Contingent and Alternative Employment Arrangements News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, June 7, 2018                       	USDL-18-0942

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


            CONTINGENT AND ALTERNATIVE EMPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENTS -- MAY 2017


In May 2017, 3.8 percent of workers--5.9 million persons--held contingent jobs, the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. These contingent workers are persons who do
not expect their jobs to last or who report that their jobs are temporary. Using three
different measures, contingent workers accounted for 1.3 percent to 3.8 percent of
total employment in May 2017. (See tables A and 1.) In February 2005, the last time the
survey was conducted, all three measures were higher, ranging from 1.8 percent to 4.1
percent of employment.

In addition to contingent workers, the survey also identified workers who have various
alternative work arrangements. In May 2017, there were 10.6 million independent
contractors (6.9 percent of total employment), 2.6 million on-call workers (1.7 percent
of total employment), 1.4 million temporary help agency workers (0.9 percent of total
employment), and 933,000 workers provided by contract firms (0.6 percent of total
employment). (See tables A and 5.)

Contingent work and alternative employment arrangements are measured separately. Some
workers are both contingent and working in an alternative arrangement, but this is not
automatically the case. The measures of contingent work and alternative employment
arrangements apply only to a person's sole or main job. For individuals with more than
one job, this is the job in which they usually work the most hours.

This information was obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample
survey of about 60,000 households that provides data on employment and unemployment in the
United States. Data on contingent and alternative employment arrangements were collected
periodically in supplements to the CPS from February 1995 to February 2005. The May 2017
supplement was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor's Chief Evaluation Office. Table
A presents a summary of the three contingent worker estimates and four alternative employment
arrangements. The concepts and definitions used in the supplement are included in the
Technical Note in this news release. Also see
www.bls.gov/cps/contingent-and-alternative-arrangements-faqs.htm for answers to
frequently asked questions.

 _________________________________________________________________________________________
|                                                                                         |
|           Note on New Questions in 2017 Contingent Worker Supplement                    |
|                                                                                         |
| Four new questions were added to the May 2017 Contingent Worker Supplement. These       |
| questions were designed to identify individuals who found short tasks or jobs through   |
| a mobile app or website and were paid through the same app or website. BLS continues    |
| to evaluate the data from these new questions; the data do not appear in this news      |
| release. When available, additional information will be at                              |
| www.bls.gov/cps/electronically-mediated-employment.htm. Findings from this research     |
| will be published in a Monthly Labor Review article by September 30, 2018.              |
|_________________________________________________________________________________________|


Table A. Contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements as a percent of total
employment, May 2017
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                        | Percent of total
|                          Contingent workers                            |    employed
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Contingent workers are those who do not have an implicit or explicit   |
| contract for ongoing employment. Persons who do not expect to continue |
| in their jobs for personal reasons such as retirement or returning to  |
| school are not considered contingent workers, provided that they would |
| have the option of continuing in the job were it not for these personal|
| reasons.                                                               |
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                        |
| Estimate 1                                                             |
|                                                                        |
| Wage and salary workers who expect their jobs will last for an         |
| additional year or less and who had worked at their jobs for 1         |
| year or less. Self-employed workers and independent contractors        |
| are excluded from this estimate. Temporary help and contract           |
| workers are included in this estimate based on the expected duration   |
| and tenure of their employment with the temporary help or contract     |       1.3
| firm, not with the specific client to whom they are assigned.          |
|                                                                        |
| Estimate 2                                                             |
|                                                                        |
| Workers, including the self-employed and independent contractors,      |
| who expect their employment to last for an additional year or          |
| less and who had worked at their jobs (or been self-employed) for      |
| 1 year or less. Temporary help and contract workers are included in    |
| this estimate based on the expected duration and tenure with the       |
| client to whom they are assigned, instead of their tenure with         |       1.6
| the temporary help or contract firm.                                   |
|                                                                        |
| Estimate 3                                                             |
|                                                                        |
| Workers who do not expect their jobs to last. Wage and salary          |
| workers are included even if they already had held the job for         |
| more than 1 year and expect to hold the job for at least an            |
| additional year. The self-employed and independent contractors         |
| are included if they expect their employment to last for an            |
| additional year or less and they had been self-employed or             |       3.8
| independent contractors for 1 year or less.                            |
|                                                                        |
|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                   Alternative employment arrangements
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Independent contractors                                                |
|                                                                        |
| Workers who are identified as independent contractors, independent     |
| consultants, or freelance workers, regardless of whether they are self-|       6.9
| employed or wage and salary workers.                                   |
|                                                                        |
| On-call workers                                                        |
|                                                                        |
| Workers who are called to work only as needed, although they can be    |       1.7
| scheduled to work for several days or weeks in a row.                  |
|                                                                        |
| Temporary help agency workers                                          |
|                                                                        |
| Workers who are paid by a temporary help agency, whether or not their  |
| job is temporary.                                                      |       0.9
|                                                                        |
| Workers provided by contract firms                                     |
|                                                                        |
| Workers who are employed by a company that provides them or their      |       0.6
| services to others under contract, are usually assigned to only one    |
| customer, and usually work at the customer's worksite.                 |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   See the Technical Note for the concepts and key questions used to identify these workers.


Highlights from the May 2017 data:

   --Under the broadest measure of contingency, there were 5.9 million contingent workers;
     these workers who did not expect their jobs to last accounted for 3.8 percent of
     total employment. (See table 1.)

   --Contingent workers were more than twice as likely as noncontingent workers to be under
     age 25. They were also more than twice as likely as noncontingent workers to work part
     time. (See table 2.)

   --Young contingent workers (16- to 24-year-olds) were much more likely than their noncontingent
     counterparts to be enrolled in school (62 percent and 36 percent, respectively). (See table 3.)

   --Contingent workers were more likely to work in professional and related occupations and
     in construction and extraction occupations than noncontingent workers. (See table 4.)

   --More than half of contingent workers (55 percent) would have preferred a permanent job.
     (See table 10.)

   --In terms of alternative employment arrangements, 6.9 percent of all workers were independent
     contractors, 1.7 percent were on-call workers, 0.9 percent were temporary help agency workers,
     and 0.6 percent were workers provided by contract firms. (See table A.)

   --The demographic characteristics of workers in alternative employment arrangements varied
     between the four arrangements. Compared to workers in traditional arrangements, independent
     contractors were more likely to be older, temporary help agency workers were more likely to
     be Black or Hispanic or Latino, and workers provided by contract companies were more likely
     to be men. (See table 6.)

   --While 79 percent of independent contractors preferred their arrangement over a traditional
     job, only 44 percent of on-call workers and 39 percent of temporary help agency workers
     preferred their work arrangement. (See table 11.)

   --The proportion of workers employed in alternative arrangements who also were classified as
     contingent workers ranged from 3 percent of independent contractors to 42 percent of temporary
     help agency workers. (See table 12.)

Contingent Work

In May 2017, the three estimates of contingent workers ranged from 1.3 percent to 3.8 percent of employment.
(See table A and the Technical Note for an explanation of the concepts.) In February 2005, the last
time the survey was conducted, all three measures were higher, ranging from 1.8 percent to 4.1
percent of employment. In February 1995, the first year the survey was conducted, the estimates
ranged from 2.2 percent to 4.9 percent. The characteristics of workers in contingent jobs in May 2017 were
generally similar to those in prior surveys.

The analysis in this news release focuses on the third and largest estimate of contingent workers--
all those who do not expect their current job to last.

Demographic Characteristics of Contingent Workers

Using the broadest estimate of contingency, 5.9 million workers were classified as contingent in May
2017. Contingent workers were more than twice as likely as noncontingent workers to be under 25 years
old (28 percent versus 12 percent). Of these young workers, 3 in 5 contingent workers were enrolled
in school, compared with fewer than 2 in 5 youth with noncontingent jobs. Contingent workers ages 25
to 64 were found at all levels of educational attainment. Contingent workers were about twice as
likely as noncontingent workers to have less than a high school diploma (14 percent, compared with
7 percent) and slightly more likely to hold at least a bachelor's degree (44 percent, compared with
41 percent). (See tables 1, 2, and 3.)

In May 2017, 47 percent of both contingent and noncontingent workers were women. In past surveys,
contingent workers were slightly more likely to be women than were noncontingent workers. In May
2017, contingent workers remained slightly less likely than noncontingent workers to be White (76
percent, compared with 79 percent) and much more likely to be Hispanic or Latino (22 percent, compared
with 16 percent).

Contingent workers are more likely to work part time than are noncontingent workers. In May 2017,
about 2 in 5 contingent workers worked less than 35 hours per week, compared with fewer than 1 in
5 noncontingent workers. However, the vast majority of part-time workers were not employed in contingent
arrangements.

Occupation and Industry of Contingent Workers

As in previous surveys, contingent workers were distributed throughout the major occupational groups.
In May 2017, nearly one-third of contingent workers were employed in professional and related occupations,
compared with one-fourth of noncontingent workers. Contingent workers were also more likely than their
noncontingent counterparts to work in construction and extraction occupations (11 percent and 5 percent,
respectively). Contingent workers were less likely than noncontingent workers to be employed in management,
business, and financial operations occupations (8 percent and 17 percent, respectively). (See table 4.)

By industry, about one-third of contingent workers were employed in the education and health services
industry, compared with roughly one-fourth of noncontingent workers. Contingent workers also were more
likely than noncontingent workers to be employed in the agriculture and construction industries. Contingent
workers were less likely to work in retail trade and manufacturing than were noncontingent workers.

Job Preferences of Contingent Workers

Just over half of contingent workers would have preferred a permanent job in May 2017, while one-third
preferred their contingent employment arrangement. (The remainder expressed no clear preference.) The
share of contingent workers who would have preferred a permanent job was about the same as in past surveys.
(See table 10.)

Compensation of Contingent Workers

Contingent workers earned less than their noncontingent counterparts in May 2017. Among full-time workers,
median weekly earnings for contingent workers ($685) were 77 percent of those of noncontingent workers
($886). The disparity in earnings likely reflects the many differences in the demographic characteristics
of contingent and noncontingent workers and the jobs they hold. (See table 13.)

Contingent wage and salary workers were half as likely to be covered by employer-provided health insurance
as noncontingent workers. One-fourth of contingent workers had employer-provided health insurance in May
2017, compared with half of noncontingent workers. Although most contingent workers did not receive health
insurance from their jobs, a substantial share--nearly 3 in 4--had health insurance from some source,
including coverage from another family member's policy, through a government program, or by purchasing it
on their own. Overall, contingent workers were less likely than noncontingent workers to have health
insurance coverage from any source (73 percent and 84 percent, respectively). The gap in health insurance
coverage between contingent and noncontingent workers is smaller than in 2005. (See table 9.)

Among wage and salary workers, contingent workers were about half as likely as noncontingent workers to
be eligible for employer-provided pension or retirement plans in May 2017--23 percent of contingent
workers compared with 48 percent of noncontingent workers. Overall, the proportion of contingent workers
who actually participated in employer-provided plans (18 percent) also was much lower than that of
noncontingent workers (43 percent).

Alternative Employment Arrangements

The May 2017 survey collected information on the number and characteristics of workers in four alternative
employment arrangements--independent contractors, on-call workers, temporary help agency workers, and
workers employed by contract companies.

Compared with February 2005 (the last time the survey was conducted), the proportion of the employed who
were independent contractors was lower in May 2017, while the proportions employed in the other three
alternative arrangements were little different. Workers in the four groups continued to differ significantly
from each other as well as from workers in traditional arrangements.

Independent Contractors

Independent contractors (including independent consultants and freelance workers) remained the largest
of the four alternative work arrangements. In May 2017, there were 10.6 million independent contractors,
representing 6.9 percent of total employment. This estimate is smaller than the 7.4 percent of workers
in February 2005 who were independent contractors. (See tables A and 5.)

Independent contractors are generally older than workers in other alternative and traditional arrangements.
In May 2017, more than 1 in 3 independent contractors were age 55 or older, compared with fewer than 1
in 4 workers in traditional arrangements. This reflects the fact that the likelihood of employed persons
being independent contractors increases with age. (See tables 5 and 6.)

As in past surveys, men were more likely to be independent contractors than were women; about two-thirds
of independent contractors were men in May 2017. Independent contractors also remained more likely to be
White than workers in other alternative and traditional arrangements.

Independent contractors were more likely than those in traditional arrangements to be in management,
business, and financial operations occupations; sales and related occupations; and construction and
extraction occupations. In terms of industry, independent contractors were more likely than traditional
workers to be employed in construction and in professional and business services. (See table 8.)

Independent contractors overwhelmingly prefer their work arrangement (79 percent) to traditional jobs.
Fewer than 1 in 10 independent contractors would prefer a traditional work arrangement. (See table 11.)

Only 3 percent of independent contractors were also contingent workers in May 2017--the same percentage
as workers in traditional arrangements. (See table 12.)

On-call Workers

On-call workers are defined as those who report to work only when called, although they can be scheduled
to work for several days or weeks in a row. In May 2017, there were 2.6 million on-call workers, accounting
for 1.7 percent of total employment. The demographic characteristics of on-call workers were generally
similar to those in traditional arrangements except that on-call workers were somewhat more likely to be
age 65 or older. (See tables 5 and 6.)

About 45 percent of on-call workers worked part time, a much higher proportion than either traditional
workers or workers in other alternative arrangements.

On-call workers were more likely than those in traditional arrangements to work in professional and related
occupations, service occupations, construction and extraction occupations, and transportation and material
moving occupations. By industry, on-call workers were more likely to work in education and health services
and in construction. (See table 8.)

In May 2017, 43 percent of on-call workers would have preferred to work in a traditional arrangement,
about the same percentage as preferred their alternative arrangement. Roughly 1 in 5 on-call workers was
also a contingent worker. (See tables 11 and 12.)

Temporary Help Agency Workers

In May 2017, 1.4 million workers were paid by a temporary help agency, about 0.9 percent of total
employment. As in earlier surveys, they were much more likely than workers in traditional arrangements
to be Black or Hispanic or Latino. Temporary help agency workers ages 25 to 64 were less likely than
traditional workers or workers in other arrangements to have attended college--about half of temporary
help agency workers had completed at least one year of college, compared with roughly two-thirds of those
in other alternative or traditional arrangements. About 1 in 4 temporary help agency workers had a part-time
schedule--a slightly higher proportion than for traditional workers. (See tables 5, 6, and 7.)

Temporary help agency workers were heavily concentrated in the production, transportation, and material
moving occupations and in manufacturing industries. In May 2017, 46 percent of temporary help agency workers
would have preferred a traditional job, less than the 56 percent in February 2005. In May 2017, 42 percent
of temporary help agency workers were also contingent workers, a smaller share than in past surveys. (See
tables 8, 11, and 12.)

Workers Provided by Contract Firms

The smallest of the four alternative arrangements was contract company employment, with 933,000 workers
or 0.6 percent of total employment in May 2017. These individuals work for companies that provide workers
or their services to other organizations under contract; they usually are assigned to one client at a
time and work at the client's place of business. Two-thirds of contract company workers were men, compared
with about half of traditional workers. Workers provided by contract firms were more likely to be Asian
than were traditional workers or workers in other arrangements. (See tables 5 and 6.)

In May 2017, more than one-third of contract company workers were in professional and related occupations
and one-fourth were in service occupations. Computer professionals and security guards are common occupations
for workers provided by contract firms. By industry, contract company workers were much more likely to
be employed in public administration than those in other alternative or traditional arrangements. Fifteen
percent of contract company workers were also contingent workers. (See tables 8 and 12.)

Compensation of Workers in Alternative Employment Arrangements

Among full-time workers, there was wide variation in the median earnings of those in alternative employment
arrangements relative to one another and to workers in a traditional arrangement. In May 2017, median
weekly earnings were highest for contract company workers ($1,077). Earnings for independent contractors
($851) were roughly similar to those for workers in traditional arrangements ($884), while earnings for
on-call workers ($797) and temporary help agency workers ($521) were lower. (See table 13.)

Differences in earnings for workers in the four alternative arrangements reflect, in part, variations in
the occupational distributions and the demographic characteristics of the workers. For example, contract
company workers are concentrated in professional and related occupations, which tend to be more highly
paid. On the other hand, temporary help agency workers are less likely to have attended college and are
concentrated in lower-paying production, transportation, and material moving occupations.

Workers in alternative arrangements remained less likely than workers in traditional arrangements to have
employer-provided health insurance. In May 2017, 41 percent of contract company workers had employer-provided
health insurance, compared with 28 percent of on-call workers and 13 percent of temporary help agency workers.
In contrast, 53 percent of workers in traditional arrangements received health insurance benefits through
their employers. (Estimates of employer-provided health insurance were not tabulated for independent
contractors.) (See table 9.)

Although most workers in alternative arrangements did not receive health insurance through
their jobs, a large share had health insurance from some source, including coverage from another family
member's policy, through a government program, or by purchasing it on their own. Compared with workers in
traditional arrangements (84 percent) and those employed by contract companies (85 percent), workers in
the other alternative employment arrangements were less likely to be covered by health insurance from any
source. In particular, temporary help agency workers were the least likely to have health insurance from
any source (67 percent). The likelihood of having health insurance was higher for workers in all categories
in May 2017 than in February 2005, with the largest increase among temporary help agency workers.

Eligibility for employer-provided pension or retirement plans varies across employment arrangements.
In May 2017, temporary help agency workers (13 percent) and on-call workers (35 percent) were less likely to
be eligible for employer-provided plans than were contract company workers (48 percent) or those in traditional
arrangements (51 percent). Overall, the proportions of workers in alternative arrangements who actually
participated in employer-provided plans were lower than for those in traditional arrangements. (These data
were not collected for independent contractors.)




Technical Note

   The data presented in this news release were collected through a supplement to the May 2017
Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households
that provides data on employment and unemployment for the nation. The CPS is conducted
by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The May 2017 supplement obtained information from workers on whether they held contingent
jobs--jobs that are expected to last only a limited period of time--and whether they had
alternative employment arrangements, such as working as independent contractors, as
on-call workers, through temporary help agencies, or through contract firms. Contingent
work and alternative employment arrangements are measured separately. A person in an
alternative employment arrangement may or may not be a contingent worker. Likewise, a
contingent worker may or may not be in an alternative employment arrangement.

   Supplement questions were asked of all employed people except unpaid family workers.
For people holding more than one job, the questions referred to the characteristics
of their main job--the job in which they worked the most hours. The collection of
these data was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor's Chief Evaluation Office.
Additional information, including articles and archived news releases, is available online at
www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#contingent. Answers to frequently asked questions
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/contingent-and-alternative-arrangements-faqs.htm.

   Four new questions were added to the May 2017 supplement. These questions were designed
to identify individuals who found short tasks or jobs through a mobile app or website and
were paid through the same app or website. Data from these new questions are not
included in this news release. For information about these questions, see
www.bls.gov/cps/electronically-mediated-employment.htm.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Concepts and definitions

   Information about general employment and earnings concepts in the CPS is available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/cps/concepts.htm.

   Defining and estimating the contingent workforce. Contingent workers are those who do
not have an explicit or implicit contract for continuing employment. Several questions
are asked in the supplement to determine whether a worker's job is contingent. These
include whether the job is temporary or not expected to continue, how long the worker
expects to be able to hold the job, and how long the worker has held the job.

   The key factor used to determine if workers fit the conceptual definition of contingent
is whether their job is temporary or not expected to continue. The first questions of
the supplement are:

   1. Some people are in temporary jobs that last for a limited time or until the
      completion of a project. Is your job temporary?

   2. Provided the economy does not change and your job performance is adequate, can
      you continue to work for your current employer as long as you wish?

   Workers who answered either "yes" to the first question or "no" to the second are then
asked a series of questions to distinguish workers who are in temporary jobs from those
who, for personal reasons, are temporarily holding jobs that offer the opportunity of
ongoing employment. A job is defined as being short term or temporary if the person
holding it is working only until the completion of a specific project, temporarily
replacing another worker, being hired for a fixed time period, filling a seasonal job
that is available only during certain times of the year, or if other business conditions
dictate that the job is short term.

   For example, a person hired for 6 months to replace a teacher on paternity leave and a
person hired to work in a company's shipping department for the holiday season would
both be considered contingent workers. In contrast, students holding jobs at fast-food
restaurants while in school might view their jobs as temporary if they intend to leave
them at the end of the school year. The jobs themselves, however, would be filled by
other workers once the students leave, and thus, the students are not contingent
workers.

   Workers also are asked how long they expect to stay in their current job and how long
they have been with their current employer. Workers are asked how long they expect to
remain in their current job because being able to hold a job for a year or more could
demonstrate at least an implicit contract for ongoing employment. In other words, the
employer's need for the worker's services is not likely to end tomorrow. Similarly, the
information on how long a worker has been with their employer shows whether a job has
been ongoing. Having remained with an employer for more than a year may demonstrate
that, at least in the past, there was an explicit or implicit contract for continuing
employment.

   To assess the impact of altering some of the defining factors on the estimated size of
the contingent workforce, three measures of contingent employment were developed, as
follows:

   Estimate 1 is the narrowest definition of contingent work. Under Estimate 1, contingent
workers are wage and salary workers who expect to work in their current job for 1 year
or less and who have worked for their current employer for 1 year or less. All self-
employed workers--both incorporated and unincorporated--and independent contractors are
excluded from the count of contingent workers under Estimate 1. Although they may face
financial risks, people who work for themselves, by definition, have ongoing employment
arrangements. Individuals who work for temporary help agencies or contracting companies
are considered contingent under Estimate 1 if they expect their employment arrangement
with the temporary help or contracting company to last for 1 year or less and they have
worked for that company for 1 year or less.

   Estimate 2 expands the definition of contingent work by including the self-employed--both
the incorporated and the unincorporated--and independent contractors who expect to be,
and have been, in such employment arrangements for 1 year or less. (The questions asked
of the self-employed are different from those asked of wage and salary workers.) In
addition, temporary help and contract company workers are classified as contingent under
Estimate 2 if they have worked and expect to work for the customers to whom they are
assigned for 1 year or less. For example, a "temp" secretary who is sent to a different
customer each week but has worked for the same temporary help agency for more than 1 year
and expects to be able to continue with that agency indefinitely is contingent under
Estimate 2, but not under Estimate 1. In contrast, a "temp" who has been assigned to a
single client for more than a year and expects to be able to stay with that client for
more than a year is not counted as contingent under either estimate.

   Estimate 3 is the broadest definition of contingent work--people who do not expect their
jobs to last--and the focus of the analysis in this news release. Estimate 3 expands the
definition of contingent work further by removing the 1-year requirement on both expected
duration of the job and current tenure for wage and salary workers. The estimate includes
all wage and salary workers who do not expect their employment to last, except for those
who, for personal reasons, expect to leave jobs that they would otherwise be able to
keep. Thus, a worker who has held a job for 5 years could be considered contingent if he
or she now views the job as temporary. The 1-year requirement on expected and current
tenure is retained for the self-employed and independent contractors.

   Defining alternative employment arrangements. Alternative employment arrangements are
determined by the workers' relationship to their employer. To provide estimates of the
number of workers in alternative employment arrangements, the supplement includes
questions about whether individuals are paid by a temporary help agency or contract
company, or whether they are on-call workers or independent contractors. (The survey
also includes questions about day laborers. Estimates for day laborers are not presented
as a separate category of alternative arrangements in this news release because the group is
very small. They are included in estimates of total employment.)

   Contingent work, which is determined by expectations about the duration of a person's
job, is a separate concept from alternative employment arrangements. Some workers are
both contingent and working in an alternative arrangement, but this is not automatically
the case.

   Definitions of the four main alternative employment arrangements follow, as well as the
key questions used to identify workers in each category:

   Independent contractors are those who are identified as independent contractors,
consultants, or freelance workers in the supplement, regardless of whether they are
identified as wage and salary workers or self-employed in the basic CPS labor force
status questions. To distinguish independent contractors from business operators such
as a restaurant owner, the supplement includes a question for workers who identified as
self-employed (incorporated and unincorporated) in the basic CPS that asks, "Are you
self-employed as an independent contractor, independent consultant, freelance worker, or
something else (such as a shop or restaurant owner)?" Those identified as wage and salary
workers in the basic CPS are asked, "Last week, were you working as an independent contractor,
an independent consultant, or a freelance worker? That is, someone who obtains customers
on their own to provide a product or service." Nearly 9 in 10 independent contractors are
self-employed. Conversely, 3 in every 5 self-employed workers are independent contractors.

   On-call workers are called into work only when they are needed. This category includes
workers who answer "yes" to the question, "Some people are in a pool of workers who are
ONLY called to work as needed, although they can be scheduled to work for several days
or weeks in a row, for example, substitute teachers and construction workers supplied by
a union hiring hall. These people are sometimes referred to as ON-CALL workers. Were you
an ON-CALL worker last week?" Individuals with regularly scheduled work, which might include
periods of being "on call" to perform work at unusual hours, such as medical residents,
are not included in this category.

   Temporary help agency workers are those who are paid by a temporary help agency. This
category includes workers who say their job is temporary and answer "yes" to the question,
"Are you paid by a temporary help agency?" Also included are workers who say their job
is not temporary and answer affirmatively to the question, "Even though you told me your
job is not temporary, are you paid by a temporary help agency?" Temporary help agency
workers include both the permanent staff of the agencies and those who are placed with
other companies in temporary assignments.

   Workers provided by contract firms are those who work for a contract company, usually
work for only one customer, and usually work at the customer's worksite. This refers
to individuals who are employed by firms who contract out their workers or their workers'
services, rather than all workers employed by firms that provide services under contract,
such as advertising agencies and law firms. This category includes workers who answer
"yes" to the question, "Some companies provide employees or their services to others
under contract. A few examples of services that can be contracted out include security,
landscaping, or computer programming. Did you work for a company that contracts out you
or your services last week?" These workers also responded "no" to the question, "Are you
usually assigned to more than one customer?" Finally, these workers responded "yes" to
the question, "Do you usually work at the customer's worksite?"

Comparability of the estimates

   The concepts of contingent work and alternative employment arrangements used in the May
2017 survey are the same as those collected in the past. The questions used to identify
these workers were essentially unchanged from past surveys. However, there are a few issues
that could affect the comparability of these estimates with those from prior years.
The prime concern is that the 2017 supplement was collected in May and earlier surveys were
conducted in February of 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2005. The seasonality of contingent
jobs and alternative employment arrangements is not known. However, any seasonality may affect
the size and composition of the contingent workforce and people working in alternative
employment arrangements. For example, a seasonal job that is only available at a certain
time each year counts as a contingent job. The number and types of these kinds of jobs
available in February and May might be different.

   Two tables in this news release present slightly different displays of data than prior
releases. Table 13 of this news release contains usual weekly earnings estimates for workers in
noncontingent and traditional arrangements, which were omitted from the February 2001 and
2005 news releases. Earnings for noncontingent and traditional workers were not collected in
February 2001 and 2005. Earnings for such workers had been published in earlier news releases.

   The estimates of workers eligible for employer-provided pension or retirement plans in
table 9 of this news release are not strictly comparable with those of earlier years because
the May 2017 estimates exclude all self-employed workers and independent contractors. In
previous years, some of these workers were included in the estimates.

   Other data presented in this news release are not strictly comparable with those for earlier
years due to several other methodological issues. Comparability of estimates over time
is affected by the introduction of population controls and changes in the classification
of industries and occupations. Additional information about comparability of data over
time is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of
this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error,
and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a
90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the
data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard
errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.




Table 1. Employed contingent and noncontingent workers by selected characteristics, May 2017
(In thousands)
Characteristic Total employed Contingent workers Noncontingent
workers
Estimate 1 Estimate 2 Estimate 3

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

153,331 1,958 2,511 5,858 147,473

16 to 19 years

4,842 316 330 501 4,340

20 to 24 years

14,212 567 647 1,110 13,102

25 to 34 years

33,991 472 616 1,419 32,572

35 to 44 years

32,065 271 392 992 31,073

45 to 54 years

32,745 175 285 817 31,928

55 to 64 years

26,236 116 179 680 25,556

65 years and over

9,240 41 62 338 8,902

Men, 16 years and over

81,545 1,062 1,349 3,085 78,461

16 to 19 years

2,365 166 180 271 2,093

20 to 24 years

7,412 310 340 560 6,852

25 to 34 years

18,169 274 376 853 17,316

35 to 44 years

17,585 144 196 503 17,082

45 to 54 years

17,099 94 139 408 16,691

55 to 64 years

13,840 65 94 337 13,503

65 years and over

5,076 10 23 152 4,924

Women, 16 years and over

71,785 896 1,162 2,773 69,012

16 to 19 years

2,477 150 150 230 2,247

20 to 24 years

6,800 257 306 550 6,250

25 to 34 years

15,823 198 240 566 15,257

35 to 44 years

14,480 127 196 489 13,991

45 to 54 years

15,646 81 146 408 15,238

55 to 64 years

12,396 51 85 343 12,053

65 years and over

4,164 31 39 186 3,977

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White

120,638 1,451 1,885 4,428 116,211

Black or African American

18,588 225 295 742 17,846

Asian

9,110 182 224 445 8,665

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

25,525 435 538 1,299 24,225

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers

125,240 1,051 1,349 3,466 121,774

Part-time workers

28,091 907 1,162 2,391 25,699

NOTE: Noncontingent workers are those who do not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for other characteristics may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 2. Distribution of employed contingent and noncontingent workers by selected characteristics, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Characteristic Contingent workers Noncontingent
workers
Estimate 1 Estimate 2 Estimate 3

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

16 to 19 years

16.2 13.1 8.6 2.9

20 to 24 years

29.0 25.8 18.9 8.9

25 to 34 years

24.1 24.5 24.2 22.1

35 to 44 years

13.8 15.6 16.9 21.1

45 to 54 years

8.9 11.4 13.9 21.7

55 to 64 years

5.9 7.1 11.6 17.3

65 years and over

2.1 2.5 5.8 6.0

Men, 16 years and over

54.2 53.7 52.7 53.2

16 to 19 years

8.5 7.2 4.6 1.4

20 to 24 years

15.8 13.6 9.6 4.6

25 to 34 years

14.0 15.0 14.6 11.7

35 to 44 years

7.3 7.8 8.6 11.6

45 to 54 years

4.8 5.6 7.0 11.3

55 to 64 years

3.3 3.7 5.7 9.2

65 years and over

0.5 0.9 2.6 3.3

Women, 16 years and over

45.8 46.3 47.3 46.8

16 to 19 years

7.7 6.0 3.9 1.5

20 to 24 years

13.1 12.2 9.4 4.2

25 to 34 years

10.1 9.6 9.7 10.3

35 to 44 years

6.5 7.8 8.3 9.5

45 to 54 years

4.2 5.8 7.0 10.3

55 to 64 years

2.6 3.4 5.9 8.2

65 years and over

1.6 1.5 3.2 2.7

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White

74.1 75.1 75.6 78.8

Black or African American

11.5 11.8 12.7 12.1

Asian

9.3 8.9 7.6 5.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

22.2 21.4 22.2 16.4

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers

53.7 53.7 59.2 82.6

Part-time workers

46.3 46.3 40.8 17.4

NOTE: Noncontingent workers are those who do not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for other characteristics may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 3. Employed contingent and noncontingent workers by school enrollment and educational attainment, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Characteristic Contingent workers Noncontingent
workers
Estimate 1 Estimate 2 Estimate 3

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT

Total, 16 to 24 years (thousands)

884 977 1,611 17,442

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Enrolled in school

60.1 59.2 61.6 35.7

Not enrolled in school

39.9 40.8 38.4 64.3

Less than a high school diploma

3.3 3.8 4.6 5.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

12.5 13.5 13.9 27.7

Some college or associate degree

15.3 14.9 11.5 19.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

8.9 8.6 8.3 11.7

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 to 64 years (thousands)

1,034 1,472 3,908 121,129

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than a high school diploma

13.0 13.1 13.5 7.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

23.8 21.2 22.1 25.2

Some college or associate degree

23.4 24.5 20.9 27.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

39.8 41.2 43.5 40.6

(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Noncontingent workers are those who do not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 4. Employed contingent and noncontingent workers by occupation and industry, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Characteristic Contingent workers Noncontingent
workers
Estimate 1 Estimate 2 Estimate 3

OCCUPATION

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)

1,958 2,511 5,858 147,473

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

31.0 33.3 39.1 40.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

5.6 7.4 7.9 17.2

Professional and related occupations

25.4 25.9 31.2 23.5

Service occupations

18.2 18.8 17.1 17.2

Sales and office occupations

20.7 18.0 16.2 21.5

Sales and related occupations

5.1 5.2 4.9 10.1

Office and administrative support occupations

15.5 12.8 11.3 11.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

15.1 15.8 15.3 9.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

3.5 2.7 2.7 0.7

Construction and extraction occupations

11.0 11.5 10.6 5.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.6 1.6 2.0 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.9 14.1 12.2 11.6

Production occupations

4.9 4.6 4.6 5.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

10.0 9.5 7.7 5.8

INDUSTRY

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)

1,958 2,511 5,858 147,473

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

4.5 4.0 3.2 1.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.5

Construction

9.6 10.9 10.8 6.7

Manufacturing

6.5 5.8 6.3 10.6

Wholesale trade

1.5 1.1 1.0 2.3

Retail trade

8.5 8.1 6.2 10.7

Transportation and utilities

3.8 5.5 4.1 5.1

Information

1.6 1.5 1.6 1.9

Financial activities

1.9 2.3 2.6 7.1

Professional and business services

12.7 16.3 14.9 12.0

Education and health services

29.1 25.3 31.3 22.7

Leisure and hospitality

12.1 10.1 9.3 9.3

Other services

5.2 6.7 5.3 4.9

Public administration

2.7 2.1 3.3 4.7

NOTE: Noncontingent workers are those who do not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 5. Employed workers with alternative and traditional work arrangements by selected characteristics, May 2017
(In thousands)
Characteristic Total employed Workers with alternative arrangements Workers with
traditional
arrangements
Independent
contractors
On-call
workers
Temporary
help agency
workers
Workers
provided by
contract firms

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

153,331 10,614 2,579 1,356 933 137,853

16 to 19 years

4,842 43 107 25 14 4,647

20 to 24 years

14,212 330 263 195 53 13,370

25 to 34 years

33,991 1,593 516 303 224 31,361

35 to 44 years

32,065 2,160 565 283 207 28,849

45 to 54 years

32,745 2,562 446 276 206 29,263

55 to 64 years

26,236 2,426 399 170 124 23,110

65 years and over

9,240 1,500 283 105 106 7,253

Men, 16 years and over

81,545 6,820 1,355 709 625 72,035

16 to 19 years

2,365 42 53 20 9 2,235

20 to 24 years

7,412 187 169 100 28 6,931

25 to 34 years

18,169 1,016 271 170 157 16,554

35 to 44 years

17,585 1,430 329 122 144 15,557

45 to 54 years

17,099 1,611 208 166 146 14,971

55 to 64 years

13,840 1,547 209 81 81 11,914

65 years and over

5,076 986 117 50 60 3,873

Women, 16 years and over

71,785 3,794 1,224 647 308 65,818

16 to 19 years

2,477 1 55 5 5 2,412

20 to 24 years

6,800 143 94 95 25 6,439

25 to 34 years

15,823 577 245 133 67 14,807

35 to 44 years

14,480 730 237 161 63 13,292

45 to 54 years

15,646 951 238 110 60 14,292

55 to 64 years

12,396 878 190 88 44 11,196

65 years and over

4,164 514 166 55 45 3,380

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White

120,638 8,975 2,019 797 614 108,237

Black or African American

18,588 880 323 351 132 16,902

Asian

9,110 461 129 104 115 8,297

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

25,525 1,566 449 345 163 22,973

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers

125,240 7,485 1,428 1,042 785 114,496

Part-time workers

28,091 3,129 1,151 314 148 23,357

NOTE: Workers with traditional arrangements are those who do not fall into any of the "alternative arrangements" categories. Detail may not add to totals because the total employed includes day laborers (an alternative arrangement, not shown separately) and there are a small number of workers who were both "on call" and "provided by contract firms." Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for other characteristics may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 6. Distribution of employed workers with alternative and traditional work arrangements by selected characteristics, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Characteristic Workers with alternative arrangements Workers with
traditional
arrangements
Independent
contractors
On-call workers Temporary help
agency workers
Workers
provided by
contract firms

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

16 to 19 years

0.4 4.2 1.9 1.5 3.4

20 to 24 years

3.1 10.2 14.4 5.6 9.7

25 to 34 years

15.0 20.0 22.3 23.9 22.7

35 to 44 years

20.4 21.9 20.9 22.2 20.9

45 to 54 years

24.1 17.3 20.3 22.1 21.2

55 to 64 years

22.9 15.5 12.5 13.3 16.8

65 years and over

14.1 11.0 7.7 11.3 5.3

Men, 16 years and over

64.3 52.5 52.3 67.0 52.3

16 to 19 years

0.4 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.6

20 to 24 years

1.8 6.5 7.4 3.0 5.0

25 to 34 years

9.6 10.5 12.5 16.8 12.0

35 to 44 years

13.5 12.7 9.0 15.4 11.3

45 to 54 years

15.2 8.1 12.2 15.7 10.9

55 to 64 years

14.6 8.1 6.0 8.6 8.6

65 years and over

9.3 4.5 3.7 6.5 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

35.7 47.5 47.7 33.0 47.7

16 to 19 years

0.0 2.1 0.4 0.5 1.7

20 to 24 years

1.3 3.7 7.0 2.6 4.7

25 to 34 years

5.4 9.5 9.8 7.1 10.7

35 to 44 years

6.9 9.2 11.8 6.8 9.6

45 to 54 years

9.0 9.2 8.1 6.4 10.4

55 to 64 years

8.3 7.4 6.5 4.7 8.1

65 years and over

4.8 6.4 4.1 4.9 2.5

RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White

84.6 78.3 58.8 65.8 78.5

Black or African American

8.3 12.5 25.9 14.1 12.3

Asian

4.3 5.0 7.7 12.3 6.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

14.8 17.4 25.4 17.4 16.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers

70.5 55.4 76.9 84.1 83.1

Part-time workers

29.5 44.6 23.1 15.9 16.9

NOTE: Workers with traditional arrangements are those who do not fall into any of the "alternative arrangements" categories. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for other characteristics may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 7. Employed workers with alternative and traditional work arrangements by school enrollment and educational attainment, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Characteristic Workers with alternative arrangements Workers with
traditional
arrangements
Independent
contractors
On-call workers Temporary help
agency workers
Workers
provided by
contract firms

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT

Total, 16 to 24 years (thousands)

373 370 220 67 18,018

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 - 100.0

Enrolled in school

22.6 39.8 14.0 - 38.5

Not enrolled in school

77.4 60.2 86.0 - 61.5

Less than a high school diploma

7.1 9.8 13.6 - 5.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

37.0 17.9 43.9 - 26.2

Some college or associate degree

22.0 24.6 17.6 - 18.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

11.3 7.9 11.0 - 11.5

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 to 64 years (thousands)

8,741 1,926 1,031 761 112,582

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Less than a high school diploma

9.7 10.6 10.5 4.0 6.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

24.6 26.7 37.1 27.4 25.0

Some college or associate degree

26.8 28.8 26.0 25.4 27.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

38.9 33.9 26.3 43.1 41.1

(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Workers with traditional arrangements are those who do not fall into any of the "alternative arrangements" categories. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 8. Employed workers with alternative and traditional work arrangements by occupation and industry, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Characteristic Workers with alternative arrangements Workers with
traditional
arrangements
Independent
contractors
On-call
workers
Temporary
help agency
workers
Workers
provided by
contract firms

OCCUPATION

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)

10,614 2,579 1,356 933 137,853

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

43.4 35.6 21.7 49.1 40.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

23.9 5.3 4.6 13.9 16.7

Professional and related occupations

19.5 30.3 17.1 35.1 24.0

Service occupations

18.1 23.7 13.8 24.6 17.0

Sales and office occupations

16.0 11.3 19.3 6.5 22.0

Sales and related occupations

13.5 4.5 2.8 2.4 9.8

Office and administrative support occupations

2.5 6.8 16.5 4.1 12.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

15.9 16.1 6.1 13.3 8.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.8

Construction and extraction occupations

12.1 11.7 3.4 8.8 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.3 3.2 2.2 4.0 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

6.7 13.2 39.2 6.6 11.8

Production occupations

1.7 2.6 19.8 2.2 6.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

5.0 10.6 19.3 4.4 5.8

INDUSTRY

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)

10,614 2,579 1,356 933 137,853

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

2.0 1.8 0.4 0.4 1.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.1 0.8 0.6 1.6 0.5

Construction

19.3 11.4 3.6 7.2 5.8

Manufacturing

2.2 3.7 32.2 12.0 11.1

Wholesale trade

1.5 1.1 3.6 1.0 2.3

Retail trade

6.4 6.0 1.2 3.2 11.1

Transportation and utilities

5.7 8.6 3.0 6.6 5.0

Information

2.2 2.3 1.9 2.0 1.9

Financial activities

9.6 3.4 4.2 8.5 6.9

Professional and business services

25.1 6.6 26.8 17.0 10.7

Education and health services

9.6 35.3 15.0 18.3 24.0

Leisure and hospitality

6.2 10.1 2.0 4.4 9.6

Other services

9.7 4.6 3.1 2.5 4.6

Public administration

0.4 4.2 1.2 14.7 5.0

NOTE: Workers with traditional arrangements are those who do not fall into any of the "alternative arrangements" categories. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. For temporary help agency workers and workers provided by contract firms, the industry classification is that of the place to which they were assigned. For a very small percentage of these workers, the industry was not provided.


Table 9. Employed contingent and noncontingent workers and those with alternative and traditional work arrangements by health insurance coverage and eligibility for employer-provided pension or retirement plans, May 2017
Characteristic Total employed
(thousands)
Percent with health insurance
coverage
Percent eligible for employer-
provided pension or retirement plan(1)
Total Provided by
employer(1)
Total Included in
employer-provided
plan

Contingent workers:

Estimate 1

1,958 75.1 13.4 14.2 8.3

Estimate 2

2,511 72.2 12.0 12.2 7.3

Estimate 3

5,858 73.4 25.1 23.4 18.4

Noncontingent workers

147,473 83.5 49.8 47.6 43.4

With alternative arrangements:

Independent contractors

10,614 75.4 - - -

On-call workers

2,579 77.0 28.2 35.4 30.1

Temporary help agency workers

1,356 67.3 12.8 12.7 6.6

Workers provided by contract firms

933 85.3 41.3 48.1 38.3

With traditional arrangements

137,853 84.0 53.4 50.8 46.3

(1) Excludes the self-employed (incorporated and unincorporated) and independent contractors.

- Not applicable.
NOTE: Noncontingent workers are those who do not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Workers with traditional arrangements are those who do not fall into any of the "alternative arrangements" categories.


Table 10. Employed contingent workers by their preference for contingent or noncontingent work arrangements, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Preference Contingent workers
Estimate 1 Estimate 2 Estimate 3

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)

1,958 2,511 5,858

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0

Prefer noncontingent employment

62.5 58.8 55.1

Prefer contingent employment

29.9 31.8 32.8

It depends

7.0 8.5 9.5

Not available

0.6 0.9 2.6

NOTE: Noncontingent employment refers to work that does not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 11. Employed workers with alternative work arrangements by their preference for a traditional work arrangement, May 2017
(Percent distribution)
Preference Independent contractors On-call workers Temporary help agency
workers

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)

10,614 2,579 1,356

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0

Prefer traditional arrangement

8.8 43.0 46.4

Prefer alternative arrangement

79.1 43.8 38.5

It depends

7.5 12.2 12.1

Not available

4.5 1.0 3.0

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.


Table 12. Employed workers with alternative and traditional work arrangements by contingent and noncontingent employment, May 2017
Arrangement Total
(thousands)
Percent distribution
Contingent workers Noncontingent
workers
Estimate 1 Estimate 2 Estimate 3

With alternative arrangements:

Independent contractors

10,614 - 3.2 3.2 96.8

On-call workers

2,579 7.7 7.8 21.1 78.9

Temporary help agency workers

1,356 16.8 22.9 42.0 58.0

Workers provided by contract firms

933 3.6 5.1 15.0 85.0

With traditional arrangements

137,853 1.0 1.1 3.1 96.9

- Not applicable. Excludes independent contractors and the self-employed (incorporated and unincorporated).
NOTE: Noncontingent workers are those who do not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Workers with traditional arrangements are those who do not fall into any of the "alternative arrangements" categories.


Table 13. Median usual weekly earnings of full- and part-time contingent and noncontingent wage and salary workers and those with alternative and traditional work arrangements by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, May 2017
Characteristic Contingent workers Noncontingent
workers
Workers with alternative arrangements Workers with
traditional
arrangements
Estimate 1 Estimate 2 Estimate 3 Independent
contractors
On-call
workers
Temporary
help
agency
workers
Workers
provided
by contract
firms

FULL-TIME WORKERS

Total, 16 years and over

$592 $611 $685 $886 $851 $797 $521 $1,077 $884

Men

609 653 719 957 897 860 522 1,157 953

Women

524 587 625 808 738 673 520 673 809

White

568 595 702 914 895 814 511 1,118 913

Black or African American

602 609 581 699 654 748 520 740 697

Asian

956 995 1,042 1,153 990 - 1,058 1,519 1,147

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

467 475 524 686 700 676 492 964 685

PART-TIME WORKERS

Total, 16 years and over

197 197 228 257 333 229 263 322 255

Men

187 186 233 262 377 295 297 - 256

Women

206 205 224 255 307 211 246 303 254

White

199 198 229 266 342 236 257 339 264

Black or African American

160 160 203 221 294 182 252 - 224

Asian

262 262 269 222 487 213 - - 215

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

220 221 264 254 272 316 305 - 253

Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).
NOTE: Noncontingent workers are those who do not fall into any estimate of "contingent" workers. Workers with traditional arrangements are those who do not fall into any of the "alternative arrangements" categories. Earnings data for contingent and noncontingent workers exclude the incorporated self-employed and independent contractors. Data for independent contractors include the incorporated and unincorporated self-employed; these groups, however, are excluded from the data for workers with other alternative and traditional arrangements. Full- or part-time status is determined by hours usually worked at sole or primary job. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Last Modified Date: June 07, 2018