Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 18, 2017                         USDL-17-0618

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2016


The unemployment rate for foreign-born persons in the United States was 4.3 percent in 2016, 
down from 4.9 percent in 2015, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The jobless 
rate of native-born persons fell to 5.0 percent in 2016 from 5.4 percent in the prior year. 

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly 
sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are persons who reside in 
the United States but who were born outside the country or one of its outlying areas to parents 
who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign born include legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, 
temporary residents such as students and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The 
survey data, however, do not separately identify the numbers of persons in these categories. 
For further information about the survey, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2016 data:

  --In 2016, there were 27.0 million foreign-born persons in the U.S. labor force, 
    comprising 16.9 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

  --Hispanics accounted for 48.3 percent of the foreign-born labor force in 2016, 
    and Asians accounted for 25.0 percent. (See table 1.) (Data in this news release 
    for persons who are White, Black, or Asian do not include those of Hispanic or 
    Latino ethnicity. Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are presented 
    separately.)

  --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed in 
    service occupations and less likely to be employed in management, professional, 
    and related occupations. (See table 4.)

  --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary workers 
    were $715 in 2016, compared with $860 for their native-born counterparts. (See 
    table 5.) (Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including 
    variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by 
    educational attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region.)

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic composition of the foreign-born labor force differs from that of the 
native-born labor force. In 2016, men accounted for 57.9 percent of the foreign-born 
labor force, compared with 52.3 percent of the native-born labor force. By age, the 
proportion of the foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds (73.4 percent) 
was higher than for the native-born labor force (62.4 percent). Labor force participation 
is typically highest among persons in that age bracket. (See table 1.)

In 2016, nearly half (48.3 percent) of the foreign-born labor force was Hispanic, and 
one-quarter (25.0 percent) was Asian, compared with 10.4 percent and 1.9 percent, 
respectively, of the native-born labor force. About 16.2 percent of the foreign-born 
labor force was White and 9.3 percent was Black, compared with 73.0 percent and 12.1 
percent, respectively, of the native-born labor force.

In 2016, 22.4 percent of the foreign-born labor force age 25 and over had not completed 
high school, compared with 4.5 percent of the native-born labor force. The foreign born 
were less likely than the native born to have some college or an associate degree--17.0 
percent versus 29.8 percent. The proportions for foreign-born and native-born persons 
were more similar for those with a bachelor's degree or higher (35.9 percent and 39.6 
percent, respectively) and for high school graduates, no college (24.7 percent and 26.1 
percent, respectively). 

Labor Force

The share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born increased to 16.9 
percent in 2016 from 16.7 percent in 2015; it was 13.3 percent in 2000. (See table 1.)

In 2016, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 65.2 percent, 
unchanged from the prior year. The participation rate for the native born was 62.3 
percent in 2016, little different from 2015. The participation rate of foreign-born 
men was 77.8 percent in 2016, higher than the rate of 67.5 percent for native-born men. 
In contrast, 53.4 percent of foreign-born women were labor force participants, lower 
than the rate of 57.5 percent for native-born women.

Among the major race and ethnicity groups in 2016, labor force participation rates for 
foreign-born Whites (59.0 percent), Blacks (70.1 percent), Asians (63.1 percent), and 
Hispanics (67.9 percent) were little different from the prior year. The participation 
rates for native-born Whites (62.4 percent), Blacks (60.1 percent), Asians (62.6 percent), 
and Hispanics (64.0 percent) also showed little change from 2015 to 2016.

In 2016, foreign-born mothers with children under 18 years old were less likely to be 
labor force participants than were native-born mothers--58.9 percent versus 73.9 percent. 
Labor force participation differences between foreign-born and native-born mothers were 
greater among those with younger children than among those with older children. The 
labor force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with children under age 6 was 
49.5 percent in 2016, much lower than that for native-born mothers with children under 
age 6, at 69.0 percent. Among women with children under age 3, the participation rate 
for the foreign born (44.3 percent) was 22.1 percentage points below that for native
-born mothers (66.4 percent). The labor force participation rates of foreign-born and 
native-born fathers with children under age 18 were more similar, at 93.5 percent and 
92.6 percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in the West 
(24.1 percent) and the Northeast (19.5 percent) than for the nation as a whole (16.9 
percent) in 2016. In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the labor 
force than for the nation as a whole in the South (16.1 percent) and the Midwest (8.6 
percent). (See table 6.)

Unemployment

From 2015 to 2016, the unemployment rate of the foreign born declined from 4.9 percent 
to 4.3 percent, and the jobless rate for the native born fell from 5.4 percent to 5.0 
percent. The over-the-year decrease in the unemployment rates of the foreign born and 
the native born reflected decreases in the rates for both men and women. The 
unemployment rate for foreign-born men fell from 4.5 percent to 3.8 percent, and the 
rate for foreign-born women was down from 5.6 percent to 5.1 percent. Among the native 
born, the rate for men fell from 5.6 percent to 5.2 percent, while the rate for women 
was down from 5.1 percent to 4.7 percent. (See table 1.)

For both the foreign born and the native born, jobless rates vary considerably by race 
and ethnicity.  Among the foreign born, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate (6.1 
percent) in 2016. The unemployment rates were 4.7 percent for Hispanics, 3.7 percent 
for Whites, and 3.4 percent for Asians. Among the native born, Blacks also had the 
highest jobless rate (8.8 percent), followed by Hispanics (6.8 percent). The 
unemployment rates were 4.2 percent for Asians and 4.0 percent for Whites. 

Occupation

In 2016, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed 
in service occupations (23.5 percent versus 16.5 percent); in production, transportation, 
and material moving occupations (14.8 percent versus 11.1 percent); and in natural 
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (13.6 percent versus 8.3 percent). 
(See table 4.)

Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in 
management, professional, and related occupations (40.7 percent versus 32.2 percent) 
and in sales and office occupations (23.4 percent versus 15.9 percent).

Among the employed, foreign-born men were more likely than native-born men to work in 
natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations; in production, 
transportation, and material moving occupations; and in service occupations. Compared 
with employed native-born women, employed foreign-born women were more likely to be in 
service occupations; in production, transportation, and material moving occupations; 
and in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations. The disparity was 
especially great in service occupations--32.5 percent of employed foreign-born women 
worked in service occupations in 2016, compared with 19.4 percent of employed native-
born women. In contrast, employed native-born men and women were more likely than their 
foreign-born counterparts to be in management, professional, and related occupations 
and in sales and office occupations.

Earnings

In 2016, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary 
workers ($715) were 83.1 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts 
($860). Among men, median weekly earnings for the foreign born ($751) were 79.0 percent 
of the earnings of the native born ($951). Median earnings for foreign-born women ($655) 
were 86.0 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts ($762). Differences 
in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including variations in the distributions of 
foreign-born and native-born workers by educational attainment, occupation, industry, 
and geographic region. (See table 5.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and 
salary workers earned 83.5 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2016. 
For Black workers, earnings for the foreign born and the native born were relatively 
close. For White and Asian workers, earnings for the foreign born were slightly higher 
than for the native born. 

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with education. In 
2016, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high school education earned 
$489 per week, while those with a bachelor's degree and higher earned about 2.7 times as 
much--$1,311 per week. Among the native born, those with a bachelor's degree and higher 
earned about 2.4 times as much as those with less than a high school education--$1,253 
versus $525 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than foreign-born workers at most educational attainment 
levels. Among foreign-born full-time workers, those with less than a high school diploma 
earned 93.1 percent as much as their native-born counterparts, compared with 85.8 percent 
for high school graduates, no college, and 90.0 percent for those with some college or an 
associate's degree. The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-born workers 
closes at higher levels of education; among those with a bachelor's degree and higher, 
the earnings of foreign-born workers ($1,311) were not much different from the earnings 
of native-born workers ($1,253).




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical
information about the foreign born, questions on nativity,
citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the parental
nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born
were the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April
1983 and November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by
the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data presented in this release are not
strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the introduction
of updated population estimates, or controls, used in the CPS. The
population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is
available from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error
of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS
and estimating standard errors is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are
presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born
outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto
Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The
foreign-born population includes legally-admitted immigrants,
refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers,
and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not
separately identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were
born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected
more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but
are not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is
too small to develop statistically reliable estimates. The presentation
of data on race and ethnicity in this release differs from that
which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data because persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race,
they are usually included in the race groups as well as shown
separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group. The reason for
the difference in the data presentation in this release is because
about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and
they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey
reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked
15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of
illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also
are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period
ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be
recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually
work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job and
receive wages, salaries, and other types of compensation. The group
includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for
purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons,
regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median earnings is the amount which divides a
given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings
above the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 8,296 5.3 253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 7,751 4.9

Men

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 4,490 5.4 122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 4,187 4.9

Women

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 3,807 5.2 131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 3,564 4.8

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

40,257 26,258 65.2 24,963 1,295 4.9 41,321 26,951 65.2 25,779 1,172 4.3

Men

19,548 15,296 78.2 14,615 681 4.5 20,057 15,595 77.8 15,007 588 3.8

Women

20,709 10,961 52.9 10,348 613 5.6 21,264 11,356 53.4 10,772 584 5.1

Age

16 to 24 years

3,625 1,861 51.3 1,674 187 10.0 3,702 1,886 50.9 1,726 160 8.5

25 to 34 years

7,660 5,657 73.9 5,373 284 5.0 7,785 5,836 75.0 5,589 247 4.2

35 to 44 years

9,153 7,183 78.5 6,880 303 4.2 9,218 7,259 78.8 6,990 269 3.7

45 to 54 years

8,142 6,513 80.0 6,248 265 4.1 8,369 6,690 79.9 6,430 259 3.9

55 to 64 years

5,798 3,891 67.1 3,698 193 5.0 6,019 4,044 67.2 3,863 180 4.5

65 years and over

5,879 1,152 19.6 1,090 62 5.4 6,228 1,235 19.8 1,180 55 4.5

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,495 4,401 58.7 4,224 177 4.0 7,415 4,375 59.0 4,213 162 3.7

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

3,411 2,415 70.8 2,237 179 7.4 3,576 2,508 70.1 2,356 152 6.1

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

10,123 6,335 62.6 6,101 234 3.7 10,697 6,747 63.1 6,516 231 3.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

18,797 12,814 68.2 12,126 687 5.4 19,175 13,014 67.9 12,404 610 4.7

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

36,632 24,397 66.6 23,289 1,108 4.5 37,619 25,064 66.6 24,053 1,011 4.0

Less than a high school diploma

9,968 5,828 58.5 5,500 328 5.6 9,696 5,625 58.0 5,333 291 5.2

High school graduates, no college(2)

9,172 5,951 64.9 5,649 303 5.1 9,509 6,187 65.1 5,911 276 4.5

Some college or associate degree

5,896 4,111 69.7 3,917 193 4.7 6,109 4,259 69.7 4,090 169 4.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

11,595 8,507 73.4 8,223 284 3.3 12,305 8,994 73.1 8,718 275 3.1

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

210,544 130,872 62.2 123,871 7,002 5.4 212,217 132,236 62.3 125,657 6,580 5.0

Men

101,553 68,324 67.3 64,516 3,808 5.6 102,441 69,160 67.5 65,561 3,599 5.2

Women

108,991 62,548 57.4 59,355 3,193 5.1 109,776 63,076 57.5 60,096 2,981 4.7

Age

16 to 24 years

34,965 19,362 55.4 17,082 2,280 11.8 34,733 19,316 55.6 17,266 2,050 10.6

25 to 34 years

35,111 28,989 82.6 27,369 1,620 5.6 35,762 29,683 83.0 28,133 1,550 5.2

35 to 44 years

30,548 25,420 83.2 24,373 1,048 4.1 30,599 25,560 83.5 24,572 988 3.9

45 to 54 years

34,495 27,389 79.4 26,395 994 3.6 34,028 27,219 80.0 26,289 929 3.4

55 to 64 years

34,796 22,063 63.4 21,278 785 3.6 35,289 22,422 63.5 21,661 761 3.4

65 years and over

40,630 7,649 18.8 7,374 275 3.6 41,807 8,036 19.2 7,736 300 3.7

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

154,058 96,007 62.3 92,010 3,997 4.2 154,543 96,503 62.4 92,671 3,832 4.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

26,306 15,780 60.0 14,219 1,561 9.9 26,538 15,947 60.1 14,536 1,411 8.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

3,908 2,437 62.4 2,333 104 4.3 4,004 2,508 62.6 2,401 107 4.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

20,821 13,313 63.9 12,273 1,039 7.8 21,522 13,783 64.0 12,845 938 6.8

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

175,579 111,510 63.5 106,788 4,722 4.2 177,484 112,920 63.6 108,391 4,529 4.0

Less than a high school diploma

14,206 5,143 36.2 4,598 545 10.6 13,672 5,054 37.0 4,551 504 10.0

High school graduates, no college(2)

52,540 29,371 55.9 27,753 1,617 5.5 52,513 29,461 56.1 27,890 1,571 5.3

Some college or associate degree

50,367 33,370 66.3 31,868 1,502 4.5 51,075 33,675 65.9 32,295 1,380 4.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

58,466 43,626 74.6 42,569 1,057 2.4 60,224 44,729 74.3 43,655 1,074 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,517 7,300 8,217 15,485 7,231 8,254

Civilian labor force

11,583 6,831 4,753 11,622 6,759 4,863

Participation rate

74.6 93.6 57.8 75.1 93.5 58.9

Employed

11,076 6,597 4,480 11,147 6,546 4,601

Employment-population ratio

71.4 90.4 54.5 72.0 90.5 55.7

Unemployed

507 234 273 475 213 262

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.4 5.7 4.1 3.1 5.4

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,603 3,961 4,642 8,709 3,978 4,732

Civilian labor force

6,680 3,674 3,006 6,801 3,681 3,120

Participation rate

77.6 92.7 64.8 78.1 92.5 65.9

Employed

6,397 3,548 2,849 6,522 3,563 2,960

Employment-population ratio

74.4 89.6 61.4 74.9 89.6 62.5

Unemployed

284 126 158 278 118 160

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.4 5.3 4.1 3.2 5.1

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,914 3,338 3,575 6,776 3,254 3,522

Civilian labor force

4,903 3,157 1,746 4,821 3,078 1,743

Participation rate

70.9 94.6 48.8 71.2 94.6 49.5

Employed

4,680 3,049 1,631 4,624 2,983 1,641

Employment-population ratio

67.7 91.3 45.6 68.3 91.7 46.6

Unemployed

223 108 115 197 95 102

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.4 6.6 4.1 3.1 5.8

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,810 1,878 1,932 3,684 1,796 1,888

Civilian labor force

2,639 1,770 869 2,527 1,691 836

Participation rate

69.3 94.2 45.0 68.6 94.1 44.3

Employed

2,517 1,711 806 2,434 1,643 791

Employment-population ratio

66.1 91.1 41.7 66.1 91.5 41.9

Unemployed

122 59 63 94 48 46

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.3 7.3 3.7 2.8 5.5

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

24,740 12,248 12,492 25,836 12,825 13,010

Civilian labor force

14,674 8,465 6,209 15,329 8,835 6,493

Participation rate

59.3 69.1 49.7 59.3 68.9 49.9

Employed

13,887 8,018 5,868 14,632 8,461 6,171

Employment-population ratio

56.1 65.5 47.0 56.6 66.0 47.4

Unemployed

787 447 340 697 375 322

Unemployment rate

5.4 5.3 5.5 4.5 4.2 5.0

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

50,047 21,795 28,252 49,570 21,761 27,809

Civilian labor force

40,893 20,147 20,746 40,699 20,143 20,556

Participation rate

81.7 92.4 73.4 82.1 92.6 73.9

Employed

39,162 19,482 19,680 39,093 19,493 19,600

Employment-population ratio

78.3 89.4 69.7 78.9 89.6 70.5

Unemployed

1,731 665 1,066 1,607 651 956

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.3 5.1 3.9 3.2 4.6

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,013 12,209 15,803 27,781 12,175 15,607

Civilian labor force

23,377 11,166 12,211 23,287 11,155 12,132

Participation rate

83.5 91.5 77.3 83.8 91.6 77.7

Employed

22,526 10,844 11,682 22,475 10,830 11,645

Employment-population ratio

80.4 88.8 73.9 80.9 89.0 74.6

Unemployed

851 322 529 812 325 486

Unemployment rate

3.6 2.9 4.3 3.5 2.9 4.0

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,034 9,586 12,449 21,789 9,586 12,202

Civilian labor force

17,516 8,981 8,535 17,412 8,988 8,424

Participation rate

79.5 93.7 68.6 79.9 93.8 69.0

Employed

16,636 8,638 7,997 16,617 8,663 7,954

Employment-population ratio

75.5 90.1 64.2 76.3 90.4 65.2

Unemployed

880 343 537 795 325 470

Unemployment rate

5.0 3.8 6.3 4.6 3.6 5.6

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,144 5,769 7,375 13,072 5,803 7,270

Civilian labor force

10,255 5,411 4,845 10,296 5,471 4,826

Participation rate

78.0 93.8 65.7 78.8 94.3 66.4

Employed

9,733 5,203 4,530 9,822 5,270 4,552

Employment-population ratio

74.0 90.2 61.4 75.1 90.8 62.6

Unemployed

522 208 314 475 201 274

Unemployment rate

5.1 3.8 6.5 4.6 3.7 5.7

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

160,497 79,757 80,739 162,647 80,679 81,967

Civilian labor force

89,980 48,177 41,803 91,537 49,017 42,521

Participation rate

56.1 60.4 51.8 56.3 60.8 51.9

Employed

84,709 45,034 39,675 86,564 46,068 40,496

Employment-population ratio

52.8 56.5 49.1 53.2 57.1 49.4

Unemployed

5,271 3,143 2,127 4,973 2,948 2,025

Unemployment rate

5.9 6.5 5.1 5.4 6.0 4.8

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

661 1,658 1,372 3,246 599 1,610 1,347 3,343

Civilian labor force

227 837 801 2,269 203 805 786 2,337

Participation rate

34.3 50.5 58.4 69.9 34.0 50.0 58.3 69.9

Employed

220 804 760 2,200 192 772 755 2,271

Employment-population ratio

33.3 48.5 55.4 67.8 32.1 48.0 56.1 67.9

Unemployed

7 32 41 69 11 33 31 66

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.9 5.1 3.0 5.6 4.1 3.9 2.8

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

388 837 772 992 403 878 814 1,060

Civilian labor force

210 575 609 823 220 591 633 871

Participation rate

54.1 68.7 78.9 83.0 54.6 67.3 77.7 82.2

Employed

188 529 572 782 201 550 600 833

Employment-population ratio

48.5 63.2 74.1 78.9 49.9 62.7 73.7 78.6

Unemployed

22 46 37 41 19 41 32 37

Unemployment rate

10.4 8.0 6.1 5.0 8.6 6.9 5.1 4.3

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,036 1,854 1,277 5,135 1,074 1,895 1,345 5,466

Civilian labor force

409 1,065 854 3,702 422 1,129 903 3,932

Participation rate

39.5 57.4 66.9 72.1 39.3 59.6 67.1 71.9

Employed

389 1,023 825 3,591 407 1,083 872 3,822

Employment-population ratio

37.5 55.2 64.6 69.9 37.9 57.2 64.8 69.9

Unemployed

20 42 28 111 15 46 31 110

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.0 3.3 3.0 3.6 4.1 3.4 2.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,816 4,724 2,381 2,089 7,574 5,034 2,492 2,291

Civilian labor force

4,955 3,406 1,779 1,603 4,757 3,604 1,858 1,744

Participation rate

63.4 72.1 74.7 76.7 62.8 71.6 74.5 76.1

Employed

4,677 3,230 1,696 1,543 4,514 3,451 1,787 1,687

Employment-population ratio

59.8 68.4 71.2 73.9 59.6 68.6 71.7 73.6

Unemployed

277 176 83 60 243 153 71 56

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.2 4.7 3.7 5.1 4.2 3.8 3.2

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,769 39,059 37,445 48,179 8,248 38,586 37,803 49,550

Civilian labor force

3,033 21,173 24,197 35,522 2,916 21,014 24,331 36,292

Participation rate

34.6 54.2 64.6 73.7 35.4 54.5 64.4 73.2

Employed

2,793 20,250 23,282 34,735 2,683 20,091 23,477 35,488

Employment-population ratio

31.9 51.8 62.2 72.1 32.5 52.1 62.1 71.6

Unemployed

240 923 915 787 233 923 854 803

Unemployment rate

7.9 4.4 3.8 2.2 8.0 4.4 3.5 2.2

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,591 7,344 6,583 4,700 2,579 7,463 6,640 4,820

Civilian labor force

857 4,196 4,528 3,586 861 4,299 4,508 3,679

Participation rate

33.1 57.1 68.8 76.3 33.4 57.6 67.9 76.3

Employed

701 3,780 4,188 3,449 721 3,917 4,224 3,549

Employment-population ratio

27.1 51.5 63.6 73.4 28.0 52.5 63.6 73.6

Unemployed

156 416 340 137 140 382 284 130

Unemployment rate

18.2 9.9 7.5 3.8 16.3 8.9 6.3 3.5

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

138 443 576 1,541 152 461 640 1,569

Civilian labor force

57 273 402 1,213 61 271 449 1,252

Participation rate

41.4 61.7 69.8 78.7 40.0 58.9 70.2 79.8

Employed

52 260 388 1,187 56 262 427 1,218

Employment-population ratio

37.7 58.7 67.4 77.0 36.8 56.8 66.6 77.6

Unemployed

5 13 14 26 5 9 23 34

Unemployment rate

8.9 4.9 3.4 2.1 7.9 3.5 5.1 2.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,278 4,536 4,393 2,997 2,282 4,757 4,560 3,218

Civilian labor force

1,031 3,037 3,333 2,473 1,058 3,139 3,420 2,654

Participation rate

45.3 67.0 75.9 82.5 46.4 66.0 75.0 82.5

Employed

915 2,834 3,163 2,392 958 2,946 3,266 2,576

Employment-population ratio

40.1 62.5 72.0 79.8 42.0 61.9 71.6 80.0

Unemployed

117 203 170 81 100 193 154 78

Unemployment rate

11.3 6.7 5.1 3.3 9.5 6.2 4.5 3.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2016 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

25,779 15,007 10,772 125,657 65,561 60,096

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

32.2 30.2 34.9 40.7 37.1 44.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

12.4 12.6 12.1 17.3 18.5 16.0

Management occupations

8.7 9.7 7.4 12.1 14.0 10.0

Business and financial operations occupations

3.7 3.0 4.7 5.2 4.5 6.0

Professional and related occupations

19.8 17.5 22.8 23.4 18.6 28.6

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.6 6.0 2.7 2.7 3.8 1.5

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.2 3.2 0.8 2.0 3.3 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.2 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8

Community and social service occupations

1.0 0.7 1.3 1.9 1.2 2.6

Legal occupations

0.5 0.3 0.8 1.3 1.3 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.7 2.1 5.9 6.4 3.2 9.8

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.4 1.3 1.7 2.2 2.1 2.2

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

5.1 2.8 8.3 6.1 2.7 9.8

Service occupations

23.5 17.1 32.5 16.5 13.8 19.4

Healthcare support occupations

2.7 0.6 5.5 2.3 0.5 4.2

Protective service occupations

0.9 1.2 0.5 2.3 3.4 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7.3 6.9 7.9 5.3 4.5 6.2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.2 6.9 9.9 2.9 3.7 2.1

Personal care and service occupations

4.6 1.5 8.8 3.7 1.7 5.9

Sales and office occupations

15.9 12.1 21.2 23.4 17.1 30.3

Sales and related occupations

8.4 7.6 9.4 10.9 10.6 11.2

Office and administrative support occupations

7.5 4.5 11.8 12.5 6.5 19.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13.6 22.0 1.8 8.3 15.2 0.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.7 2.3 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

9.1 15.1 0.6 4.5 8.3 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

2.7 4.6 0.2 3.3 6.1 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.8 18.6 9.6 11.1 16.8 4.8

Production occupations

7.5 8.2 6.6 5.2 7.4 2.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.3 10.4 3.0 5.9 9.4 2.0

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

18,792 $681 90,289 $837 81.4 19,463 $715 91,628 $860 83.1

Men

11,561 712 49,185 934 76.2 12,008 751 49,922 951 79.0

Women

7,231 626 41,103 740 84.6 7,455 655 41,706 762 86.0

AGE

16 to 24 years

995 464 8,795 490 94.7 1,081 497 8,995 502 99.0

25 to 34 years

4,247 622 22,364 751 82.8 4,532 667 22,924 767 87.0

35 to 44 years

5,378 721 19,538 940 76.7 5,432 756 19,851 972 77.8

45 to 54 years

4,745 724 20,832 965 75.0 4,929 765 20,723 995 76.9

55 to 64 years

2,744 731 15,364 961 76.1 2,774 796 15,722 977 81.5

65 years and over

683 731 3,395 895 81.7 715 735 3,412 897 81.9

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

2,888 999 66,208 900 111.0 2,967 1,025 66,686 927 110.6

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,734 674 11,055 643 104.8 1,849 693 11,287 677 102.4

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

4,706 1,010 1,755 973 103.8 4,993 1,061 1,818 975 108.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9,246 548 9,065 679 80.7 9,417 582 9,533 697 83.5

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

17,797 702 81,494 891 78.8 18,383 735 82,633 914 80.4

Less than a high school diploma

4,217 476 3,073 519 91.7 4,051 489 3,057 525 93.1

High school graduates, no college(2)

4,218 599 21,003 696 86.1 4,379 608 21,096 709 85.8

Some college or associate degree

2,845 699 23,956 770 90.8 2,987 710 24,321 789 90.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

6,517 1,259 33,462 1,225 102.8 6,966 1,311 34,159 1,253 104.6

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2015 2016
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

8,664 5,552 64.1 5,266 286 5.1 8,688 5,552 63.9 5,288 263 4.7

New England

1,786 1,169 65.5 1,106 63 5.4 1,882 1,241 65.9 1,184 57 4.6

Middle Atlantic

6,878 4,383 63.7 4,160 223 5.1 6,806 4,310 63.3 4,104 207 4.8

South

13,242 8,846 66.8 8,455 390 4.4 14,023 9,359 66.7 8,997 362 3.9

South Atlantic

7,725 5,159 66.8 4,906 253 4.9 8,213 5,487 66.8 5,268 219 4.0

East South Central

684 442 64.5 420 21 4.8 695 466 67.0 452 13 2.9

West South Central

4,833 3,245 67.2 3,129 116 3.6 5,115 3,406 66.6 3,277 129 3.8

Midwest

4,486 2,992 66.7 2,843 150 5.0 4,465 2,997 67.1 2,875 122 4.1

East North Central

3,375 2,198 65.1 2,086 111 5.1 3,287 2,178 66.3 2,095 84 3.8

West North Central

1,111 795 71.5 757 38 4.8 1,178 818 69.5 780 38 4.6

West

13,865 8,867 64.0 8,399 469 5.3 14,144 9,044 63.9 8,619 424 4.7

Mountain

2,633 1,709 64.9 1,614 95 5.6 2,654 1,743 65.7 1,663 80 4.6

Pacific

11,232 7,158 63.7 6,785 374 5.2 11,491 7,300 63.5 6,956 344 4.7

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,465 22,907 62.8 21,700 1,207 5.3 36,630 22,978 62.7 21,870 1,108 4.8

New England

10,137 6,637 65.5 6,318 320 4.8 10,106 6,604 65.3 6,340 264 4.0

Middle Atlantic

26,328 16,269 61.8 15,382 887 5.5 26,523 16,374 61.7 15,530 844 5.2

South

80,368 48,403 60.2 45,771 2,632 5.4 81,021 48,854 60.3 46,381 2,473 5.1

South Atlantic

41,866 25,241 60.3 23,829 1,412 5.6 42,178 25,458 60.4 24,180 1,278 5.0

East South Central

14,019 8,032 57.3 7,557 475 5.9 14,100 8,138 57.7 7,700 438 5.4

West South Central

24,483 15,130 61.8 14,385 745 4.9 24,742 15,257 61.7 14,500 757 5.0

Midwest

48,678 31,539 64.8 30,014 1,525 4.8 48,896 31,875 65.2 30,364 1,511 4.7

East North Central

33,417 21,140 63.3 20,030 1,110 5.2 33,596 21,467 63.9 20,364 1,103 5.1

West North Central

15,262 10,399 68.1 9,985 415 4.0 15,300 10,407 68.0 10,000 408 3.9

West

45,032 28,024 62.2 26,386 1,639 5.8 45,671 28,530 62.5 27,042 1,488 5.2

Mountain

15,337 9,685 63.1 9,200 485 5.0 15,678 9,889 63.1 9,435 454 4.6

Pacific

29,695 18,339 61.8 17,185 1,154 6.3 29,993 18,641 62.2 17,607 1,034 5.5

NOTE: The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 18, 2017