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Union Membership (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 18, 2019				USDL-19-0079

Technical information: (202) 691-6378 * cpsinfo@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact: 	       (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


			  UNION MEMBERS -- 2018


The union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were
members of unions--was 10.5 percent in 2018, down by 0.2 percentage point
from 2017, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The number
of wage and salary workers belonging to unions, at 14.7 million in 2018,
was little changed from 2017. In 1983, the first year for which comparable
union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent and
there were 17.7 million union workers. 
 
The data on union membership are collected as part of the Current Population
Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
that obtains information on employment and unemployment among the nation's
civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over. For more information,
see the Technical Note in this news release. 
 
Highlights from the 2018 data: 

  --The union membership rate of public-sector workers (33.9 percent)
    continued to be more than five times higher than that of private-sector
    workers (6.4 percent). (See table 3.) 

  --The highest unionization rates were among workers in protective service
    occupations (33.9 percent) and in education, training, and library
    occupations (33.8 percent). (See table 3.) 
 
  --Men continued to have a higher union membership rate (11.1 percent)
    than women (9.9 percent). (See table 1.) 
 
  --Black workers remained more likely to be union members than White,
    Asian, or Hispanic workers. (See table 1.) 
 
  --Nonunion workers had median weekly earnings that were 82 percent
    of earnings for workers who were union members ($860 versus $1,051).
    (The comparisons of earnings in this release are on a broad level and
    do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining
    earnings differences.) (See table 2.) 
 
  --Among states, Hawaii and New York had the highest union membership
    rates (23.1 percent and 22.3 percent, respectively), while North
    Carolina and South Carolina had the lowest (2.7 percent each).
    (See table 5.) 

Industry and Occupation of Union Members 
 
In 2018, 7.2 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union,
compared with 7.6 million workers in the private sector. Union membership
rates for both public-sector and private-sector workers edged down in 2018.
The unionization rate in the private sector (6.4 percent) remained
substantially below that for public-sector workers (33.9 percent). Within
the public sector, the union membership rate was highest in local government
(40.3 percent), which employs many workers in heavily unionized occupations,
such as police officers, firefighters, and teachers. Private-sector industries
with high unionization rates included utilities (20.1 percent), transportation
and warehousing (16.7 percent), and telecommunications (15.4 percent). Low
unionization rates occurred in finance (1.3 percent), food services and
drinking places (1.3 percent), and professional and technical services 
(1.5 percent). (See table 3.) 
 
Among occupational groups, the highest unionization rates in 2018 were in
protective service occupations (33.9 percent) and in education, training,
and library occupations (33.8 percent). Unionization rates were lowest in
farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (2.4 percent); sales and related
occupations (3.3 percent); computer and mathematical occupations (3.7 percent);
and in food preparation and serving related occupations (3.9 percent).  
 
Selected Characteristics of Union Members 
 
In 2018, the union membership rate continued to be higher for men (11.1 percent)
than for women (9.9 percent). (See table 1.) The gap between their rates has
narrowed considerably since 1983 (the earliest year for which comparable data
are available), when rates for men and women were 24.7 percent and 14.6 percent,
respectively. 
 
Among major race and ethnicity groups, Black workers continued to have a higher 
union membership rate in 2018 (12.5 percent) than workers who were White
(10.4 percent), Asian (8.4 percent), or Hispanic (9.1 percent). 
 
By age, union membership rates continued to be highest among workers ages
45 to 64. In 2018, 12.8 percent of workers ages 45 to 54 and 13.3 percent
of those ages 55 to 64 were union members.  
 
In 2018, the union membership rate for full-time workers (11.6 percent) was
about twice the rate for part-time workers (5.4 percent). 
 
Union Representation 
 
In 2018, 16.4 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union.
This group includes both union members (14.7 million) and workers who
report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union contract
(1.6 million). (See table 1.) 
 
Earnings 
 
Among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual
weekly earnings of $1,051 in 2018, while those who were not union members
had median weekly earnings of $860. In addition to coverage by a collective
bargaining agreement, this earnings difference reflects a variety of influences,
including variations in the distributions of union members and nonunion
employees by occupation, industry, age, firm size, or geographic region. 
(See tables 2 and 4.) 
 
Union Membership by State 
 
In 2018, 29 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates
below that of the U.S. average, 10.5 percent, while 20 states had rates above
it and 1 state had the same rate. All states in both the East South Central
and West South Central divisions had union membership rates below the national
average, while all states in both the Middle Atlantic and Pacific divisions
had rates above it. 

Eight states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2018. North
Carolina and South Carolina had the lowest rate (2.7 percent each). The next
lowest rates were in Utah (4.1 percent) and Texas and Virginia (4.3 percent
each). Two states had union membership rates over 20.0 percent in 2018: Hawaii
(23.1 percent) and New York (22.3 percent). (See table 5.) 
 
The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.4 million) and
New York (1.9 million). Over half of the 14.7 million union members in the
U.S. lived in just seven states (California, 2.4 million; New York, 1.9 million;
Illinois, 0.8 million; Pennsylvania, 0.7 million; and Michigan, Ohio, and
Washington, 0.6 million each), though these states accounted for only about
one-third of wage and salary employment nationally. 




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households.
The union membership and earnings data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly
sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the
CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference,
or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 
standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section of this release
preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the state union membership rates and levels
regardless of their statistical significance.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard
errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Union membership questions 

   Employed wage and salary workers are classified as union members if they answer “yes” to 
the following question: On this job, are you a member of a labor union or of an employee
association similar to a union? If the response is “no” to that question, then the interviewer
asks a second question: On this job, are you covered by a union or employee association
contract? If the response is “yes,” then these persons, along with those who responded “yes”
to being union members, are classified as represented by a union.  If the response is “no”
to both the first and second questions, then they are classified as nonunion.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar
to a union.

   Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who
are union members.
   
   Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union
affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

   Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a
union on their job.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the
case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually
earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest
way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually,
other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a
basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is as perceived
by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed
to define the term as more than half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the
median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into
$50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value is estimated
through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the median lies.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in
kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors.
Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with
incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the enumeration
process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

137,890 14,817 10.7 16,444 11.9 140,099 14,744 10.5 16,380 11.7

16 to 24 years

18,757 877 4.7 1,014 5.4 18,698 823 4.4 966 5.2

25 years and over

119,133 13,940 11.7 15,430 13.0 121,401 13,921 11.5 15,415 12.7

25 to 34 years

32,407 3,061 9.4 3,426 10.6 33,232 3,084 9.3 3,452 10.4

35 to 44 years

28,729 3,421 11.9 3,806 13.2 29,433 3,445 11.7 3,802 12.9

45 to 54 years

28,655 3,771 13.2 4,145 14.5 28,525 3,664 12.8 4,029 14.1

55 to 64 years

22,382 3,032 13.5 3,329 14.9 22,839 3,041 13.3 3,355 14.7

65 years and over

6,960 655 9.4 723 10.4 7,372 687 9.3 777 10.5

Men, 16 years and over

71,469 8,166 11.4 8,930 12.5 72,632 8,082 11.1 8,868 12.2

16 to 24 years

9,486 529 5.6 609 6.4 9,366 513 5.5 587 6.3

25 years and over

61,983 7,637 12.3 8,321 13.4 63,266 7,569 12.0 8,281 13.1

25 to 34 years

17,199 1,755 10.2 1,940 11.3 17,710 1,781 10.1 1,957 11.0

35 to 44 years

15,220 1,900 12.5 2,088 13.7 15,617 1,884 12.1 2,057 13.2

45 to 54 years

14,693 2,040 13.9 2,189 14.9 14,593 1,934 13.3 2,109 14.5

55 to 64 years

11,318 1,617 14.3 1,745 15.4 11,575 1,611 13.9 1,752 15.1

65 years and over

3,554 324 9.1 359 10.1 3,771 360 9.5 405 10.8

Women, 16 years and over

66,421 6,651 10.0 7,514 11.3 67,467 6,662 9.9 7,512 11.1

16 to 24 years

9,271 348 3.8 405 4.4 9,332 310 3.3 379 4.1

25 years and over

57,150 6,303 11.0 7,109 12.4 58,135 6,352 10.9 7,134 12.3

25 to 34 years

15,208 1,306 8.6 1,486 9.8 15,521 1,303 8.4 1,495 9.6

35 to 44 years

13,509 1,521 11.3 1,718 12.7 13,817 1,561 11.3 1,744 12.6

45 to 54 years

13,962 1,731 12.4 1,956 14.0 13,932 1,730 12.4 1,920 13.8

55 to 64 years

11,065 1,415 12.8 1,584 14.3 11,264 1,430 12.7 1,603 14.2

65 years and over

3,406 330 9.7 364 10.7 3,601 327 9.1 372 10.3

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

107,121 11,358 10.6 12,589 11.8 108,164 11,215 10.4 12,471 11.5

Men

56,545 6,432 11.4 7,025 12.4 57,132 6,311 11.0 6,920 12.1

Women

50,576 4,926 9.7 5,564 11.0 51,032 4,904 9.6 5,551 10.9

Black or African American, 16 years and over

17,498 2,210 12.6 2,459 14.1 17,994 2,258 12.5 2,487 13.8

Men

8,042 1,101 13.7 1,205 15.0 8,330 1,111 13.3 1,221 14.7

Women

9,456 1,109 11.7 1,254 13.3 9,664 1,147 11.9 1,266 13.1

Asian, 16 years and over

8,561 763 8.9 843 9.8 8,973 758 8.4 855 9.5

Men

4,457 365 8.2 402 9.0 4,652 375 8.1 416 8.9

Women

4,105 398 9.7 441 10.7 4,321 383 8.9 439 10.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

23,656 2,201 9.3 2,476 10.5 24,591 2,239 9.1 2,482 10.1

Men

13,342 1,261 9.5 1,410 10.6 13,775 1,304 9.5 1,443 10.5

Women

10,315 940 9.1 1,067 10.3 10,815 934 8.6 1,039 9.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

113,272 13,396 11.8 14,812 13.1 115,567 13,415 11.6 14,844 12.8

Part-time workers

24,433 1,403 5.7 1,611 6.6 24,346 1,313 5.4 1,518 6.2

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2017-2018 annual averages
Characteristic 2017 2018
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$860 $1,041 $1,028 $829 $886 $1,051 $1,042 $860

16 to 24 years

519 663 652 514 548 676 668 536

25 years and over

907 1,065 1,054 883 932 1,077 1,070 910

25 to 34 years

773 921 909 756 808 921 913 791

35 to 44 years

964 1,122 1,111 935 986 1,154 1,146 959

45 to 54 years

977 1,113 1,103 953 1,002 1,144 1,144 978

55 to 64 years

974 1,112 1,106 947 994 1,107 1,107 972

65 years and over

909 1,058 1,054 888 944 1,059 1,053 928

Men, 16 years and over

941 1,102 1,094 914 973 1,123 1,121 948

16 to 24 years

547 701 683 533 575 694 691 560

25 years and over

996 1,128 1,124 976 1,026 1,146 1,146 1,007

25 to 34 years

821 964 953 803 862 971 966 844

35 to 44 years

1,062 1,195 1,183 1,038 1,101 1,211 1,207 1,071

45 to 54 years

1,103 1,184 1,180 1,080 1,137 1,224 1,221 1,120

55 to 64 years

1,098 1,160 1,166 1,073 1,137 1,176 1,191 1,122

65 years and over

1,016 1,140 1,132 1,004 1,050 1,093 1,117 1,042

Women, 16 years and over

770 970 954 746 789 968 958 764

16 to 24 years

499 606 600 496 522 632 630 518

25 years and over

810 988 974 784 830 984 976 804

25 to 34 years

724 864 854 705 750 856 846 736

35 to 44 years

860 1,037 1,026 831 876 1,063 1,052 845

45 to 54 years

855 1,018 1,002 827 876 1,026 1,030 847

55 to 64 years

856 1,025 1,011 831 853 989 982 825

65 years and over

782 991 986 751 811 1,022 1,010 783

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

890 1,089 1,076 860 916 1,098 1,090 889

Men

971 1,141 1,135 942 1,002 1,157 1,154 978

Women

795 1,014 997 766 817 1,007 1,001 786

Black or African American, 16 years and over

682 823 813 659 694 826 815 673

Men

710 869 856 687 735 890 879 714

Women

657 784 773 636 654 782 766 635

Asian, 16 years and over

1,043 1,112 1,126 1,034 1,095 1,119 1,121 1,092

Men

1,207 1,169 1,176 1,212 1,241 1,196 1,228 1,243

Women

903 1,007 1,023 887 937 1,033 999 929

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

655 897 880 629 680 912 900 657

Men

690 952 929 669 720 978 962 698

Women

603 810 801 583 617 836 824 601

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2017 2018
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

53,442 6,155 11.5 6,972 13.0 55,258 6,183 11.2 7,069 12.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,617 902 4.4 1,097 5.3 21,196 916 4.3 1,130 5.3

Management occupations

13,894 596 4.3 727 5.2 14,299 607 4.2 750 5.2

Business and financial operations occupations

6,723 307 4.6 370 5.5 6,897 309 4.5 379 5.5

Professional and related occupations

32,824 5,253 16.0 5,876 17.9 34,062 5,267 15.5 5,939 17.4

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,544 178 3.9 225 4.9 4,937 181 3.7 227 4.6

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,053 220 7.2 250 8.2 3,124 232 7.4 263 8.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,360 138 10.2 154 11.3 1,436 141 9.8 160 11.1

Community and social service occupations

2,555 392 15.3 426 16.7 2,614 360 13.8 395 15.1

Legal occupations

1,500 119 7.9 134 8.9 1,585 94 6.0 121 7.6

Education, training, and library occupations

8,949 2,996 33.5 3,327 37.2 9,140 3,089 33.8 3,435 37.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2,314 157 6.8 173 7.5 2,417 161 6.6 187 7.7

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,548 1,054 12.3 1,186 13.9 8,810 1,008 11.4 1,152 13.1

Service occupations

24,207 2,392 9.9 2,623 10.8 24,320 2,389 9.8 2,613 10.7

Healthcare support occupations

3,412 286 8.4 314 9.2 3,507 284 8.1 314 8.9

Protective service occupations

3,119 1,082 34.7 1,152 37.0 3,193 1,081 33.9 1,135 35.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,220 314 3.8 359 4.4 8,052 314 3.9 373 4.6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,864 441 9.1 492 10.1 4,990 453 9.1 510 10.2

Personal care and service occupations

4,592 268 5.8 305 6.6 4,577 256 5.6 282 6.2

Sales and office occupations

31,018 1,944 6.3 2,207 7.1 30,767 1,993 6.5 2,223 7.2

Sales and related occupations

13,682 432 3.2 513 3.7 13,694 455 3.3 538 3.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17,337 1,511 8.7 1,694 9.8 17,073 1,538 9.0 1,685 9.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,238 2,015 16.5 2,129 17.4 12,319 1,865 15.1 1,978 16.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,090 37 3.4 42 3.8 1,024 24 2.4 31 3.0

Construction and extraction occupations

6,529 1,262 19.3 1,318 20.2 6,776 1,158 17.1 1,217 18.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,619 716 15.5 770 16.7 4,518 682 15.1 730 16.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16,985 2,311 13.6 2,514 14.8 17,435 2,315 13.3 2,497 14.3

Production occupations

8,143 1,006 12.4 1,092 13.4 8,272 985 11.9 1,062 12.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,842 1,304 14.8 1,422 16.1 9,163 1,330 14.5 1,435 15.7

INDUSTRY

Private sector

116,935 7,601 6.5 8,494 7.3 118,968 7,578 6.4 8,512 7.2

Agriculture and related industries

1,337 28 2.1 30 2.3 1,344 29 2.2 35 2.6

Nonagricultural industries

115,598 7,573 6.6 8,463 7.3 117,624 7,548 6.4 8,477 7.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

735 32 4.4 35 4.8 721 34 4.7 38 5.3

Construction

7,844 1,102 14.0 1,156 14.7 8,169 1,048 12.8 1,125 13.8

Manufacturing

14,670 1,328 9.1 1,461 10.0 14,861 1,340 9.0 1,444 9.7

Durable goods

9,194 836 9.1 913 9.9 9,401 850 9.0 917 9.8

Nondurable goods

5,477 492 9.0 548 10.0 5,460 490 9.0 527 9.6

Wholesale and retail trade

18,778 839 4.5 940 5.0 18,736 805 4.3 928 5.0

Wholesale trade

3,291 147 4.5 160 4.9 3,351 137 4.1 158 4.7

Retail trade

15,487 692 4.5 780 5.0 15,385 669 4.3 769 5.0

Transportation and utilities

6,232 1,139 18.3 1,225 19.7 6,467 1,116 17.3 1,185 18.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,205 903 17.3 978 18.8 5,410 904 16.7 968 17.9

Utilities

1,028 237 23.0 247 24.1 1,057 212 20.1 217 20.5

Information(3)

2,464 242 9.8 264 10.7 2,536 244 9.6 260 10.3

Publishing, except Internet

458 17 3.6 19 4.1 437 17 3.9 18 4.2

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

379 43 11.4 45 11.8 395 49 12.5 50 12.6

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

544 42 7.8 47 8.7 526 41 7.7 45 8.6

Telecommunications

814 131 16.1 138 17.0 851 131 15.4 138 16.2

Financial activities

9,067 217 2.4 278 3.1 9,148 192 2.1 253 2.8

Finance and insurance

6,720 101 1.5 142 2.1 6,770 99 1.5 137 2.0

Finance

4,156 46 1.1 67 1.6 4,244 55 1.3 81 1.9

Insurance

2,563 55 2.1 76 2.9 2,526 43 1.7 56 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,348 117 5.0 135 5.8 2,379 94 3.9 115 4.8

Professional and business services

14,739 335 2.3 407 2.8 15,228 390 2.6 481 3.2

Professional and technical services

9,328 162 1.7 210 2.2 9,718 148 1.5 203 2.1

Management, administrative, and waste services

5,412 173 3.2 198 3.7 5,510 242 4.4 278 5.0

Education and health services

22,324 1,798 8.1 2,077 9.3 22,982 1,853 8.1 2,144 9.3

Educational services

4,600 526 11.4 621 13.5 4,828 632 13.1 748 15.5

Health care and social assistance

17,724 1,272 7.2 1,456 8.2 18,154 1,221 6.7 1,396 7.7

Leisure and hospitality

12,748 374 2.9 428 3.4 12,582 367 2.9 436 3.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,424 144 5.9 157 6.5 2,390 136 5.7 159 6.6

Accommodation and food services

10,324 230 2.2 271 2.6 10,193 231 2.3 277 2.7

Accommodation

1,454 106 7.3 114 7.8 1,369 113 8.3 127 9.3

Food services and drinking places

8,870 124 1.4 158 1.8 8,823 118 1.3 150 1.7

Other services(3)

5,994 167 2.8 192 3.2 6,192 159 2.6 184 3.0

Other services, except private households

5,390 164 3.0 186 3.5 5,431 155 2.9 179 3.3

Public sector

20,956 7,216 34.4 7,951 37.9 21,131 7,167 33.9 7,868 37.2

Federal government

3,652 972 26.6 1,131 31.0 3,707 977 26.4 1,128 30.4

State government

7,103 2,153 30.3 2,371 33.4 7,109 2,035 28.6 2,259 31.8

Local government

10,201 4,091 40.1 4,449 43.6 10,315 4,155 40.3 4,481 43.4

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2017-2018 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2017 2018
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,224 $1,215 $1,206 $1,227 $1,246 $1,229 $1,222 $1,250

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,327 1,276 1,276 1,329 1,355 1,318 1,334 1,356

Management occupations

1,392 1,349 1,361 1,395 1,429 1,401 1,425 1,430

Business and financial operations occupations

1,174 1,188 1,163 1,174 1,216 1,159 1,164 1,221

Professional and related occupations

1,160 1,199 1,187 1,154 1,176 1,210 1,193 1,173

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,465 1,375 1,371 1,473 1,539 1,458 1,460 1,543

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,478 1,479 1,473 1,479 1,484 1,516 1,529 1,479

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,286 1,297 1,338 1,276 1,270 1,331 1,323 1,262

Community and social service occupations

900 1,035 1,035 866 913 1,076 1,083 880

Legal occupations

1,443 1,550 1,577 1,428 1,467 1,593 1,503 1,464

Education, training, and library occupations

1,002 1,157 1,144 900 1,002 1,151 1,136 909

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,066 1,354 1,334 1,041 1,086 1,277 1,205 1,074

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1,124 1,244 1,239 1,103 1,140 1,292 1,288 1,122

Service occupations

544 792 774 518 569 802 781 541

Healthcare support occupations

542 577 573 539 561 618 618 552

Protective service occupations

852 1,163 1,146 713 848 1,137 1,132 715

Food preparation and serving related occupations

484 594 583 479 501 609 598 496

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

522 638 629 511 551 679 670 533

Personal care and service occupations

520 624 609 516 544 590 587 541

Sales and office occupations

718 829 814 710 742 835 828 735

Sales and related occupations

763 806 813 761 798 774 766 800

Office and administrative support occupations

701 834 815 688 717 850 843 703

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

801 1,146 1,132 750 824 1,181 1,176 782

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

539 - - 533 581 - - 581

Construction and extraction occupations

796 1,136 1,124 734 808 1,178 1,172 759

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

878 1,187 1,176 822 934 1,208 1,204 891

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

692 922 902 662 707 924 913 680

Production occupations

701 895 878 678 723 935 923 699

Transportation and material moving occupations

681 949 926 640 689 913 902 657

INDUSTRY

Private sector

829 984 971 816 861 999 989 848

Agriculture and related industries

599 - - 599 619 - - 619

Nonagricultural industries

833 986 974 820 865 1,001 991 853

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,257 - - 1,263 1,291 - - 1,269

Construction

840 1,163 1,155 797 868 1,220 1,210 819

Manufacturing

884 943 927 878 917 992 992 908

Durable goods

910 968 955 904 951 1,025 1,023 941

Nondurable goods

837 892 871 830 858 923 931 843

Wholesale and retail trade

705 758 753 702 722 759 743 721

Wholesale trade

903 979 986 899 917 896 917 917

Retail trade

656 721 714 653 671 719 700 669

Transportation and utilities

888 1,147 1,121 828 901 1,106 1,091 864

Transportation and warehousing

815 1,053 1,016 781 838 1,024 1,014 808

Utilities

1,325 1,432 1,432 1,254 1,292 1,329 1,327 1,271

Information(4)

1,154 1,344 1,330 1,142 1,169 1,355 1,336 1,157

Publishing, except Internet

1,171 - - 1,167 1,153 - - 1,151

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

1,189 - - 1,134 1,114 - - 1,027

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

973 - - 959 1,056 - - 1,051

Telecommunications

1,197 1,195 1,201 1,195 1,170 1,331 1,325 1,150

Financial activities

1,009 943 945 1,012 1,047 937 940 1,052

Finance and insurance

1,076 980 964 1,081 1,130 909 948 1,134

Finance

1,125 - 1,010 1,126 1,155 914 940 1,159

Insurance

1,027 - 931 1,032 1,071 - 953 1,078

Real estate and rental and leasing

839 918 931 833 897 979 921 896

Professional and business services

1,037 1,005 1,016 1,038 1,094 888 906 1,105

Professional and technical services

1,347 1,231 1,252 1,349 1,364 1,264 1,205 1,367

Management, administrative, and waste services

$629 $873 $842 $622 $664 $711 $711 $661

Education and health services

843 978 964 831 860 984 978 845

Educational services

957 1,026 1,018 942 985 1,068 1,053 968

Health care and social assistance

810 928 914 800 822 920 921 813

Leisure and hospitality

547 676 669 538 584 700 695 579

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

716 750 766 710 732 772 791 726

Accommodation and food services

513 636 620 510 551 666 655 546

Accommodation

598 685 678 588 615 715 702 604

Food services and drinking places

501 586 564 500 536 621 619 535

Other services(4)

705 913 874 699 735 1,165 1,186 725

Other services, except private households

722 924 890 717 764 1,171 1,195 754

Public sector

986 1,104 1,096 917 999 1,099 1,094 936

Federal government

1,176 1,138 1,146 1,213 1,166 1,076 1,112 1,228

State government

955 1,061 1,050 907 967 1,074 1,058 916

Local government

949 1,121 1,106 832 969 1,114 1,106 859

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State 2017 2018
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,869 138 7.4 152 8.1 1,950 180 9.2 196 10.1

Alaska

304 55 18.1 59 19.4 299 55 18.5 60 20.0

Arizona

2,805 111 4.0 145 5.2 2,943 156 5.3 191 6.5

Arkansas

1,209 62 5.1 74 6.1 1,176 56 4.8 62 5.3

California

16,064 2,491 15.5 2,708 16.9 16,399 2,405 14.7 2,587 15.8

Colorado

2,494 238 9.6 273 11.0 2,564 281 11.0 307 12.0

Connecticut

1,645 278 16.9 295 17.9 1,677 268 16.0 280 16.7

Delaware

425 45 10.7 48 11.2 434 45 10.3 47 10.8

District of Columbia

347 34 9.8 40 11.5 354 35 9.9 41 11.6

Florida

8,573 480 5.6 570 6.6 8,702 484 5.6 588 6.8

Georgia

4,342 173 4.0 217 5.0 4,466 201 4.5 249 5.6

Hawaii

605 129 21.3 139 22.9 601 139 23.1 146 24.3

Idaho

723 35 4.8 42 5.8 733 34 4.7 41 5.6

Illinois

5,516 827 15.0 872 15.8 5,694 786 13.8 839 14.7

Indiana

2,987 266 8.9 289 9.7 3,049 269 8.8 283 9.3

Iowa

1,475 104 7.0 127 8.6 1,461 113 7.7 129 8.8

Kansas

1,296 101 7.8 131 10.1 1,283 90 7.0 129 10.1

Kentucky

1,810 174 9.6 232 12.8 1,812 161 8.9 207 11.4

Louisiana

1,780 78 4.4 96 5.4 1,785 89 5.0 104 5.8

Maine

576 66 11.4 81 14.0 573 74 12.9 85 14.8

Maryland

2,772 299 10.8 326 11.8 2,784 307 11.0 336 12.1

Massachusetts

3,231 401 12.4 431 13.3 3,397 464 13.7 493 14.5

Michigan

4,230 658 15.6 711 16.8 4,320 625 14.5 663 15.4

Minnesota

2,693 411 15.2 428 15.9 2,634 395 15.0 421 16.0

Mississippi

1,106 59 5.3 77 7.0 1,121 58 5.1 80 7.1

Missouri

2,613 226 8.7 265 10.1 2,675 251 9.4 283 10.6

Montana

419 50 11.9 57 13.6 427 50 11.8 60 14.0

Nebraska

858 70 8.2 78 9.1 882 59 6.6 71 8.0

Nevada

1,290 164 12.7 189 14.6 1,376 191 13.9 216 15.7

New Hampshire

642 72 11.3 83 13.0 664 68 10.2 77 11.6

New Jersey

3,898 630 16.2 665 17.1 3,935 587 14.9 639 16.2

New Mexico

769 52 6.7 63 8.3 812 56 6.8 67 8.2

New York

8,472 2,017 23.8 2,148 25.3 8,404 1,872 22.3 2,027 24.1

North Carolina

4,305 145 3.4 171 4.0 4,331 118 2.7 174 4.0

North Dakota

356 18 5.1 24 6.8 343 18 5.2 23 6.7

Ohio

5,062 635 12.5 688 13.6 5,054 639 12.6 722 14.3

Oklahoma

1,536 84 5.5 108 7.1 1,583 90 5.7 117 7.4

Oregon

1,763 262 14.9 277 15.7 1,738 242 13.9 256 14.7

Pennsylvania

5,543 665 12.0 723 13.0 5,575 701 12.6 748 13.4

Rhode Island

486 78 16.1 84 17.2 479 83 17.4 89 18.5

South Carolina

1,986 52 2.6 78 3.9 2,016 55 2.7 72 3.6

South Dakota

380 20 5.4 25 6.7 387 22 5.6 28 7.1

Tennessee

2,728 155 5.7 176 6.4 2,816 155 5.5 179 6.4

Texas

11,626 543 4.7 669 5.8 11,989 512 4.3 653 5.4

Utah

1,375 54 3.9 74 5.4 1,343 56 4.1 76 5.7

Vermont

288 32 11.0 35 12.1 291 31 10.5 34 11.6

Virginia

3,801 176 4.6 222 5.8 3,875 168 4.3 213 5.5

Washington

3,112 584 18.8 630 20.2 3,270 649 19.8 671 20.5

West Virginia

683 75 11.0 82 11.9 684 68 10.0 74 10.8

Wisconsin

2,778 230 8.3 250 9.0 2,700 219 8.1 233 8.6

Wyoming

243 15 6.0 16 6.7 235 15 6.5 18 7.7

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 18, 2019