r          0.9  
     I            -1.1            1.1            2.3 r          1.9           -0.4 r          3.0  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Indexes 2012=100

2020 I            98.4          103.9          105.6          116.5          103.2          118.3  

2019 ANNUAL       98.6 r        104.4 r        106.0 r        114.6 r        102.7 r        116.3 r

2019 IV           97.9 r        104.4 r        106.7 r        115.1 r        102.3 r        117.5 r
     III          98.1 r        104.1          106.1 r        115.0 r        102.8 r        117.1 r
     II           98.6 r        104.1          105.6 r        114.7 r        103.1 r        116.4 r
     I            99.7 r        105.1          105.5 r        113.7 r        102.9 r        114.0 r

2018 ANNUAL       98.8 r        105.2          106.5 r        110.8 r        101.1 r        112.2 r

2018 IV           99.1 r        105.3          106.3 r        111.7 r        101.3 r        112.7 r
     III          98.7 r        105.8          107.2 r        110.5 r        100.5 r        112.0 r
     II           99.1 r        105.2          106.2 r        109.7 r        100.3 r        110.7 r
     I            98.3 r        104.4          106.2 r        111.3 r        102.3 r        113.2 r
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes following Table 6.                                                        May 7, 2020
r=revised                                                        Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



Table 6. Nonfinancial corporate sector: Labor productivity, hourly compensation, unit labor costs,
unit profits, and prices, seasonally adjusted.
                                                     Real
                                           Hourly    hourly            Unit      Total           Implicit
Year         Labor                         compen-   compen-   Unit    nonlabor  unit    Unit    price
and          produc-             Hours     sation    sation    labor   costs     costs   profits deflator
quarter      tivity    Output    worked    (1)       (2)       costs   (6)       (7)     (8)     (4)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Percent change from previous quarter at annual rate (5)

2019 ANNUAL    1.8       2.8      0.9       3.4       1.5       1.5      1.6      1.5     -5.7      0.7  

2019 IV        2.8       4.1      1.2       2.4       0.0      -0.4     -3.2     -1.3     15.7      0.4  
     III       1.0 r     1.7      0.7       0.1      -1.7      -0.8      5.7      1.2     -3.6      0.7  
     II        1.0       1.1      0.1       2.5 r    -0.5 r     1.4      1.2      1.3     12.0      2.4  
     I         2.1 r     3.6      1.5 r     9.6 r     8.6 r     7.3      1.1      5.3    -33.7     -0.1  

2018 ANNUAL    0.0       1.9      1.9 r     3.4       1.0 r     3.4      3.0      3.3     -1.1      2.8  

2018 IV        1.9 r     2.4      0.5 r     0.9 r    -0.3 r    -1.0      3.5      0.5      0.0      0.4  
     III       5.2 r     6.3      1.1 r     2.0 r    -0.1      -3.0     -2.5     -2.9     12.7     -1.2  
     II       -2.8      -0.4      2.5      -0.3 r    -2.5       2.5      5.3      3.4      4.8      3.6  
     I         1.5 r     3.3      1.8 r     9.8 r     6.3       8.2      1.6      6.0      0.2      5.3  

2017 ANNUAL    0.3       2.0      1.7       3.3       1.1       3.0      2.2      2.7     -2.9      2.0  

2017 IV       -0.9 r     1.7      2.7       2.6      -0.5       3.6      4.3      3.8     -7.6      2.4  
     III      -3.7      -2.3      1.5       2.2 r     0.0       6.0      6.6      6.2    -16.0      3.2  
     II        0.7 r     3.4      2.7       0.5       0.2 r    -0.1      1.5      0.4      3.2      0.7  
     I         5.0       6.7      1.6       8.0       5.0       2.8     -3.7      0.6     16.4      2.5  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Percent change from corresponding quarter of previous year

2019 ANNUAL    1.8       2.8      0.9       3.4       1.5       1.5      1.6      1.5     -5.7      0.7  

2019 IV        1.7       2.6      0.9       3.6       1.5       1.8      1.1      1.6     -4.6      0.9  
     III       1.5 r     2.2      0.7 r     3.2 r     1.4 r     1.7      2.9      2.1     -8.0      0.9  
     II        2.6 r     3.4      0.8 r     3.7 r     1.8 r     1.1      0.8      1.0     -4.4      0.4  
     I         1.6 r     3.0      1.4 r     3.0 r     1.3 r     1.4      1.8      1.5     -5.9      0.7  

2018 ANNUAL    0.0       1.9      1.9 r     3.4       1.0 r     3.4      3.0      3.3     -1.1      2.8  

2018 IV        1.4       2.9      1.5       3.0       0.8 r     1.6      1.9      1.7      4.3      2.0  
     III       0.7 r     2.7      2.0 r     3.5 r     0.8       2.7      2.1      2.5      2.2      2.5  
     II       -1.5       0.6      2.1       3.5       0.8       5.1      4.4      4.9     -5.0      3.6  
     I        -0.6 r     1.5      2.2       3.7       1.5 r     4.4      3.5      4.1     -5.4      2.9  

2017 ANNUAL    0.3       2.0      1.7       3.3       1.1       3.0      2.2      2.7     -2.9      2.0  

2017 IV        0.2       2.3      2.1       3.3       1.1       3.1      2.1      2.7     -1.8      2.2  
     III       0.3       2.0      1.6       3.4       1.4       3.1      2.5      2.9     -4.0      2.0  
     II        1.2       3.0      1.7       3.2       1.2       1.9      1.1      1.6      0.6      1.5  
     I        -0.7       0.6      1.3       3.2       0.7       3.9      3.0      3.6     -6.2      2.3  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Indexes 2012=100

2019 ANNUAL  103.0     117.2    113.7     119.6     107.2     116.1    111.8    114.6     84.2    110.3  

2019 IV      103.8     118.4    114.1     120.3     107.0     115.9    112.0    114.6     86.7    110.6  
     III     103.1 r   117.2    113.7 r   119.6 r   106.9 r   116.1    112.9    115.0     83.6    110.5  
     II      102.8 r   116.7    113.5 r   119.6 r   107.4 r   116.3    111.3    114.7     84.4    110.3  
     I       102.5 r   116.4    113.5 r   118.8 r   107.5 r   115.9    111.0    114.3     82.0    109.7  

2018 ANNUAL  101.2 r   114.0    112.7 r   115.7 r   105.6 r   114.3    110.0    112.9     89.3    109.5  

2018 IV      102.0 r   115.4    113.1 r   116.2 r   105.3 r   113.9    110.7    112.8     90.9    109.7  
     III     101.5 r   114.7    113.0 r   115.9 r   105.4 r   114.2    109.7    112.7     90.9    109.6  
     II      100.2 r   112.9    112.7 r   115.3 r   105.5 r   115.0    110.4    113.5     88.2    109.9  
     I       101.0 r   113.0    112.0 r   115.4 r   106.1 r   114.3    109.0    112.6     87.2    108.9  

2017 ANNUAL  101.2     111.9    110.5 r   111.9 r   104.6     110.6    106.8    109.3     90.3    106.6  

2017 IV      100.6 r   112.1    111.5 r   112.7 r   104.5 r   112.1    108.6    110.9     87.2    107.5  
     III     100.8     111.6    110.7     112.0     104.6     111.1    107.5    109.9     88.9    106.9  
     II      101.8 r   112.3    110.3 r   111.4 r   104.6 r   109.5    105.7    108.2     92.9    106.0  
     I       101.6 r   111.3    109.6 r   111.3 r   104.6 r   109.5    105.4    108.1     92.1    105.9  
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes following Table 6.                                                              May 7, 2020
r=revised                                                              Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



SOURCES: Output data are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Census Bureau of 
the U.S. Department of Commerce; the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor; 
and the Federal Reserve Board. Hours and compensation data are from the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics and the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

RELIABILITY: Productivity and cost measures are regularly revised as more complete 
information becomes available.  The measures are first published within 40 days of the close of 
the reference period; revisions appear 30 days later, and second revisions after an additional 60 
days.  In the business sector, the third publication (second revision) of a quarterly index of output 
per hour of all persons has differed from the initial value by between -1.4 and 1.4 index points 
approximately 95 percent of the time. This interval is based on the performance of this measure 
between the fourth quarter of 1995 and the fourth quarter of 2019.

				      Table Footnotes 

(1) Wages and salaries of employees plus employers' contributions for social insurance and 
private benefit plans. Except for nonfinancial corporations, where there are no self-employed, 
data also include an estimate of wages, salaries, and supplemental payments for the self-
employed.

(2) The change for recent quarters is based on the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers 
(CPI-U). The trend from 1978-2019 is based on the Consumer Price Index research series (CPI-
U-RS).

(3) Unit nonlabor payments include profits, consumption of fixed capital, taxes on production 
and imports less subsidies, net interest and miscellaneous payments, business current transfer 
payments, rental income of persons, and the current surplus of government enterprises.

(4) Current dollar output divided by the output index.

(5) Quarterly changes: Percent change compounded at annual rate is calculated using index 
numbers to three decimal places. Indexes published in the news release are rounded to one 
decimal place for convenience. Annual changes: Percent change is calculated using annual 
indexes to three decimal places.

(6) Unit nonlabor costs include consumption of fixed capital, taxes on production and imports 
less subsidies, net interest and miscellaneous payments, and business current transfer payments.

(7) Total unit costs are the sum of unit labor and nonlabor costs.

(8) Unit profits include corporate profits before tax with inventory valuation and capital 
consumption adjustment.


Last Modified Date: May 07, 2020