Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 16, 2019 	                      USDL-19-0812

Technical information:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


              FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2018


The unemployment rate for foreign-born persons in the United States was 3.5 percent
in 2018, down from 4.1 percent in 2017, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. The jobless rate of native-born persons was 4.0 percent in 2018, down from
4.4 percent in 2017.

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a
monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are
persons who reside in the United States but who were not U.S. citizens at birth.
Specifically, they were born outside the United States (or one of its outlying
areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam), and neither parent was a U.S. citizen. The
foreign born include legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary residents
such as students and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey
does not separately identify persons in these categories, however. For further
information about the survey, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2018 data:

   --In 2018, there were 28.2 million foreign-born persons in the U.S.
     labor force, comprising 17.4 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

   --Hispanics accounted for nearly half of the foreign-born labor force
     in 2018, and Asians accounted for one-quarter. (See table 1.) (Data
     in this news release for persons who are White, Black, or Asian do
     not include those of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Data on persons
     of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are presented separately.)

   --Foreign-born men were more likely to participate in the labor force
     than native-born men (77.9 percent versus 67.3 percent), while foreign-
     born women were less likely to participate than native-born women (54.3
     percent versus 57.6 percent). (See table 1.)

   --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be
     employed in service occupations and less likely to be employed in
     management, professional, and related occupations. (See table 4.)

   --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and
     salary workers were $758 in 2018, compared with $910 for their native-
     born counterparts. (See table 5.) (Differences in earnings reflect a
     variety of factors, including variations in the distributions of
     foreign-born and native-born workers by educational attainment,
     occupation, industry, and geographic region.) 

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic composition of the foreign-born labor force differs from that
of the native-born labor force. In 2018, men accounted for 57.5 percent of the
foreign-born labor force, compared with 52.2 percent of the native-born labor
force. By age, the proportion of the foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to
54-year-olds (73.2 percent) was higher than for the native-born labor force
(62.0 percent). Labor force participation is typically highest among persons in
that age bracket. (See table 1.)

In 2018, nearly half (47.7 percent) of the foreign-born labor force was Hispanic,
and one-quarter (25.1 percent) was Asian. Hispanics and Asians made up much
lower percentages of the native-born labor force, at 11.1 percent and 2.1
percent, respectively. About 16.6 percent of the foreign-born labor force was
White and 9.5 percent was Black, compared with 71.7 percent and 12.3 percent,
respectively, of the native-born labor force.

In terms of educational attainment, the proportion of the foreign-born labor
force age 25 and over that had not completed high school was 21.2 percent in
2018, much higher than the figure for the native-born labor force, at 4.1 percent.
The foreign born were less likely than the native born to have some college or
an associate degree--16.8 percent versus 28.9 percent. The proportions for foreign-
born and native-born high school graduates (25.1 percent versus 25.6 percent) and
those with a bachelor's degree or higher (36.9 percent versus 41.4 percent) were
more similar.

Labor Force

In 2018, the share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born increased
to 17.4 percent from 17.1 percent in 2017. (See table 1.) The share of the U.S.
civilian labor force that was foreign born was 13.3 percent in 2000.

In 2018, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 65.7 percent,
little changed from the prior year. The participation rate for the native born was
62.3 percent, about unchanged from 2017. Foreign-born men continued to participate
in the labor force at a considerably higher rate (77.9 percent) in 2018 than their
native-born counterparts (67.3 percent). In contrast, 54.3 percent of foreign-born
women were labor force participants, somewhat lower than the rate of 57.6 percent
for native-born women.

Labor force participation rates for the foreign-born varied across the major race
and ethnicity groups in 2018, ranging from 59.7 percent for foreign-born Whites to
70.8 percent for foreign-born Blacks. By contrast, participation rates for the native
born showed less variation across race and ethnicity groups, ranging from 60.9 percent
for native-born Blacks to 64.5 percent for native-born Hispanics. Across all race and
ethnicity groups, participation rates showed little or no change from 2017 to 2018
for both the foreign born and the native born. 

In 2018, foreign-born mothers with children under age 18 were less likely to be labor
force participants than were native-born mothers--61.0 percent versus 74.7 percent.
Labor force participation differences between foreign-born and native-born mothers
were greater among those with younger children than among those with older children.
Among women with children under age 6, the participation rate for foreign-born mothers
was 50.8 percent, 18.6 percentage points below that for native-born mothers, at 69.4
percent. In comparison, the labor force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with
children ages 6 to 17 (68.4 percent) was 10.5 percentage points lower than that for 
native-born mothers with children ages 6 to 17 (78.9 percent). The labor force
participation rates of foreign-born and native-born fathers with children under age
18 were more similar, at 93.8 percent and 93.1 percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in the West
(24.4 percent) and in the Northeast (20.1 percent) in 2018 than for the nation as a
whole (17.4 percent). In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the
labor force than for the nation as a whole in the South (16.2 percent) and the Midwest
(9.4 percent). (See table 6.) 

Unemployment

The unemployment rate of the foreign born declined from 4.1 percent to 3.5 percent
from 2017 to 2018, and the jobless rate for the native born fell from 4.4 percent
to 4.0 percent. The over-the-year decrease in the unemployment rates of the foreign
born and the native born reflected decreases in the rates for both men and women.
The unemployment rates for foreign-born men and women were 3.0 percent and 4.1 percent,
respectively, and the jobless rates for native-born men and women were 4.2 percent
and 3.8 percent. (See table 1.)

For both the foreign born and the native born, jobless rates vary considerably by race
and ethnicity. Among the foreign born, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate in 2018
(4.6 percent). The unemployment rate was 3.8 percent for Hispanics, 3.4 percent for
Whites, and 2.6 percent for Asians. Among the native born, Blacks also had the highest
jobless rate (6.8 percent), followed by Hispanics (5.5 percent), Asians (3.8 percent),
and Whites (3.2 percent).

Occupation

In 2018, foreign-born workers continued to be more likely than native-born workers
to be employed in service occupations (23.3 percent versus 15.9 percent); natural
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (14.0 percent versus 8.3 percent);
and production, transportation, and material moving occupations (15.0 percent versus
11.3 percent). (See table 4.)

As in past years, native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to
be employed in management, professional, and related occupations (41.6 percent versus
32.7 percent) and sales and office occupations (22.9 percent versus 14.9 percent).

In 2018, employed foreign-born men and women were more likely than their native-born
counterparts to work in service occupations; natural resources, construction, and
maintenance occupations; and production, transportation, and material moving occupations.
Among men, the employment disparity was especially great in natural resources,
construction, and maintenance occupations--22.8 percent of the foreign born versus 15.1
percent of the native born. The disparity for women was most pronounced in service
occupations--32.5 percent of the foreign born worked in that occupation group, compared
with 19.0 percent of the native born. By contrast, employed native-born men and women
were more likely than their foreign-born counterparts to work in management,
professional, and related occupations and in sales and office occupations.

Earnings

In 2018, median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born, full-time wage and salary workers
($758) were 83.3 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts ($910).
Among men, median weekly earnings for the foreign born ($815) were 80.9 percent of
the earnings of the native born ($1,007). Median earnings for foreign-born women ($678)
were 83.7 percent of the earnings of native-born women ($810). (See table 5.) Differences
in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including variations in the distributions of
foreign-born and native-born workers by educational attainment, occupation, industry,
and geographic region.  

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and
salary workers earned 83.8 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2018.
For Black workers, earnings for the foreign born and the native born were almost the
same. White and Asian foreign-born workers earned more than their native-born
counterparts.

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with education. In
2018, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high school diploma earned
$535 per week, while those with a bachelor's degree and higher earned about 2.5 times
as much--$1,362 per week. Among the native born, those with a bachelor's degree and
higher earned about 2.3 times as much as those with less than a high school diploma--
$1,309 versus $578 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than the foreign born at most educational attainment
levels. However, there is a relatively small gap between the earnings of foreign-born
and native-born workers for those with a bachelor's degree and higher. For example,
among high school graduates (no college), full-time workers who were foreign born
earned 83.8 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2018. Among those
with a bachelor's degree and higher, the earnings of foreign-born workers ($1,362)
were slightly higher than the earnings of native-born workers ($1,309).




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical
information about the foreign born, questions on nativity,
citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the parental
nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born
were the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April
1983 and November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by
the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data presented in this release are not
strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the introduction
of updated population estimates, or controls, used in the CPS. The
population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is
available from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error
of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS
and estimating standard errors is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are
presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. Specifically, they were born
outside the United States (or one of its outlying areas such as Guam or
Puerto Rico), and neither parent was a U.S. citizen. The foreign-born 
population includes legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary 
residents such as students and temporary workers,and undocumented immigrants.
The survey data, however, do not separately identify the number of persons 
in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were
born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected
more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but
are not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is
too small to develop statistically reliable estimates. The presentation
of data on race and ethnicity in this release differs from that
which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data because persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race,
they are usually included in the race groups as well as shown
separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group. The reason for
the difference in the data presentation in this release is because
about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and
they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey
reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked
15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of
illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also
are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period
ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be
recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually
work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job and
receive wages, salaries, and other types of compensation. The group
includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for
purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons,
regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median earnings is the amount which divides a
given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings
above the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 6,982 4.4 257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 6,314 3.9

Men

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 3,743 4.4 124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 3,398 3.9

Women

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 3,239 4.3 133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 2,916 3.8

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

41,500 27,373 66.0 26,254 1,119 4.1 42,898 28,202 65.7 27,217 986 3.5

Men

20,135 15,735 78.1 15,171 564 3.6 20,803 16,203 77.9 15,714 488 3.0

Women

21,365 11,638 54.5 11,083 555 4.8 22,095 12,000 54.3 11,502 497 4.1

Age

16 to 24 years

3,547 1,886 53.2 1,727 159 8.4 3,443 1,761 51.2 1,638 124 7.0

25 to 34 years

7,820 5,898 75.4 5,656 242 4.1 7,946 6,092 76.7 5,877 215 3.5

35 to 44 years

9,189 7,299 79.4 7,043 256 3.5 9,499 7,520 79.2 7,302 219 2.9

45 to 54 years

8,481 6,826 80.5 6,592 234 3.4 8,715 7,044 80.8 6,844 200 2.8

55 to 64 years

6,146 4,209 68.5 4,040 169 4.0 6,542 4,425 67.6 4,255 170 3.8

65 years and over

6,317 1,256 19.9 1,196 60 4.8 6,754 1,360 20.1 1,301 58 4.3

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,524 4,503 59.9 4,324 179 4.0 7,837 4,676 59.7 4,517 160 3.4

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

3,599 2,575 71.5 2,430 145 5.6 3,786 2,682 70.8 2,560 122 4.6

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

10,738 6,903 64.3 6,684 220 3.2 11,118 7,082 63.7 6,895 187 2.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,174 13,098 68.3 12,540 558 4.3 19,683 13,457 68.4 12,950 507 3.8

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

37,953 25,488 67.2 24,527 961 3.8 39,455 26,441 67.0 25,579 862 3.3

Less than a high school diploma

9,510 5,566 58.5 5,309 257 4.6 9,616 5,607 58.3 5,378 229 4.1

High school graduates, no college(2)

9,697 6,412 66.1 6,160 252 3.9 10,127 6,629 65.5 6,415 214 3.2

Some college or associate degree

6,070 4,273 70.4 4,116 156 3.7 6,366 4,448 69.9 4,301 147 3.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

12,677 9,237 72.9 8,942 294 3.2 13,347 9,758 73.1 9,485 273 2.8

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

213,579 132,946 62.2 127,083 5,863 4.4 214,892 133,872 62.3 128,544 5,328 4.0

Men

103,140 69,410 67.3 66,231 3,179 4.6 103,875 69,894 67.3 66,984 2,910 4.2

Women

110,439 63,536 57.5 60,852 2,684 4.2 111,018 63,979 57.6 61,560 2,418 3.8

Age

16 to 24 years

34,603 19,275 55.7 17,479 1,796 9.3 34,561 19,223 55.6 17,539 1,684 8.8

25 to 34 years

36,138 30,187 83.5 28,782 1,405 4.7 36,635 30,682 83.8 29,447 1,235 4.0

35 to 44 years

30,763 25,735 83.7 24,849 886 3.4 31,071 26,099 84.0 25,315 784 3.0

45 to 54 years

33,306 26,737 80.3 25,911 827 3.1 32,525 26,267 80.8 25,529 738 2.8

55 to 64 years

35,544 22,690 63.8 22,024 666 2.9 35,572 22,929 64.5 22,310 619 2.7

65 years and over

43,225 8,321 19.3 8,038 283 3.4 44,529 8,673 19.5 8,404 269 3.1

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

154,598 96,148 62.2 92,779 3,369 3.5 154,396 95,991 62.2 92,952 3,038 3.2

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

26,764 16,239 60.7 14,965 1,274 7.8 27,076 16,484 60.9 15,355 1,129 6.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

4,219 2,614 62.0 2,515 99 3.8 4,408 2,761 62.6 2,657 104 3.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

22,197 14,242 64.2 13,398 843 5.9 23,051 14,879 64.5 14,063 816 5.5

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

178,976 113,672 63.5 109,604 4,067 3.6 180,332 114,650 63.6 111,005 3,644 3.2

Less than a high school diploma

13,128 4,776 36.4 4,359 417 8.7 12,635 4,671 37.0 4,323 347 7.4

High school graduates, no college(2)

52,496 29,462 56.1 28,050 1,412 4.8 52,465 29,382 56.0 28,135 1,247 4.2

Some college or associate degree

51,191 33,424 65.3 32,166 1,257 3.8 51,038 33,138 64.9 32,036 1,101 3.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

62,161 46,009 74.0 45,029 981 2.1 64,193 47,459 73.9 46,511 949 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,292 7,162 8,130 15,770 7,446 8,324

Civilian labor force

11,557 6,669 4,888 12,062 6,984 5,078

Participation rate

75.6 93.1 60.1 76.5 93.8 61.0

Employed

11,141 6,481 4,660 11,675 6,815 4,860

Employment-population ratio

72.9 90.5 57.3 74.0 91.5 58.4

Unemployed

416 187 228 387 168 219

Unemployment rate

3.6 2.8 4.7 3.2 2.4 4.3

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,682 3,966 4,716 8,948 4,120 4,827

Civilian labor force

6,848 3,660 3,188 7,127 3,824 3,303

Participation rate

78.9 92.3 67.6 79.7 92.8 68.4

Employed

6,606 3,562 3,044 6,904 3,733 3,171

Employment-population ratio

76.1 89.8 64.5 77.2 90.6 65.7

Unemployed

243 99 144 223 91 132

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.7 4.5 3.1 2.4 4.0

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,609 3,196 3,414 6,823 3,326 3,497

Civilian labor force

4,709 3,008 1,700 4,935 3,160 1,775

Participation rate

71.2 94.1 49.8 72.3 95.0 50.8

Employed

4,536 2,920 1,616 4,771 3,082 1,689

Employment-population ratio

68.6 91.4 47.3 69.9 92.7 48.3

Unemployed

173 88 85 164 77 87

Unemployment rate

3.7 2.9 5.0 3.3 2.4 4.9

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,600 1,764 1,836 3,720 1,828 1,892

Civilian labor force

2,478 1,662 816 2,589 1,732 857

Participation rate

68.8 94.2 44.4 69.6 94.8 45.3

Employed

2,383 1,609 774 2,504 1,695 809

Employment-population ratio

66.2 91.2 42.2 67.3 92.7 42.8

Unemployed

95 53 42 85 37 48

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.2 5.1 3.3 2.2 5.6

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,209 12,974 13,235 27,128 13,357 13,771

Civilian labor force

15,816 9,066 6,750 16,140 9,219 6,921

Participation rate

60.3 69.9 51.0 59.5 69.0 50.3

Employed

15,113 8,690 6,423 15,542 8,899 6,643

Employment-population ratio

57.7 67.0 48.5 57.3 66.6 48.2

Unemployed

704 377 327 599 320 279

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.2 4.8 3.7 3.5 4.0

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

48,896 21,578 27,318 48,464 21,467 26,998

Civilian labor force

40,318 19,993 20,325 40,144 19,984 20,161

Participation rate

82.5 92.7 74.4 82.8 93.1 74.7

Employed

38,895 19,438 19,457 38,915 19,501 19,414

Employment-population ratio

79.5 90.1 71.2 80.3 90.8 71.9

Unemployed

1,423 555 868 1,229 483 746

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.8 4.3 3.1 2.4 3.7

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,604 12,187 15,416 26,933 11,874 15,059

Civilian labor force

23,212 11,152 12,060 22,810 10,929 11,880

Participation rate

84.1 91.5 78.2 84.7 92.0 78.9

Employed

22,458 10,866 11,591 22,193 10,696 11,497

Employment-population ratio

81.4 89.2 75.2 82.4 90.1 76.3

Unemployed

754 286 468 617 233 384

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.6 3.9 2.7 2.1 3.2

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,292 9,391 11,901 21,532 9,593 11,939

Civilian labor force

17,106 8,841 8,265 17,335 9,055 8,280

Participation rate

80.3 94.1 69.4 80.5 94.4 69.4

Employed

16,437 8,572 7,866 16,723 8,805 7,918

Employment-population ratio

77.2 91.3 66.1 77.7 91.8 66.3

Unemployed

669 269 399 612 249 363

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.0 4.8 3.5 2.8 4.4

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,690 5,649 7,041 12,556 5,623 6,933

Civilian labor force

10,060 5,348 4,712 9,932 5,328 4,605

Participation rate

79.3 94.7 66.9 79.1 94.8 66.4

Employed

9,661 5,185 4,476 9,576 5,174 4,401

Employment-population ratio

76.1 91.8 63.6 76.3 92.0 63.5

Unemployed

399 163 236 357 153 204

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.1 5.0 3.6 2.9 4.4

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

164,683 81,562 83,121 166,428 82,408 84,020

Civilian labor force

92,629 49,417 43,211 93,728 49,910 43,818

Participation rate

56.2 60.6 52.0 56.3 60.6 52.2

Employed

88,188 46,793 41,395 89,629 47,483 42,146

Employment-population ratio

53.6 57.4 49.8 53.9 57.6 50.2

Unemployed

4,441 2,625 1,816 4,099 2,427 1,672

Unemployment rate

4.8 5.3 4.2 4.4 4.9 3.8

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

574 1,653 1,364 3,445 644 1,708 1,361 3,617

Civilian labor force

206 841 812 2,409 250 849 817 2,515

Participation rate

35.9 50.9 59.6 69.9 38.9 49.7 60.0 69.5

Employed

193 803 779 2,341 238 823 791 2,440

Employment-population ratio

33.7 48.6 57.1 68.0 36.9 48.2 58.1 67.5

Unemployed

13 39 33 68 12 26 27 75

Unemployment rate

6.3 4.6 4.1 2.8 4.9 3.1 3.3 3.0

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

388 895 798 1,113 391 946 908 1,156

Civilian labor force

210 628 612 911 196 666 684 950

Participation rate

54.3 70.1 76.7 81.9 50.3 70.4 75.3 82.1

Employed

197 593 585 866 187 637 653 911

Employment-population ratio

50.7 66.3 73.2 77.8 47.8 67.4 71.9 78.8

Unemployed

14 35 27 45 10 28 31 38

Unemployment rate

6.5 5.5 4.5 5.0 4.9 4.2 4.5 4.0

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,052 1,932 1,381 5,515 1,015 1,955 1,402 5,844

Civilian labor force

421 1,185 940 3,983 403 1,145 934 4,257

Participation rate

40.0 61.3 68.1 72.2 39.7 58.6 66.7 72.8

Employed

404 1,154 909 3,864 393 1,121 910 4,152

Employment-population ratio

38.4 59.7 65.8 70.1 38.7 57.3 64.9 71.0

Unemployed

17 31 31 120 10 24 24 106

Unemployment rate

4.0 2.6 3.3 3.0 2.5 2.1 2.6 2.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,438 5,108 2,433 2,458 7,514 5,410 2,577 2,585

Civilian labor force

4,698 3,694 1,850 1,824 4,730 3,908 1,930 1,923

Participation rate

63.2 72.3 76.0 74.2 62.9 72.2 74.9 74.4

Employed

4,488 3,551 1,789 1,766 4,534 3,777 1,867 1,870

Employment-population ratio

60.3 69.5 73.5 71.8 60.3 69.8 72.4 72.4

Unemployed

210 143 61 58 196 131 63 53

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.9 3.3 3.2 4.1 3.4 3.2 2.7

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,804 38,295 37,581 50,848 7,423 37,857 37,328 52,012

Civilian labor force

2,713 20,767 23,817 37,050 2,641 20,379 23,507 37,817

Participation rate

34.8 54.2 63.4 72.9 35.6 53.8 63.0 72.7

Employed

2,524 19,959 23,057 36,326 2,479 19,670 22,855 37,117

Employment-population ratio

32.3 52.1 61.4 71.4 33.4 52.0 61.2 71.4

Unemployed

189 808 760 724 162 708 652 700

Unemployment rate

7.0 3.9 3.2 2.0 6.1 3.5 2.8 1.9

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,486 7,507 6,754 5,065 2,427 7,487 6,713 5,555

Civilian labor force

785 4,355 4,632 3,888 782 4,340 4,571 4,259

Participation rate

31.6 58.0 68.6 76.8 32.2 58.0 68.1 76.7

Employed

663 3,998 4,352 3,766 684 4,029 4,324 4,146

Employment-population ratio

26.7 53.3 64.4 74.4 28.2 53.8 64.4 74.6

Unemployed

123 357 280 122 98 311 247 112

Unemployment rate

15.6 8.2 6.0 3.1 12.6 7.2 5.4 2.6

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

141 476 610 1,714 164 516 602 1,854

Civilian labor force

54 279 420 1,355 69 309 414 1,468

Participation rate

38.4 58.6 68.9 79.1 41.8 60.0 68.7 79.2

Employed

52 269 407 1,329 65 299 400 1,440

Employment-population ratio

36.8 56.6 66.8 77.5 39.7 58.0 66.4 77.7

Unemployed

2 10 13 26 4 10 14 28

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.5 3.1 1.9 5.1 3.4 3.3 1.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,291 4,904 4,787 3,422 2,223 5,227 4,903 3,613

Civilian labor force

1,057 3,273 3,556 2,837 1,023 3,531 3,624 2,989

Participation rate

46.1 66.7 74.3 82.9 46.0 67.6 73.9 82.7

Employed

974 3,091 3,407 2,759 954 3,369 3,487 2,900

Employment-population ratio

42.5 63.0 71.2 80.6 42.9 64.5 71.1 80.3

Unemployed

83 182 149 78 69 162 137 88

Unemployment rate

7.8 5.6 4.2 2.7 6.8 4.6 3.8 3.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2018 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

27,217 15,714 11,502 128,544 66,984 61,560

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

32.7 30.7 35.5 41.6 38.0 45.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

12.3 12.4 12.1 17.5 18.7 16.2

Management occupations

8.5 9.3 7.5 12.4 14.2 10.5

Business and financial operations occupations

3.7 3.1 4.6 5.1 4.5 5.8

Professional and related occupations

20.5 18.4 23.4 24.1 19.3 29.4

Computer and mathematical occupations

5.1 6.6 3.0 2.9 4.1 1.6

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.2 3.2 0.9 2.1 3.4 0.7

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.2 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.9

Community and social service occupations

0.9 0.6 1.3 1.9 1.2 2.6

Legal occupations

0.6 0.4 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.7 2.2 5.7 6.5 3.2 10.0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.4 1.3 1.6 2.3 2.4 2.2

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

5.4 2.9 8.8 6.2 2.8 9.8

Service occupations

23.3 16.6 32.5 15.9 13.1 19.0

Healthcare support occupations

2.7 0.6 5.5 2.3 0.6 4.1

Protective service occupations

0.9 1.2 0.5 2.3 3.4 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.7 6.1 7.6 5.0 4.0 6.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.2 6.9 10.0 2.8 3.5 2.1

Personal care and service occupations

4.8 1.8 8.9 3.6 1.6 5.8

Sales and office occupations

14.9 11.2 19.9 22.9 16.8 29.5

Sales and related occupations

7.7 6.9 8.7 10.7 10.3 11.1

Office and administrative support occupations

7.2 4.3 11.2 12.2 6.5 18.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14.0 22.8 2.0 8.3 15.1 0.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.6 2.0 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

9.5 15.9 0.7 4.5 8.3 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

2.9 4.9 0.2 3.3 6.1 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15.0 18.6 10.1 11.3 16.9 5.1

Production occupations

7.4 7.9 6.7 5.1 7.3 2.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.6 10.7 3.4 6.1 9.6 2.3

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2017 2018
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

19,914 $730 93,358 $885 82.5 20,627 $758 94,939 $910 83.3

Men

12,123 776 50,857 978 79.3 12,469 815 51,673 1,007 80.9

Women

7,791 660 42,501 788 83.8 8,158 678 43,266 810 83.7

AGE

16 to 24 years

1,065 506 9,216 521 97.1 993 522 9,436 551 94.7

25 to 34 years

4,610 701 23,586 786 89.2 4,668 752 24,207 819 91.8

35 to 44 years

5,560 790 20,102 1,003 78.8 5,803 802 20,648 1,035 77.5

45 to 54 years

5,009 760 20,642 1,019 74.6 5,215 779 20,351 1,059 73.6

55 to 64 years

2,958 765 16,199 1,007 76.0 3,154 774 16,430 1,035 74.8

65 years and over

712 721 3,615 937 76.9 795 733 3,867 977 75.0

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

3,040 1,080 67,242 955 113.1 3,135 1,083 67,771 986 109.8

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,885 682 11,669 683 99.9 2,023 699 12,109 697 100.3

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

5,189 1,076 1,943 1,007 106.9 5,387 1,129 2,041 1,065 106.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9,579 596 10,036 724 82.3 9,852 621 10,445 741 83.8

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

18,848 751 84,142 937 80.1 19,635 775 85,503 965 80.3

Less than a high school diploma

4,113 506 2,925 560 90.4 4,097 535 2,902 578 92.6

High school graduates, no college(2)

4,539 619 21,472 734 84.3 4,879 632 21,358 754 83.8

Some college or associate degree

3,003 727 24,384 808 90.0 3,125 755 24,350 837 90.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

7,193 1,340 35,362 1,271 105.4 7,534 1,362 36,893 1,309 104.0

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2017 2018
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

8,623 5,586 64.8 5,326 260 4.7 8,914 5,787 64.9 5,576 212 3.7

New England

1,939 1,311 67.6 1,247 64 4.9 1,976 1,372 69.4 1,318 54 3.9

Middle Atlantic

6,684 4,275 64.0 4,079 196 4.6 6,938 4,416 63.6 4,258 158 3.6

South

14,232 9,554 67.1 9,214 340 3.6 14,562 9,719 66.7 9,405 314 3.2

South Atlantic

8,400 5,669 67.5 5,452 217 3.8 8,633 5,766 66.8 5,583 183 3.2

East South Central

716 494 68.9 476 17 3.5 748 510 68.2 492 18 3.6

West South Central

5,116 3,391 66.3 3,285 106 3.1 5,181 3,443 66.5 3,330 113 3.3

Midwest

4,451 3,051 68.5 2,929 122 4.0 4,907 3,289 67.0 3,178 111 3.4

East North Central

3,239 2,180 67.3 2,102 78 3.6 3,584 2,351 65.6 2,273 78 3.3

West North Central

1,212 871 71.9 827 44 5.0 1,323 938 70.9 905 33 3.5

West

14,194 9,183 64.7 8,785 397 4.3 14,515 9,407 64.8 9,058 349 3.7

Mountain

2,688 1,793 66.7 1,710 83 4.6 2,766 1,850 66.9 1,788 62 3.3

Pacific

11,506 7,390 64.2 7,075 315 4.3 11,749 7,558 64.3 7,270 287 3.8

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,630 22,924 62.6 21,905 1,019 4.4 36,657 22,937 62.6 21,996 941 4.1

New England

10,074 6,614 65.7 6,364 250 3.8 10,143 6,721 66.3 6,488 232 3.5

Middle Atlantic

26,557 16,310 61.4 15,541 769 4.7 26,513 16,217 61.2 15,508 709 4.4

South

81,780 49,496 60.5 47,274 2,222 4.5 82,746 50,181 60.6 48,209 1,972 3.9

South Atlantic

42,584 25,865 60.7 24,727 1,138 4.4 43,140 26,161 60.6 25,162 999 3.8

East South Central

14,160 8,217 58.0 7,848 369 4.5 14,224 8,289 58.3 7,954 335 4.0

West South Central

25,036 15,414 61.6 14,698 716 4.6 25,382 15,731 62.0 15,093 638 4.1

Midwest

48,973 31,679 64.7 30,369 1,310 4.1 48,821 31,589 64.7 30,415 1,174 3.7

East North Central

33,663 21,403 63.6 20,431 972 4.5 33,510 21,324 63.6 20,452 872 4.1

West North Central

15,310 10,277 67.1 9,938 339 3.3 15,311 10,265 67.0 9,963 301 2.9

West

46,196 28,847 62.4 27,536 1,311 4.5 46,669 29,164 62.5 27,923 1,241 4.3

Mountain

15,968 10,121 63.4 9,718 404 4.0 16,220 10,341 63.8 9,920 421 4.1

Pacific

30,229 18,726 61.9 17,818 908 4.8 30,449 18,824 61.8 18,003 820 4.4

NOTE: The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 16, 2019