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Economic News Release
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Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, November 19, 2020	USDL-20-2138
Technical information:	(202) 691-5606 •  mfp@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902 •  PressOffice@bls.gov

MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS IN MANUFACTURING - 2019

Manufacturing sector multifactor productivity declined 1.6 percent in 2019,
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The multifactor 
productivity decline in 2019 reflected a 1.1-percent decrease in sectoral 
output and a 0.5-percent increase in combined inputs. The decrease in 
multifactor productivity followed a revised 0.7-percent increase in 2018. 
(See table A.)

Multifactor productivity is calculated by dividing an index of real 
sectoral output by an index of combined units of labor input, capital 
services, and intermediate inputs. Multifactor productivity annual measures 
differ from BLS quarterly labor productivity or output per hour measures 
because the former also includes information on capital services, shifts 
in the composition of the workforce, and intermediate inputs. 

Durable manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased 
1.3 percent in 2019. The decline reflected a 0.6-percent decrease 
in sectoral output and a 0.7-percent increase in combined inputs. 
Nondurable manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased 
1.8 percent in 2019. The decline reflected a 1.5-percent decrease 
in sectoral output and a 0.3-percent increase in combined inputs. 
(See table C, table 2.)

Among the 19 manufacturing industries, 16 experienced declines in multifactor 
productivity growth in 2019. The largest declines in multifactor productivity 
were in the chemical products, the furniture and related products, and the 
apparel and leather and applied products industries. The primary metals 
products industry showed the largest gains in multifactor productivity. 
Sectoral output declined in 16 industries in 2019, the most industries that 
experienced a decline in sectoral output since 2009. (See table 2.) 

Contributions take into account the relative importance of each industry to 
the manufacturing sector multifactor productivity. Chemical products made the 
largest negative contribution to manufacturing multifactor productivity. 
Petroleum and coal products was the largest offset to the manufacturing 
multifactor productivity decline in 2019. 

Trends in the manufacturing sector

Manufacturing sectoral output declined in 2019 with an annual decrease of 1.1 
percent compared to the 2.3-percent increase in 2018. Combined inputs 
increased 0.5 percent, less than the 1.5-percent increase as 2018. 
(See table 1.) 

Over the longer term, multifactor productivity in the manufacturing sector 
grew at an average annual rate of 0.7 percent from 1987 to 2019 with sectoral 
output increasing at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, faster than the 
0.8-percent average annual rate of increase in combined inputs. During the 
same period, labor productivity grew at an average annual rate of 2.5 percent.
(See table A.) Of the 2.5-percent average annual increase in labor 
productivity, multifactor productivity contributed 0.7 percentage points 
which represents about 30 percent of the growth in the 1987-2019 period. 
Capital intensity contributed 0.8 percentage points, intermediate inputs 
intensity contributed 0.8 percentage points, and labor composition 
contributed 0.2 percentage points to the increase in labor productivity. 
(See table B.)

For the more recent 2007-19 period, multifactor productivity declined at a 
0.3-percent average annual rate compared to an increase of 1.7 percent during 
the 2000-07 period. (See table A.) Sectoral output decreased at a 0.3-percent 
average annual rate and combined inputs increased 0.1 percent over the 
2007-19 period.

Revised measures

Annual rates of multifactor productivity and related series were revised 
historically for all three sectors. (See table D.) The most notable revisions 
are in the latest business cycle and are due to the release of 2019 GDP by 
Industry data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Revisions prior to the 
2007-18 business cycle are small and due to revised hours data from BLS and 
improved estimates of underlying GDP-by-Industry components. Note: the 2018 
Annual Survey of Manufactures was incorporated into all three sectors’ 
measures in July 2020.

Over the 2007-18 period, multifactor productivity in the manufacturing sector 
was revised up 0.1 percentage points to a decline of 0.2 percent. The upward 
revision was due to a 0.1-percentage point downward revision to combined 
inputs. Sectoral output was unchanged. 

In 2018, multifactor productivity in the manufacturing sector was revised 
down 0.1 percentage points to an increase of 0.7 percent. In durable 
manufacturing, multifactor productivity was revised down 0.6 percentage 
points, driven by a 0.5-percent upward revision in combined inputs. 
In nondurable manufacturing, multifactor productivity was revised up 0.4 
percentage points, due to an upward revision of 0.3 percentage points to 
sectoral output and a downward revision of 0.2 percentage points to 
combined inputs. (See table D.)



Table A. Productivity, sectoral output, and inputs in the manufacturing
sector for selected periods, 1987-2019

                                                                               
Average annual growth                                                   
                                                                               
                                 1987-  1987-  1990-  2000-  2007-  2018-
                                 2019   1990   2000   2007   2019   2019 
                                                                               
  Productivity                                                                 
                                                                               
         Multifactor               0.7    0.4    1.5    1.7   -0.3   -1.6
         productivity1                                                   
         Labor productivity2       2.5    1.8    3.9    4.4    0.4   -1.1
         Output per unit of       -0.8   -0.8    0.2   -0.3   -2.0   -2.8
         capital services                                                
                                                                               
  Sectoral Output              1.5    1.8    3.8    1.2   -0.3   -1.1
  
  Inputs                                                                       
    
         Combined inputs3          0.8    1.4    2.3   -0.5    0.1    0.5
          Labor input4            -0.4    0.4    0.6   -2.4   -0.2    0.1
            Hours                 -0.9    0.0   -0.1   -3.1   -0.6    0.0
            Labor composition5     0.5    0.4    0.7    0.7    0.4    0.1
          Capital services         2.3    2.7    3.5    1.5    1.8    1.7
          Energy                  -2.2   -1.0    3.6   -5.4   -5.3   -8.7
          Materials                1.3    0.4    4.2    0.5   -0.5    0.2
          Purchased business       0.4    4.5    0.7   -0.4   -0.4    1.0
         services                                                        
                                                                               
 1. Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy,        
    materials, and purchased business services.                                
 2. Output per hour worked.                                                    
 3. The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar   
    costs.                                                                     
 4. Hours at work by age, education, and gender group are weighted by each     
    group's share of total wages.                                              
 5. Ratio of labor input to hours.                                             
                                                                               
Table B. Labor productivity and contributions of capital intensity,   
intermediate inputs intensity, labor composition, and multifactor productivity 
to labor productivity in the manufacturing sector for selected periods
, 1987-2019 

                                                                               
Average annual growth/percentage point                                                 
                                                                               
                           1987-  1987-  1990-  2000-  2007-  2018-
                           2019   1990   2000   2007   2019   2019 
                                                                               
  Labor productivity1       2.5    1.8    3.9    4.4    0.4   -1.1 
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
    Contribution of         0.7    0.5    0.7    1.0    0.6    0.5 
    capital intensity2                                             
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
       Information          0.1    0.1    0.1    0.1    0.0    0.0 
       processing                                                  
       equipment                                                   
       intensity3                                                  
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
       Research and         0.3    0.2    0.2    0.4    0.3    0.3 
       development                                                 
       intensity4                                                  
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
       All Other            0.1    0.1    0.1    0.0    0.0    0.0 
       intellectual                                                
       property products                                           
       intensity5                                                  
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
       All other capital    0.3    0.2    0.2    0.5    0.2    0.1 
       services intensity                                          
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
    Contribution of         0.8    0.8    1.4    1.4    0.0    0.0 
    intermediate inputs                                            
    intensity6                                                     
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
       Energy intensity7    0.0    0.0    0.1   -0.1   -0.1   -0.1 
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
       Materials            0.6    0.1    1.2    1.0    0.1    0.1 
       intensity8                                                  
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
       Purchased business   0.2    0.7    0.1    0.4    0.0    0.1 
       services                                                    
       intensity9                                                  
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
    Contribution of         0.2    0.1    0.2    0.2    0.1    0.0 
    labor composition10                                            
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
    Multifactor             0.7    0.4    1.5    1.7   -0.3   -1.6 
    productivity11                                                 
                                                                   
                                                                   
                                                                               
 1. Output per hour worked.                                                    
 2. Capital intensity multiplied by capital's share of current dollar          
    costs.                                                                     
 3. Information processing equipment per hour multiplied by its share of       
    current dollar costs.                                                      
 4. Research and development per hour multiplied by its share of current       
    dollar costs.                                                              
 5. Software and artistic originals per hour multiplied by its share of        
    current dollar costs.                                                      
 6. Intermediate inputs per hour multiplied by intermediate inputs' share of   
    current dollar costs.                                                      
 7. Energy per hour multiplied by energy’s share of current dollar costs.      
 8. Materials per hour multiplied by materials' share of current dollar costs. 
 9. Purchased business services per hour multiplied by purchased business     
    services' share of current dollar costs.                                   
 10. Labor composition multiplied by labor’s share of current dollar costs.    
 11. Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy,       
     materials, and purchased business services.                               
                                                                               
Table C. Multifactor productivity and related measures in the total, durable, 
and nondurable manufacturing sectors, for selected periods 1987-2019
 

                                                                                     
Average annual growth                                                                
                                                                                     
                                                                   
                                1987- 1987- 1990- 2000- 2007- 2018-
                                2019  1990  2000  2007  2019  2019 
                                                                                     
  Manufacturing                                                                      
                                                                                     
   Multifactor productivity1      0.7   0.4   1.5   1.7  -0.3  -1.6
   Labor productivity             2.5   1.8   3.9   4.4   0.4  -1.1
   Sectoral output                1.5   1.8   3.8   1.2  -0.3  -1.1
   Combined inputs2               0.8   1.4   2.3  -0.5   0.1   0.5
   Capital services               2.3   2.7   3.5   1.5   1.8   1.7
   Labor input3                  -0.4   0.4   0.6  -2.4  -0.2   0.1
   Energy                        -2.2  -1.0   3.6  -5.4  -5.3  -8.7
   Materials                      1.3   0.4   4.2   0.5  -0.5   0.2
   Purchased business services    0.4   4.5   0.7  -0.4  -0.4   1.0
                                                                                     
  Durable Manufacturing                                                              
                                                                                     
   Multifactor productivity1      1.4   0.9   2.2   2.5   0.2  -1.3
   Labor productivity             2.9   2.1   5.2   4.5   0.4  -0.8
   Sectoral output                2.0   1.9   5.5   1.3  -0.3  -0.6
   Combined Inputs2               0.7   1.0   3.2  -1.2  -0.5   0.7
   Capital Services               2.2   2.5   4.0   1.1   1.3   1.5
   Labor input3                  -0.4   0.2   0.9  -2.4  -0.4   0.1
   Energy                        -3.7  -2.9   2.5  -5.7  -7.6 -12.4
   Materials                      1.5   0.8   6.7  -1.2  -1.0   1.3
   Purchased business services    0.2   2.2   1.6   0.0  -1.3   0.4
                                                                                     
  Nondurable Manufacturing                                                           
                                                                                     
   Multifactor productivity1     -0.1  -0.2   0.3   0.6  -0.7  -1.8
   Labor productivity             1.7   1.3   2.3   3.8   0.2  -1.1
   Sectoral output                0.7   1.7   1.6   0.6  -0.3  -1.5
   Combined inputs2               0.7   1.9   1.3   0.0   0.4   0.3
   Capital services               2.4   2.8   3.1   1.8   2.2   2.0
   Labor input3                  -0.4   0.7   0.1  -2.4   0.0   0.0
   Energy                        -1.1   1.1   4.7  -5.3  -3.9  -6.0
   Materials                      0.6   0.6   1.4   1.0  -0.3  -1.0
   Purchased business services    0.7   7.4  -0.2  -1.2   0.8   2.6
                                                                                     
 1. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,           
   and purchased business services.                                                 
 2. The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar costs.  
 3. Hours at work by age, education, and gender group, weighted by each              
    group’s share of total wages.                                                    
                                                                                     
Table D. Difference between revised and previous multifactor productivity 
and related measures, for selected periods 1987-2018

                                                                                     
Average annual growth                                                                
                                                                                     
                                                                         
                                1987- 1987- 1990- 2000- 2007- 2016- 2017-
                                2018  1990  2000  2007  2018  2017  2018 
                                                                                     
  Manufacturing                                                                      
                                                                                     
   Multifactor productivity1      0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.5  -0.1
   Labor productivity             0.0   0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.1
   Sectoral output                0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.1
   Combined inputs2               0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.1  -0.4   0.1
   Capital services               0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.1
   Labor input3                   0.0  -0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
   Energy                         0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1  -0.2 -12.6
   Materials                      0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.1   0.2   0.8
   Purchased business services    0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.1  -4.7   1.0
                                                                                     
  Durable Manufacturing                                                              
                                                                                     
   Multifactor productivity1      0.1   0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.0  -0.6
   Labor productivity             0.0   0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1  -0.1
   Sectoral output                0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.1   0.1  -0.1
   Combined inputs2               0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.1  -0.9   0.5
   Capital services               0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.2
   Labor input3                   0.0  -0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.1
   Energy                         0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   5.2 -16.0
   Materials                      0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.2  -2.4   3.1
   Purchased business services    0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1  -3.4  -1.2
                                                                                     
  Nondurable Manufacturing                                                           
                                                                                     
   Multifactor productivity1      0.0   0.1   0.0   0.0   0.1  -0.1   0.4
   Labor productivity             0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.2
   Sectoral output                0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.0   0.3
   Combined inputs2               0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.2  -0.2
   Capital services               0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.2
   Labor input3                  -0.1  -0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
   Energy                         0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.2  -4.1 -10.5
   Materials                      0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   1.9  -0.8
   Purchased business services   -0.1   0.0   0.0   0.0  -0.3  -6.1   3.1
                                                                                     
 1. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,          
   and purchased business services.                                                 
 2. The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar costs.  
 3. Hours at work by age, education, and gender group, weighted by each              
    group’s share of total wages.                                                                                        
                                                                                     


Technical Notes

BLS includes a measure of the effects of changes in the composition of the 
work force for manufacturing sectors and industries. Labor input in 
manufacturing sectors and NAICS industry groups is obtained by chained 
superlative Tornqvist aggregation of the hours at work, classified by 
age, education, and gender with weights determined by each group’s share 
of total wages. The labor composition index estimates the effect of 
shifts in the age, education, and gender composition of the work force 
on hours worked. 


Capital Services 

Capital services are the services derived from the stock of physical assets 
and intellectual property assets. There are 90 asset types for fixed business 
equipment, structures, inventories, land, and intellectual property products. 
The aggregate capital services measures are obtained by Tornqvist aggregation 
of the capital stocks for each asset type within each of the nineteen 
manufacturing NAICS industry groupings using estimated rental prices for each 
asset type. Each rental price reflects the nominal rate of return to all 
assets within the industry and rates of economic depreciation and revaluation 
for the specific asset; rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. 
Data on investment for fixed assets are obtained from BEA. Data on 
inventories are estimated using data from BEA and additional information 
from IRS Corporation Income Returns. Data for land in the farm sector are 
obtained from USDA. Nonfarm industry detail for land is based on IRS book 
value data. Current-dollar value-added data, obtained from BEA, are used in 
estimating capital rental prices.


Labor Input 

Labor input in manufacturing sectors and industries is obtained by chained 
superlative Tornqvist aggregation of the hours at work, classified by age, 
education, and gender with weights determined by each group’s share of total 
wages. The labor composition index estimates the effect of shifts in the age, 
education, and gender composition of the work force on hours worked. Hours at 
work data reflect Productivity and Costs data as of the September 3, 2020 
“Productivity and Costs” news release (USDL-20-1649). The growth rate of 
labor composition is defined as the difference between the growth rate of 
weighted labor input and the growth rate of the hours.

The growth rate of labor composition in manufacturing may be underestimated 
due to limitations in the source data. The education proxy does not include 
training certifications and licensing. The proxy only includes number of 
years of schooling.

Additional information concerning data sources and methods of measuring labor 
composition can be found in “Changes in the Composition of Labor for 
BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures, 2014” (www.bls.gov/mfp/mprlabor.pdf).


Intermediate Inputs 

In manufacturing, intermediate inputs consist of energy, materials, and 
purchased business services, and represent a large share of production costs. 
Research has shown that substitution among inputs, including intermediate 
inputs, affects productivity change. Therefore, it is important to account 
for intermediate inputs in productivity measures at the industry level. 
In contrast, the more aggregate productivity measures compare "value-added" 
output with two classes of inputs, capital and labor. Because of these 
differences in concepts and methodology, productivity change in manufacturing 
cannot be directly compared with changes in private business or private 
nonfarm business.  

Data on intermediate inputs are obtained from BEA based on BEA annual 
input-output tables. Tornqvist indexes of each of these three input classes 
are derived at the three-digit NAICS level and then aggregated to the 
manufacturing sectors. Materials inputs are adjusted to exclude transactions 
between establishments within the same sector.


Combined Inputs 

The five input indexes (capital services, labor, energy, materials, and 
purchased business services) are combined using chained superlative Tornqvist 
aggregation, applying weights that represent each component's share of total 
costs. Total costs are defined as the current dollar value of manufacturing 
sectoral output. Most taxes on production and imports, such as excise taxes, 
are excluded from costs; however, property and motor vehicle taxes remain in 
total costs. 


Capital Intensity 

Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours worked in the 
production process. The higher the capital to hours ratio, the more capital 
intensive the production process is. 

In a production process, profit maximizing/cost-minimizing firms adjust the 
factor proportions of capital and labor if the price of one factor falls 
relative to the price of the other factor; there would be a tendency for the 
firms to substitute the less expensive factor for the more expensive one. 
In the short run, changes in hours worked are more variable than changes in 
capital services. Changes in hours worked in business cycles can result in 
volatility of the capital intensity ratio over short periods of time. In the 
long run an increase in wages relative to the price of capital will induce 
the firm to substitute capital for labor, resulting in an increase in 
capital intensity.

Rising labor costs are, in fact, an incentive for firms to introduce 
automated production processes. Industry estimates of capital to hours ratios 
can be obtained at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm.   


Sectoral Output 

The output concept used for multifactor productivity in manufacturing is 
“sectoral output”. Sectoral output equals gross output (sales, receipts, and 
other operating income, plus commodity taxes plus changes in inventories), 
excluding transactions between establishments within the same sector. 
In contrast, the output concept used for private business and private nonfarm 
business is “real value-added”. Real value-added output in private business 
equals gross domestic product less general government, government 
enterprises, private households (including the rental value of owner-occupied 
real estate), and non-profit institutions. Real value-added output excludes 
intermediate transactions between businesses.

The output index for manufacturing is constructed using a chained superlative 
index (Tornqvist) of three-digit NAICS industry outputs. Industry output is 
measured as sectoral output, the total value of goods and services leaving 
the industry. The indexes of industry output are calculated with the 
Tornqvist index formula. This index formula aggregates the growth rates of 
the various industry outputs between two periods, using their relative shares 
in industry value of production averaged over the two periods as weights. 

Manufacturing industry output measures for 2018 and earlier years are 
constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and annual 
surveys of the U.S. Census Bureau together with data on price changes 
primarily from BLS. These measures have been revised due to new and revised 
data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, used in part to construct 
intra-industry transactions. Manufacturing industry output for 2019 is 
estimated based on historical relationships between BLS sectoral output, 
BLS price indexes, and data on industrial production from the 
Federal Reserve Board.


Multifactor Productivity 

The manufacturing multifactor productivity measures describe the relationship 
between output in real terms and the inputs involved in its production. 
Multifactor productivity measures are not intended to capture the specific 
contributions of labor, capital, or intermediate inputs. Rather, they are 
designed to measure the joint influences on economic growth of technological 
change, efficiency improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources 
and other factors of economic growth, allowing for the effects of capital, 
labor, and intermediate inputs. The multifactor productivity indexes are 
derived by dividing an output index by an index of the combined inputs of 
labor, capital services, energy, non-energy materials, and 
purchased business services.


Other information 

Comprehensive tables containing more detailed data than that which is 
published in this press release are available upon request at 202-691-5606 
or at www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. Industry specific contributions to output 
are available at www.bls.gov/mfp/contributions-to-output.htm.

More detailed information on methods, limitations, and data sources of capital 
and labor are provided in BLS Bulletin 2178 (September 1983), 
Trends in Multifactor Productivity, 1948-81 and on the BLS Multifactor 
Productivity website under the title “Technical Information About the BLS 
Multifactor Productivity Measures” for Major Sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit 
Manufacturing Industries at www.bls.gov/mfp/mprtech.pdf. 

General information is available on the BLS Multifactor Productivity website 
at www.bls.gov/mfp/mprover.htm. Additional data not contained in the release 
can be obtained in print or at www.bls.gov/mfp. A number of comprehensive 
tables set up as zip files can be obtained at www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. 
Methods for measuring manufacturing multifactor productivity are discussed in 
the July 1995 issue of the Monthly Labor Review, "Measurement of productivity 
growth in U.S. manufacturing”. See www.bls.gov/mfp/mprgul95.pdf.  



Table 1. Manufacturing sector: productivity and related measures for the       
   1987-2019 period                                           

Annual percent change from previous year                                       
                                                                               
     Productivity                  Inputs                                        
                                                                               
             Output                                                           
             per      Multi-                                  Pur-        
             unit     factor Sec-          Capi-              chased     
     Labor   of       pro-   toral         tal                busi-    Com  
     produc- capital  ducti- out-          Ser-         Mate- ness     bined 
Year tivity1 services vity2  put   Labor3  vices Energy rials services Inputs4
1988   2.0     1.8      2.3    4.2   2.4     2.3   0.6   -1.5   6.3      1.8  
1989   0.0    -1.4     -1.2    1.2   1.6     2.7  -0.2    1.5   6.0      2.4  

1990   3.5    -2.8      0.0    0.0  -2.8     3.0  -3.2    1.1   1.3      0.0  
1991   1.8    -4.2     -0.2   -1.8  -2.9     2.5  -6.9   -0.8  -3.8     -1.6  
1992   5.2     1.6      1.8    4.1  -0.1     2.4  -3.1    5.5   2.7      2.2  
1993   2.5     1.3      1.0    3.7   2.1     2.4  -4.0    8.0  -2.8      2.7  
1994   3.0     2.7      1.3    5.6   3.3     2.8  -1.4    9.2   0.5      4.2  

1995   3.7     0.6      1.5    4.3   1.2     3.7   0.0    5.8  -0.2      2.8  
1996   3.9    -0.4      0.9    3.9   0.6     4.3  -3.1    6.0   0.8      2.9  
1997   4.9     2.0      1.8    6.9   2.6     4.8   2.0    6.8   7.4      5.0  
1998   4.5    -0.2      0.9    4.8   0.9     5.0   0.4    6.1   4.8      3.9  
1999   5.6     0.1      2.2    4.1  -0.9     4.0  44.7    1.0   1.0      1.9  

2000   3.7    -0.9      3.3    2.5  -0.5     3.5  16.7   -4.8  -2.4     -0.7  
2001   2.3    -6.7     -1.6   -4.4  -6.0     2.4  16.1   -7.9   1.7     -2.8  
2002   8.3    -0.7      2.5    0.8  -6.0     1.5 -33.7    9.5  -5.2     -1.6  
2003   6.5     0.4      4.9    1.3  -4.0     0.9 -17.2   -7.5   1.5     -3.4  
2004   2.7     1.7      2.7    2.2   0.1     0.5   0.3    5.7 -13.9     -0.5  

2005   5.1     2.8      0.8    4.0  -0.7     1.2  18.2    5.3   7.3      3.2  
2006   1.0     0.1      2.4    1.6   0.9     1.5 -19.1   -4.1   5.1     -0.7  
2007   4.6     0.7      0.6    3.0  -0.8     2.3  10.6    4.4   2.3      2.4  
2008  -0.5    -7.5      0.1   -4.5  -2.8     3.2   5.1   -6.7 -16.8     -4.6  
2009   1.2   -13.2     -3.7  -12.0 -12.0     1.4 -26.6  -12.9  -2.4     -8.6  

2010   6.3     5.5      4.1    6.5   0.8     0.9  -3.1    4.5   3.8      2.3  
2011   0.9     1.5     -0.5    2.8   1.9     1.3  10.0    7.5  -3.8      3.3  
2012  -0.9    -0.2     -1.6    1.3   2.6     1.5   1.3    3.8   4.4      3.0  
2013   1.1    -0.1     -0.1    1.9   0.9     2.1   3.6    3.1   0.2      2.0  
2014  -0.4    -1.1      1.1    1.2   1.7     2.2  -8.1   -1.6  -0.6      0.0  

2015  -1.8    -2.9     -0.8   -0.9   1.0     2.0 -11.5    0.2  -6.0     -0.2  
2016  -0.4    -2.1     -2.3   -0.1   0.7     2.0  -3.0    3.6   3.0      2.2  
2017  -0.1    -0.9      0.8    0.7   1.0     1.6  -3.5   -7.3  13.2     -0.1  
2018   0.3     0.7      0.7    2.3   2.1     1.6 -13.0    1.5   2.5      1.5  
2019  -1.1    -2.8     -1.6   -1.1   0.1     1.7  -8.7    0.2   1.0      0.5  
                                                                               
1. Output per hour worked.                                                     
2. Output per combined units of labor input, capital services, energy, material
   and purchased business services.                                            
3. Hours at work by age, education, and gender group, weighted by each group’s 
   share of total wages.                                                       
4. The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar    
   costs.                                                                       
                                                                               
Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures   
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.         
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours   
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied    
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in  
         this release.                                                         
                                                                               

Table 2. Multifactor productivity measures for manufacturing industries   
  in selected periods, 1987-2019                                 

                                                                          
Average annual growth                                              
                                                                          
                            1987-  1987-  1990-  2000-  2007-  2018-
                            2019   1990   2000   2007   2019   2019 
                                                                    
     Manufacturing           0.7    0.4    1.5    1.7   -0.3    -1.6
                                                                    
                                                                    
     Nondurable             -0.1   -0.2    0.3    0.6   -0.7    -1.8
       manufacturing                                                
     Food, beverage, and    -0.2   -0.4   -0.3    0.7   -0.6    -0.8
       tobacco products                                             
     Textile mills and       0.5    1.3    0.9    0.5    0.0    -1.9
       textile product                                              
       mills                                                        
     Apparel, leather, and  -0.3    0.8   -0.4   -1.4    0.1    -4.1
       allied products                                              
     Paper products          0.1   -0.7    0.1    0.8   -0.2    -1.9
     Printing and related    0.5    0.3   -0.3    2.5    0.2    -2.7
       support activities                                           
     Petroleum and coal      0.7   -0.8    2.5   -0.1    0.2     2.6
       products                                                     
     Chemical products      -0.8   -0.6   -0.5    0.9   -2.1    -5.2
     Plastics and rubber     0.5    0.5    1.2    0.5   -0.2    -2.1
       products                                                     
                                                                    
                                                                    
     Durable manufacturing   1.4    0.9    2.2    2.5    0.2    -1.3
     Wood products          -0.2    0.1   -1.7    0.9    0.3     0.1
     Nonmetallic mineral     0.3    0.5    0.3    0.1    0.3    -0.7
       products                                                     
     Primary metals          0.6   -0.4    0.9    0.6    0.7     4.1
     Fabricated metal       -0.1   -0.5    0.2    0.6   -0.6    -1.6
       products                                                     
     Machinery              -0.1    1.6   -1.2    1.6   -0.4    -1.9
     Computer and            6.0    4.7   10.7    6.5    2.3    -0.3
       electronic products                                          
     Electrical equipment,   0.2    0.1   -0.5    1.5    0.0    -1.2
       appliances, and                                              
       components                                                   
     Motor vehicles,         0.2   -1.0    0.2    1.9   -0.6    -3.0
       bodies and trailers,                                          
       and parts                                                  
     Other transportation   -0.2   -2.0   -1.0    1.4    0.0    -1.0
       equipment                                                    
     Furniture and related  -0.1   -0.8    0.2   -0.1   -0.3    -4.3
       products                                                     
     Miscellaneous           0.9    3.9    0.3    1.5    0.2    -0.6
       manufacturing                                                
                                                                    
                                                                    
Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures   
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.         
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours   
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied    
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in  
         this release.                                                         
                       

Last Modified Date: November 19, 2020