Technical Note The data in this release were collected through a supplement to the July 2019 Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force status, demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over. The July 2019 supplement was designed to gather data in several specific areas related to the employment situation of persons with disabilities. The collection of these data was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor's Chief Evaluation Office. Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200, Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. Definitions and concepts from the monthly CPS Disability status. The monthly CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. In the CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response of "yes" to any of these questions. Persons who respond "no" to all of these questions are classified as having no disability. The disability questions are as follows. This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer for all household members who are 15 years old or over. --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty hearing? --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing glasses? --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions? --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs? --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing? --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctorís office or shopping? The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only asked of household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions asks the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and if the respondent replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in the household who has the condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are tabulated for persons age 16 and older. More information on the disability questions and the merits and limitations of the CPS disability data is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm. Labor force status. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family memberís business. Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed. Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed. Civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as employed or unemployed. Unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed persons as a percent of the civilian labor force. Not in the labor force includes all persons who are not classified as employed or unemployed. Not employed includes persons who were unemployed or not in the labor force. Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm. Selected questions and concepts from the July 2019 supplement Barriers to employment. This information was obtained from responses to a question asked of persons with a disability who were not employed (that is, either unemployed or not in the labor force). Respondents were classified as having a barrier to employment if they answered "yes" to one or more of the response options in the following question. The purpose of this next question is to identify barriers to employment faced by persons with difficulties. Do you consider any of the following a barrier to employment for you? 1. Lack of education or training 2. Lack of job counseling 3. Lack of transportation 4. Loss of government assistance 5. Need for special features at the job 6. Employer or coworker attitudes 7. Your difficulty (hearing/seeing/concentrating, remembering, or making decisions/walking or climbing stairs/dressing or bathing/doing errands alone) 8. Other Prior work experience. This information was obtained from answers to the following question, which was asked of persons with a disability who were not employed and had not already reported working before. Have you ever worked for pay at a job or business? 1. Yes 2. No Career assistance. Persons with a disability were asked the following question to determine whether they had received certain types of career assistance. Individuals could give multiple responses. The purpose of this next question is to find out if you have taken advantage of any of the following sources that help people prepare for work or advance on the job. In the past 5 years, have you received assistance from: 1. State Vocational Rehabilitation agencies 2. One-Stop Career Centers 3. Ticket to Work program 4. Assistive Technology Act program 5. Center for Independent Living for individuals with disabilities 6. Client Assistance Program 7. Any other employment assistance program Financial assistance. This information was obtained from responses to two questions. All persons were asked the following question and could give multiple responses. There are a variety of programs designed to provide financial assistance to people. In the past year, did you receive assistance from any of the following programs? 1. Workersí Compensation 2. Social Security Disability Income 3. Supplemental Security Income 4. Veterans Disability Compensation 5. Disability insurance payments 6. Other disability payments 7. Medicaid 8. Medicare 9. Other program The following question was asked only of persons who indicated in the above question that they received assistance from one or more programs. Some financial assistance programs include limitations on the amount of work you can do. Did this program cause you to work less than you would otherwise? 1. Yes 2. No Level of disability-related difficulty in completing work duties. This information was obtained from answers to the following question, which was asked of employed persons with a disability. Previously, you mentioned that you had difficulty (hearing/seeing/concentrating, remembering, or making decisions/walking or climbing stairs/dressing or bathing/doing errands alone). How has this difficulty affected your ability to complete current work duties? Would you say this has caused no difficulty, a little difficulty, moderate difficulty, or severe difficulty? 1. No difficulty 2. A little difficulty 3. Moderate difficulty 4. Severe difficulty Requested changes in the current workplace. This information was obtained from answers to two questions. The first, asked of all employed persons, was as follows. Have you ever requested any change in your current workplace to help you do your job better? For example, changes in work policies, equipment, or schedules. 1. Yes 2. No The following question was asked only of persons who responded "yes" to the above question. Individuals could identify multiple changes. What changes did you request? 1. New or modified equipment 2. Physical changes to the workplace 3. Policy changes to the workplace 4. Changes in work tasks, job structure, or schedule 5. Changes in communication or information sharing 6. Changes to comply with religious beliefs 7. Accommodations for family or personal obligations 8. Training 9. Other changes Typical commute to work. This information was obtained from responses to the following question, which was asked of all employed persons. Individuals could identify multiple commuting methods. How do you typically commute to work? 1. Bus 2. Specialized bus or van service for people with disabilities 3. Train/subway 4. Taxi 5. Own vehicle 6. Passenger in a friend or family memberís car 7. Carpool 8. Bicycle 9. Walk 10. Other 11. Work from home Work at home. This information was obtained from two questions. First, persons who answered "work from home" to the question regarding their typical commute to work were included among those who work at home. In addition, the following question was asked of all remaining employed persons. Do you do any work at home for your job or business? 1. Yes 2. No Flexible work hours. All employed persons were asked the following question to determine whether they have flexible work hours at their current job. Do you have flexible work hours that allow you to vary or make changes in the time you begin and end work? 1. Yes 2. No Temporary jobs. All employed persons were asked the following question to determine if their jobs were temporary. Some people are in temporary jobs that last only for a limited time or until the completion of a project. Is your job temporary? 1. Yes 2. No Comparability of the estimates The concepts of barriers to employment, prior work experience, career and financial assistance, and other labor-related issues for persons with a disability used in the July 2019 survey are the same as those used in May 2012, the first time the supplement was fielded. The questions used to identify these workers were essentially unchanged. However, there are a few issues that could affect the comparability of these estimates with those from 2012. For example, changes in the demographic characteristics of people with disabilities can complicate comparisons of data over time. Also, the 2012 and 2019 supplements were collected at different points in the business cycle. In addition, the 2019 supplement was collected in July, and the 2012 supplement was collected in May. Reliability of the estimates Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The monthly CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data. General information on the reliability of data from the CPS is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.