Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, June 21, 2018                           USDL-18-1028

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


             PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2017


In 2017, 18.7 percent of persons with a disability were employed, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. In contrast, the employment-population ratio for those without a 
disability was 65.7 percent. The employment-population ratios for both persons with and 
without a disability increased from 2016 to 2017. The unemployment rates for both persons 
with and without a disability declined from the previous year to 9.2 percent and 4.2 
percent, respectively.

The data on persons with a disability are collected as part of the Current Population Survey 
(CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that provides statistics on 
employment and unemployment in the United States. The collection of data on persons with a 
disability is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy. 
For more information, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2017 data:

 --Nearly half of all persons with a disability were age 65 and over, three 
   times larger than the share of those with no disability. (See table 1.)

 --Across all age groups, the employment-population ratios were much lower for 
   persons with a disability than for those with no disability. (See table 1.)

 --Unemployment rates for persons with a disability were higher than for persons 
   without a disability across all educational attainment groups. (See table 1.)

 --In 2017, 32 percent of workers with a disability were employed part time, 
   compared with 17 percent for those with no disability. (See table 2.)

 --Employed persons with a disability were more likely to be self-employed 
   than those with no disability. (See table 4.)

Demographic characteristics

Persons with a disability tend to be older than persons with no disability, reflecting the 
increased incidence of disability with age. In 2017, 48 percent of persons with a disability 
were age 65 and over, compared with 16 percent of those with no disability. Overall, women 
were somewhat more likely to have a disability than men, partly reflecting the greater life 
expectancy of women. In 2017, the prevalence of disability continued to be higher for Blacks 
and Whites than for Hispanics and Asians. (See table 1.)

Employment

The employment-population ratio for persons with a disability increased from 17.9 percent 
in 2016 to 18.7 percent in 2017. The ratio for those without a disability, at 65.7 percent, 
also increased over the year. The lower ratio among persons with a disability reflects, in 
part, the older age profile of persons with a disability; older workers are less likely to 
be employed regardless of disability status. However, across all age groups, persons with a 
disability were much less likely to be employed than those with no disability. (See tables 
A and 1.)

Among persons ages 16 to 64, the employment-population ratios rose for both persons with a 
disability (29.3 percent) and persons without a disability (73.5 percent) in 2017. The 
ratios for persons age 65 and over with a disability (7.3 percent) and without a disability 
(23.4 percent) showed little or no change. (See table A.)

Persons with a disability are less likely to have completed a bachelor's degree and higher 
than those with no disability. Among both groups, those who have completed higher levels of 
education are more likely to be employed than those with less education. Across all levels 
of education in 2017, persons with a disability were much less likely to be employed than 
were their counterparts with no disability. (Educational attainment data are presented for 
those age 25 and over.) (See table 1.)

Workers with a disability were more likely to be employed part time than those with no 
disability. Among workers with a disability, 32 percent usually worked part time in 2017, 
compared with 17 percent of those without a disability. A slightly larger proportion of 
workers with a disability worked part time for economic reasons than those without a 
disability (5 percent versus 3 percent). These individuals were working part time because 
their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table 2.)

In 2017, workers with a disability were more concentrated than those with no disability in 
service occupations (20.2 percent, compared with 17.3 percent) and in production, 
transportation, and material moving occupations (14.1 percent versus 11.6 percent). Persons 
with a disability were less likely to work in management, professional, and related 
occupations than those without a disability (34.1 percent, compared with 39.9 percent). 
(See table 3.)

In 2017, workers with a disability were more likely to be employed in government than were 
workers with no disability (14.4 percent, compared with 13.6 percent). Persons with a 
disability were also more likely to be self-employed than their counterparts with no 
disability (10.6 percent versus 6.0 percent). Persons with a disability were less likely to 
be employed as private wage and salary workers than those without a disability (74.9 
percent, compared with 80.3 percent). (See table 4.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 9.2 percent in 2017, more than 
twice that of those with no disability (4.2 percent). (Unemployed persons are those who did 
not have a job, were available for work, and were actively looking for a job in the 4 weeks 
preceding the survey.) The unemployment rates for persons with and without a disability 
were both lower in 2017 than in the prior year. (See tables A and 1.)

In 2017, the unemployment rate for men with a disability (9.0 percent) was about the same 
as the rate for women (9.5 percent). The unemployment rates for both men and women declined 
from 2016 to 2017. Although jobless rates for persons with a disability declined among all 
major race and ethnicity groups in 2017, Blacks (13.8 percent) continued to have a higher 
unemployment rate than Hispanics (10.2 percent), Whites (8.5 percent), and Asians (6.6 percent). 
(See table 1.)

Not in the labor force

Persons who are neither employed nor unemployed are not in the labor force. A large 
proportion of persons with a disability--about 8 in 10--were not in the labor force in 2017, 
compared with about 3 in 10 of those with no disability. In part, this reflects the older 
age profile of persons with a disability; persons ages 65 and over are much less likely to 
participate in the labor force than younger age groups. Across all age groups, however, 
persons with a disability were more likely to be out of the labor force than those with no 
disability. (See table 1.)

For persons with and without a disability, the vast majority of those not in the labor 
force do not want a job. In 2017, 3 percent of those with a disability and 7 percent of 
those without a disability wanted a job. Among those who do want a job, a subset is 
classified as marginally attached to the labor force. These individuals wanted and were 
available to work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not 
counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the 
survey. (Persons marginally attached to the labor force include discouraged workers.) About 
1 percent of persons with a disability and 2 percent of persons without a disability were 
marginally attached to the labor force in 2017. (See table 5.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and age, 2016 and 2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2016 2017
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,971 15,746 14,225 30,351 15,697 14,654

Civilian labor force

6,005 4,919 1,086 6,245 5,117 1,129

Participation rate

20.0 31.2 7.6 20.6 32.6 7.7

Employed

5,372 4,356 1,016 5,670 4,603 1,066

Employment-population ratio

17.9 27.7 7.1 18.7 29.3 7.3

Unemployed

633 564 70 576 514 62

Unemployment rate

10.5 11.5 6.4 9.2 10.0 5.5

Not in labor force

23,965 10,827 13,139 24,106 10,580 13,526

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

223,567 189,757 33,810 224,728 189,840 34,887

Civilian labor force

153,182 144,996 8,185 154,074 145,626 8,449

Participation rate

68.5 76.4 24.2 68.6 76.7 24.2

Employed

146,064 138,164 7,900 147,668 139,500 8,168

Employment-population ratio

65.3 72.8 23.4 65.7 73.5 23.4

Unemployed

7,118 6,832 285 6,407 6,126 281

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.7 3.5 4.2 4.2 3.3

Not in labor force

70,385 44,761 25,624 70,653 44,215 26,439

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data obtained from  
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. 
Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of 
about 60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force 
status, demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian
noninstitutional population age 16 and over.
   
   Questions were added to the CPS in June 2008 to identify persons with a 
disability in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older. The 
addition of these questions allowed the BLS to begin releasing monthly labor 
force data from the CPS for persons with a disability. The collection of these 
data is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment 
Policy.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling 
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is 
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values 
they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples 
differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured 
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more 
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling 
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of 
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can 
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the 
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, 
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS and 
estimating standard errors is available at 
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   CPS estimates are controlled to population totals that are available by 
age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. These controls are developed by the 
Census Bureau and are based on complete population counts obtained in the 
decennial census. In the years between decennial censuses, they incorporate 
the latest information about population change (births, deaths, and net
international migration). As part of its annual update of population
estimates, the Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the total population
controls. The updated controls typically have a negligible impact on 
unemployment rates and other ratios. The estimates of the population of 
persons with a disability are not controlled to independent population totals 
of persons with a disability because such data are not available. Without 
independent population totals, sample-based estimates are more apt to vary 
from one time period to the next.  Information about population controls is 
available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Disability questions and concepts

   The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. 
In the CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response 
of "yes" to any of these questions. The disability questions appear in the CPS 
in the following format:

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for household members who are 15 years old or over.

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty 
     hearing?

   --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty
     seeing even when wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or
     making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing
     stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a
     doctor's office or shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only 
asked of household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions ask 
the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and 
if the respondent replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in 
the household who has the condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are 
tabulated for persons age 16 and older. More information on the disability 
questions and the limitations of the CPS disability data is available on the 
BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Other definitions

   Other definitions used in this release are described briefly below. 
Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available 
at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Employed.  Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference 
week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own 
business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as 
unpaid workers in a family member's business.  Persons who were temporarily 
absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor 
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed.  Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the 
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific 
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they 
had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as 
unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons 
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate represents the number of 
unemployed persons as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Not in the labor force.  Persons not in the labor force include all those who 
are not classified as employed or unemployed. Information is collected on their 
desire for and availability to take a job at the time of the CPS interview, job 
search activity in the prior year, and reason for not looking in the 4-week 
period ending with the reference week. This group includes individuals marginally 
attached to the labor force, defined as persons not in the labor force who want 
and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 
months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 
months). They are not counted as unemployed because they had not actively searched 
for work in the prior 4 weeks. Within the marginally attached group are discouraged 
workers--persons who are not currently looking for work because they believe there 
are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify. The other 
persons marginally attached to the labor force group includes persons who want 
a job but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks for reasons such as family 
responsibilities or transportation problems.

   Part time for economic reasons.  Persons classified as at work part time for 
economic reasons, a measure sometimes referred to as involuntary part time, are 
those who gave an economic reason for working 1 to 34 hours during the reference 
week. Economic reasons include slack work or unfavorable business conditions, 
inability to find full-time work, and seasonal declines in demand. Those who 
usually work part time must also indicate that they want and are available for 
full-time work to be classified as part time for economic reasons.

   Occupation, industry, and class of worker.  The occupation, industry, and 
class of worker classifications for the employed relate to the job held in the 
survey reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job 
at which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using 
the 2010 Census occupational and 2012 Census industry classification systems. 
The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the following categories: 
private and government wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and 
unpaid family workers. Wage and salary workers receive wages, salary, 
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government 
unit. Self-employed persons are those who work for profit or fees in their own 
business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are 
included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons who respond that 
their businesses are incorporated are included among wage and salary workers. 
Unpaid family workers are persons working without pay for 15 hours a week or 
more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, 2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

Men

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

Women

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

30,351 6,245 20.6 5,670 18.7 576 9.2 24,106

Men

14,140 3,420 24.2 3,111 22.0 309 9.0 10,720

Women

16,211 2,825 17.4 2,558 15.8 267 9.5 13,386

Age

16 to 64 years

15,697 5,117 32.6 4,603 29.3 514 10.0 10,580

16 to 19 years

644 157 24.3 116 18.1 40 25.7 488

20 to 24 years

862 379 44.0 318 36.9 61 16.1 483

25 to 34 years

1,905 870 45.7 749 39.3 121 13.9 1,035

35 to 44 years

2,128 802 37.7 719 33.8 83 10.3 1,326

45 to 54 years

3,841 1,295 33.7 1,182 30.8 114 8.8 2,546

55 to 64 years

6,317 1,614 25.6 1,519 24.1 95 5.9 4,703

65 years and over

14,654 1,129 7.7 1,066 7.3 62 5.5 13,526

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

24,156 5,051 20.9 4,622 19.1 429 8.5 19,105

Black or African American

4,146 742 17.9 640 15.4 102 13.8 3,404

Asian

872 151 17.3 141 16.2 10 6.6 721

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,183 703 22.1 631 19.8 72 10.2 2,480

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

28,845 5,710 19.8 5,235 18.1 474 8.3 23,135

Less than a high school diploma

5,451 541 9.9 480 8.8 61 11.3 4,909

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,345 1,728 16.7 1,571 15.2 157 9.1 8,617

Some college or associate degree

7,683 1,864 24.3 1,701 22.1 162 8.7 5,819

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

5,366 1,577 29.4 1,483 27.6 93 5.9 3,789

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

224,728 154,074 68.6 147,668 65.7 6,407 4.2 70,653

Men

109,135 81,725 74.9 78,290 71.7 3,435 4.2 27,410

Women

115,592 72,349 62.6 69,377 60.0 2,972 4.1 43,243

Age

16 to 64 years

189,840 145,626 76.7 139,500 73.5 6,126 4.2 44,215

16 to 19 years

16,110 5,745 35.7 4,958 30.8 787 13.7 10,365

20 to 24 years

20,534 14,880 72.5 13,814 67.3 1,066 7.2 5,654

25 to 34 years

42,053 35,215 83.7 33,690 80.1 1,526 4.3 6,838

35 to 44 years

37,824 32,232 85.2 31,173 82.4 1,060 3.3 5,591

45 to 54 years

37,946 32,268 85.0 31,321 82.5 947 2.9 5,678

55 to 64 years

35,374 25,285 71.5 24,545 69.4 740 2.9 10,089

65 years and over

34,887 8,449 24.2 8,168 23.4 281 3.3 26,439

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

174,786 119,890 68.6 115,554 66.1 4,336 3.6 54,896

Black or African American

28,101 19,346 68.8 17,948 63.9 1,399 7.2 8,755

Asian

14,496 9,630 66.4 9,307 64.2 323 3.4 4,866

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

38,188 26,636 69.8 25,307 66.3 1,329 5.0 11,552

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

188,084 133,450 71.0 128,896 68.5 4,553 3.4 54,635

Less than a high school diploma

17,187 9,801 57.0 9,188 53.5 613 6.3 7,386

High school graduates, no college(1)

51,847 34,146 65.9 32,639 63.0 1,507 4.4 17,701

Some college or associate degree

49,578 35,833 72.3 34,581 69.8 1,252 3.5 13,745

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

69,472 53,669 77.3 52,488 75.6 1,182 2.2 15,803

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age, 2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Disability status and age Employed At work
part time for
economic
reasons(1)
Total Usually
work
full time
Usually
work
part time

TOTAL

16 years and over

153,337 125,967 27,370 5,250

16 to 64 years

144,103 120,334 23,769 5,041

65 years and over

9,234 5,633 3,601 209

Persons with a disability

16 years and over

5,670 3,856 1,814 283

16 to 64 years

4,603 3,327 1,276 254

65 years and over

1,066 529 538 29

Persons with no disability

16 years and over

147,668 122,111 25,557 4,967

16 to 64 years

139,500 117,007 22,493 4,787

65 years and over

8,168 5,104 3,063 180

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons who, whether they usually work full or part time, worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand. Persons who usually work part time for an economic reason, but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week are excluded. Also excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire reference week.

NOTE: Full time refers to persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week; part time refers to persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.


Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex, 2017 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,670 3,111 2,558 147,668 78,290 69,377

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

34.1 32.5 35.9 39.9 36.4 44.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14.6 16.4 12.5 16.6 17.5 15.6

Management occupations

10.5 12.8 7.8 11.7 13.2 9.9

Business and financial operations occupations

4.1 3.7 4.7 5.0 4.3 5.7

Professional and related occupations

19.4 16.1 23.5 23.3 18.9 28.3

Computer and mathematical occupations

2.3 3.0 1.4 3.2 4.5 1.7

Architecture and engineering occupations

1.5 2.3 0.5 2.1 3.4 0.7

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.6 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.0

Community and social service occupations

2.1 1.4 2.9 1.7 1.1 2.4

Legal occupations

1.2 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

5.5 3.1 8.5 6.0 3.1 9.4

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.2 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.1

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

4.0 2.2 6.1 6.0 2.8 9.7

Service occupations

20.2 16.5 24.8 17.3 14.2 20.9

Healthcare support occupations

2.3 0.6 4.4 2.3 0.6 4.2

Protective service occupations

2.1 2.7 1.3 2.0 3.0 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.5 4.4 6.9 5.4 4.7 6.2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5.9 6.7 4.9 3.8 4.2 3.3

Personal care and service occupations

4.5 2.0 7.5 3.9 1.7 6.2

Sales and office occupations

22.7 16.1 30.8 21.9 15.9 28.5

Sales and related occupations

10.2 8.8 11.9 10.3 9.9 10.8

Office and administrative support occupations

12.5 7.3 18.8 11.5 6.0 17.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

8.9 15.5 1.0 9.3 16.6 1.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.9 1.4 0.3 0.8 1.1 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

4.1 7.3 0.3 5.3 9.7 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.9 6.8 0.4 3.2 5.8 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.1 19.4 7.5 11.6 16.9 5.6

Production occupations

6.7 8.7 4.4 5.5 7.4 3.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.3 10.8 3.1 6.1 9.6 2.2

Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker, and sex, 2017 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Industry and class of worker Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,670 3,111 2,558 147,668 78,290 69,377

Industry as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

3.1 4.5 1.3 1.5 2.2 0.8

Nonagricultural industries

96.9 95.5 98.7 98.5 97.8 99.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.3 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.1

Construction

5.9 9.8 1.1 7.0 12.0 1.4

Manufacturing

10.2 13.3 6.6 10.0 13.3 6.3

Wholesale trade

1.9 2.6 1.0 2.4 3.1 1.5

Retail trade

12.7 12.5 12.9 10.8 10.6 11.1

Transportation and utilities

5.2 7.0 3.0 5.3 7.6 2.7

Information

1.9 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.2 1.6

Financial activities

5.3 4.9 5.8 6.9 6.1 7.8

Professional and business services

12.0 13.2 10.5 12.3 13.4 11.1

Education and health services

21.6 11.5 33.8 22.5 10.8 35.8

Leisure and hospitality

9.0 8.0 10.3 9.3 8.6 10.1

Other services

6.2 5.6 6.9 4.8 4.4 5.3

Public administration

4.7 4.6 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.4

Class of worker as a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Wage and salary workers(2)

89.3 87.7 91.4 93.9 93.1 94.8

Private industries

74.9 75.7 74.0 80.3 82.0 78.4

Government

14.4 12.0 17.3 13.6 11.1 16.4

Federal

2.8 3.2 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.2

State

5.3 3.8 7.1 4.6 3.5 5.8

Local

6.4 5.1 7.9 6.7 5.1 8.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10.6 12.3 8.5 6.0 6.9 5.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex, 2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Category Total,
16 years and
over
16 to 64 years Total,
65 years and
over
Total Men Women

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

24,106 10,580 5,026 5,554 13,526

Persons who currently want a job

698 464 230 234 234

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

196 148 82 67 48

Discouraged workers(2)

49 35 23 12 14

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

147 114 59 55 34

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

70,653 44,215 16,242 27,973 26,439

Persons who currently want a job

4,820 4,202 1,907 2,296 618

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,391 1,265 661 605 126

Discouraged workers(2)

427 381 240 141 46

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

964 884 421 464 80

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.


Last Modified Date: June 21, 2018