Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 17, 2018                          USDL-18-0786

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                 FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2017


The unemployment rate for foreign-born persons in the United States was 4.1 percent in
2017, down from 4.3 percent in 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
The jobless rate of native-born persons was 4.4 percent in 2017, down from 5.0 percent
in 2016.

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly
sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are persons who
reside in the United States but who were born outside the country or one of its outlying
areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign born include legally-admitted
immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers, and
undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately identify the
numbers of persons in these categories. For further information about the survey, see
the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2017 data:

   --In 2017, there were 27.4 million foreign-born persons in the U.S. labor force,
     comprising 17.1 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

   --Hispanics accounted for 47.9 percent of the foreign-born labor force in 2017,
     and Asians accounted for 25.2 percent. (See table 1.) (Data in this news
     release for persons who are White, Black, or Asian do not include those of
     Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
     are presented separately.)

   --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
     in service occupations and less likely to be employed in management, professional,
     and related occupations. (See table 4.)

   --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary
     workers were $730 in 2017, compared with $885 for their native-born counterparts.
     (See table 5.) (Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including
     variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by
     educational attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region.)

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic composition of the foreign-born labor force differs from that of the
native-born labor force. In 2017, men accounted for 57.5 percent of the foreign-born
labor force, compared with 52.2 percent of the native-born labor force. By age, the
proportion of the foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds (73.1 percent)
was higher than for the native-born labor force (62.2 percent). Labor force participation
is typically highest among persons in that age bracket. (See table 1.)

In 2017, nearly half (47.9 percent) of the foreign-born labor force was Hispanic, and
one-quarter (25.2 percent) was Asian. Hispanics and Asians made up much lower percentages
of the native-born labor force, at 10.7 percent and 2.0 percent, respectively. About 16.5
percent of the foreign-born labor force was White and 9.4 percent was Black, compared
with 72.3 percent and 12.2 percent, respectively, of the native-born labor force.

In terms of educational attainment, the proportion of the foreign-born labor force age 25
and over that had not completed high school was 21.8 percent in 2017, much higher than
the figure for the native-born labor force, at 4.2 percent. The foreign born were less
likely than the native born to have some college or an associate degree--16.8 percent
versus 29.4 percent. The proportions for foreign-born and native-born high school
graduates (25.2 percent versus 25.9 percent) and those with a bachelor's degree or higher
(36.2 percent versus 40.5 percent) were more similar.

Labor Force

In 2017, the share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born increased to
17.1 percent from 16.9 percent in 2016. (See table 1.) The share of the U.S. civilian
labor force that was foreign born was 13.3 percent in 2000.

In 2017, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 66.0 percent, up from
65.2 percent in the prior year. The participation rate for the native born was 62.2
percent, little changed from 2016. Foreign-born men were considerably more likely to be
labor force participants (78.1 percent) in 2017 than their native-born counterparts (67.3
percent). In contrast, 54.5 percent of foreign-born women were labor force participants,
somewhat lower than the rate of 57.5 percent for native-born women.

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, labor force participation rates increased for
foreign-born Blacks (71.5 percent) and Asians (64.3 percent) in 2017, while the rates for
Whites (59.9 percent) and Hispanics (68.3 percent) were little different from the prior
year. Among the native born, the participation rate for Blacks rose to 60.7 percent and
the rate for Whites declined to 62.2 percent. The participation rates for Asians (62.0
percent) and Hispanics (64.2 percent) showed little change from 2016 to 2017.

In 2017, foreign-born mothers with children under 18 years old were less likely to be
labor force participants than were native-born mothers--60.1 percent versus 74.4 percent.
Labor force participation differences between foreign-born and native-born mothers were
greater among those with younger children than among those with older children. The
labor force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with children under age 6 was
49.8 percent in 2017, much lower than that for native-born mothers with children under
age 6, at 69.4 percent. Among women with children under age 3, the participation rate for
foreign-born mothers (44.4 percent) was 22.5 percentage points below that for native-born
mothers (66.9 percent). The labor force participation rates of foreign-born and native-
born fathers with children under age 18 were more similar, at 93.1 percent and 92.7
percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in the West (24.1
percent) and in the Northeast (19.6 percent) in 2017 than for the nation as a whole (17.1
percent). In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the labor force than
for the nation as a whole in the South (16.2 percent) and Midwest (8.8 percent). (See
table 6.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate of the foreign born declined from 4.3 percent to 4.1 percent from
2016 to 2017, and the jobless rate for the native born fell from 5.0 percent to 4.4
percent. The unemployment rate for foreign-born women declined from 5.1 percent to 4.8
percent, and the rate for foreign-born men was little changed at 3.6 percent. The over-
the-year decrease in the unemployment rate of the native born reflected decreases in the
rates for both men and women. The rate for men fell from 5.2 percent to 4.6 percent,
while the rate for women declined from 4.7 percent to 4.2 percent. (See table 1.)

For both the foreign born and the native born, jobless rates vary considerably by race
and ethnicity.  Among the foreign born, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate (5.6
percent) in 2017. The unemployment rates were 4.3 percent for Hispanics, 4.0 percent for
Whites, and 3.2 percent for Asians. Among the native born, Blacks also had the highest
jobless rate (7.8 percent), followed by Hispanics (5.9 percent), Asians (3.8 percent),
and Whites (3.5 percent).

Occupation

In 2017, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
in service occupations (23.9 percent versus 16.1 percent); in production, transportation,
and material moving occupations (14.9 percent versus 11.0 percent); and in natural
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (13.9 percent versus 8.3 percent).
(See table 4.)

Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in
management, professional, and related occupations (41.3 percent versus 32.3 percent)
and in sales and office occupations (23.3 percent versus 15.0 percent).

In 2017, employed foreign-born men and women were more likely than their native-born
counterparts to work in service occupations; natural resources, construction, and
maintenance occupations; and production, transportation, and material moving
occupations. Among men, the employment disparity was especially great in natural
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations--22.6 percent of foreign-born
men versus 15.2 percent of native-born men. The disparity for women was most pronounced
in service occupations--33.1 percent of foreign-born women worked in that occupation
group, compared with 18.8 percent of native-born women. By contrast, employed foreign-
born men and women were less likely than their native-born counterparts to work in
management, professional, and related occupations and in sales and office occupations.

Earnings

In 2017, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born, full-time wage and salary
workers ($730) were 82.5 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts
($885). Among men, median weekly earnings for the foreign-born ($776) were 79.3 percent
of the earnings of their native-born counterparts ($978). Median earnings for foreign-
born women ($660) were 83.8 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts
($788). Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including variations in
the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by educational attainment,
occupation, industry, and geographic region. (See table 5.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and
salary workers earned 82.3 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2017.
For Black workers, earnings for the foreign born and the native born were almost the
same. White and Asian foreign-born workers earned more than their native-born
counterparts.

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with education. In
2017, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high school diploma on earned $506
per week, while those with a bachelor's degree and higher earned about 2.6 times as
much--$1,340 per week. Among the native born, those with a bachelor's degree and higher
earned about 2.3 times as much as those with less than a high school diploma--$1,271 versus
$560 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than the foreign born at most educational attainment
levels. However, there is a relatively small gap between the earnings of foreign-born
and native-born workers for those with a bachelor's degree and higher. For example,
among high school graduates (no college), full-time workers who were foreign born
earned 84.3 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2017. Among those with
a bachelor's degree and higher, the earnings of foreign-born workers ($1,340) were not
much different from the earnings of native-born workers ($1,271).




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical
information about the foreign born, questions on nativity,
citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the parental
nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born
were the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April
1983 and November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by
the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data presented in this release are not
strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the introduction
of updated population estimates, or controls, used in the CPS. The
population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is
available from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error
of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS
and estimating standard errors is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are
presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born
outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto
Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The
foreign-born population includes legally-admitted immigrants,
refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers,
and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not
separately identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were
born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected
more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but
are not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is
too small to develop statistically reliable estimates. The presentation
of data on race and ethnicity in this release differs from that
which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data because persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race,
they are usually included in the race groups as well as shown
separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group. The reason for
the difference in the data presentation in this release is because
about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and
they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey
reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked
15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of
illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also
are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period
ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be
recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually
work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job and
receive wages, salaries, and other types of compensation. The group
includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for
purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons,
regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median earnings is the amount which divides a
given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings
above the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2016-2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2016 2017
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 7,751 4.9 255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 6,982 4.4

Men

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 4,187 4.9 123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 3,743 4.4

Women

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 3,564 4.8 131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 3,239 4.3

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

41,321 26,951 65.2 25,779 1,172 4.3 41,500 27,373 66.0 26,254 1,119 4.1

Men

20,057 15,595 77.8 15,007 588 3.8 20,135 15,735 78.1 15,171 564 3.6

Women

21,264 11,356 53.4 10,772 584 5.1 21,365 11,638 54.5 11,083 555 4.8

Age

16 to 24 years

3,702 1,886 50.9 1,726 160 8.5 3,547 1,886 53.2 1,727 159 8.4

25 to 34 years

7,785 5,836 75.0 5,589 247 4.2 7,820 5,898 75.4 5,656 242 4.1

35 to 44 years

9,218 7,259 78.8 6,990 269 3.7 9,189 7,299 79.4 7,043 256 3.5

45 to 54 years

8,369 6,690 79.9 6,430 259 3.9 8,481 6,826 80.5 6,592 234 3.4

55 to 64 years

6,019 4,044 67.2 3,863 180 4.5 6,146 4,209 68.5 4,040 169 4.0

65 years and over

6,228 1,235 19.8 1,180 55 4.5 6,317 1,256 19.9 1,196 60 4.8

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,415 4,375 59.0 4,213 162 3.7 7,524 4,503 59.9 4,324 179 4.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

3,576 2,508 70.1 2,356 152 6.1 3,599 2,575 71.5 2,430 145 5.6

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

10,697 6,747 63.1 6,516 231 3.4 10,738 6,903 64.3 6,684 220 3.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,175 13,014 67.9 12,404 610 4.7 19,174 13,098 68.3 12,540 558 4.3

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

37,619 25,064 66.6 24,053 1,011 4.0 37,953 25,488 67.2 24,527 961 3.8

Less than a high school diploma

9,696 5,625 58.0 5,333 291 5.2 9,510 5,566 58.5 5,309 257 4.6

High school graduates, no college(2)

9,509 6,187 65.1 5,911 276 4.5 9,697 6,412 66.1 6,160 252 3.9

Some college or associate degree

6,109 4,259 69.7 4,090 169 4.0 6,070 4,273 70.4 4,116 156 3.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

12,305 8,994 73.1 8,718 275 3.1 12,677 9,237 72.9 8,942 294 3.2

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

212,217 132,236 62.3 125,657 6,580 5.0 213,579 132,946 62.2 127,083 5,863 4.4

Men

102,441 69,160 67.5 65,561 3,599 5.2 103,140 69,410 67.3 66,231 3,179 4.6

Women

109,776 63,076 57.5 60,096 2,981 4.7 110,439 63,536 57.5 60,852 2,684 4.2

Age

16 to 24 years

34,733 19,316 55.6 17,266 2,050 10.6 34,603 19,275 55.7 17,479 1,796 9.3

25 to 34 years

35,762 29,683 83.0 28,133 1,550 5.2 36,138 30,187 83.5 28,782 1,405 4.7

35 to 44 years

30,599 25,560 83.5 24,572 988 3.9 30,763 25,735 83.7 24,849 886 3.4

45 to 54 years

34,028 27,219 80.0 26,289 929 3.4 33,306 26,737 80.3 25,911 827 3.1

55 to 64 years

35,289 22,422 63.5 21,661 761 3.4 35,544 22,690 63.8 22,024 666 2.9

65 years and over

41,807 8,036 19.2 7,736 300 3.7 43,225 8,321 19.3 8,038 283 3.4

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

154,543 96,503 62.4 92,671 3,832 4.0 154,598 96,148 62.2 92,779 3,369 3.5

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

26,538 15,947 60.1 14,536 1,411 8.8 26,764 16,239 60.7 14,965 1,274 7.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

4,004 2,508 62.6 2,401 107 4.2 4,219 2,614 62.0 2,515 99 3.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

21,522 13,783 64.0 12,845 938 6.8 22,197 14,242 64.2 13,398 843 5.9

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

177,484 112,920 63.6 108,391 4,529 4.0 178,976 113,672 63.5 109,604 4,067 3.6

Less than a high school diploma

13,672 5,054 37.0 4,551 504 10.0 13,128 4,776 36.4 4,359 417 8.7

High school graduates, no college(2)

52,513 29,461 56.1 27,890 1,571 5.3 52,496 29,462 56.1 28,050 1,412 4.8

Some college or associate degree

51,075 33,675 65.9 32,295 1,380 4.1 51,191 33,424 65.3 32,166 1,257 3.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

60,224 44,729 74.3 43,655 1,074 2.4 62,161 46,009 74.0 45,029 981 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2016-2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2016 2017
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,485 7,231 8,254 15,292 7,162 8,130

Civilian labor force

11,622 6,759 4,863 11,557 6,669 4,888

Participation rate

75.1 93.5 58.9 75.6 93.1 60.1

Employed

11,147 6,546 4,601 11,141 6,481 4,660

Employment-population ratio

72.0 90.5 55.7 72.9 90.5 57.3

Unemployed

475 213 262 416 187 228

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.1 5.4 3.6 2.8 4.7

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,709 3,978 4,732 8,682 3,966 4,716

Civilian labor force

6,801 3,681 3,120 6,848 3,660 3,188

Participation rate

78.1 92.5 65.9 78.9 92.3 67.6

Employed

6,522 3,563 2,960 6,606 3,562 3,044

Employment-population ratio

74.9 89.6 62.5 76.1 89.8 64.5

Unemployed

278 118 160 243 99 144

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.2 5.1 3.5 2.7 4.5

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,776 3,254 3,522 6,609 3,196 3,414

Civilian labor force

4,821 3,078 1,743 4,709 3,008 1,700

Participation rate

71.2 94.6 49.5 71.2 94.1 49.8

Employed

4,624 2,983 1,641 4,536 2,920 1,616

Employment-population ratio

68.3 91.7 46.6 68.6 91.4 47.3

Unemployed

197 95 102 173 88 85

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.1 5.8 3.7 2.9 5.0

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,684 1,796 1,888 3,600 1,764 1,836

Civilian labor force

2,527 1,691 836 2,478 1,662 816

Participation rate

68.6 94.1 44.3 68.8 94.2 44.4

Employed

2,434 1,643 791 2,383 1,609 774

Employment-population ratio

66.1 91.5 41.9 66.2 91.2 42.2

Unemployed

94 48 46 95 53 42

Unemployment rate

3.7 2.8 5.5 3.8 3.2 5.1

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

25,836 12,825 13,010 26,209 12,974 13,235

Civilian labor force

15,329 8,835 6,493 15,816 9,066 6,750

Participation rate

59.3 68.9 49.9 60.3 69.9 51.0

Employed

14,632 8,461 6,171 15,113 8,690 6,423

Employment-population ratio

56.6 66.0 47.4 57.7 67.0 48.5

Unemployed

697 375 322 704 377 327

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.2 5.0 4.4 4.2 4.8

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

49,570 21,761 27,809 48,896 21,578 27,318

Civilian labor force

40,699 20,143 20,556 40,318 19,993 20,325

Participation rate

82.1 92.6 73.9 82.5 92.7 74.4

Employed

39,093 19,493 19,600 38,895 19,438 19,457

Employment-population ratio

78.9 89.6 70.5 79.5 90.1 71.2

Unemployed

1,607 651 956 1,423 555 868

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.2 4.6 3.5 2.8 4.3

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,781 12,175 15,607 27,604 12,187 15,416

Civilian labor force

23,287 11,155 12,132 23,212 11,152 12,060

Participation rate

83.8 91.6 77.7 84.1 91.5 78.2

Employed

22,475 10,830 11,645 22,458 10,866 11,591

Employment-population ratio

80.9 89.0 74.6 81.4 89.2 75.2

Unemployed

812 325 486 754 286 468

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.9 4.0 3.2 2.6 3.9

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,789 9,586 12,202 21,292 9,391 11,901

Civilian labor force

17,412 8,988 8,424 17,106 8,841 8,265

Participation rate

79.9 93.8 69.0 80.3 94.1 69.4

Employed

16,617 8,663 7,954 16,437 8,572 7,866

Employment-population ratio

76.3 90.4 65.2 77.2 91.3 66.1

Unemployed

795 325 470 669 269 399

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.6 5.6 3.9 3.0 4.8

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,072 5,803 7,270 12,690 5,649 7,041

Civilian labor force

10,296 5,471 4,826 10,060 5,348 4,712

Participation rate

78.8 94.3 66.4 79.3 94.7 66.9

Employed

9,822 5,270 4,552 9,661 5,185 4,476

Employment-population ratio

75.1 90.8 62.6 76.1 91.8 63.6

Unemployed

475 201 274 399 163 236

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.7 5.7 4.0 3.1 5.0

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

162,647 80,679 81,967 164,683 81,562 83,121

Civilian labor force

91,537 49,017 42,521 92,629 49,417 43,211

Participation rate

56.3 60.8 51.9 56.2 60.6 52.0

Employed

86,564 46,068 40,496 88,188 46,793 41,395

Employment-population ratio

53.2 57.1 49.4 53.6 57.4 49.8

Unemployed

4,973 2,948 2,025 4,441 2,625 1,816

Unemployment rate

5.4 6.0 4.8 4.8 5.3 4.2

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016-2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2016 2017
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

599 1,610 1,347 3,343 574 1,653 1,364 3,445

Civilian labor force

203 805 786 2,337 206 841 812 2,409

Participation rate

34.0 50.0 58.3 69.9 35.9 50.9 59.6 69.9

Employed

192 772 755 2,271 193 803 779 2,341

Employment-population ratio

32.1 48.0 56.1 67.9 33.7 48.6 57.1 68.0

Unemployed

11 33 31 66 13 39 33 68

Unemployment rate

5.6 4.1 3.9 2.8 6.3 4.6 4.1 2.8

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

403 878 814 1,060 388 895 798 1,113

Civilian labor force

220 591 633 871 210 628 612 911

Participation rate

54.6 67.3 77.7 82.2 54.3 70.1 76.7 81.9

Employed

201 550 600 833 197 593 585 866

Employment-population ratio

49.9 62.7 73.7 78.6 50.7 66.3 73.2 77.8

Unemployed

19 41 32 37 14 35 27 45

Unemployment rate

8.6 6.9 5.1 4.3 6.5 5.5 4.5 5.0

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,074 1,895 1,345 5,466 1,052 1,932 1,381 5,515

Civilian labor force

422 1,129 903 3,932 421 1,185 940 3,983

Participation rate

39.3 59.6 67.1 71.9 40.0 61.3 68.1 72.2

Employed

407 1,083 872 3,822 404 1,154 909 3,864

Employment-population ratio

37.9 57.2 64.8 69.9 38.4 59.7 65.8 70.1

Unemployed

15 46 31 110 17 31 31 120

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.1 3.4 2.8 4.0 2.6 3.3 3.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,574 5,034 2,492 2,291 7,438 5,108 2,433 2,458

Civilian labor force

4,757 3,604 1,858 1,744 4,698 3,694 1,850 1,824

Participation rate

62.8 71.6 74.5 76.1 63.2 72.3 76.0 74.2

Employed

4,514 3,451 1,787 1,687 4,488 3,551 1,789 1,766

Employment-population ratio

59.6 68.6 71.7 73.6 60.3 69.5 73.5 71.8

Unemployed

243 153 71 56 210 143 61 58

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.2 3.8 3.2 4.5 3.9 3.3 3.2

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,248 38,586 37,803 49,550 7,804 38,295 37,581 50,848

Civilian labor force

2,916 21,014 24,331 36,292 2,713 20,767 23,817 37,050

Participation rate

35.4 54.5 64.4 73.2 34.8 54.2 63.4 72.9

Employed

2,683 20,091 23,477 35,488 2,524 19,959 23,057 36,326

Employment-population ratio

32.5 52.1 62.1 71.6 32.3 52.1 61.4 71.4

Unemployed

233 923 854 803 189 808 760 724

Unemployment rate

8.0 4.4 3.5 2.2 7.0 3.9 3.2 2.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,579 7,463 6,640 4,820 2,486 7,507 6,754 5,065

Civilian labor force

861 4,299 4,508 3,679 785 4,355 4,632 3,888

Participation rate

33.4 57.6 67.9 76.3 31.6 58.0 68.6 76.8

Employed

721 3,917 4,224 3,549 663 3,998 4,352 3,766

Employment-population ratio

28.0 52.5 63.6 73.6 26.7 53.3 64.4 74.4

Unemployed

140 382 284 130 123 357 280 122

Unemployment rate

16.3 8.9 6.3 3.5 15.6 8.2 6.0 3.1

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

152 461 640 1,569 141 476 610 1,714

Civilian labor force

61 271 449 1,252 54 279 420 1,355

Participation rate

40.0 58.9 70.2 79.8 38.4 58.6 68.9 79.1

Employed

56 262 427 1,218 52 269 407 1,329

Employment-population ratio

36.8 56.8 66.6 77.6 36.8 56.6 66.8 77.5

Unemployed

5 9 23 34 2 10 13 26

Unemployment rate

7.9 3.5 5.1 2.7 4.3 3.5 3.1 1.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,282 4,757 4,560 3,218 2,291 4,904 4,787 3,422

Civilian labor force

1,058 3,139 3,420 2,654 1,057 3,273 3,556 2,837

Participation rate

46.4 66.0 75.0 82.5 46.1 66.7 74.3 82.9

Employed

958 2,946 3,266 2,576 974 3,091 3,407 2,759

Employment-population ratio

42.0 61.9 71.6 80.0 42.5 63.0 71.2 80.6

Unemployed

100 193 154 78 83 182 149 78

Unemployment rate

9.5 6.2 4.5 3.0 7.8 5.6 4.2 2.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2017 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

26,254 15,171 11,083 127,083 66,231 60,852

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

32.3 30.7 34.3 41.3 37.5 45.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

12.3 12.6 11.9 17.4 18.6 16.2

Management occupations

8.6 9.6 7.4 12.2 14.0 10.3

Business and financial operations occupations

3.7 3.0 4.6 5.2 4.6 5.9

Professional and related occupations

20.0 18.2 22.4 23.8 18.9 29.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.8 6.4 2.5 2.8 3.9 1.6

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.3 3.2 1.0 2.1 3.3 0.7

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.3 1.2 1.4 0.9 0.9 0.9

Community and social service occupations

0.9 0.6 1.2 1.9 1.2 2.6

Legal occupations

0.5 0.4 0.8 1.3 1.2 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.7 2.2 5.7 6.5 3.3 10.0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.4 1.3 1.5 2.3 2.3 2.2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

5.2 2.9 8.4 6.1 2.8 9.7

Service occupations

23.9 17.2 33.1 16.1 13.6 18.8

Healthcare support occupations

2.8 0.6 5.8 2.2 0.5 4.0

Protective service occupations

0.8 1.1 0.4 2.3 3.4 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7.1 6.6 7.8 5.1 4.3 5.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.4 7.0 10.3 2.9 3.7 2.1

Personal care and service occupations

4.8 1.8 8.8 3.7 1.7 5.8

Sales and office occupations

15.0 11.1 20.4 23.3 17.0 30.1

Sales and related occupations

7.5 6.7 8.7 10.9 10.6 11.2

Office and administrative support occupations

7.5 4.4 11.8 12.4 6.4 18.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13.9 22.6 2.0 8.3 15.2 0.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.7 2.1 1.2 0.6 0.9 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

9.3 15.6 0.5 4.4 8.2 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

2.9 4.8 0.2 3.3 6.1 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.9 18.4 10.1 11.0 16.7 4.9

Production occupations

7.5 7.9 7.0 5.1 7.3 2.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.4 10.5 3.1 5.9 9.4 2.1

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2016-2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2016 2017
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

19,463 $715 91,628 $860 83.1 19,914 $730 93,358 $885 82.5

Men

12,008 751 49,922 951 79.0 12,123 776 50,857 978 79.3

Women

7,455 655 41,706 762 86.0 7,791 660 42,501 788 83.8

AGE

16 to 24 years

1,081 497 8,995 502 99.0 1,065 506 9,216 521 97.1

25 to 34 years

4,532 667 22,924 767 87.0 4,610 701 23,586 786 89.2

35 to 44 years

5,432 756 19,851 972 77.8 5,560 790 20,102 1,003 78.8

45 to 54 years

4,929 765 20,723 995 76.9 5,009 760 20,642 1,019 74.6

55 to 64 years

2,774 796 15,722 977 81.5 2,958 765 16,199 1,007 76.0

65 years and over

715 735 3,412 897 81.9 712 721 3,615 937 76.9

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

2,967 1,025 66,686 927 110.6 3,040 1,080 67,242 955 113.1

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,849 693 11,287 677 102.4 1,885 682 11,669 683 99.9

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

4,993 1,061 1,818 975 108.8 5,189 1,076 1,943 1,007 106.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9,417 582 9,533 697 83.5 9,579 596 10,036 724 82.3

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

18,383 735 82,633 914 80.4 18,848 751 84,142 937 80.1

Less than a high school diploma

4,051 489 3,057 525 93.1 4,113 506 2,925 560 90.4

High school graduates, no college(2)

4,379 608 21,096 709 85.8 4,539 619 21,472 734 84.3

Some college or associate degree

2,987 710 24,321 789 90.0 3,003 727 24,384 808 90.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

6,966 1,311 34,159 1,253 104.6 7,193 1,340 35,362 1,271 105.4

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2016-2017 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2016 2017
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

8,688 5,552 63.9 5,288 263 4.7 8,623 5,586 64.8 5,326 260 4.7

New England

1,882 1,241 65.9 1,184 57 4.6 1,939 1,311 67.6 1,247 64 4.9

Middle Atlantic

6,806 4,310 63.3 4,104 207 4.8 6,684 4,275 64.0 4,079 196 4.6

South

14,023 9,359 66.7 8,997 362 3.9 14,232 9,554 67.1 9,214 340 3.6

South Atlantic

8,213 5,487 66.8 5,268 219 4.0 8,400 5,669 67.5 5,452 217 3.8

East South Central

695 466 67.0 452 13 2.9 716 494 68.9 476 17 3.5

West South Central

5,115 3,406 66.6 3,277 129 3.8 5,116 3,391 66.3 3,285 106 3.1

Midwest

4,465 2,997 67.1 2,875 122 4.1 4,451 3,051 68.5 2,929 122 4.0

East North Central

3,287 2,178 66.3 2,095 84 3.8 3,239 2,180 67.3 2,102 78 3.6

West North Central

1,178 818 69.5 780 38 4.6 1,212 871 71.9 827 44 5.0

West

14,144 9,044 63.9 8,619 424 4.7 14,194 9,183 64.7 8,785 397 4.3

Mountain

2,654 1,743 65.7 1,663 80 4.6 2,688 1,793 66.7 1,710 83 4.6

Pacific

11,491 7,300 63.5 6,956 344 4.7 11,506 7,390 64.2 7,075 315 4.3

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,630 22,978 62.7 21,870 1,108 4.8 36,630 22,924 62.6 21,905 1,019 4.4

New England

10,106 6,604 65.3 6,340 264 4.0 10,074 6,614 65.7 6,364 250 3.8

Middle Atlantic

26,523 16,374 61.7 15,530 844 5.2 26,557 16,310 61.4 15,541 769 4.7

South

81,021 48,854 60.3 46,381 2,473 5.1 81,780 49,496 60.5 47,274 2,222 4.5

South Atlantic

42,178 25,458 60.4 24,180 1,278 5.0 42,584 25,865 60.7 24,727 1,138 4.4

East South Central

14,100 8,138 57.7 7,700 438 5.4 14,160 8,217 58.0 7,848 369 4.5

West South Central

24,742 15,257 61.7 14,500 757 5.0 25,036 15,414 61.6 14,698 716 4.6

Midwest

48,896 31,875 65.2 30,364 1,511 4.7 48,973 31,679 64.7 30,369 1,310 4.1

East North Central

33,596 21,467 63.9 20,364 1,103 5.1 33,663 21,403 63.6 20,431 972 4.5

West North Central

15,300 10,407 68.0 10,000 408 3.9 15,310 10,277 67.1 9,938 339 3.3

West

45,671 28,530 62.5 27,042 1,488 5.2 46,196 28,847 62.4 27,536 1,311 4.5

Mountain

15,678 9,889 63.1 9,435 454 4.6 15,968 10,121 63.4 9,718 404 4.0

Pacific

29,993 18,641 62.2 17,607 1,034 5.5 30,229 18,726 61.9 17,818 908 4.8

NOTE: The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 17, 2018