Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
CPS CPS Program Links

Employment Situation of Veterans News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, March 18, 2021				USDL-21-0438

Technical information:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		    EMPLOYMENT SITUATION OF VETERANS -- 2020


The unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed
Forces at any time since September 2001--a group referred to as Gulf War-era II
veterans--rose to 7.3 percent in 2020, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. The jobless rate for all veterans increased to 6.5 percent in 2020. These
increases reflect the effect of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the labor
market. In August 2020, 40 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans had a service-
connected disability, compared with 26 percent of all veterans.

This information was obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly
sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides data on employment,
unemployment, and persons not in the labor force in the United States. Data about
veterans are collected monthly in the CPS; these monthly data are the source of
the 2020 annual averages presented in this news release. In August 2020, a supplement
to the CPS collected additional information about veterans on topics such as service-
connected disability and veterans' current or past Reserve or National Guard 
membership. Information from the supplement is also presented in this news release.
The supplement was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the
U.S. Department of Labor's Veterans' Employment and Training Service. For more
information, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2020 data:

  --Unemployment rates for both male and female veterans increased in 2020, reflecting
    the COVID-19 pandemic. The rate for male veterans was 6.5 percent, little
    different from the rate of 6.7 percent for female veterans. (See table A.)

  --Unemployment rates for White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic veterans were lower than
    for their nonveteran counterparts in 2020. (See table 1.)

  --Among the 581,000 unemployed veterans in 2020, 54 percent were ages 25 to 54, 41
    percent were age 55 and over, and 5 percent were ages 18 to 24. (See table 2A.) 

  --The unemployment rate of veterans with a service-connected disability, at 6.2
    percent in August 2020, did not have a statistically significant change over the
    year. The rate for veterans with no disability rose to 7.2 percent. (See table 7.)

  --Gulf War-era II veterans who reported a service-connected disability rating of
    less than 30 percent were much more likely to be in the labor force than those
    with a rating of 60 percent or higher in August 2020 (91.5 percent, compared with
    63.6 percent). (See table 7.)

  --In August 2020, 31 percent of employed veterans with a service-connected disability
    worked in the public sector, compared with 19 percent of veterans with no disability
    and 14 percent of nonveterans. (See table 8.)

  --In 2020, the unemployment rate of veterans varied across the country, ranging from
    2.7 percent in Nebraska to 11.3 percent in Michigan. (See table 6A.)

The Veteran Population

In 2020, 18.5 million men and women were veterans, accounting for about 7 percent of the
civilian noninstitutional population age 18 and over. Of all veterans, 1 in 10 were women.
In the survey, veterans are defined as men and women who have previously served on active
duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and who were civilians at the time these data were collected.
Veterans are much more likely to be men than are nonveterans, and they also tend to be
older. In part, this reflects the characteristics of veterans who served during World War
II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam era, all of whom are now over 60 years old. Veterans
who served during these wartime periods accounted for 37 percent (6.8 million) of the total
veteran population in 2020. Forty-one percent of veterans (7.6 million) served during Gulf
War era I (August 1990 to August 2001) or Gulf War era II (September 2001 to present).
Twenty-two percent (4.1 million) served outside the designated wartime periods. (See tables
1 and 2A.) 

Gulf War-era II Veterans

In 2020, there were 4.5 million veterans who had served during Gulf War era II (September
2001 to present). Seventeen percent of these veterans were women, compared with 3.5 percent
of veterans from World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam era. Two-thirds of all Gulf
War-era II veterans were between the ages of 25 and 44. (See tables 1 and 2A.)

Among Gulf War-era II veterans, the unemployment rate for men rose to 7.4 percent and the
rate for women rose to 7.2 percent in 2020. These rates were not statistically different
from each other. (See table A.)

In 2020, the unemployment rate for male Gulf War-era II veterans, at 7.4 percent, was not
statistically different than the rate for male nonveterans, at 7.8 percent. By age,
unemployment rates were also not statistically different among male Gulf War-era II
veterans and male nonveterans. (See table 2B.)

The unemployment rate for female Gulf War-era II veterans was 7.2 percent in 2020, not
statistically different from the rate for female nonveterans (8.2 percent). The unemployment
rate for female Gulf War-era II veterans ages 25 to 34 was lower than the rate of their
nonveteran counterparts (4.6 percent, compared with 8.4 percent). In other age groups,
the unemployment rates were not statistically different for female Gulf War-era II veterans
and nonveterans. (See table 2C.)

Employed Gulf War-era II veterans were twice as likely to work in the public sector in 2020
as employed nonveterans--28 percent versus 14 percent. Among the employed, 16 percent of
Gulf War-era II veterans worked for the federal government, compared with 2 percent of 
nonveterans. (See table 5.)

In August 2020, 40 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans reported serving in Iraq, Afghanistan,
or both locations. These veterans had an unemployment rate of 5.8 percent, lower than the
rate for Gulf War-era II veterans who served elsewhere (10.2 percent). (See table 10.)

Gulf War-era I Veterans

In 2020, of the 3.1 million veterans who served during Gulf War era I (August 1990 to August
2001), the proportion who were women (16 percent) was similar to that for Gulf War-era II
veterans (17 percent). All Gulf War-era I veterans were age 35 and over in 2020, compared
with 60 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans. Forty-eight percent of Gulf War-era I veterans
were ages 45 to 54, 23 percent were ages 55 to 64, 19 percent were ages 35 to 44, and 11
percent were age 65 and over. (See tables 1 and 2A.)

In 2020, the unemployment rate for male Gulf War-era I veterans (4.5 percent) was lower
than those of their Gulf War-era II counterparts (7.4 percent). The difference in 
unemployment rates reflects, at least in part, the older age profile of veterans who served
during Gulf War era I. Younger people--whether veterans or nonveterans--tend to have higher
unemployment rates than older people. The rates for female Gulf War-era I and Gulf War-era
II veterans were not statistically different (6.4 percent and 7.2 percent, respectively). 
Among Gulf War-era I veterans, the unemployment rate increased for both men and women in 
2020, and the rate for men was lower than for women. (See tables 2B and 2C.)
 
Veterans of Other Service Periods

In 2020, 4.1 million veterans had served on active duty during "other service periods,"
mainly between the Korean War and the Vietnam era and between the Vietnam era and Gulf War
era I. All veterans from this period of service were age 45 and over at the time of the
survey. Fifty percent of these veterans were ages 55 to 64, 40 percent were age 65 and 
over, and 10 percent were ages 45 to 54. (See table 2A.)

In 2020, 1 in 10 veterans of other service periods were women. Among veterans of other
service periods, the unemployment rate for men (7.1 percent) was not statistically 
different from the rate for women (5.3 percent). The rate for men increased from the prior
year, while the rate for women did not show a statistically significant change. (See 
table 1.)

Veterans with a Service-connected Disability

In August 2020, 4.7 million veterans, or 26 percent of the total, had a service-connected
disability. Veterans with a service-connected disability are assigned a disability rating
by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs or the U.S. Department of Defense. Ratings range
from 0 to 100 percent, in increments of 10 percentage points, depending on the severity of
the condition. (See table 7.) 

The unemployment rate for veterans with a service-connected disability was 6.2 percent in
August 2020, not statistically different from the rate for veterans with no disability
(7.2 percent). The unemployment rates for male and female veterans with a service-connected
disability were not statistically different (5.8 percent and 8.9 percent, respectively).
The labor force participation rate for veterans with a service-connected disability (48.6
percent) was also not statistically different from the rate for veterans with no disability
(47.2 percent). 

Among veterans with a service-connected disability, 27 percent reported a disability rating
of less than 30 percent, while 44 percent had a rating of 60 percent or higher. In August
2020, veterans with a service-connected disability rating of less than 30 percent were much
more likely to be in the labor force than those with a rating of 60 percent or higher (53.8
percent versus 41.2 percent). The unemployment rate for veterans with a disability rating
of less than 30 percent was 4.7 percent, lower than the rate for those with a disability
rating of 60 percent or higher (9.6 percent).

Among veterans who served during Gulf War era II, 40 percent (1.8 million) reported a 
service-connected disability. In August 2020, 73.8 percent of all Gulf War-era II veterans
with a service-connected disability were in the labor force, lower than the 87.7 percent 
for veterans from this period with no service-connected disability. Among Gulf War-era II 
veterans, the unemployment rate for those with a service-connected disability was 8.2 
percent, not statistically different from those with no disability (8.8 percent). 

Among Gulf War-era II veterans with a service-connected disability, 19 percent reported a
disability rating of less than 30 percent and 54 percent reported a disability rating of 60
percent or higher in August 2020. Gulf War-era II veterans who reported a disability rating
of less than 30 percent were much more likely to be in the labor force than those with a 
rating of 60 percent or higher (91.5 percent, compared with 63.6 percent). The unemployment
rate for veterans with a disability rating of less than 30 percent was 5.8 percent in August
2020, much lower than the rate for those with a disability rating of 60 percent or higher
(11.8 percent).

In August 2020, 25 percent (754,000) of veterans who served during Gulf War era I reported
a service-connected disability. Their labor force participation rate (63.4 percent) was
lower than the rate for veterans who did not have a disability (77.7 percent). The 
unemployment rate for Gulf War-era I veterans with a service-connected disability (2.8 
percent) was not statistically different from that for Gulf War-era I veterans without a 
service-connected disability (4.6 percent).

Thirteen percent (528,000) of veterans who served during other service periods reported a
service-connected disability in August 2020. The labor force participation rate of these
veterans (44.5 percent) was little different from their counterparts without a service-
connected disability (44.3 percent). The unemployment rates were not statistically different
for veterans with a service-connected disability (4.6 percent) and those with no disability
(6.9 percent).

Regardless of period of service, many veterans with a service-connected disability worked
in the public sector. In August 2020, 31 percent of employed veterans with a disability 
worked in federal, state, or local government, compared with 19 percent of veterans with 
no disability and 14 percent of nonveterans. Nineteen percent of employed veterans with a 
disability worked for the federal government, compared with 9 percent of veterans with no 
disability and 3 percent of nonveterans. (See table 8.)

Reserve and National Guard Membership 

In August 2020, 36 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans were current or past members of the
Reserve or National Guard. The labor force participation rate was higher for veterans who
were current or past members of the Reserve or National Guard (86.0 percent) than for 
veterans who had never been members (79.0 percent). Among Gulf War-era II veterans, those 
who were current or past members of the Reserve or National Guard had an unemployment rate
(6.4 percent) that was lower than for those who had never been members (10.0 percent). 
(See table 9.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, 2019-2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status and period of service 2019 2020
Total Men Women Total Men Women

TOTAL VETERANS

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,822 16,938 1,884 18,466 16,562 1,904

Civilian labor force

9,270 8,169 1,101 8,918 7,826 1,093

Participation rate

49.2 48.2 58.4 48.3 47.2 57.4

Employed

8,986 7,926 1,060 8,338 7,319 1,019

Employment-population ratio

47.7 46.8 56.2 45.2 44.2 53.5

Unemployed

284 243 41 581 507 74

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.0 3.7 6.5 6.5 6.7

Not in labor force

9,552 8,769 784 9,548 8,737 811

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,328 3,602 726 4,484 3,725 760

Civilian labor force

3,468 2,974 495 3,530 3,009 521

Participation rate

80.1 82.6 68.1 78.7 80.8 68.6

Employed

3,345 2,874 471 3,271 2,788 483

Employment-population ratio

77.3 79.8 64.9 72.9 74.8 63.6

Unemployed

123 100 23 259 221 38

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.4 4.7 7.3 7.4 7.2

Not in labor force

860 628 232 955 716 239

NONVETERANS

Civilian noninstitutional population

231,555 103,960 127,595 233,099 104,960 128,140

Civilian labor force

152,188 77,491 74,697 149,742 76,404 73,338

Participation rate

65.7 74.5 58.5 64.2 72.8 57.2

Employed

146,763 74,655 72,107 137,739 70,438 67,301

Employment-population ratio

63.4 71.8 56.5 59.1 67.1 52.5

Unemployed

5,425 2,835 2,590 12,003 5,966 6,037

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.7 3.5 8.0 7.8 8.2

Not in labor force

79,367 26,469 52,898 83,357 28,555 54,802

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Gulf War-era II veterans served on active duty anywhere in the world sometime since September 2001. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Effective with data for November 2017, estimates for veterans incorporate population controls derived from an updated Department of Veterans Affairs´┐Ż population model.


Technical Note

   The data in this release were collected through the Current Population Survey (CPS).
The CPS--a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. 
Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics--obtains information on employment 
and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over.

   Most of the data in this release are annual averages, compiled from the results of
the monthly survey. In August, a supplement to the CPS collected additional information
about veterans on topics such as service-connected disability, veterans' Reserve or 
National Guard status, and veterans who served in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. The 
supplement was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and by the U.S.
Department of Labor's Veterans' Employment and Training Service. Questions were asked 
of persons 17 years of age and older regarding their prior service in the U.S. Armed 
Forces. Data are tabulated for persons 18 years of age and older.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals 
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Definitions

   The definitions underlying the data in this release are as follows:

   Veterans are men and women who previously served on active duty in the U.S. Armed
Forces and who were civilians at the time they were surveyed. Members of the Reserve 
and National Guard are counted as veterans if they had ever been called to active duty.
Persons who are on active duty at the time of the survey are outside the scope of the 
survey and thus not in the estimates shown here, as are persons who reside in 
institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons.

   Nonveterans are men and women who never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed 
Forces.

   World War II, Korean War, Vietnam-era, and Gulf War-era veterans are men and women
who served in the U.S. Armed Forces during these periods of service, regardless of where
in the world they served. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are 
classified in the most recent one.

   Veterans of other service periods are men and women who served in the U.S. Armed 
Forces at any time other than World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam era, or the 
Gulf War era. Although U.S. Armed Forces were engaged in several armed conflicts during 
other service periods, these conflicts were more limited in scope and included a smaller
proportion of the Armed Forces than the selected wartime periods. Veterans who served 
during one of the selected wartime periods and during another period are classified in 
the wartime period.

   Veteran status is obtained from responses to the question, "Did you ever serve on 
active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces?"

   Period of service identifies when a veteran served in the Armed Forces, but not the
location of their service. It is obtained from answers to the question asked of veterans,
"When did you serve on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces?"

   The following service periods are identified:

      Gulf War era II -- September 2001-present
      Gulf War era I  -- August 1990-August 2001
      Vietnam era     -- August 1964-April 1975
      Korean War      -- July 1950-January 1955
      World War II    -- December 1941-December 1946
      Other service periods -- All other time periods

   Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service. 
Veterans are counted only in one period of service, their most recent wartime period.
Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent 
one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are 
classified in the wartime period. The period-of-service definitions are modified 
occasionally to reflect changes in law, regulations, and program needs of the survey 
sponsors.

   Veterans who served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both are individuals who served in Iraq
at any time since March 2003, in Afghanistan at any time since October 2001, or in both 
locations. Service in Iraq or Afghanistan is determined by answers to two questions: 
"Did you serve in Iraq, off the coast of Iraq, or did you fly missions over Iraq at any
time since March 2003?" and "Did you serve in Afghanistan, or did you fly missions over
Afghanistan, at any time since October 2001?"

   Presence of service-connected disability is determined by answers to the question,
"Has the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) or Department of Defense (DoD) determined
that you have a service-connected disability, that is, a health condition or impairment
caused or made worse by any of your military service?"

   Service-connected disability rating is based on answers to the question, "What is your
current service-connected disability rating?" Answers can range from 0 to 100 percent, in
increments of 10 percentage points. Ratings are determined by the VA or DoD from a rating
schedule published in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 38, "Pensions, Bonuses, and
Veterans' Relief," Part 4--"Schedule for Rating Disabilities." The rating schedule is 
"primarily a guide in the evaluation of disability resulting from all types of diseases 
and injuries encountered as a result of or incident to military service. The percentage 
ratings represent as far as can practicably be determined the average impairment in 
earning capacity resulting from such diseases and injuries and their residual conditions
in civil occupations." Part 4 contains a listing of hundreds of possible disorders and 
assigns ratings of 0 through 100 percent, with instructions for rating multiple disorders.

   Reserve and National Guard membership refers only to Gulf War-era veterans who are 
current or past members of the Reserve or National Guard. Members of the Reserve and 
National Guard are counted as veterans if they had ever been called to active duty. These 
data do not refer to all persons who may have ever served in the Reserve or National Guard.
Reserve or National Guard status is obtained from answers to two questions. Gulf War-era 
veterans were asked: "Was any of your active service the result of a call-up from the 
Reserve or National Guard?" If the answer was no, they were asked, "Have you ever been a 
member of the Reserve or National Guard?" A 'yes' response to either question classified 
persons as "Current or past member of the Reserve or National Guard." A 'no' response to 
the latter question classified persons as "Never a member of the Reserve or National Guard."

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a 
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample 
estimates will differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent 
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more 
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, the inability to 
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of 
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing
of the data.

   Information about the reliability of national data from the CPS and estimating standard 
errors is available at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   For a discussion of the reliability of state estimates from the CPS, such as those in 
tables 6A and 6B of this release, see https://www.bls.gov/opub/geographic-profile/home.htm.

Comparability of estimates

   Effective with data for November 2017, estimates for veterans incorporate population 
controls derived from an updated Department of Veterans Affairs' population model. In 
accordance with usual practice, BLS did not revise estimates for previous years. Information
about the updated veteran population model is available from the Department of Veterans 
Affairs at https://www.va.gov/vetdata/docs/Demographics/New_Vetpop_Model/Vetpop16_Overview.pdf.




Table 1. Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, period of service,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL

Total, 18 years and over

251,565 158,661 63.1 146,077 58.1 12,583 7.9 92,904

Veterans

18,466 8,918 48.3 8,338 45.2 581 6.5 9,548

Gulf War era, total

7,558 5,806 76.8 5,438 71.9 368 6.3 1,752

Gulf War era II

4,484 3,530 78.7 3,271 72.9 259 7.3 955

Gulf War era I

3,074 2,276 74.0 2,167 70.5 109 4.8 798

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

6,826 1,254 18.4 1,170 17.1 84 6.7 5,572

Other service periods

4,082 1,859 45.5 1,730 42.4 128 6.9 2,224

Nonveterans

233,099 149,742 64.2 137,739 59.1 12,003 8.0 83,357

Men

Total, 18 years and over

121,522 84,230 69.3 77,757 64.0 6,473 7.7 37,292

Veterans

16,562 7,826 47.2 7,319 44.2 507 6.5 8,737

Gulf War era, total

6,295 4,952 78.7 4,642 73.7 309 6.2 1,344

Gulf War era II

3,725 3,009 80.8 2,788 74.8 221 7.4 716

Gulf War era I

2,570 1,943 75.6 1,855 72.2 88 4.5 627

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

6,587 1,221 18.5 1,140 17.3 80 6.6 5,366

Other service periods

3,680 1,653 44.9 1,536 41.7 117 7.1 2,027

Nonveterans

104,960 76,404 72.8 70,438 67.1 5,966 7.8 28,555

Women

Total, 18 years and over

130,043 74,431 57.2 68,320 52.5 6,110 8.2 55,612

Veterans

1,904 1,093 57.4 1,019 53.5 74 6.7 811

Gulf War era, total

1,263 854 67.6 795 63.0 59 6.9 409

Gulf War era II

760 521 68.6 483 63.6 38 7.2 239

Gulf War era I

503 333 66.2 312 61.9 21 6.4 170

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

238 33 14.0 29 12.4 4 - 205

Other service periods

402 205 51.1 194 48.4 11 5.3 197

Nonveterans

128,140 73,338 57.2 67,301 52.5 6,037 8.2 54,802

White

Total, 18 years and over

194,879 122,779 63.0 113,964 58.5 8,816 7.2 72,100

Veterans

15,240 7,190 47.2 6,749 44.3 442 6.1 8,050

Gulf War era, total

5,842 4,556 78.0 4,283 73.3 272 6.0 1,286

Gulf War era II

3,394 2,730 80.4 2,540 74.8 190 7.0 664

Gulf War era I

2,447 1,826 74.6 1,743 71.2 82 4.5 622

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

6,023 1,122 18.6 1,050 17.4 72 6.4 4,901

Other service periods

3,375 1,513 44.8 1,416 41.9 97 6.4 1,862

Nonveterans

179,639 115,589 64.3 107,215 59.7 8,374 7.2 64,050

Black or African American

Total, 18 years and over

32,122 19,953 62.1 17,711 55.1 2,241 11.2 12,170

Veterans

2,325 1,217 52.4 1,126 48.4 91 7.5 1,108

Gulf War era, total

1,192 847 71.1 789 66.2 58 6.8 345

Gulf War era II

717 514 71.8 479 66.9 35 6.8 202

Gulf War era I

475 333 70.1 310 65.3 23 6.8 142

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

582 92 15.8 82 14.1 10 10.5 490

Other service periods

551 278 50.5 254 46.1 24 8.6 273

Nonveterans

29,798 18,735 62.9 16,585 55.7 2,150 11.5 11,062

Asian

Total, 18 years and over

15,934 10,236 64.2 9,350 58.7 886 8.7 5,698

Veterans

318 184 58.0 175 55.0 9 5.1 133

Gulf War era, total

188 143 76.0 135 72.0 8 5.3 45

Gulf War era II

132 103 78.6 97 73.4 7 6.7 28

Gulf War era I

57 40 69.8 39 68.7 1 1.5 17

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

85 23 26.4 22 25.4 1 - 63

Other service periods

44 19 42.5 18 40.1 1 - 26

Nonveterans

15,616 10,052 64.4 9,175 58.8 877 8.7 5,565

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 18 years and over

42,037 28,540 67.9 25,608 60.9 2,932 10.3 13,497

Veterans

1,456 958 65.8 887 60.9 71 7.4 499

Gulf War era, total

917 751 82.0 694 75.8 57 7.6 165

Gulf War era II

622 515 82.8 470 75.6 45 8.7 107

Gulf War era I

295 236 80.2 224 76.1 12 5.1 58

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

292 68 23.3 64 21.9 4 5.9 224

Other service periods

247 138 55.9 129 52.0 10 7.0 109

Nonveterans

40,581 27,583 68.0 24,721 60.9 2,862 10.4 12,998

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2A. Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

TOTAL VETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

18,466 8,918 48.3 8,338 45.2 581 6.5 9,548

18 to 24 years

275 194 70.5 166 60.3 28 14.6 81

25 to 34 years

1,529 1,249 81.7 1,139 74.5 110 8.8 280

35 to 44 years

2,035 1,711 84.1 1,611 79.2 99 5.8 324

45 to 54 years

2,521 2,072 82.2 1,967 78.0 105 5.0 450

55 to 64 years

3,433 2,160 62.9 2,019 58.8 141 6.5 1,273

65 years and over

8,674 1,534 17.7 1,436 16.6 98 6.4 7,140

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

7,558 5,806 76.8 5,438 71.9 368 6.3 1,752

18 to 24 years

275 194 70.5 166 60.3 28 14.6 81

25 to 34 years

1,529 1,249 81.7 1,139 74.5 110 8.8 280

35 to 44 years

2,035 1,711 84.1 1,611 79.2 99 5.8 324

45 to 54 years

2,128 1,756 82.5 1,673 78.6 83 4.7 372

55 to 64 years

1,150 774 67.3 732 63.6 42 5.4 376

65 years and over

442 123 27.8 117 26.4 6 4.8 319

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

4,484 3,530 78.7 3,271 72.9 259 7.3 955

18 to 24 years

275 194 70.5 166 60.3 28 14.6 81

25 to 34 years

1,529 1,249 81.7 1,139 74.5 110 8.8 280

35 to 44 years

1,462 1,219 83.4 1,147 78.5 72 5.9 243

45 to 54 years

655 527 80.4 498 76.1 28 5.4 128

55 to 64 years

454 309 68.1 293 64.6 16 5.2 145

65 years and over

110 33 29.9 29 26.2 4 - 77

Gulf War era I

Total, 35 years and over

3,074 2,276 74.0 2,167 70.5 109 4.8 798

35 to 44 years

573 492 85.9 465 81.1 27 5.5 81

45 to 54 years

1,473 1,229 83.5 1,175 79.8 54 4.4 243

55 to 64 years

697 465 66.8 439 63.0 26 5.6 231

65 years and over

332 90 27.1 88 26.5 2 2.0 242

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

6,826 1,254 18.4 1,170 17.1 84 6.7 5,572

55 to 64 years

234 95 40.5 89 37.9 6 6.5 139

65 years and over

6,591 1,159 17.6 1,081 16.4 78 6.7 5,432

Other service periods

Total, 45 years and over

4,082 1,859 45.5 1,730 42.4 128 6.9 2,224

45 to 54 years

394 316 80.2 294 74.7 22 6.9 78

55 to 64 years

2,048 1,291 63.0 1,198 58.5 93 7.2 757

65 years and over

1,640 252 15.4 238 14.5 14 5.5 1,389

TOTAL NONVETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

233,099 149,742 64.2 137,739 59.1 12,003 8.0 83,357

18 to 24 years

28,446 17,931 63.0 15,309 53.8 2,623 14.6 10,514

25 to 34 years

43,316 35,257 81.4 32,288 74.5 2,970 8.4 8,058

35 to 44 years

39,295 32,273 82.1 30,195 76.8 2,077 6.4 7,023

45 to 54 years

37,348 30,067 80.5 28,131 75.3 1,936 6.4 7,281

55 to 64 years

38,766 25,141 64.9 23,434 60.5 1,706 6.8 13,625

65 years and over

45,928 9,073 19.8 8,382 18.3 691 7.6 36,855

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2B. Employment status of men 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

VETERANS, MEN

Total, 18 years and over

16,562 7,826 47.2 7,319 44.2 507 6.5 8,737

18 to 24 years

200 142 70.9 124 62.0 18 12.5 58

25 to 34 years

1,247 1,068 85.6 966 77.5 102 9.5 179

35 to 44 years

1,652 1,432 86.7 1,351 81.8 81 5.7 220

45 to 54 years

2,150 1,795 83.5 1,707 79.4 87 4.9 355

55 to 64 years

2,996 1,911 63.8 1,786 59.6 125 6.5 1,084

65 years and over

8,318 1,478 17.8 1,384 16.6 94 6.4 6,840

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

6,295 4,952 78.7 4,642 73.7 309 6.2 1,344

18 to 24 years

200 142 70.9 124 62.0 18 12.5 58

25 to 34 years

1,247 1,068 85.6 966 77.5 102 9.5 179

35 to 44 years

1,652 1,432 86.7 1,351 81.8 81 5.7 220

45 to 54 years

1,817 1,522 83.8 1,455 80.1 67 4.4 295

55 to 64 years

984 673 68.4 637 64.7 36 5.3 311

65 years and over

395 115 29.0 109 27.5 6 5.2 280

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

3,725 3,009 80.8 2,788 74.8 221 7.4 716

18 to 24 years

200 142 70.9 124 62.0 18 12.5 58

25 to 34 years

1,247 1,068 85.6 966 77.5 102 9.5 179

35 to 44 years

1,194 1,020 85.4 962 80.5 58 5.7 174

45 to 54 years

570 464 81.4 438 76.9 26 5.5 106

55 to 64 years

412 284 68.8 270 65.3 14 5.0 129

65 years and over

101 31 31.2 27 27.1 4 - 70

Gulf War era I

Total, 35 years and over

2,570 1,943 75.6 1,855 72.2 88 4.5 627

35 to 44 years

457 412 90.1 389 85.1 23 5.6 45

45 to 54 years

1,248 1,058 84.8 1,017 81.5 41 3.9 189

55 to 64 years

572 389 68.1 368 64.3 22 5.6 182

65 years and over

294 83 28.3 81 27.7 2 2.2 211

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

6,587 1,221 18.5 1,140 17.3 80 6.6 5,366

55 to 64 years

220 92 41.8 86 39.3 6 6.1 128

65 years and over

6,367 1,129 17.7 1,054 16.6 75 6.6 5,238

Other service periods

Total, 45 years and over

3,680 1,653 44.9 1,536 41.7 117 7.1 2,027

45 to 54 years

333 272 81.8 252 75.8 20 7.4 60

55 to 64 years

1,792 1,146 64.0 1,063 59.3 84 7.3 645

65 years and over

1,556 235 15.1 221 14.2 14 5.8 1,321

NONVETERANS, MEN

Total, 18 years and over

104,960 76,404 72.8 70,438 67.1 5,966 7.8 28,555

18 to 24 years

14,221 9,160 64.4 7,807 54.9 1,353 14.8 5,061

25 to 34 years

21,140 18,441 87.2 16,878 79.8 1,563 8.5 2,699

35 to 44 years

18,691 16,814 90.0 15,769 84.4 1,045 6.2 1,877

45 to 54 years

17,336 15,124 87.2 14,218 82.0 905 6.0 2,213

55 to 64 years

17,340 12,479 72.0 11,680 67.4 799 6.4 4,861

65 years and over

16,232 4,387 27.0 4,086 25.2 301 6.9 11,845

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2C. Employment status of women 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

VETERANS, WOMEN

Total, 18 years and over

1,904 1,093 57.4 1,019 53.5 74 6.7 811

18 to 24 years

75 52 69.6 42 55.6 11 20.2 23

25 to 34 years

282 181 64.1 172 61.1 8 4.6 101

35 to 44 years

383 279 72.7 260 68.0 18 6.5 104

45 to 54 years

371 277 74.7 260 70.0 17 6.2 94

55 to 64 years

437 249 56.9 233 53.3 16 6.3 188

65 years and over

356 56 15.7 52 14.6 4 6.6 300

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

1,263 854 67.6 795 63.0 59 6.9 409

18 to 24 years

75 52 69.6 42 55.6 11 20.2 23

25 to 34 years

282 181 64.1 172 61.1 8 4.6 101

35 to 44 years

383 279 72.7 260 68.0 18 6.5 104

45 to 54 years

310 234 75.3 218 70.3 16 6.7 77

55 to 64 years

166 101 60.8 95 57.1 6 6.1 65

65 years and over

47 8 - 8 - 0 - 39

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

760 521 68.6 483 63.6 38 7.2 239

18 to 24 years

75 52 69.6 42 55.6 11 20.2 23

25 to 34 years

282 181 64.1 172 61.1 8 4.6 101

35 to 44 years

267 199 74.4 185 69.1 14 7.1 69

45 to 54 years

85 63 73.7 60 70.4 3 4.4 22

55 to 64 years

41 25 61.3 23 56.8 2 - 16

65 years and over

9 2 - 2 - 0 - 8

Gulf War era I

Total, 35 years and over

503 333 66.2 312 61.9 21 6.4 170

35 to 44 years

116 80 69.0 76 65.4 4 5.2 36

45 to 54 years

225 171 75.9 158 70.2 13 7.5 54

55 to 64 years

125 76 60.7 72 57.2 4 5.7 49

65 years and over

38 6 - 6 - 0 - 31

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

238 33 14.0 29 12.4 4 - 205

55 to 64 years

14 3 - 2 - 1 - 11

65 years and over

224 30 13.6 27 12.1 3 - 194

Other service periods

Total, 45 years and over

402 205 51.1 194 48.4 11 5.3 197

45 to 54 years

61 43 71.4 42 68.6 2 3.9 17

55 to 64 years

257 145 56.4 136 52.9 9 6.2 112

65 years and over

84 17 20.4 17 20.1 0 - 67

NONVETERANS, WOMEN

Total, 18 years and over

128,140 73,338 57.2 67,301 52.5 6,037 8.2 54,802

18 to 24 years

14,225 8,772 61.7 7,502 52.7 1,269 14.5 5,454

25 to 34 years

22,176 16,817 75.8 15,410 69.5 1,407 8.4 5,359

35 to 44 years

20,604 15,458 75.0 14,426 70.0 1,032 6.7 5,146

45 to 54 years

20,011 14,943 74.7 13,913 69.5 1,030 6.9 5,068

55 to 64 years

21,426 12,662 59.1 11,754 54.9 907 7.2 8,765

65 years and over

29,696 4,686 15.8 4,296 14.5 390 8.3 25,010

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 3. Employment status of persons 25 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and educational attainment, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status,
period of service, and educational attainment
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

VETERANS

Total, 25 years and over

18,191 8,724 48.0 8,172 44.9 552 6.3 9,466

Less than a high school diploma

658 121 18.3 114 17.3 7 5.8 538

High school graduates, no college

5,024 2,148 42.8 1,980 39.4 168 7.8 2,876

Some college or associate degree

6,280 3,149 50.1 2,939 46.8 210 6.7 3,132

Bachelor's degree and higher

6,228 3,307 53.1 3,139 50.4 167 5.1 2,921

Gulf War era, total

Total, 25 years and over

7,283 5,612 77.1 5,272 72.4 340 6.1 1,671

Less than a high school diploma

78 41 52.2 40 50.4 1 3.6 37

High school graduates, no college

1,589 1,215 76.5 1,120 70.5 95 7.8 374

Some college or associate degree

2,768 2,086 75.4 1,960 70.8 126 6.1 682

Bachelor's degree and higher

2,847 2,270 79.7 2,153 75.6 117 5.2 578

Gulf War era II

Total, 25 years and over

4,209 3,336 79.2 3,105 73.8 231 6.9 874

Less than a high school diploma

40 22 55.9 21 53.6 1 - 18

High school graduates, no college

892 708 79.4 644 72.2 64 9.0 184

Some college or associate degree

1,588 1,205 75.8 1,121 70.6 83 6.9 384

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,690 1,401 82.9 1,319 78.1 82 5.9 288

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

3,074 2,276 74.0 2,167 70.5 109 4.8 798

Less than a high school diploma

39 19 48.5 18 47.0 1 - 20

High school graduates, no college

697 507 72.8 476 68.3 31 6.1 190

Some college or associate degree

1,180 881 74.7 839 71.1 43 4.9 299

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,158 868 75.0 834 72.0 35 4.0 289

WWII, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 25 years and over

6,826 1,254 18.4 1,170 17.1 84 6.7 5,572

Less than a high school diploma

389 37 9.5 35 8.9 2 6.2 352

High school graduates, no college

2,003 321 16.0 297 14.8 24 7.4 1,682

Some college or associate degree

2,193 407 18.6 375 17.1 32 7.9 1,786

Bachelor's degree and higher

2,241 489 21.8 463 20.7 26 5.3 1,752

Other service periods

Total, 25 years and over

4,082 1,859 45.5 1,730 42.4 128 6.9 2,224

Less than a high school diploma

191 43 22.3 40 20.7 3 7.5 149

High school graduates, no college

1,432 612 42.8 563 39.3 50 8.1 820

Some college or associate degree

1,319 656 49.7 604 45.8 51 7.9 663

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,140 548 48.1 524 46.0 24 4.4 592

NONVETERANS

Total, 25 years and over

204,653 131,811 64.4 122,431 59.8 9,380 7.1 72,842

Less than a high school diploma

19,159 8,743 45.6 7,715 40.3 1,028 11.8 10,416

High school graduates, no college

56,985 32,534 57.1 29,572 51.9 2,962 9.1 24,451

Some college or associate degree

51,202 33,375 65.2 30,747 60.0 2,629 7.9 17,827

Bachelor's degree and higher

77,308 57,159 73.9 54,397 70.4 2,762 4.8 20,149

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 4. Employed persons 18 years and over by occupation, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 2020 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation and sex Veterans Non-
veterans
Total Gulf War era WW II,
Korean
War, and
Vietnam
era
Other
service
periods
Total Gulf War
era II
Gulf War
era I

TOTAL

Total employed (in thousands)

8,338 5,438 3,271 2,167 1,170 1,730 137,739

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

41.7 42.1 41.0 43.8 44.2 38.5 43.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20.3 19.3 18.0 21.2 26.5 19.4 18.5

Professional and related occupations

21.3 22.8 23.0 22.6 17.7 19.1 25.2

Service occupations

13.0 14.1 15.1 12.6 9.8 11.8 15.2

Sales and office occupations

15.3 14.9 14.6 15.2 18.1 14.7 20.3

Sales and related occupations

8.0 7.1 6.6 7.8 13.1 7.4 9.5

Office and administrative support occupations

7.3 7.8 8.0 7.4 5.0 7.3 10.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12.8 12.6 12.6 12.8 11.4 14.4 8.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 1.1 0.4 0.7

Construction and extraction occupations

5.8 5.4 5.2 5.8 4.9 7.7 5.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

6.6 6.9 7.0 6.6 5.3 6.4 3.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17.2 16.2 16.7 15.6 16.4 20.5 12.0

Production occupations

6.3 6.3 6.7 5.5 4.4 7.7 5.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

10.9 10.0 9.9 10.1 12.0 12.9 6.9

MEN

Total employed (in thousands)

7,319 4,642 2,788 1,855 1,140 1,536 70,438

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

40.1 40.3 39.0 42.4 44.0 36.6 39.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20.4 19.1 17.6 21.4 26.9 19.3 19.2

Professional and related occupations

19.8 21.2 21.4 21.0 17.1 17.4 20.2

Service occupations

12.9 14.0 15.0 12.5 9.9 11.7 12.1

Sales and office occupations

14.1 13.3 13.2 13.5 18.0 13.4 14.6

Sales and related occupations

8.1 7.1 6.5 8.0 13.2 7.3 9.3

Office and administrative support occupations

6.0 6.2 6.7 5.5 4.8 6.1 5.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14.3 14.4 14.4 14.4 11.7 16.1 16.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.5 1.2 0.4 1.0

Construction and extraction occupations

6.5 6.2 6.0 6.6 5.1 8.6 9.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

7.3 7.8 8.0 7.4 5.4 7.1 5.5

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

18.6 17.9 18.4 17.2 16.4 22.2 17.6

Production occupations

6.7 6.8 7.4 5.9 4.4 8.2 7.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

11.9 11.1 11.0 11.3 12.0 14.0 10.6

WOMEN

Total employed (in thousands)

1,019 795 483 312 29 194 67,301

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

52.6 52.5 52.6 52.3 - 53.3 48.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20.0 20.2 20.4 19.9 - 20.5 17.7

Professional and related occupations

32.6 32.3 32.2 32.4 - 32.8 30.3

Service occupations

14.3 14.9 15.9 13.4 - 12.9 18.5

Sales and office occupations

24.0 23.7 22.7 25.1 - 25.2 26.2

Sales and related occupations

7.2 6.8 7.1 6.4 - 8.2 9.7

Office and administrative support occupations

16.7 16.9 15.6 18.7 - 17.0 16.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

2.1 2.4 2.0 3.0 - 1.4 1.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 - 0.0 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 - 0.5 0.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

1.4 1.6 1.3 2.1 - 0.9 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

7.0 6.6 6.8 6.2 - 7.2 6.2

Production occupations

3.2 3.2 3.0 3.4 - 3.2 3.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

3.8 3.4 3.8 2.8 - 4.0 3.1

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 5. Employed persons 18 years and over by industry, class of worker, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 2020 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Industry, class of worker, and sex Veterans Non-
veterans
Total Gulf War era WW II,
Korean
War, and
Vietnam
era
Other
service
periods
Total Gulf War
era II
Gulf War
era I

TOTAL

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

8,338 5,438 3,271 2,167 1,170 1,730 137,739

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.8 0.8 0.6 1.1 6.3 1.8 1.6

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.9 0.6 0.5 0.7 2.2 0.8 1.1

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

0.9 0.2 0.1 0.4 4.1 1.0 0.5

Nonagricultural industries

98.2 99.2 99.4 98.9 93.7 98.2 98.4

Wage and salary workers(2)

92.1 95.2 96.1 94.0 79.9 90.6 92.6

Private industries

69.3 68.8 67.9 70.1 68.8 71.0 79.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.8 0.9 0.8 1.2 0.2 0.7 0.4

Construction

5.9 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.9 6.9 6.0

Manufacturing

12.2 12.0 11.8 12.4 9.9 14.1 9.5

Wholesale trade

2.5 2.6 2.5 2.7 1.8 2.7 2.2

Retail trade

7.8 7.3 6.6 8.4 10.8 7.4 10.0

Transportation and utilities

7.7 7.5 7.8 7.0 6.9 9.1 4.4

Information

1.5 1.8 1.7 1.9 0.7 1.0 1.6

Financial activities

5.0 4.9 4.6 5.5 6.6 4.1 6.7

Professional and business services

11.4 11.7 11.8 11.5 12.3 9.9 11.2

Education and health services

8.7 9.1 9.1 9.2 6.8 8.8 16.1

Leisure and hospitality

3.0 3.0 3.3 2.6 2.8 3.1 6.8

Other services

2.8 2.4 2.5 2.3 4.0 3.2 3.9

Government

22.9 26.4 28.1 23.9 11.1 19.6 13.6

Federal

11.4 14.2 15.7 12.0 3.0 8.2 2.2

State

4.7 5.1 5.4 4.7 2.6 4.8 4.7

Local

6.8 7.1 7.1 7.2 5.4 6.6 6.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

6.1 4.0 3.3 4.9 13.8 7.6 5.8

MEN

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

7,319 4,642 2,788 1,855 1,140 1,536 70,438

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.9 0.8 0.6 1.1 6.5 1.9 2.1

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.9 0.6 0.5 0.8 2.2 0.8 1.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

1.0 0.2 0.1 0.3 4.2 1.1 0.6

Nonagricultural industries

98.1 99.2 99.4 98.9 93.5 98.1 97.9

Wage and salary workers(2)

91.8 95.2 95.9 94.2 79.6 90.6 91.5

Private industries

70.1 69.7 68.2 72.0 68.8 72.2 81.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.8 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.2 0.8 0.7

Construction

6.5 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 7.7 10.3

Manufacturing

13.0 13.0 12.5 13.7 9.8 15.1 12.8

Wholesale trade

2.7 2.8 2.7 3.0 1.8 2.8 2.9

Retail trade

8.0 7.5 6.8 8.6 10.7 7.4 10.1

Transportation and utilities

8.5 8.5 8.8 8.0 7.0 9.8 6.5

Information

1.5 1.9 1.8 2.0 0.8 1.0 1.8

Financial activities

4.7 4.6 4.3 5.1 6.6 3.7 6.1

Professional and business services

11.8 12.1 12.2 12.1 12.3 10.4 12.5

Education and health services

6.9 7.0 6.7 7.4 6.5 7.2 7.2

Leisure and hospitality

2.9 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.8 3.2 6.5

Other services

2.8 2.3 2.4 2.2 4.1 3.1 3.6

Government

21.7 25.5 27.7 22.2 10.8 18.4 10.4

Federal

10.5 13.4 15.1 10.8 3.0 7.3 2.0

State

4.5 5.0 5.4 4.4 2.6 4.6 3.5

Local

6.7 7.1 7.2 6.9 5.2 6.5 4.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

6.3 4.0 3.5 4.7 13.9 7.5 6.4

WOMEN

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

1,019 795 483 312 29 194 67,301

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

0.9 0.8 0.4 1.2 - 1.4 0.9

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 - 0.8 0.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

0.4 0.4 0.0 1.0 - 0.6 0.3

Nonagricultural industries

99.1 99.2 99.6 98.8 - 98.6 99.1

Wage and salary workers(2)

94.4 95.5 97.0 93.1 - 90.8 93.8

Private industries

63.4 63.5 66.5 59.0 - 61.7 76.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.4 0.5 0.2 1.0 - 0.0 0.1

Construction

1.5 1.7 1.9 1.2 - 1.3 1.5

Manufacturing

6.5 6.2 7.2 4.8 - 6.4 6.1

Wholesale trade

1.2 1.2 1.0 1.5 - 1.3 1.4

Retail trade

6.7 6.4 6.0 7.0 - 6.9 9.9

Transportation and utilities

2.0 1.7 2.2 0.9 - 3.0 2.3

Information

1.0 0.9 0.7 1.3 - 1.3 1.3

Financial activities

6.7 6.7 6.0 7.8 - 6.8 7.4

Professional and business services

8.6 9.0 9.7 8.0 - 6.6 9.8

Education and health services

21.7 21.9 22.9 20.4 - 21.2 25.4

Leisure and hospitality

3.9 4.4 5.9 2.1 - 2.4 7.2

Other services

3.2 2.9 2.9 3.1 - 4.6 4.3

Government

31.1 31.9 30.5 34.1 - 29.0 17.0

Federal

17.7 18.8 18.7 19.0 - 15.5 2.4

State

6.1 6.1 5.8 6.5 - 6.2 6.1

Local

7.2 7.0 6.1 8.6 - 7.3 8.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

4.7 3.8 2.5 5.7 - 7.9 5.2

Footnotes
(1) Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose business are incorporated.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 6A. Employment status of veterans 18 years and over by state, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL VETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

18,466 8,918 48.3 8,338 45.2 581 6.5 9,548

Alabama

327 165 50.6 155 47.4 10 6.3 161

Alaska

62 35 56.0 33 53.7 1 4.0 27

Arizona

507 233 46.0 210 41.5 22 9.6 274

Arkansas

198 83 41.7 79 40.0 3 4.0 115

California

1,463 664 45.4 605 41.3 60 9.0 799

Colorado

372 192 51.5 185 49.7 7 3.5 181

Connecticut

149 72 48.0 68 45.3 4 5.5 78

Delaware

75 35 46.1 32 42.8 2 7.2 41

District of Columbia

25 13 51.4 12 47.9 1 6.9 12

Florida

1,361 585 43.0 555 40.8 29 5.0 776

Georgia

680 342 50.4 329 48.4 13 3.8 338

Hawaii

97 50 51.7 47 48.4 3 6.5 47

Idaho

111 51 46.5 49 44.2 3 5.0 59

Illinois

559 249 44.6 230 41.1 19 7.8 310

Indiana

413 219 52.9 202 48.9 17 7.6 195

Iowa

210 115 54.5 106 50.4 9 7.6 96

Kansas

169 93 55.2 88 52.3 5 5.2 76

Kentucky

257 118 45.9 111 43.3 7 5.7 139

Louisiana

272 136 50.1 128 47.0 9 6.4 135

Maine

109 48 44.5 45 41.7 3 6.2 60

Maryland

375 232 61.8 219 58.3 13 5.8 143

Massachusetts

303 142 46.8 132 43.6 10 6.9 161

Michigan

512 210 41.0 186 36.4 24 11.3 302

Minnesota

305 147 48.3 135 44.3 12 8.3 157

Mississippi

172 82 47.9 78 45.1 5 5.7 89

Missouri

393 168 42.9 159 40.4 10 5.7 225

Montana

90 43 47.5 41 45.4 2 4.4 47

Nebraska

130 76 58.2 74 56.6 2 2.7 54

Nevada

218 115 52.7 104 47.7 11 9.4 103

New Hampshire

95 47 49.0 44 46.4 3 5.4 48

New Jersey

337 141 41.9 130 38.5 11 8.1 196

New Mexico

167 78 46.6 72 43.4 5 6.8 89

New York

690 276 40.0 256 37.2 20 7.1 414

North Carolina

708 320 45.1 302 42.6 18 5.6 389

North Dakota

44 23 51.7 21 47.3 2 8.4 21

Ohio

715 348 48.7 316 44.1 32 9.3 367

Oklahoma

277 129 46.7 123 44.5 6 4.8 147

Oregon

313 142 45.5 133 42.6 9 6.3 170

Pennsylvania

757 314 41.5 290 38.4 24 7.6 443

Rhode Island

53 24 46.0 22 42.5 2 7.7 29

South Carolina

417 220 52.8 210 50.3 10 4.7 197

South Dakota

56 31 55.7 30 54.4 1 - 25

Tennessee

469 222 47.5 207 44.2 15 6.8 246

Texas

1,574 875 55.6 828 52.6 47 5.4 699

Utah

136 70 51.7 66 48.8 4 5.6 65

Vermont

39 18 46.6 17 43.7 1 6.3 21

Virginia

679 411 60.5 394 58.1 16 4.0 268

Washington

512 262 51.1 239 46.8 22 8.5 250

West Virginia

124 54 43.6 51 40.6 4 6.7 70

Wisconsin

339 172 50.7 162 47.7 10 6.0 167

Wyoming

49 26 53.1 25 49.6 2 6.5 23

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.


Table 6B. Employment status of nonveterans 18 years and over by state, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL NONVETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

233,099 149,742 64.2 137,739 59.1 12,003 8.0 83,357

Alabama

3,424 2,032 59.4 1,912 55.8 121 5.9 1,392

Alaska

465 305 65.5 281 60.4 24 7.8 161

Arizona

5,111 3,286 64.3 3,042 59.5 244 7.4 1,825

Arkansas

2,071 1,252 60.5 1,174 56.7 78 6.3 819

California

28,709 18,030 62.8 16,199 56.4 1,831 10.2 10,679

Colorado

4,091 2,897 70.8 2,685 65.6 212 7.3 1,194

Connecticut

2,625 1,764 67.2 1,629 62.1 135 7.7 861

Delaware

689 440 63.9 406 59.0 34 7.6 249

District of Columbia

544 389 71.5 359 65.9 31 7.9 155

Florida

15,800 9,408 59.5 8,657 54.8 750 8.0 6,393

Georgia

7,320 4,666 63.7 4,355 59.5 311 6.7 2,654

Hawaii

961 596 62.0 525 54.6 72 12.0 365

Idaho

1,243 825 66.3 783 63.0 42 5.0 418

Illinois

9,054 5,902 65.2 5,375 59.4 527 8.9 3,152

Indiana

4,679 3,073 65.7 2,859 61.1 214 7.0 1,606

Iowa

2,184 1,514 69.3 1,436 65.7 78 5.2 670

Kansas

1,990 1,380 69.3 1,302 65.4 78 5.6 610

Kentucky

3,125 1,866 59.7 1,743 55.8 123 6.6 1,259

Louisiana

3,169 1,917 60.5 1,756 55.4 161 8.4 1,252

Maine

971 619 63.7 587 60.5 32 5.1 352

Maryland

4,248 2,911 68.5 2,719 64.0 191 6.6 1,337

Massachusetts

5,182 3,477 67.1 3,153 60.9 324 9.3 1,704

Michigan

7,204 4,558 63.3 4,128 57.3 430 9.4 2,646

Minnesota

3,991 2,865 71.8 2,705 67.8 160 5.6 1,126

Mississippi

2,034 1,166 57.3 1,070 52.6 95 8.2 868

Missouri

4,268 2,815 66.0 2,643 61.9 172 6.1 1,453

Montana

742 487 65.6 458 61.8 28 5.8 255

Nebraska

1,302 949 72.9 907 69.7 42 4.4 353

Nevada

2,174 1,404 64.6 1,221 56.2 183 13.1 770

New Hampshire

1,004 694 69.0 648 64.5 45 6.5 311

New Jersey

6,503 4,308 66.2 3,896 59.9 412 9.6 2,195

New Mexico

1,431 845 59.0 772 53.9 73 8.6 586

New York

14,413 8,918 61.9 8,034 55.7 884 9.9 5,495

North Carolina

7,386 4,596 62.2 4,269 57.8 327 7.1 2,791

North Dakota

524 375 71.6 358 68.2 18 4.7 149

Ohio

8,210 5,261 64.1 4,830 58.8 431 8.2 2,949

Oklahoma

2,657 1,694 63.7 1,587 59.7 106 6.3 963

Oregon

3,034 1,951 64.3 1,804 59.5 148 7.6 1,083

Pennsylvania

9,188 5,960 64.9 5,425 59.0 536 9.0 3,228

Rhode Island

786 517 65.8 470 59.8 47 9.2 269

South Carolina

3,586 2,144 59.8 2,011 56.1 133 6.2 1,442

South Dakota

598 426 71.2 407 67.9 20 4.6 172

Tennessee

4,815 3,035 63.0 2,803 58.2 232 7.6 1,780

Texas

19,861 12,991 65.4 12,005 60.4 986 7.6 6,870

Utah

2,164 1,519 70.2 1,448 66.9 71 4.7 646

Vermont

464 307 66.2 290 62.5 17 5.5 157

Virginia

5,863 3,941 67.2 3,691 62.9 250 6.4 1,922

Washington

5,419 3,635 67.1 3,342 61.7 293 8.1 1,784

West Virginia

1,272 728 57.3 670 52.7 58 8.0 543

Wisconsin

4,157 2,837 68.3 2,660 64.0 177 6.2 1,320

Wyoming

390 265 68.0 250 64.2 15 5.7 125

NOTE: Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces.


Table 7. Employment status of veterans 18 years and over by presence of service-connected disability, reported disability rating, period of service, and sex, August 2020, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Presence of disability, reported disability rating,
period of service, and sex
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

TOTAL
VETERANS

Total

18,417 8,763 47.6 8,145 44.2 618 7.1 9,653

With service-connected disability

4,747 2,305 48.6 2,161 45.5 144 6.2 2,442

Less than 30 percent disability rating

1,290 694 53.8 661 51.2 33 4.7 596

30 to 50 percent disability rating

965 573 59.3 551 57.1 21 3.7 393

60 percent or higher disability rating

2,067 852 41.2 770 37.3 82 9.6 1,215

Disability rating not reported

425 187 44.0 179 42.2 8 4.2 238

Without service-connected disability

13,054 6,163 47.2 5,721 43.8 442 7.2 6,891

Presence of disability not reported

616 295 47.9 263 42.7 32 10.9 321

Gulf War era, total

Total

7,575 5,949 78.5 5,530 73.0 419 7.0 1,626

With service-connected disability

2,597 1,839 70.8 1,714 66.0 125 6.8 758

Less than 30 percent disability rating

572 484 84.6 464 81.1 20 4.2 88

30 to 50 percent disability rating

569 472 83.0 451 79.3 21 4.4 97

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,257 735 58.4 660 52.5 75 10.3 522

Disability rating not reported

199 148 74.3 140 70.4 8 5.3 51

Without service-connected disability

4,678 3,890 83.2 3,617 77.3 273 7.0 788

Presence of disability not reported

299 219 73.3 198 66.0 22 9.9 80

Gulf War era II

Total

4,590 3,742 81.5 3,426 74.6 316 8.4 848

With service-connected disability

1,843 1,361 73.8 1,249 67.8 111 8.2 483

Less than 30 percent disability rating

358 328 91.5 309 86.2 19 5.8 30

30 to 50 percent disability rating

348 301 86.5 285 81.8 16 5.4 47

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,003 638 63.6 562 56.1 75 11.8 365

Disability rating not reported

134 94 70.0 93 69.6 0 0.5 40

Without service-connected disability

2,563 2,248 87.7 2,050 80.0 197 8.8 315

Presence of disability not reported

184 133 72.7 126 68.7 7 5.6 50

Gulf War era I

Total

2,985 2,207 73.9 2,104 70.5 103 4.7 778

With service-connected disability

754 478 63.4 465 61.7 13 2.8 276

Less than 30 percent disability rating

214 156 73.1 155 72.5 1 0.8 57

30 to 50 percent disability rating

221 171 77.4 166 75.3 5 2.7 50

60 percent or higher disability rating

255 97 38.2 97 38.2 - - 157

Disability rating not reported

65 54 - 47 - 7 - 11

Without service-connected disability

2,115 1,643 77.7 1,567 74.1 75 4.6 472

Presence of disability not reported

116 86 74.2 72 61.9 14 16.6 30

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

6,776 1,013 15.0 938 13.8 75 7.4 5,763

With service-connected disability

1,622 232 14.3 223 13.7 9 3.8 1,390

Less than 30 percent disability rating

514 98 19.2 90 17.5 8 8.5 415

30 to 50 percent disability rating

288 45 15.8 45 15.6 0 - 243

60 percent or higher disability rating

648 71 11.0 71 11.0 - - 577

Disability rating not reported

172 17 9.7 17 9.7 - - 155

Without service-connected disability

4,989 771 15.5 705 14.1 66 8.6 4,218

Presence of disability not reported

165 10 6.4 10 6.1 0 - 154

Other service periods

Total

4,066 1,801 44.3 1,677 41.3 124 6.9 2,265

With service-connected disability

528 235 44.5 224 42.4 11 4.6 293

Less than 30 percent disability rating

204 111 54.4 107 52.4 4 3.7 93

30 to 50 percent disability rating

108 55 50.9 55 50.9 - - 53

60 percent or higher disability rating

161 46 28.4 39 24.4 7 - 115

Disability rating not reported

54 23 - 23 - - - 32

Without service-connected disability

3,386 1,502 44.3 1,398 41.3 103 6.9 1,885

Presence of disability not reported

152 65 42.9 55 36.3 10 - 87

MEN
VETERANS

Total

16,510 7,702 46.7 7,177 43.5 526 6.8 8,807

With service-connected disability

4,211 1,965 46.7 1,851 44.0 114 5.8 2,246

Less than 30 percent disability rating

1,158 583 50.4 552 47.6 31 5.4 575

30 to 50 percent disability rating

827 468 56.6 452 54.7 15 3.3 359

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,849 747 40.4 680 36.8 67 8.9 1,102

Disability rating not reported

377 167 44.2 167 44.2 - - 210

Without service-connected disability

11,775 5,495 46.7 5,099 43.3 396 7.2 6,280

Presence of disability not reported

524 243 46.3 226 43.2 16 6.7 281

Gulf War era, total

Total

6,307 5,076 80.5 4,729 75.0 347 6.8 1,231

With service-connected disability

2,132 1,515 71.1 1,417 66.5 98 6.5 617

Less than 30 percent disability rating

448 376 84.0 357 79.8 19 5.0 72

30 to 50 percent disability rating

442 368 83.3 353 79.9 15 4.1 74

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,077 638 59.3 575 53.4 64 10.0 438

Disability rating not reported

165 132 80.0 132 80.0 - - 33

Without service-connected disability

3,944 3,389 85.9 3,146 79.8 243 7.2 555

Presence of disability not reported

231 172 74.5 166 72.0 6 3.3 59

Gulf War era II

Total

3,846 3,236 84.1 2,948 76.6 289 8.9 610

With service-connected disability

1,548 1,151 74.4 1,055 68.2 96 8.3 397

Less than 30 percent disability rating

295 264 89.7 247 83.7 18 6.7 30

30 to 50 percent disability rating

291 252 86.4 237 81.4 14 5.7 40

60 percent or higher disability rating

849 550 64.8 486 57.2 64 11.6 299

Disability rating not reported

113 86 75.5 86 75.5 - - 28

Without service-connected disability

2,160 1,976 91.5 1,784 82.6 193 9.8 184

Presence of disability not reported

138 109 79.0 109 79.0 0 0.0 29

Gulf War era I

Total

2,460 1,839 74.8 1,781 72.4 58 3.2 621

With service-connected disability

584 364 62.3 362 62.0 2 0.5 220

Less than 30 percent disability rating

153 112 73.1 111 72.3 1 1.2 41

30 to 50 percent disability rating

151 116 77.3 116 76.9 1 0.5 34

60 percent or higher disability rating

228 89 39.0 89 39.0 - - 139

Disability rating not reported

52 47 - 47 - - - 5

Without service-connected disability

1,784 1,413 79.2 1,362 76.3 51 3.6 371

Presence of disability not reported

93 63 67.7 57 61.6 6 - 30

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

6,539 1,000 15.3 929 14.2 72 7.2 5,539

With service-connected disability

1,594 228 14.3 220 13.8 9 3.8 1,366

Less than 30 percent disability rating

514 98 19.2 90 17.5 8 8.5 415

30 to 50 percent disability rating

282 45 16.1 45 16.0 0 - 236

60 percent or higher disability rating

639 71 11.1 71 11.1 - - 568

Disability rating not reported

160 13 8.4 13 8.4 - - 146

Without service-connected disability

4,791 767 16.0 704 14.7 62 8.1 4,024

Presence of disability not reported

154 6 3.6 5 3.3 0 - 148

Other service periods

Total

3,664 1,626 44.4 1,519 41.5 107 6.6 2,038

With service-connected disability

485 222 45.7 215 44.2 7 3.1 264

Less than 30 percent disability rating

197 109 55.2 105 53.1 4 3.8 88

30 to 50 percent disability rating

104 55 52.5 55 52.5 - - 49

60 percent or higher disability rating

133 38 28.1 35 26.1 3 - 96

Disability rating not reported

51 21 - 21 - - - 30

Without service-connected disability

3,040 1,340 44.1 1,250 41.1 90 6.7 1,700

Presence of disability not reported

139 65 46.9 55 39.7 10 - 74

WOMEN
VETERANS

Total

1,907 1,061 55.6 968 50.7 93 8.8 846

With service-connected disability

536 340 63.6 310 57.9 30 8.9 195

Less than 30 percent disability rating

131 110 83.9 109 82.8 1 1.3 21

30 to 50 percent disability rating

138 105 75.9 99 71.7 6 5.6 33

60 percent or higher disability rating

218 105 48.1 89 41.1 15 14.6 113

Disability rating not reported

48 21 - 13 - 8 - 28

Without service-connected disability

1,279 668 52.2 621 48.6 46 6.9 611

Presence of disability not reported

92 52 56.8 36 39.3 16 - 40

Gulf War era, total

Total

1,268 873 68.8 801 63.2 72 8.2 395

With service-connected disability

466 324 69.6 298 63.9 27 8.2 141

Without service-connected disability

734 501 68.3 472 64.3 29 5.8 233

Presence of disability not reported

69 48 - 31 - 16 - 21

Gulf War era II

Total

743 505 68.0 478 64.3 27 5.4 238

With service-connected disability

295 210 71.0 194 65.9 15 7.3 86

Without service-connected disability

403 271 67.3 267 66.2 5 1.7 132

Presence of disability not reported

45 24 - 17 - 7 - 21

Gulf War era I

Total

525 368 70.1 323 61.6 45 12.2 157

With service-connected disability

170 115 67.2 103 60.6 11 9.9 56

Without service-connected disability

331 230 69.5 205 62.0 25 10.8 101

Presence of disability not reported

23 23 - 15 - 9 - 0

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

237 13 5.4 9 3.8 4 - 224

With service-connected disability

28 3 - 3 - - - 25

Without service-connected disability

198 5 2.3 1 0.4 4 - 194

Presence of disability not reported

11 5 - 5 - - - 6

Other service periods

Total

402 175 43.5 158 39.3 17 9.8 227

With service-connected disability

42 13 - 9 - 4 - 29

Without service-connected disability

347 162 46.7 149 42.9 13 8.2 185

Presence of disability not reported

13 0 - 0 - 0 - 13

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. A service-connected disability is a health condition or impairment caused or made worse by military service. The associated disability rating, which can range from 0 to 100 percent, is determined from a rating schedule published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, "Title 38." More information appears in the Technical Note of this release. Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 8. Employed persons 18 years and over by veteran status, presence of service-connected disability, period of service, and class of worker, August 2020, not seasonally adjusted
Veteran status, presence of disability, and
period of service
Total
Employed
(thousands)
Percent distribution by class of worker
Total Agriculture
and related
industries
Nonagricultural industries
Total Wage and salary workers(1) Self-
employed,
unincorpo-
rated, and
unpaid
family
workers
Private
sector
Government
Total Federal State and
local

Veterans, total(2)

8,145 100.0 2.1 97.9 69.6 22.3 11.7 10.6 6.0

With service-connected disability

2,161 100.0 1.8 98.2 64.5 31.2 19.3 11.8 2.6

Without service-connected disability

5,721 100.0 2.2 97.8 71.4 19.1 9.0 10.1 7.3

Gulf War era, total(2)

5,530 100.0 0.6 99.4 70.2 25.6 14.1 11.5 3.6

With service-connected disability

1,714 100.0 0.5 99.5 64.0 34.6 21.8 12.8 0.9

Without service-connected disability

3,617 100.0 0.6 99.4 73.2 21.4 10.8 10.7 4.7

Gulf War era II(2)

3,426 100.0 0.6 99.4 69.1 26.9 14.1 12.8 3.5

With service-connected disability

1,249 100.0 0.6 99.4 63.8 34.6 23.0 11.5 1.0

Without service-connected disability

2,050 100.0 0.6 99.4 72.9 21.9 8.9 13.0 4.6

Gulf War era I(2)

2,104 100.0 0.6 99.4 72.0 23.6 14.3 9.3 3.8

With service-connected disability

465 100.0 0.4 99.6 64.3 34.7 18.4 16.3 0.6

Without service-connected disability

1,567 100.0 0.7 99.3 73.6 20.8 13.2 7.6 4.9

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era(2)

938 100.0 9.4 90.6 62.4 11.8 4.5 7.4 16.3

With service-connected disability

223 100.0 9.3 90.7 58.6 18.6 9.1 9.5 13.5

Without service-connected disability

705 100.0 9.6 90.4 63.2 9.7 2.9 6.8 17.5

Other service periods(2)

1,677 100.0 2.9 97.1 71.6 17.2 7.8 9.4 8.3

With service-connected disability

224 100.0 3.7 96.3 74.4 17.2 10.7 6.6 4.7

Without service-connected disability

1,398 100.0 2.7 97.3 70.8 17.9 7.6 10.2 8.7

Nonveterans

136,989 100.0 1.5 98.5 78.8 13.7 2.5 11.2 6.0

(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Includes veterans who did not report presence of disability.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. A service-connected disability is a health condition or impairment caused or made worse by military service. The associated disability rating, which can range from 0 to 100 percent, is determined from a rating schedule published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, "Title 38." More information appears in the Technical Note of this release. Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 9. Employment status of Gulf War-era veterans by Reserve or National Guard status, August 2020, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Period of service and Reserve or National Guard
status
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor
force

VETERANS

Gulf War era, total

Total

7,575 5,949 78.5 5,530 73.0 419 7.0 1,626

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

2,682 2,166 80.8 2,041 76.1 125 5.8 516

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

4,614 3,557 77.1 3,280 71.1 278 7.8 1,057

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

279 226 81.0 210 75.2 16 7.1 53

Gulf War era II

Total

4,590 3,742 81.5 3,426 74.6 316 8.4 848

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

1,651 1,419 86.0 1,328 80.5 91 6.4 231

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

2,765 2,185 79.0 1,967 71.2 217 10.0 580

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

174 137 79.0 130 74.8 7 5.4 36

Gulf War era I

Total

2,985 2,207 73.9 2,104 70.5 103 4.7 778

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

1,031 746 72.4 712 69.1 34 4.5 285

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

1,849 1,373 74.2 1,312 71.0 60 4.4 477

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

105 88 84.3 80 76.0 9 9.8 16

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. The Gulf War era began in August 1990 and continues to the present day. It is divided into two periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present) and Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent period. Data do not include Reserve and National Guard members who have never been called to Active Duty. Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 10. Employment status of Gulf War-era II veterans 18 years and over by location of service, August 2020, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Period of service and location Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Number Rate

Total, Gulf War-era II veterans

4,590 3,742 81.5 3,426 74.6 316 8.4 848

Served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both(1)

1,853 1,493 80.6 1,406 75.9 87 5.8 360

Served in Iraq(2)

1,380 1,122 81.4 1,048 75.9 75 6.7 257

Served in Afghanistan(3)

980 791 80.7 748 76.3 43 5.4 189

Served in both locations(4)

507 420 82.9 389 76.8 31 7.3 87

Served elsewhere

2,737 2,249 82.2 2,020 73.8 229 10.2 488

(1) Refers to veterans who served in Iraq at anytime since March 2003 and veterans who served in Afghanistan at anytime since October 2001. Also includes veterans who served in both countries.
(2) Includes all veterans who served in Iraq at any time since March 2003, whether or not they also served in Afghanistan.
(3) Includes all veterans who served in Afghanistan at any time since October 2001, whether or not they also served in Iraq.
(4) Veterans who served in both Iraq and Afghanistan during the designated dates are also included in the totals of each location above.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Gulf War-era II veterans served anywhere in the world at any time since September 2001. Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Last Modified Date: March 18, 2021