Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, June 21, 2017                         USDL-17-0857

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


        PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2016


In 2016, 17.9 percent of persons with a disability were employed, the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. In contrast, the employment-population ratio for those 
without a disability was 65.3 percent. The employment-population ratio for both persons 
with and without a disability increased from 2015 to 2016 (by 0.4 percentage point for 
persons with a disability and by 0.3 percentage point for persons with no disability). 
The unemployment rate for persons with a disability, at 10.5 percent, was little changed 
from the previous year, while the rate for those without a disability declined to 4.6 
percent.

The data on persons with a disability are collected as part of the Current Population 
Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that provides statistics 
on employment and unemployment in the United States. The collection of data on persons 
with a disability is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability 
Employment Policy. For more information, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2016 data:

   --Nearly half of all persons with a disability were age 65 and over, about three 
     times larger than the share of those with no disability. (See table 1.)

   --For all age groups, the employment-population ratio was much lower for persons 
     with a disability than for those with no disability. (See table 1.)

   --For all educational attainment groups, jobless rates for persons with a disability
     were higher than those for persons without a disability. (See table 1.)

   --In 2016, 34 percent of workers with a disability were employed part time, compared 
     with 18 percent for those with no disability. (See table 2.)

   --Employed persons with a disability were more likely to be self-employed than those 
     with no disability. (See table 4.)

Demographic characteristics	

Persons with a disability tend to be older than persons with no disability, reflecting the 
increased incidence of disability with age. In 2016, 47 percent of persons with a disability 
were age 65 and over, compared with 15 percent of those with no disability. Women were more 
likely to have a disability than men, and Blacks and Whites had a higher prevalence of 
disability than Asians and Hispanics. (See table 1.)

Employment

In 2016, the employment-population ratio for persons with a disability increased from 17.5 
percent to 17.9 percent. For those with no disability, the ratio increased from 65.0 
percent to 65.3 percent. The lower ratio among persons with a disability reflects, in part, 
the older age profile of persons with a disability; older workers are less likely to be 
employed regardless of disability status. However, across all age groups, persons with a 
disability were much less likely to be employed than those with no disability. (See tables 
A and 1.)

Among persons age 16 to 64, the employment-population ratio rose for both persons with a 
disability (27.7 percent) and those without a disability (72.8 percent) from 2015 to 2016. 
The ratio for persons age 65 and over with a disability, at 7.1 percent, increased in 2016, 
while the ratio for persons without a disability, at 23.4 percent, changed little. 
(See table A.)

Persons with a disability are less likely to have completed a bachelor's degree or higher 
than those with no disability. Among both groups, those who had attained higher levels of 
education were more likely to be employed than those with less education. Across all levels 
of education in 2016, persons with a disability were much less likely to be employed than 
were their counterparts with no disability. (Educational attainment data are presented for 
those age 25 and over.) (See table 1.)

Workers with a disability were more likely to be employed part time than those with no 
disability. Among workers with a disability, 34 percent usually worked part time in 2016, 
compared with 18 percent of those without a disability. The proportion of workers who were 
employed part time for economic reasons continued to be slightly higher among those with a 
disability than among those without a disability (6 percent versus 4 percent). These 
individuals were working part time because their hours had been cut back or because they 
were not able to find a full-time job. (See table 2.)

In 2016, persons with a disability were more concentrated in service occupations than those 
with no disability (21.3 percent, compared with 17.6 percent). Workers with a disability 
were more likely than those with no disability to work in production, transportation, and 
material moving occupations (14.6 percent, compared with 11.6 percent). Persons with a 
disability were less likely to work in management, professional, and related occupations 
than those without a disability (31.7 percent, compared with 39.5 percent). (See table 3.)

The proportion of persons employed in government was about the same for both persons with 
a disability and persons without a disability in 2016 (14.0 percent and 13.6 percent, 
respectively). However, a smaller share of workers with a disability were employed as 
private wage and salary workers (75.4 percent), compared with those with no disability 
(80.1 percent), and a larger share were self-employed than were those with no disability 
(10.6 percent versus 6.2 percent). (See table 4.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 10.5 percent in 2016, about twice 
that of those with no disability (4.6 percent). (Unemployed persons are those who did not 
have a job, were available for work, and were actively looking for a job in the 4 weeks 
preceding the survey.) The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was little 
changed over the year, while the rate for persons without a disability declined by 0.5 
percentage point to 4.6 percent in 2016. (See tables A and 1.)

Among persons with a disability, the unemployment rates were similar for both men and 
women in 2016 (10.1 percent and 11.0 percent, respectively). The rates for both men and 
women changed little from 2015 to 2016. Jobless rates for persons with a disability also 
showed little change among major race and ethnicity groups in 2016. As is the case among 
persons without a disability, the jobless rate for those with a disability was higher for 
Blacks (16.6 percent) than for Hispanics (12.5 percent), Asians (10.7 percent), and Whites 
(9.5 percent). (See table 1.)

Not in the labor force

Persons who are neither employed nor unemployed are not in the labor force. A larger 
proportion of persons with a disability--about 8 in 10--were not in the labor force in 2016, 
compared with about 3 in 10 of those with no disability. In part, this reflects the older 
age profile of persons with a disability; persons age 65 and over are much less likely to 
participate in the labor force than younger age groups. Across all age groups, however, 
persons with a disability were more likely to be out of the labor force than those with no 
disability. (See table 1.)

Regardless of disability status, the vast majority of those not in the labor force do not 
want a job; in 2016, 3 percent of those with a disability and 7 percent of those without a 
disability wanted a job. About 1 percent of persons with a disability and 2 percent of 
those without a disability were marginally attached to the labor force. These individuals 
wanted and were available to work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 
months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 
weeks preceding the survey. (Persons marginally attached to the labor force include 
discouraged workers.) (See table 5.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and age, 2015 and 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,752 15,771 13,981 29,971 15,746 14,225

Civilian labor force

5,813 4,812 1,001 6,005 4,919 1,086

Participation rate

19.5 30.5 7.2 20.0 31.2 7.6

Employed

5,193 4,250 942 5,372 4,356 1,016

Employment-population ratio

17.5 26.9 6.7 17.9 27.7 7.1

Unemployed

621 562 59 633 564 70

Unemployment rate

10.7 11.7 5.9 10.5 11.5 6.4

Not in labor force

23,939 10,959 12,980 23,965 10,827 13,139

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

221,049 188,521 32,528 223,567 189,757 33,810

Civilian labor force

151,317 143,517 7,800 153,182 144,996 8,185

Participation rate

68.5 76.1 24.0 68.5 76.4 24.2

Employed

143,641 136,119 7,522 146,064 138,164 7,900

Employment-population ratio

65.0 72.2 23.1 65.3 72.8 23.4

Unemployed

7,676 7,398 278 7,118 6,832 285

Unemployment rate

5.1 5.2 3.6 4.6 4.7 3.5

Not in labor force

69,732 45,004 24,728 70,385 44,761 25,624

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data obtained from  
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. 
Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of 
about 60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force 
status, demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian
noninstitutional population age 16 and over.
   
   Questions were added to the CPS in June 2008 to identify persons with a 
disability in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older. The 
addition of these questions allowed the BLS to begin releasing monthly labor 
force data from the CPS for persons with a disability. The collection of these 
data is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment 
Policy.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling 
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is 
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values 
they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples 
differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured 
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more 
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling 
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of 
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can 
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the 
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, 
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS and 
estimating standard errors is available at 
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   CPS estimates are controlled to population totals that are available by 
age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. These controls are developed by the 
Census Bureau and are based on complete population counts obtained in the 
decennial census. In the years between decennial censuses, they incorporate 
the latest information about population change (births, deaths, and net
international migration). ). As part of its annual update of population
estimates, the Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the total population
controls. The updated controls typically have a negligible impact on 
unemployment rates and other ratios. The estimates of the population of 
persons with a disability are not controlled to independent population totals 
of persons with a disability because such data are not available. Without 
independent population totals, sample-based estimates are more apt to vary 
from one time period to the next.  Information about population controls is 
available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Disability questions and concepts

   The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. 
In the CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response 
of "yes" to any of these questions. The disability questions appear in the CPS 
in the following format:

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for household members who are 15 years old or over.

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty 
     hearing?

   --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty
     seeing even when wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or
     making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing
     stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a
     doctor's office or shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only 
asked of household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions ask 
the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and 
if the respondent replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in 
the household who has the condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are 
tabulated for persons age 16 and older. More information on the disability 
questions and the limitations of the CPS disability data is available on the 
BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Other definitions

   Other definitions used in this release are described briefly below. 
Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available 
at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Employed.  Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference 
week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own 
business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as 
unpaid workers in a family member's business.  Persons who were temporarily 
absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor 
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed.  Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the 
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific 
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they 
had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as 
unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons 
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate represents the number of 
unemployed persons as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Not in the labor force.  Persons not in the labor force include all those who 
are not classified as employed or unemployed. Information is collected on their 
desire for and availability to take a job at the time of the CPS interview, job 
search activity in the prior year, and reason for not looking in the 4-week 
period ending with the reference week. This group includes individuals marginally 
attached to the labor force, defined as persons not in the labor force who want 
and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 
months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 
months). They are not counted as unemployed because they had not actively searched 
for work in the prior 4 weeks. Within the marginally attached group are discouraged 
workers—persons who are not currently looking for work because they believe there 
are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify. The other 
persons marginally attached to the labor force group includes persons who want 
a job but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks for reasons such as family 
responsibilities or transportation problems.

   Part time for economic reasons.  Persons classified as at work part time for 
economic reasons, a measure sometimes referred to as involuntary part time, are 
those who gave an economic reason for working 1 to 34 hours during the reference 
week. Economic reasons include slack work or unfavorable business conditions, 
inability to find full-time work, and seasonal declines in demand. Those who 
usually work part time must also indicate that they want and are available for 
full-time work to be classified as part time for economic reasons.

   Occupation, industry, and class of worker.  The occupation, industry, and 
class of worker classifications for the employed relate to the job held in the 
survey reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job 
at which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using 
the 2010 Census occupational and 2012 Census industry classification systems. 
The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the following categories: 
Private and government wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and 
unpaid family workers. Wage and salary workers receive wages, salary, 
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government 
unit. Self-employed persons are those who work for profit or fees in their own 
business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are 
included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons who respond that 
their businesses are incorporated are included among wage and salary workers. 
Unpaid family workers are persons working without pay for 15 hours a week or 
more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

Men

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

Women

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

29,971 6,005 20.0 5,372 17.9 633 10.5 23,965

Men

13,898 3,295 23.7 2,961 21.3 334 10.1 10,603

Women

16,073 2,710 16.9 2,411 15.0 299 11.0 13,363

Age

16 to 64 years

15,746 4,919 31.2 4,356 27.7 564 11.5 10,827

16 to 19 years

654 161 24.6 103 15.8 58 35.8 493

20 to 24 years

913 399 43.7 321 35.1 78 19.5 514

25 to 34 years

1,824 770 42.2 657 36.0 113 14.6 1,054

35 to 44 years

2,161 827 38.3 745 34.5 82 9.9 1,333

45 to 54 years

3,807 1,159 30.4 1,049 27.5 110 9.5 2,648

55 to 64 years

6,387 1,603 25.1 1,480 23.2 123 7.7 4,784

65 years and over

14,225 1,086 7.6 1,016 7.1 70 6.4 13,139

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

23,934 4,824 20.2 4,367 18.2 457 9.5 19,110

Black or African American

4,069 698 17.2 582 14.3 116 16.6 3,371

Asian

795 138 17.3 123 15.5 15 10.7 657

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,124 684 21.9 598 19.2 85 12.5 2,440

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

28,404 5,446 19.2 4,948 17.4 498 9.1 22,958

Less than a high school diploma

5,633 585 10.4 507 9.0 78 13.3 5,048

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,350 1,669 16.1 1,519 14.7 150 9.0 8,680

Some college or associate degree

7,457 1,798 24.1 1,620 21.7 178 9.9 5,659

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

4,964 1,394 28.1 1,301 26.2 93 6.6 3,570

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

223,567 153,182 68.5 146,064 65.3 7,118 4.6 70,385

Men

108,599 81,459 75.0 77,607 71.5 3,852 4.7 27,140

Women

114,968 71,722 62.4 68,457 59.5 3,266 4.6 43,245

Age

16 to 64 years

189,757 144,996 76.4 138,164 72.8 6,832 4.7 44,761

16 to 19 years

16,060 5,728 35.7 4,861 30.3 867 15.1 10,331

20 to 24 years

20,808 14,914 71.7 13,706 65.9 1,208 8.1 5,893

25 to 34 years

41,723 34,750 83.3 33,065 79.2 1,685 4.8 6,973

35 to 44 years

37,656 31,992 85.0 30,817 81.8 1,175 3.7 5,663

45 to 54 years

38,590 32,750 84.9 31,671 82.1 1,079 3.3 5,841

55 to 64 years

34,921 24,862 71.2 24,044 68.9 818 3.3 10,059

65 years and over

33,810 8,185 24.2 7,900 23.4 285 3.5 25,624

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

174,281 119,834 68.8 114,946 66.0 4,888 4.1 54,447

Black or African American

27,820 18,939 68.1 17,400 62.5 1,539 8.1 8,881

Asian

14,326 9,424 65.8 9,090 63.5 334 3.5 4,902

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

37,573 26,113 69.5 24,651 65.6 1,463 5.6 11,459

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

186,699 132,539 71.0 127,497 68.3 5,042 3.8 54,160

Less than a high school diploma

17,735 10,094 56.9 9,377 52.9 717 7.1 7,641

High school graduates, no college(1)

51,672 33,979 65.8 32,282 62.5 1,697 5.0 17,693

Some college or associate degree

49,728 36,136 72.7 34,766 69.9 1,371 3.8 13,591

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

67,565 52,329 77.5 51,073 75.6 1,257 2.4 15,235

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Disability status and age Employed At work
part time for
economic
reasons(1)
Total Usually
work
full time
Usually
work
part time

TOTAL

16 years and over

151,436 123,761 27,675 5,943

16 to 64 years

142,520 118,357 24,162 5,712

65 years and over

8,916 5,403 3,513 231

Persons with a disability

16 years and over

5,372 3,564 1,808 299

16 to 64 years

4,356 3,088 1,267 267

65 years and over

1,016 476 541 32

Persons with no disability

16 years and over

146,064 120,197 25,867 5,645

16 to 64 years

138,164 115,269 22,895 5,445

65 years and over

7,900 4,927 2,973 199

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons who, whether they usually work full or part time, worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand. Persons who usually work part time for an economic reason, but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week are excluded. Also excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire reference week.

NOTE: Full time refers to persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week; part time refers to persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.


Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex, 2016 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,372 2,961 2,411 146,064 77,607 68,457

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

31.7 29.3 34.6 39.5 36.1 43.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14.2 15.4 12.6 16.6 17.5 15.5

Management occupations

10.2 12.1 7.8 11.5 13.2 9.7

Business and financial operations occupations

3.9 3.3 4.7 5.0 4.3 5.8

Professional and related occupations

17.5 13.8 22.1 23.0 18.6 28.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

2.0 2.8 1.1 3.1 4.3 1.7

Architecture and engineering occupations

1.5 2.3 0.5 2.1 3.3 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.6 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.9

Community and social service occupations

2.1 1.6 2.7 1.7 1.1 2.4

Legal occupations

0.8 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.3

Education, training, and library occupations

4.6 2.1 7.6 6.0 3.0 9.3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.1 1.9 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.1

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

3.8 1.7 6.3 6.0 2.8 9.7

Service occupations

21.3 18.0 25.3 17.6 14.3 21.3

Healthcare support occupations

2.3 0.6 4.5 2.3 0.5 4.4

Protective service occupations

2.0 3.0 0.8 2.1 3.0 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.9 5.0 7.1 5.6 4.9 6.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

6.3 7.3 5.0 3.7 4.2 3.2

Personal care and service occupations

4.8 2.2 8.0 3.8 1.6 6.3

Sales and office occupations

23.0 16.4 31.0 22.1 16.2 28.9

Sales and related occupations

10.5 9.3 12.1 10.5 10.1 10.9

Office and administrative support occupations

12.4 7.2 18.9 11.7 6.1 18.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.5 16.1 1.3 9.2 16.5 0.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.7 1.1 0.4 0.7 1.1 0.3

Construction and extraction occupations

5.1 8.8 0.5 5.2 9.6 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.6 6.2 0.4 3.2 5.8 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.6 20.1 7.8 11.6 17.0 5.4

Production occupations

6.9 8.7 4.7 5.5 7.5 3.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.7 11.4 3.1 6.1 9.6 2.1

Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker, and sex, 2016 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Industry and class of worker Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,372 2,961 2,411 146,064 77,607 68,457

Industry as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

3.0 4.1 1.7 1.6 2.2 0.8

Nonagricultural industries

97.0 95.9 98.3 98.4 97.8 99.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.4 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.9 0.2

Construction

6.5 10.5 1.6 6.8 11.7 1.3

Manufacturing

10.1 13.3 6.1 10.2 13.6 6.3

Wholesale trade

2.2 3.2 1.0 2.4 3.2 1.5

Retail trade

12.8 12.3 13.4 10.9 10.7 11.1

Transportation and utilities

4.9 6.7 2.7 5.3 7.6 2.7

Information

1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.1 1.6

Financial activities

5.4 4.8 6.2 6.9 6.2 7.7

Professional and business services

11.2 12.5 9.7 12.1 13.4 10.7

Education and health services

21.2 11.1 33.6 22.7 10.8 36.2

Leisure and hospitality

9.9 8.5 11.5 9.4 8.7 10.1

Other services

6.1 6.2 6.0 4.8 4.3 5.4

Public administration

4.5 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.4

Class of worker as a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Wage and salary workers(2)

89.3 87.7 91.2 93.8 92.7 94.9

Private industries

75.4 76.1 74.5 80.1 81.7 78.4

Government

14.0 11.7 16.7 13.6 11.1 16.6

Federal

2.9 3.3 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.3

State

4.9 3.6 6.4 4.6 3.5 6.0

Local

6.2 4.8 7.8 6.6 5.1 8.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10.6 12.2 8.6 6.2 7.2 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Category Total,
16 years and
over
16 to 64 years Total,
65 years and
over
Total Men Women

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

23,965 10,827 5,097 5,730 13,139

Persons who currently want a job

734 506 242 264 228

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

198 155 84 71 43

Discouraged workers(2)

52 39 27 12 13

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

147 117 57 60 30

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

70,385 44,761 16,339 28,422 25,624

Persons who currently want a job

5,115 4,527 2,099 2,428 587

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,605 1,465 778 687 141

Discouraged workers(2)

502 446 280 166 56

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,103 1,018 498 521 85

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.


Last Modified Date: June 21, 2017