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Economic News Release
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Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020-2021 annual averages

Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020-2021 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2020 2021
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

498 1,567 1,249 3,610 494 1,663 1,321 3,589

Civilian labor force

161 782 718 2,548 174 795 763 2,571

Participation rate

32.3 49.9 57.5 70.6 35.2 47.8 57.8 71.6

Employed

144 710 652 2,398 162 747 724 2,464

Employment-population ratio

28.9 45.3 52.2 66.4 32.8 44.9 54.8 68.7

Unemployed

17 73 66 150 12 48 39 106

Unemployment rate

10.3 9.3 9.2 5.9 6.6 6.0 5.2 4.1

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

374 1,016 866 1,313 376 1,034 825 1,415

Civilian labor force

190 671 656 1,062 185 684 596 1,135

Participation rate

50.9 66.1 75.8 80.9 49.2 66.2 72.3 80.2

Employed

160 585 588 984 169 625 558 1,073

Employment-population ratio

42.8 57.6 67.9 75.0 44.9 60.5 67.7 75.8

Unemployed

30 87 68 78 16 59 38 62

Unemployment rate

16.0 12.9 10.4 7.4 8.7 8.6 6.3 5.5

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

900 1,877 1,234 6,186 849 1,916 1,239 6,190

Civilian labor force

353 995 766 4,422 330 1,008 787 4,554

Participation rate

39.3 53.0 62.1 71.5 38.9 52.6 63.6 73.6

Employed

297 844 687 4,167 307 923 745 4,391

Employment-population ratio

33.0 45.0 55.6 67.4 36.1 48.1 60.1 70.9

Unemployed

57 151 79 255 24 85 43 163

Unemployment rate

16.1 15.2 10.4 5.8 7.2 8.4 5.4 3.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,952 5,472 2,717 2,956 7,200 5,762 2,624 3,025

Civilian labor force

4,156 3,794 1,929 2,220 4,327 3,971 1,845 2,238

Participation rate

59.8 69.3 71.0 75.1 60.1 68.9 70.3 74.0

Employed

3,705 3,425 1,764 2,066 4,049 3,752 1,749 2,148

Employment-population ratio

53.3 62.6 64.9 69.9 56.2 65.1 66.6 71.0

Unemployed

451 369 165 154 278 219 96 91

Unemployment rate

10.9 9.7 8.5 6.9 6.4 5.5 5.2 4.0

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,386 37,005 36,937 55,058 6,350 37,125 36,296 55,629

Civilian labor force

2,216 19,488 22,495 39,028 2,207 19,132 21,891 39,006

Participation rate

34.7 52.7 60.9 70.9 34.7 51.5 60.3 70.1

Employed

2,004 18,085 20,992 37,378 2,030 18,200 20,969 38,009

Employment-population ratio

31.4 48.9 56.8 67.9 32.0 49.0 57.8 68.3

Unemployed

212 1,403 1,503 1,650 176 932 922 997

Unemployment rate

9.6 7.2 6.7 4.2 8.0 4.9 4.2 2.6

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,235 7,609 6,751 6,045 2,093 7,923 6,795 6,072

Civilian labor force

687 4,130 4,382 4,560 598 4,395 4,448 4,579

Participation rate

30.7 54.3 64.9 75.4 28.6 55.5 65.5 75.4

Employed

565 3,588 3,944 4,313 488 3,946 4,103 4,391

Employment-population ratio

25.3 47.2 58.4 71.3 23.3 49.8 60.4 72.3

Unemployed

123 542 438 247 110 450 345 187

Unemployment rate

17.8 13.1 10.0 5.4 18.4 10.2 7.7 4.1

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

128 541 629 2,320 142 580 642 2,335

Civilian labor force

66 319 408 1,823 52 329 425 1,833

Participation rate

51.6 58.9 64.8 78.6 36.8 56.7 66.2 78.5

Employed

58 285 365 1,731 48 302 398 1,777

Employment-population ratio

45.3 52.7 58.1 74.6 33.6 52.1 62.0 76.1

Unemployed

8 33 42 92 5 27 27 55

Unemployment rate

12.4 10.5 10.3 5.0 8.9 8.1 6.3 3.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,014 5,545 5,274 4,446 2,079 5,701 5,227 4,407

Civilian labor force

951 3,683 3,928 3,588 977 3,751 3,809 3,642

Participation rate

47.2 66.4 74.5 80.7 47.0 65.8 72.9 82.6

Employed

831 3,299 3,571 3,361 871 3,470 3,560 3,504

Employment-population ratio

41.2 59.5 67.7 75.6 41.9 60.9 68.1 79.5

Unemployed

120 384 358 227 106 281 249 138

Unemployment rate

12.6 10.4 9.1 6.3 10.9 7.5 6.5 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

Last Modified Date: May 18, 2022