Employment Characteristics of Families News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, April 20, 2017                       USDL-17-0444

Technical information: (202) 691-6378 * cpsinfo@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


                       EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES -- 2016


In 2016, 6.5 percent of families included an unemployed person, down from 6.9 percent in
2015, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Of the nation's 82.1 million
families, 80.4 percent had at least one employed member in 2016.

These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are collected as part
of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households.
Data in this release are annual averages. Families are classified either as married-
couple families or as families maintained by women or men without spouses present.
Unless otherwise noted, families include those without children as well as those with
children under age 18. For further information, see the Technical Note in this news
release.

Families and Unemployment

The number of families with at least one member unemployed decreased by 314,000 to 5.3
million in 2016. The proportion of families with an unemployed person declined by 0.4
percentage point to 6.5 percent. Black and Hispanic families remained more likely to
have an unemployed member in 2016 (10.9 percent and 8.7 percent, respectively) than
White or Asian families (5.7 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively). This proportion
is down over the year for White, Black, and Hispanic families. (See table 1.)

Just over two-thirds (69.0 percent) of families with an unemployed member also had at
least one family member who was employed in 2016, and 59.7 percent had at least one
family member who was working full time. Both measures are up over the year. In 2016,
Black families with an unemployed member remained less likely to also have an employed
family member (57.8 percent) than White (72.3 percent), Asian (76.9 percent), or
Hispanic families (72.6 percent). (See table 1.)

In 2016, 3.1 million married-couple families had an unemployed member (5.2 percent),
less than the corresponding percentages of families maintained by women or families
maintained by men (9.8 percent and 9.5 percent, respectively). Among families with at
least one unemployed family member, those maintained by women were less likely to also
have an employed family member (50.1 percent) than families maintained by men and
married-couple families (58.5 percent and 80.4 percent, respectively). This proportion
for married-couple families and families maintained by men was about the same as in
the prior year, while it increased by 1.9 percentage points for families maintained by
women. (See tables 2 and 3.)

Families and Employment

In 2016, 80.4 percent of families had at least one employed family member, little
different from the prior year. Over the year, the likelihood of having an employed
family member was about unchanged among White (80.2 percent), Black (77.8 percent),
Asian (88.5 percent), and Hispanic families (86.7 percent). (See table 1.)

In 2016, families maintained by women remained less likely to have an employed member
(76.6 percent) than families maintained by men (83.6 percent) or married-couple families
(81.1 percent). Among married-couple families, both the husband and wife were employed
in 48.0 percent of families; in 19.5 percent of married-couple families only the husband
was employed, and in 7.1 percent only the wife was employed. (See table 2.)

Families with Children

In 2016, 34.2 million families included children under age 18, about two-fifths of all
families. (Children are sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children living in the
household who are under 18 years old. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren,
other related and unrelated children, and children not living in the household.) At least
one parent was employed in 89.7 percent of families with children in 2016. Among married-
couple families with children, 96.8 percent had at least one employed parent and 61.1
percent had both parents employed. Among families of other marital statuses with children,
the mother was employed in 72.5 percent of those maintained by mothers, and the father was
employed in 82.6 percent of those maintained by fathers; both of these measures were up
over the year. (Other marital status refers to persons who never married or are widowed,
divorced, separated, or married but living apart from their spouse, as well as persons
in same-sex marriages.) (See table 4.)

Parents

The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population working or looking
for work--for all women with children under age 18 was 70.5 percent in 2016. The
participation rate for married mothers (67.9 percent) remained lower than the rate 
for mothers with other marital statuses (76.0 percent). The unemployment rate for
married mothers was also considerably lower than for mothers with other marital
statuses--3.2 percent, compared with 7.8 percent. (See table 5.)

Mothers with younger children are less likely to be in the labor force than mothers
with older children. In 2016, the labor force participation rate of mothers with
children under 6 years old was lower than the rate of those whose youngest child was
6 to 17 years old (64.7 percent versus 75.0 percent). The participation rate of
mothers with infants under a year old was 58.6 percent. Among mothers with infants,
the participation rate of married mothers was lower than the rate of mothers with
other marital statuses--57.6 percent versus 60.8 percent. The unemployment rate of
mothers with infants who were married, at 3.0 percent, was substantially lower than
the rate for mothers with other marital statuses, at 12.2 percent. (See tables 5
and 6.)

In 2016, 92.8 percent of all men with children under age 18 participated in the labor
force. The participation rate for married fathers, at 93.6 percent, continued to be
higher than the rate of fathers with other marital statuses (87.7 percent). Married
fathers also continued to have a lower unemployment rate (2.6 percent) than fathers
with other marital statuses (7.0 percent). (See table 5.)

In 2016, 95.6 percent of employed fathers worked full time, compared with 76.3 percent
of employed mothers. Among employed mothers, those with young children were somewhat
less likely to work full time than those with older children. Employed fathers were
about equally likely to work full time, regardless of the age of their children. (See
tables 5 and 6.)




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the Current
Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for
the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible
households that provides information on the labor force status, demographics, and
other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16
and over.

   The data presented in this release are not strictly comparable with data for
earlier years due to the introduction of updated population estimates, or controls,
used in the CPS. The population controls are updated each year in January to reflect
the latest information about population change. Additional information is available
from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop. 

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request: Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that
the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The
exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample
selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.
There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based
on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population
value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are presented below.

   Householder. The householder is the family reference person. This is the person
(or one of the persons) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. The
relationship of other individuals in the household is defined in terms of their
relationship to the householder. The race or ethnicity of the family is determined
by that of the householder.

   Family. A family is a group of two or more persons residing together who are related
by birth, marriage, or adoption. The count of families is for "primary" families only,
that is, the householder and all other persons related to and residing with the
householder. Families include those without children as well as those with children 
under 18 years and are defined as follows:

   --Married-couple families refer to opposite-sex married couples only.

   --Families maintained by women or men are made up of householders residing with
     one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse. The household may
     or may not include a same-sex spouse or an unmarried domestic partner (of
     either sex).

   This release presents data for two marital status categories, defined below. Marital
status is based on a person's status at the time of the survey.

   Married, spouse present. Married, spouse present,  includes persons in opposite-sex
marriages living together in the same household, even though one may be temporarily
absent on business, on vacation, on a visit, in a hospital, or for other reasons.

   Other marital status. Other marital status includes persons who are never married;
widowed; divorced; separated; married, spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex
marriages. Separated includes persons with legal separations, those living apart with
intentions of obtaining a divorce, and other persons permanently or temporarily 
separated because of marital discord. Married, spouse absent, includes opposite-sex
married persons living apart because either the husband or wife was employed and living
at a considerable distance from home, was serving away from home in the Armed Forces,
had moved to another area, or had a different place of residence for any other reason
except separation as defined above.

   Children. Data on children refer to own children under age 18 that live in the
household. Included are sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children of the
husband, wife, or person maintaining the family. Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the
household.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week,
(a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession,
or on their own farm; (c) or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise
operated by a member of the family. Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, vacation, labor disputes, or another reason also are counted as
employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the reference
week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find
employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons
who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as
employed or unemployed. Unemployment rate.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of
the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor
force as a percent of the population.

   Employment-population ratio. The employment-population ratio is the employed as a
percent of the population.




Table 1. Employment and unemployment in families by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016

EMPLOYMENT IN FAMILIES

Total families

81,410 82,092

With at least one family member employed

65,360 66,023

As a percent of total families

80.3 80.4

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

59,520 60,065

With no family member employed

16,050 16,069

As a percent of total families

19.7 19.6

White

Total families

64,663 65,083

With at least one family member employed

51,769 52,209

As a percent of total families

80.1 80.2

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

47,225 47,611

With no family member employed

12,894 12,873

As a percent of total families

19.9 19.8

Black or African American

Total families

9,854 9,976

With at least one family member employed

7,652 7,764

As a percent of total families

77.7 77.8

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

6,792 6,835

With no family member employed

2,202 2,212

As a percent of total families

22.3 22.2

Asian

Total families

4,538 4,707

With at least one family member employed

4,020 4,166

As a percent of total families

88.6 88.5

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

3,786 3,933

With no family member employed

518 541

As a percent of total families

11.4 11.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

12,602 12,900

With at least one family member employed

10,883 11,182

As a percent of total families

86.4 86.7

With at least one family member employed full time(1)

9,914 10,217

With no family member employed

1,719 1,718

As a percent of total families

13.6 13.3

UNEMPLOYMENT IN FAMILIES

Total families

81,410 82,092

With at least one family member unemployed

5,615 5,301

As a percent of total families

6.9 6.5

Some family member(s) employed

3,831 3,656

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

68.2 69.0

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

3,302 3,162

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

58.8 59.7

White

Total families

64,663 65,083

With at least one family member unemployed

3,908 3,711

As a percent of total families

6.0 5.7

Some family member(s) employed

2,784 2,684

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

71.2 72.3

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

2,408 2,343

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

61.6 63.1

Black or African American

Total families

9,854 9,976

With at least one family member unemployed

1,184 1,086

As a percent of total families

12.0 10.9

Some family member(s) employed

666 628

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

56.3 57.8

Some family member employed full time(1)

558 524

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

47.2 48.2

Asian

Total families

4,538 4,707

With at least one family member unemployed

260 265

As a percent of total families

5.7 5.6

Some family member(s) employed

213 204

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

82.1 76.9

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

191 185

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

73.6 69.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total families

12,602 12,900

With at least one family member unemployed

1,220 1,117

As a percent of total families

9.7 8.7

Some family member(s) employed

864 811

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

70.8 72.6

Some family member(s) employed full time(1)

740 702

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

60.7 62.9

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.

NOTE: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2015 2016 2015 2016

MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES(1)

Total

59,217 59,747 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

48,205 48,440 81.4 81.1

Husband only

11,726 11,649 19.8 19.5

Wife only

4,209 4,253 7.1 7.1

Husband and wife

28,434 28,693 48.0 48.0

Other employment combinations

3,837 3,845 6.5 6.4

With no family member employed

11,012 11,307 18.6 18.9

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN(2)

Total

15,693 15,669 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

11,765 12,001 75.0 76.6

Householder only

6,451 6,502 41.1 41.5

Householder and other member(s)

3,181 3,293 20.3 21.0

Other member(s), not householder

2,133 2,205 13.6 14.1

With no family member employed

3,928 3,668 25.0 23.4

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN(2)

Total

6,499 6,676 100.0 100.0

With at least one family member employed

5,389 5,582 82.9 83.6

Householder only

2,517 2,577 38.7 38.6

Householder and other member(s)

1,932 2,050 29.7 30.7

Other member(s), not householder

940 955 14.5 14.3

With no family member employed

1,110 1,094 17.1 16.4

Footnotes
(1) Refers to opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Unemployment in families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2015 2016 2015 2016

MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES(1)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

3,292 3,122 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

2,653 2,511 80.6 80.4

No family member employed

639 612 19.4 19.6

Unemployment of family members

Husband unemployed(2)

1,194 1,149 36.3 36.8

Wife employed

739 702 22.5 22.5

Wife unemployed, husband employed or not in labor force

947 913 28.8 29.2

Husband employed

786 775 23.9 24.8

Other family member(s) unemployed

1,151 1,060 35.0 34.0

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN(3)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

1,666 1,543 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

804 774 48.2 50.1

No family member employed

862 770 51.8 49.9

Unemployment of family members

Householder unemployed

770 710 46.2 46.0

Other member(s) employed

181 174 10.8 11.3

Other family member(s) unemployed

896 833 53.8 54.0

FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN(3)

With at least one family member unemployed, total

657 635 100.0 100.0

Employment of family members

Some family member(s) employed

375 372 57.0 58.5

No family member employed

282 264 43.0 41.5

Unemployment of family members

Householder unemployed

378 354 57.5 55.6

Other member(s) employed

158 153 24.1 24.0

Other family member(s) unemployed

280 282 42.5 44.4

Footnotes
(1) Refers to opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) Total families with unemployed husbands, including those with unemployed wives.
(3) No opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Families with own children: Employment status of parents by age of youngest child and family type, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Number Percent distribution
2015 2016 2015 2016

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Total families

34,363 34,206 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

30,672 30,671 89.3 89.7

No parent employed

3,692 3,534 10.7 10.3

Married-couple families(1)

Total

23,401 23,125 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

22,631 22,379 96.7 96.8

Mother employed

15,420 15,377 65.9 66.5

Both parents employed

14,174 14,123 60.6 61.1

Mother employed, not father

1,246 1,254 5.3 5.4

Father employed, not mother

7,211 7,001 30.8 30.3

Neither parent employed

771 746 3.3 3.2

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

8,505 8,538 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

6,024 6,191 70.8 72.5

Mother not employed

2,481 2,347 29.2 27.5

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

2,457 2,544 100.0 100.0

Father employed

2,017 2,102 82.1 82.6

Father not employed

440 442 17.9 17.4

WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER

Total families

19,774 19,774 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

17,762 17,814 89.8 90.1

No parent employed

2,012 1,960 10.2 9.9

Married-couple families(1)

Total

13,306 13,105 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

12,842 12,649 96.5 96.5

Mother employed

9,363 9,284 70.4 70.8

Both parents employed

8,565 8,483 64.4 64.7

Mother employed, not father

798 801 6.0 6.1

Father employed, not mother

3,479 3,365 26.1 25.7

Neither parent employed

464 456 3.5 3.5

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

5,080 5,189 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

3,790 3,955 74.6 76.2

Mother not employed

1,290 1,234 25.4 23.8

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

1,388 1,481 100.0 100.0

Father employed

1,130 1,211 81.4 81.8

Father not employed

258 270 18.6 18.2

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS

Total families

14,589 14,432 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

12,910 12,857 88.5 89.1

No parent employed

1,680 1,575 11.5 10.9

Married-couple families(1)

Total

10,096 10,020 100.0 100.0

Parent(s) employed

9,789 9,730 97.0 97.1

Mother employed

6,057 6,093 60.0 60.8

Both parents employed

5,609 5,640 55.6 56.3

Mother employed, not father

448 453 4.4 4.5

Father employed, not mother

3,732 3,637 37.0 36.3

Neither parent employed

307 290 3.0 2.9

Families maintained by mother(2)

Total

3,425 3,349 100.0 100.0

Mother employed

2,234 2,236 65.2 66.8

Mother not employed

1,191 1,113 34.8 33.2

Families maintained by father(2)

Total

1,069 1,063 100.0 100.0

Father employed

887 891 83.0 83.8

Father not employed

182 172 17.0 16.2

Footnotes
(1) Refers to opposite-sex married-couple families only.
(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
Total Men Women Total Men Women

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

65,564 29,095 36,469 65,055 28,992 36,063

Civilian labor force

52,476 26,978 25,498 52,321 26,902 25,419

Participation rate

80.0 92.7 69.9 80.4 92.8 70.5

Employed

50,238 26,079 24,159 50,240 26,039 24,201

Full-time workers(1)

43,250 24,880 18,370 43,352 24,896 18,456

Part-time workers(2)

6,989 1,199 5,790 6,887 1,143 5,744

Employment-population ratio

76.6 89.6 66.2 77.2 89.8 67.1

Unemployed

2,238 899 1,339 2,082 864 1,218

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.3 5.3 4.0 3.2 4.8

Married, spouse present(3)

Civilian noninstitutional population

49,822 25,122 24,700 49,472 25,007 24,465

Civilian labor force

40,226 23,532 16,694 40,016 23,409 16,607

Participation rate

80.7 93.7 67.6 80.9 93.6 67.9

Employed

39,026 22,889 16,137 38,866 22,791 16,075

Full-time workers(1)

34,148 21,958 12,190 34,112 21,899 12,214

Part-time workers(2)

4,877 931 3,947 4,754 892 3,861

Employment-population ratio

78.3 91.1 65.3 78.6 91.1 65.7

Unemployed

1,200 643 557 1,150 618 532

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.7 3.3 2.9 2.6 3.2

Other marital status(4)

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,742 3,973 11,769 15,583 3,985 11,598

Civilian labor force

12,250 3,446 8,804 12,305 3,494 8,811

Participation rate

77.8 86.7 74.8 79.0 87.7 76.0

Employed

11,213 3,190 8,022 11,374 3,248 8,125

Full-time workers(1)

9,101 2,922 6,179 9,240 2,997 6,243

Part-time workers(2)

2,111 268 1,843 2,134 251 1,883

Employment-population ratio

71.2 80.3 68.2 73.0 81.5 70.1

Unemployed

1,038 256 782 931 246 686

Unemployment rate

8.5 7.4 8.9 7.6 7.0 7.8

WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER

Civilian noninstitutional population

36,616 16,171 20,445 36,491 16,152 20,338

Civilian labor force

30,057 14,840 15,218 30,088 14,836 15,252

Participation rate

82.1 91.8 74.4 82.5 91.9 75.0

Employed

28,923 14,392 14,531 28,998 14,393 14,605

Full-time workers(1)

25,073 13,785 11,288 25,166 13,785 11,381

Part-time workers(2)

3,850 607 3,243 3,831 607 3,224

Employment-population ratio

79.0 89.0 71.1 79.5 89.1 71.8

Unemployed

1,134 448 687 1,090 444 646

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.0 4.5 3.6 3.0 4.2

WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,948 12,924 16,024 28,565 12,840 15,724

Civilian labor force

22,419 12,138 10,281 22,233 12,066 10,167

Participation rate

77.4 93.9 64.2 77.8 94.0 64.7

Employed

21,315 11,687 9,628 21,242 11,646 9,596

Full-time workers(1)

18,177 11,095 7,082 18,186 11,110 7,076

Part-time workers(2)

3,139 592 2,547 3,056 536 2,520

Employment-population ratio

73.6 90.4 60.1 74.4 90.7 61.0

Unemployed

1,104 451 652 992 420 572

Unemployment rate

4.9 3.7 6.3 4.5 3.5 5.6

WITH NO OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS

Civilian noninstitutional population

185,237 92,006 93,231 188,482 93,505 94,978

Civilian labor force

104,654 56,643 48,011 106,866 57,852 49,014

Participation rate

56.5 61.6 51.5 56.7 61.9 51.6

Employed

98,595 53,052 45,544 101,196 54,529 46,667

Full-time workers(1)

78,243 44,471 33,772 80,408 45,671 34,738

Part-time workers(2)

20,353 8,581 11,772 20,788 8,858 11,930

Employment-population ratio

53.2 57.7 48.9 53.7 58.3 49.1

Unemployed

6,058 3,591 2,468 5,670 3,323 2,346

Unemployment rate

5.8 6.3 5.1 5.3 5.7 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.
(2) Usually work less than 35 hours per week at all jobs.
(3) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(4) Includes persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex marriages.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of mothers with own children under 3 years old by single year of age of youngest child and marital status, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
With own children under 3 years old With own children under 3 years old
Total 2 years 1 year Under 1
year
Total 2 years 1 year Under 1
year

TOTAL MOTHERS

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,308 2,920 3,254 3,134 9,158 2,850 3,322 2,985

Civilian labor force

5,714 1,869 2,024 1,821 5,662 1,858 2,055 1,749

Participation rate

61.4 64.0 62.2 58.1 61.8 65.2 61.9 58.6

Employed

5,336 1,741 1,897 1,698 5,343 1,764 1,933 1,645

Full-time workers(1)

3,882 1,280 1,370 1,232 3,870 1,312 1,392 1,165

Part-time workers(2)

1,455 462 526 466 1,473 452 540 480

Employment-population ratio

57.3 59.6 58.3 54.2 58.3 61.9 58.2 55.1

Unemployed

377 127 128 123 319 94 123 103

Unemployment rate

6.6 6.8 6.3 6.7 5.6 5.0 6.0 5.9

Married, spouse present(3)

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,341 1,974 2,252 2,114 6,335 1,964 2,302 2,069

Civilian labor force

3,772 1,198 1,356 1,218 3,768 1,210 1,367 1,191

Participation rate

59.5 60.7 60.2 57.6 59.5 61.6 59.4 57.6

Employed

3,628 1,149 1,300 1,179 3,648 1,171 1,321 1,156

Full-time workers(1)

2,698 864 961 873 2,691 876 966 849

Part-time workers(2)

931 285 339 306 957 294 356 307

Employment-population ratio

57.2 58.2 57.7 55.8 57.6 59.6 57.4 55.9

Unemployed

144 49 55 39 120 39 46 35

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.1 4.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.0

Other marital status(4)

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,967 946 1,001 1,020 2,823 886 1,020 917

Civilian labor force

1,942 670 669 603 1,894 648 689 557

Participation rate

65.4 70.9 66.8 59.1 67.1 73.1 67.5 60.8

Employed

1,708 592 596 519 1,695 594 612 489

Full-time workers(1)

1,184 415 409 359 1,179 436 427 316

Part-time workers(2)

524 177 187 160 516 158 185 173

Employment-population ratio

57.6 62.6 59.5 50.9 60.0 67.0 60.0 53.4

Unemployed

234 78 72 84 199 54 77 68

Unemployment rate

12.0 11.6 10.8 13.9 10.5 8.4 11.2 12.2

Footnotes
(1) Usually work 35 hours or more per week at all jobs.
(2) Usually work less than 35 hours per week at all jobs.
(3) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(4) Includes persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex marriages.

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: April 20, 2017