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Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 26, 2019 		USDL-19-0326

Technical information:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


  PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2018


In 2018, the employment-population ratio--the proportion of the
population that is employed--was 19.1 percent among those with a
disability, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. In
contrast, the employment-population ratio for those without a disability
was 65.9 percent. The employment-population ratio for persons with
a disability increased from 2017 to 2018, and the ratio for persons
without a disability edged up. The unemployment rate for both persons
with and without a disability declined from the previous year to 8.0
percent and 3.7 percent, respectively.

The data on persons with a disability are collected as part of the Current
Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households
that provides statistics on employment and unemployment in the United
States. The collection of data on persons with a disability is sponsored
by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy. For
more information, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2018 data:

 --Nearly half of all persons with a disability were age 65 and
   older, about three times larger than the share of those with
   no disability. (See table 1.)

 --Across all age groups, the employment-population ratios were
   much lower for persons with a disability than for those with
   no disability. (See table 1.)

 --Across all educational attainment groups, jobless rates for
   persons with a disability were higher than those for persons
   without a disability. (See table 1.)

 --In 2018, 31 percent of workers with a disability were employed
   part time, compared with 17 percent for those with no disability.
   (See table 2.)

 --Employed persons with a disability were more likely to be
   self-employed than those with no disability. (See table 4.)

Demographic characteristics

Persons with a disability tend to be older than persons with no disability,
reflecting the increased incidence of disability with age. In 2018, 49
percent of persons with a disability were age 65 and older, compared with
16 percent of those with no disability. Overall, women were somewhat more
likely to have a disability than men, partly reflecting the greater life
expectancy of women. In 2018, the prevalence of disability continued to
be higher for Blacks and Whites than for Hispanics and Asians. (See table 1.)

Employment

The employment-population ratio for persons with a disability increased
from 18.7 percent in 2017 to 19.1 percent in 2018. The ratio for those
without a disability, at 65.9 percent, edged up in 2018. The lower ratio
among persons with a disability reflects, in part, the older age profile
of persons with a disability; older workers are less likely to be employed
regardless of disability status. However, across all age groups, persons
with a disability were much less likely to be employed than those with no
disability. (See tables A and 1.)

Among persons ages 16 to 64, employment-population ratios rose for both
persons with a disability (30.4 percent) and persons without a disability
(74.0 percent) in 2018. The ratios for persons age 65 and older with a
disability (7.4 percent) and without a disability (23.6 percent) were
little changed from the previous year. (See table A.)

Persons with a disability are less likely to have completed a bachelor's
degree or higher than those with no disability. Among both groups, those
who had attained higher levels of education were more likely to be employed
than those who had attained less education. Across all levels of education
in 2018, persons with a disability were much less likely to be employed
than were their counterparts with no disability. (Educational attainment
data are presented for those age 25 and older.) (See table 1.)

Workers with a disability were more likely to be employed part time than
those with no disability. In 2018, 31 percent of workers with a disability
usually worked part time, compared with 17 percent of those without a
disability. The proportion of workers with a disability who worked part
time for economic reasons was slightly higher than their counterparts without
a disability (4 percent, compared with 3 percent). These individuals were
working part time because their hours had been reduced or because they were
not able to find a full-time job. (See table 2.)

In 2018, persons with a disability were more concentrated in service
occupations than those with no disability (19.0 percent, compared with 17.2
percent). Workers with a disability were also more likely than those with
no disability to work in production, transportation, and material moving
occupations (13.9 percent, compared with 11.8 percent). Persons with a
disability were less likely to work in management, professional, and related
occupations than those without a disability (33.7 percent, compared with
40.3 percent). (See table 3.)

The proportion of persons employed in government was slightly higher for
persons with a disability than for persons without a disability in 2018
(14.1 percent, compared with 13.4 percent, respectively). A larger share of
persons with a disability were self-employed than were those with no disability
(10.2 percent, compared with 6.1 percent); a smaller share of workers with a
disability were employed as private wage and salary workers (75.5 percent)
than those with no disability (80.4 percent). (See table 4.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 8.0 percent in 2018,
more than twice the rate of those with no disability (3.7 percent). (Unemployed
persons are those who did not have a job, were available for work, and were
actively looking for a job in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.) The unemployment
rates for both persons with and without a disability were lower in 2018 than
in the prior year. (See tables A and 1.)

In 2018, the unemployment rate for men with a disability (7.9 percent) was
about the same as the rate for women (8.1 percent). The unemployment rates
for both men and women declined from 2017 to 2018. Jobless rates declined
among Whites and Blacks with a disability in 2018, while the rates for Hispanics
and Asians showed little change. For persons with a disability, Blacks (11.2
percent) and Hispanics (9.8 percent) had higher unemployment rates than Whites
(7.3 percent), and Asians (7.1 percent) in 2018. (See table 1.)

Not in the labor force

Persons who are neither employed nor unemployed are not in the labor force. A
large proportion of persons with a disability--about 8 in 10--were not in the
labor force in 2018, compared with about 3 in 10 of those with no disability.
In part, this reflects the older age profile of persons with a disability;
persons age 65 and older are much less likely to participate in the labor force
than younger age groups. Across all age groups, however, persons with a disability
were more likely to be out of the labor force than those with no disability. (See
table 1.)

For persons with and without a disability, the vast majority of those not in the
labor force reported that they do not want a job. In 2018, 3 percent of those with
a disability and 6 percent of those without a disability wanted a job. Among those
who do want a job, a subset is classified as marginally attached to the labor
force. These individuals wanted and were available to work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because
they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (Persons
marginally attached to the labor force include discouraged workers.) About 1
percent of persons with a disability and 2 percent of persons without a disability
were marginally attached to the labor force in 2018. (See table 5.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and age, 2017 and 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,351 15,697 14,654 30,136 15,325 14,810

Civilian labor force

6,245 5,117 1,129 6,266 5,111 1,155

Participation rate

20.6 32.6 7.7 20.8 33.3 7.8

Employed

5,670 4,603 1,066 5,767 4,666 1,101

Employment-population ratio

18.7 29.3 7.3 19.1 30.4 7.4

Unemployed

576 514 62 499 445 54

Unemployment rate

9.2 10.0 5.5 8.0 8.7 4.7

Not in labor force

24,106 10,580 13,526 23,870 10,215 13,655

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

224,728 189,840 34,887 227,655 191,182 36,472

Civilian labor force

154,074 145,626 8,449 155,809 146,932 8,877

Participation rate

68.6 76.7 24.2 68.4 76.9 24.3

Employed

147,668 139,500 8,168 149,994 141,390 8,604

Employment-population ratio

65.7 73.5 23.4 65.9 74.0 23.6

Unemployed

6,407 6,126 281 5,815 5,542 273

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.2 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.1

Not in labor force

70,653 44,215 26,439 71,846 44,250 27,595

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data obtained from  
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. 
Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of 
about 60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force 
status, demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian
noninstitutional population age 16 and over.
   
   Questions were added to the CPS in June 2008 to identify persons with a 
disability in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older. The 
addition of these questions allowed the BLS to begin releasing monthly labor 
force data from the CPS for persons with a disability. The collection of these 
data is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment 
Policy.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling 
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is 
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values 
they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples 
differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured 
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more 
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling 
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of 
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can 
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the 
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, 
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS and 
estimating standard errors is available at 
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   CPS estimates are controlled to population totals that are available by 
age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. These controls are developed by the 
Census Bureau and are based on complete population counts obtained in the 
decennial census. In the years between decennial censuses, they incorporate 
the latest information about population change (births, deaths, and net
international migration). As part of its annual update of population
estimates, the Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the total population
controls. The updated controls typically have a negligible impact on 
unemployment rates and other ratios. The estimates of the population of 
persons with a disability are not controlled to independent population totals 
of persons with a disability because such data are not available. Without 
independent population totals, sample-based estimates are more apt to vary 
from one time period to the next.  Information about population controls is 
available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Disability questions and concepts

   The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. 
In the CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response 
of "yes" to any of these questions. The disability questions appear in the CPS 
in the following format:

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for household members who are 15 years old or over.

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty 
     hearing?

   --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty
     seeing even when wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or
     making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing
     stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a
     doctor's office or shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only 
asked of household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions ask 
the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and 
if the respondent replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in 
the household who has the condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are 
tabulated for persons age 16 and older. More information on the disability 
questions and the limitations of the CPS disability data is available on the 
BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Other definitions

   Other definitions used in this release are described briefly below. 
Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available 
at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Employed.  Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference 
week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own 
business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as 
unpaid workers in a family member's business.  Persons who were temporarily 
absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor 
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed.  Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the 
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific 
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they 
had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as 
unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons 
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate represents the number of 
unemployed persons as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Not in the labor force.  Persons not in the labor force include all those who 
are not classified as employed or unemployed. Information is collected on their 
desire for and availability to take a job at the time of the CPS interview, job 
search activity in the prior year, and reason for not looking in the 4-week 
period ending with the reference week. This group includes individuals marginally 
attached to the labor force, defined as persons not in the labor force who want 
and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 
months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 
months). They are not counted as unemployed because they had not actively searched 
for work in the prior 4 weeks. Within the marginally attached group are discouraged 
workers--persons who are not currently looking for work because they believe there 
are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify. The other 
persons marginally attached to the labor force group includes persons who want 
a job but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks for reasons such as family 
responsibilities or transportation problems.

   Part time for economic reasons.  Persons classified as at work part time for 
economic reasons, a measure sometimes referred to as involuntary part time, are 
those who gave an economic reason for working 1 to 34 hours during the reference 
week. Economic reasons include slack work or unfavorable business conditions, 
inability to find full-time work, and seasonal declines in demand. Those who 
usually work part time must also indicate that they want and are available for 
full-time work to be classified as part time for economic reasons.

   Occupation, industry, and class of worker.  The occupation, industry, and 
class of worker classifications for the employed relate to the job held in the 
survey reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job 
at which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using 
the 2010 Census occupational and 2012 Census industry classification systems. 
The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the following categories: 
private and government wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and 
unpaid family workers. Wage and salary workers receive wages, salary, 
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government 
unit. Self-employed persons are those who work for profit or fees in their own 
business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are 
included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons who respond that 
their businesses are incorporated are included among wage and salary workers. 
Unpaid family workers are persons working without pay for 15 hours a week or 
more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

Men

124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

Women

133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

30,136 6,266 20.8 5,767 19.1 499 8.0 23,870

Men

13,997 3,389 24.2 3,122 22.3 267 7.9 10,608

Women

16,139 2,877 17.8 2,645 16.4 232 8.1 13,262

Age

16 to 64 years

15,325 5,111 33.3 4,666 30.4 445 8.7 10,215

16 to 19 years

644 151 23.5 112 17.4 39 26.1 493

20 to 24 years

867 384 44.3 328 37.8 56 14.6 483

25 to 34 years

1,914 930 48.6 828 43.3 101 10.9 984

35 to 44 years

2,140 861 40.2 795 37.1 67 7.7 1,279

45 to 54 years

3,537 1,204 34.0 1,123 31.7 81 6.7 2,333

55 to 64 years

6,223 1,580 25.4 1,480 23.8 100 6.3 4,643

65 years and over

14,810 1,155 7.8 1,101 7.4 54 4.7 13,655

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

23,987 5,043 21.0 4,676 19.5 367 7.3 18,944

Black or African American

4,151 763 18.4 677 16.3 85 11.2 3,388

Asian

878 162 18.4 150 17.1 12 7.1 716

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,258 753 23.1 679 20.9 74 9.8 2,505

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

28,625 5,731 20.0 5,327 18.6 403 7.0 22,894

Less than a high school diploma

5,250 581 11.1 513 9.8 68 11.7 4,668

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,326 1,748 16.9 1,609 15.6 139 7.9 8,578

Some college or associate degree

7,624 1,783 23.4 1,659 21.8 124 6.9 5,841

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

5,425 1,619 29.8 1,546 28.5 73 4.5 3,806

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

227,655 155,809 68.4 149,994 65.9 5,815 3.7 71,846

Men

110,681 82,707 74.7 79,576 71.9 3,131 3.8 27,974

Women

116,974 73,102 62.5 70,418 60.2 2,684 3.7 43,872

Age

16 to 64 years

191,182 146,932 76.9 141,390 74.0 5,542 3.8 44,250

16 to 19 years

16,121 5,734 35.6 5,014 31.1 720 12.6 10,387

20 to 24 years

20,372 14,715 72.2 13,723 67.4 992 6.7 5,657

25 to 34 years

42,667 35,844 84.0 34,496 80.8 1,348 3.8 6,823

35 to 44 years

38,429 32,758 85.2 31,822 82.8 936 2.9 5,671

45 to 54 years

37,703 32,107 85.2 31,250 82.9 857 2.7 5,596

55 to 64 years

35,890 25,773 71.8 25,085 69.9 689 2.7 10,117

65 years and over

36,472 8,877 24.3 8,604 23.6 273 3.1 27,595

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

176,235 120,772 68.5 116,785 66.3 3,987 3.3 55,463

Black or African American

28,610 19,651 68.7 18,414 64.4 1,237 6.3 8,959

Asian

15,083 9,975 66.1 9,682 64.2 293 2.9 5,109

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

39,475 27,583 69.9 26,333 66.7 1,250 4.5 11,893

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

191,162 135,360 70.8 131,257 68.7 4,103 3.0 55,802

Less than a high school diploma

17,001 9,696 57.0 9,188 54.0 508 5.2 7,304

High school graduates, no college(1)

52,266 34,263 65.6 32,941 63.0 1,322 3.9 18,003

Some college or associate degree

49,781 35,803 71.9 34,679 69.7 1,124 3.1 13,978

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

72,114 55,598 77.1 54,449 75.5 1,149 2.1 16,516

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Disability status and age Employed At work
part time for
economic
reasons(1)
Total Usually
work
full time
Usually
work
part time

TOTAL

16 years and over

155,761 128,572 27,189 4,778

16 to 64 years

146,056 122,605 23,450 4,535

65 years and over

9,705 5,967 3,739 243

Persons with a disability

16 years and over

5,767 3,956 1,811 243

16 to 64 years

4,666 3,406 1,259 208

65 years and over

1,101 550 551 35

Persons with no disability

16 years and over

149,994 124,616 25,378 4,535

16 to 64 years

141,390 119,199 22,191 4,326

65 years and over

8,604 5,417 3,187 208

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons who, whether they usually work full or part time, worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand. Persons who usually work part time for an economic reason, but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week are excluded. Also excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire reference week.

NOTE: Full time refers to persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week; part time refers to persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.


Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex, 2018 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,767 3,122 2,645 149,994 79,576 70,418

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

33.7 31.0 37.0 40.3 36.8 44.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14.3 15.4 13.0 16.7 17.6 15.7

Management occupations

10.5 12.5 8.2 11.8 13.3 10.1

Business and financial operations occupations

3.8 2.9 4.8 4.9 4.3 5.6

Professional and related occupations

19.4 15.6 24.0 23.6 19.3 28.6

Computer and mathematical occupations

2.0 2.7 1.2 3.3 4.7 1.8

Architecture and engineering occupations

1.6 2.4 0.5 2.1 3.4 0.7

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.7 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0

Community and social service occupations

2.3 1.6 3.2 1.7 1.1 2.4

Legal occupations

1.3 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.3

Education, training, and library occupations

5.3 2.9 8.2 6.0 3.0 9.4

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.0 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

4.2 2.0 6.9 6.1 2.9 9.8

Service occupations

19.0 15.6 23.0 17.2 13.7 21.1

Healthcare support occupations

2.2 0.6 4.1 2.3 0.6 4.3

Protective service occupations

1.8 2.6 0.9 2.1 3.0 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.9 3.9 6.0 5.3 4.4 6.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5.7 6.2 5.2 3.7 4.1 3.2

Personal care and service occupations

4.4 2.3 6.9 3.8 1.6 6.2

Sales and office occupations

23.1 16.2 31.2 21.4 15.7 27.9

Sales and related occupations

10.5 9.4 11.7 10.1 9.7 10.6

Office and administrative support occupations

12.6 6.7 19.5 11.3 6.0 17.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10.3 18.1 1.1 9.3 16.5 1.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.9 1.4 0.3 0.7 1.0 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

5.0 8.9 0.5 5.4 9.8 0.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4.4 7.8 0.3 3.2 5.8 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13.9 19.2 7.7 11.8 17.2 5.8

Production occupations

6.0 7.4 4.3 5.5 7.4 3.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.9 11.8 3.4 6.3 9.7 2.4

Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker, and sex, 2018 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Industry and class of worker Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,767 3,122 2,645 149,994 79,576 70,418

Industry as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

2.8 4.2 1.2 1.5 2.1 0.8

Nonagricultural industries

97.2 95.8 98.8 98.5 97.9 99.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.4 0.7 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.2

Construction

6.8 11.3 1.4 7.2 12.2 1.5

Manufacturing

9.2 12.0 6.0 10.0 13.4 6.2

Wholesale trade

2.0 2.7 1.2 2.4 3.2 1.4

Retail trade

13.5 12.9 14.1 10.5 10.3 10.9

Transportation and utilities

5.6 7.6 3.2 5.5 7.8 2.8

Information

1.9 2.2 1.7 1.9 2.2 1.5

Financial activities

5.0 4.3 5.8 6.9 6.2 7.7

Professional and business services

11.1 11.8 10.2 12.2 13.5 10.8

Education and health services

21.6 11.4 33.8 22.5 10.8 35.7

Leisure and hospitality

8.6 7.9 9.4 9.2 8.4 10.1

Other services

6.4 6.0 6.9 4.9 4.3 5.6

Public administration

5.2 5.2 5.2 4.7 4.9 4.6

Class of worker as a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Wage and salary workers(2)

89.6 87.7 91.9 93.9 92.9 94.9

Private industries

75.5 75.8 75.2 80.4 82.0 78.6

Government

14.1 12.0 16.7 13.4 10.9 16.3

Federal

2.8 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.3

State

5.1 4.0 6.5 4.5 3.4 5.7

Local

6.2 5.0 7.6 6.6 5.0 8.3

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10.2 12.1 8.0 6.1 7.0 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Category Total,
16 years and
over
16 to 64 years Total,
65 years and
over
Total Men Women

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

23,870 10,215 4,819 5,396 13,655

Persons who currently want a job

650 439 232 207 211

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

162 127 76 51 35

Discouraged workers(2)

37 26 16 10 11

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

125 101 59 41 25

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

71,846 44,250 16,299 27,951 27,595

Persons who currently want a job

4,599 3,994 1,847 2,147 604

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,355 1,224 655 569 131

Discouraged workers(2)

387 342 216 126 45

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

968 883 439 443 86

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.


Last Modified Date: February 26, 2019