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Economic News Release
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JOLTS JLT Program Links

State Job Openings and Labor Turnover News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, May 17, 2023	USDL-23-1012
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870    JoltsInfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov

			STATE JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER  MARCH 2023

Job openings rates decreased in 15 states and increased in 1 state and the District of Columbia on the last 
business day of March, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires rates decreased in 5 
states and increased in 2 states. Total separations rates increased in 5 states and decreased in 2 states. 
Nationally, the job openings, hires, and total separations rates showed little or no change in March.

This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, total separations, quits, and 
layoffs and discharges for the total nonfarm sector and for all states and the District of Columbia. 

Job Openings

In March, job openings rates decreased in 15 states, increased in 1 state and the District of Columbia, 
and were little changed in 34 states. The largest decreases in job openings rates occurred in Colorado, 
Kansas, and Maryland (-1.4 percentage points each). The increases occurred in the District of Columbia 
(+0.9 point) and Florida (+0.5 point). Over the month, the national job openings rate was little changed. 
(See table A.)

The number of job openings decreased in 18 states, increased in 4 states and the District of Columbia, 
and was little changed in 28 states in March. The largest decreases in the job openings level occurred in 
California (-74,000) and Texas (-52,000), as well as in Colorado and Illinois (-48,000 each). The largest 
increases occurred in Florida (+55,000), Ohio (+23,000), and Massachusetts (+17,000). Nationally, the 
number of job openings decreased over the month (-384,000). (See table A.)

Hires

In March, hires rates decreased in 5 states, increased in 2 states, and were little changed in 43 states and 
the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in the hires rates occurred in Nebraska (-1.3 percentage 
points), Mississippi (-0.9 point), and Kansas (-0.8 point). The increases occurred in New Jersey  
(+1.5 points) and Maine (+1.3 points). The national hires rate was unchanged over the month. (See table B.)

The number of hires decreased in 4 states, increased in 2 states, and was little changed in 44 states and 
the District of Columbia in March. The decreases in the hires level occurred in North Carolina  
(-32,000), Nebraska (-13,000), as well as in Kansas and Mississippi (-11,000 each). The increases 
occurred in New Jersey (+63,000) and Maine (+8,000). Nationally, the number of hires changed little 
over the month. (See table B.)

Total Separations

In March, total separations rates increased in 5 states, decreased in 2 states, and were little changed in 
43 states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in total separations rates occurred in New 
Hampshire (+1.2 percentage points), Tennessee (+0.9 point), and Montana (+0.8 point). The decreases 
occurred in Georgia (-0.6 point) and Texas (-0.5 point). Over the month, the national total separations 
rate was unchanged. (See table C.)

In March, the number of total separations increased in 8 states, decreased in 2 states, and was little 
changed in 40 states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in the total separations level 
occurred in Michigan and Tennessee (+32,000 each), as well as in Pennsylvania (+27,000). The 
decreases occurred in Texas (-71,000) and Georgia (-30,000). Nationally, the number of total 
separations was little changed over the month. (See table C.)
 
Quits

In March, quits rates decreased in 4 states and the District of Columbia, increased in 3 states, and were 
little changed in 43 states. The largest decreases in quits rates occurred in Georgia (-0.9 percentage 
point), the District of Columbia (-0.7 point), and Alaska (-0.6 point). The increases occurred in New 
Hampshire (+0.8 point), Maryland (+0.5 point), and Pennsylvania (+0.4 point). Over the month, the 
national quits rate changed little. (See table D.)

The number of quits decreased in 4 states and the District of Columbia, increased in 4 states, and was 
little changed in 42 states in March. The largest decreases in the quits level occurred in Texas 
(-63,000), Georgia (-45,000), and North Carolina (-17,000). The largest increases occurred in 
Pennsylvania (+25,000), as well as in Maryland and Michigan (+13,000 each). Nationally, the number 
of quits was little changed over the month. (See table D.)
 
Layoffs and Discharges

In March, layoffs and discharges rates increased in 5 states and were little changed in 45 states and the 
District of Columbia. The largest increases in layoffs and discharges rates occurred in Tennessee  
(+1.3 percentage points), Massachusetts (+0.9 point), and Michigan (+0.5 point). Over the month, the 
national layoffs and discharges rate increased (+0.2 point). (See table E.)

The number of layoffs and discharges increased in 11 states and was little changed in 39 states and the 
District of Columbia in March. The largest increases in the layoffs and discharges levels occurred in 
California (+47,000), Tennessee (+45,000), and Massachusetts (+33,000). Nationally, the number of 
layoffs and discharges increased over the month (+248,000). (See table E.)

For more information, please see the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) interactive 
charts at www.bls.gov/charts/state-job-openings-and-labor-turnover/state-job-openings-rates.htm#.  
	
_______________
State Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for April 2023 are scheduled to be 
released on Wednesday, June 21, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|		Upcoming Changes to State Estimates from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover			|
|						Survey								| 
|														|
|Effective with the release of May 2023 data on July 26, 2023, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover 		|
|Survey (JOLTS) state estimates will be benchmarked, or revised, to incorporate the annual updates to 		|
|the Current Employment Statistics state employment estimates, Quarterly Census of Employment and 		|
|Wages (QCEW) updates through fourth quarter 2022, revised JOLTS national data, and revised JOLTS 		|
|seasonal adjustment factors. In 2022, state estimates were benchmarked in June with the release of April	| 
|data. The change in the release date from June to July is being made to incorporate QCEW data through 		|
|the fourth quarter of 2022. Not seasonally adjusted data and seasonally adjusted data from January 2018 	|
|forward are subject to revision. Additional historical data may also be revised due to benchmarking. 		|
|														|
|JOLTS will introduce several changes to the monthly news release tables beginning with the May 2023 		|
|news release. Significance tables A through E will be removed from the news release and provided as 		|
|supplemental tables on the JOLTS website. JOLTS will also introduce over-the-month change columns 		|
|for levels and rates to tables 1 through 5. Also, two tables will be added to present annual average job 	|
|openings levels and rates. (Annual estimates of levels and rates are published each year with the annual 	|
|benchmark.) 													|
|														|
|Also effective with the release of May 2023 data, JOLTS will modify its estimation methodology to 		|
|reduce variance. State data from January 2018 forward is subject to revision. 					|
|														|
|Additional information about these changes is available at www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts-2023-changes.htm.		|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________|

Technical Note

This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The JOLTS 
program provides information on labor demand and turnover. Additional information about the JOLTS program can 
be found at www.bls.gov/jlt/. State estimates are published for job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
total separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well as civilian federal, state, 
and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Starting with data for January 2023, 
industries are classified in accordance with the 2022 North American Industry Classification System.

Definitions

Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that 
includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and 
hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of 
unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on strike for the entire pay period, and employees 
on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, 
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by 
the establishment where they are working. JOLTS does not publish employment estimates but uses the reported 
employment for validation of the other reported data elements.

Job Openings. Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the reference month. 
A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions: 
* A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-
time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal. 
* The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate during that time. 
* The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position. Active recruiting 
means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in newspapers, on 
television, or on the radio; posting internet notices, posting "help wanted" signs, networking, or making "word-
of-mouth" announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; 
or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or similar sources.

Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs. Also 
excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future; positions for which employees 
have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work; and positions to be filled by employees of 
temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is 
computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that 
quotient by 100.

Hires. Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly hired and 
rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees; employees 
who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension from pay status) lasting more than 7 
days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated; workers who 
were hired and separated during the month, and transfers from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions 
within the reporting location, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee 
leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by 
employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations. Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month and is 
reported by type of separation:  quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include employees who 
left voluntarily, with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs and discharges includes 
involuntary separations initiated by the employer, such as layoffs with no intent to rehire; layoffs (formal 
suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, 
downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or short-term employees; 
and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return the next season). Other 
separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. 
Other separations comprise less than 8 percent of total separations. Other separations rates are generally very low, 
and other separations variance estimates are relatively high. Consequently, the other separations component is not 
published for states. 

Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; employees of temporary help 
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The separations rate is computed by 
dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits and layoffs and 
discharges rates are computed similarly.

State Estimation Method

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of approximately 21,000 nonfarm business and 
government establishments. The sample is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment size 
class. The JOLTS sample of 21,000 establishments does not directly support the production of sample-based state 
estimates. However, state estimates have been produced by combining the available sample with model-based 
estimates.

The state estimates consist of four major estimating models; the Composite Regional model (an unpublished 
intermediate model), the Synthetic model (an unpublished intermediate model), the Composite Synthetic model 
(published historical series through the most current benchmark year), and the Extended Composite Synthetic model 
(published current-year monthly series). The Composite Regional model uses JOLTS microdata, JOLTS regional 
published estimates, and Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment data. The Composite Synthetic model 
uses JOLTS microdata and Synthetic model estimates derived from monthly employment changes in microdata from 
the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and JOLTS published regional data. The Extended 
Composite Synthetic model extends the Composite Synthetic estimates by ratio-adjusting the Composite Synthetic 
model by the ratio of the current Composite Regional model estimate to the Composite Regional model estimate 
from the previous year.

The Extended Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the Composite Regional model) is used 
to extend the Composite Synthetic estimates because all of the inputs required by this model are available at the time 
monthly estimate are produced. In contrast, the Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the 
Synthetic model) can only be produced when the latest QCEW data are available. The Extended Composite 
Synthetic model estimates are used to extend the Composite Synthetic model estimates during the annual JOLTS
retabulation process. The extension of the Composite Synthetic model using current data-based Composite Regional 
model estimates ensures that the Composite Synthetic model estimates reflect current economic trends.

The Composite Regional approach calculates state-level JOLTS estimates from JOLTS microdata using sample 
weights and the adjustments for non-response. The Composite Regional estimate is then benchmarked to CES state-
supersector employment to produce state-supersector estimates. The JOLTS sample, by itself, cannot ensure a 
reasonably sized sample for each state-supersector cell. The small JOLTS sample results in several state-supersector 
cells that lack enough data to produce a reasonable estimate. To overcome this issue, the state-level estimates 
derived directly from the JOLTS sample are augmented using JOLTS regional estimates when the number of 
respondents is low (that is, less than 30). This approach is known as a composite estimate, which leverages the small 
JOLTS sample to the greatest extent possible and supplements that with a model-based estimate. Previous research 
has found that regional industry estimates are a good proxy at finer levels of geographical detail. That is, one can 
make a reliable prediction of JOLTS estimates at the regional-level using only national industry-level JOLTS rates. 
The assumption in this approach is that one can make a good prediction of JOLTS estimates at the state-level using 
only regional industry-level JOLTS rates.)

In this approach, the JOLTS microdata-based estimate is used, without model augmentation, in all state-
supersector cells that have 30 or more respondents. The JOLTS regional estimate will be used, without a sample-
based component, in all state-supersector cells that have fewer than five respondents. In all state-supersector cells 
with 5 to 30 respondents, an estimate is calculated that is a composition of a weighted estimate of the microdata-
based estimate and a weighted estimate of the JOLTS regional estimate. The weight assigned to the JOLTS data in 
those cells is proportional the number of JOLTS respondents in the cell (weight=n/30, where n is the number of 
respondents). The sum of state estimates within a region is made equal to the aligned regional JOLTS published 
regional estimates.

Seasonal adjustment. BLS uses the seasonal adjustment program (X-13ARIMA-SEATS) to seasonally adjust 
the JOLTS series. Each month, a concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology uses all relevant data, up to and 
including the current month, to calculate new seasonal adjustment factors. Moving averages are used as seasonal 
filters in seasonal adjustment. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and multiplicative models, as well 
as regression with autocorrelated errors (REGARIMA) modeling, to improve the seasonal adjustment factors at the 
beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series. 

Annual estimates and benchmarking. The JOLTS state estimates utilize and leverage data from three BLS 
programs; JOLTS, CES, and QCEW. These state estimates are published as a historical series made up of a 
historical annually revised benchmark component ofthe Composite Synthetic model and a current component of the 
Extended Composite Synthetic model that provides monthly "real-time" estimates between lagged benchmarks.

The JOLTS employment levels are ratio-adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are 
applied to all JOLTS data elements.

The seasonally adjusted estimates are recalculated for the most recent 5 years to reflect updated seasonal 
adjustment factors. These annual updates result in revisions to both the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally 
adjusted JOLTS data series for the period since the last benchmark was established.

Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the 
12 published monthly levels. 

Annual average levels for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 published monthly levels 
by 12. 

Annual average rates for hires, total separations quits, and layoffs and discharges are calculated by dividing the 
sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published levels for each data element by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published 
employment levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100. 

Annual average rates for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published 
levels by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published employment levels plus the sum of the 12 monthly job openings 
levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.)

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to two types of error:  sampling error and nonsampling error.

Sampling error can result when a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed. There is a chance that 
the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling 
error, varies with the sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. This means that there is a 90-percent chance 
that the true population mean will fall into the interval created by the sample mean plus or minus 1.65 standard 
errors. Estimates of median standard errors are released monthly as part of the significant change tables on the 
JOLTS webpage. Standard errors are updated annually with the most recent 5 years of data. For sampling error 
estimates, see www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a segment of the population, the 
inability to obtain data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a 
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors from 
the employment benchmark data used in estimation. The JOLTS program uses quality control procedures to reduce 
nonsampling error in the survey's design. 

The JOLTS state variance estimates account for both sampling error and the error attributable to modeling. A 
small area domain model uses a Bayesian approach to develop estimates of JOLTS state variance. The small area 
model uses QCEW-based JOLTS synthetic model data to generate a Bayesian prior distribution, then updates the 
prior distribution using JOLTS microdata and sample-based variance estimates at the state and US Census regional 
level to generate a Bayesian posterior distribution. Once the Bayesian posterior distribution has been generated, 
estimates of JOLTS state variances are made by drawing 2,500 estimates from the Bayesian posterior distribution. 
This Bayesian approach thus indirectly accounts for sampling error and directly for model error.

Other information

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications 
relay services.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

12,027 11,234 10,563 9,974 9,590 7.4 6.8 6.4 6.0 5.8


Alabama

152 161 155 145 141 6.9 7.1 6.8 6.3 6.2

Alaska

34 31 29 28 27 9.7 8.7 8.2 7.9 7.7

Arizona

259 214 211 189 197 7.9 6.4 6.3 5.7 5.9

Arkansas

102 103 105 105 89 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 6.2

California

1,298 1,219 1,021 985 911 6.9 6.4 5.4 5.2 4.8

Colorado

217 213 200 242 194 7.1 6.9 6.5 7.7 6.3

Connecticut

115 110 92 98 104 6.5 6.2 5.2 5.5 5.8

Delaware

37 38 34 36 36 7.5 7.6 6.6 7.0 6.9

District of Columbia

47 55 46 39 47 5.8 6.6 5.6 4.8 5.7

Florida

765 647 686 616 671 7.7 6.3 6.6 6.0 6.5

Georgia

419 388 420 424 395 8.1 7.4 7.9 8.0 7.5

Hawaii

45 39 39 37 32 7.0 5.9 5.8 5.5 4.8

Idaho

61 65 55 55 56 7.0 7.3 6.1 6.1 6.2

Illinois

489 474 461 408 360 7.5 7.2 7.0 6.3 5.6

Indiana

239 221 202 173 171 7.0 6.4 5.9 5.1 5.0

Iowa

117 135 103 100 86 7.0 7.8 6.1 5.9 5.1

Kansas

99 100 97 92 70 6.6 6.6 6.3 6.0 4.6

Kentucky

213 153 151 137 144 9.9 7.2 7.1 6.4 6.7

Louisiana

149 181 172 152 153 7.2 8.5 8.1 7.2 7.3

Maine

50 48 39 43 45 7.3 6.9 5.7 6.2 6.5

Maryland

223 203 212 210 165 7.6 6.9 7.2 7.1 5.7

Massachusetts

304 281 276 256 273 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.4 6.8

Michigan

350 369 291 262 247 7.5 7.8 6.2 5.6 5.3

Minnesota

239 231 203 190 179 7.6 7.2 6.4 6.0 5.7

Mississippi

91 88 88 84 79 7.3 7.0 7.0 6.7 6.3

Missouri

226 220 207 195 164 7.2 7.0 6.5 6.2 5.2

Montana

46 44 40 38 36 8.3 8.0 7.2 6.8 6.5

Nebraska

79 73 74 64 56 7.1 6.5 6.6 5.8 5.1

Nevada

112 114 108 107 88 7.2 7.2 6.6 6.5 5.4

New Hampshire

58 51 53 46 49 7.9 6.8 7.0 6.2 6.5

New Jersey

282 266 268 269 246 6.3 5.9 5.8 5.9 5.4

New Mexico

70 70 58 61 59 7.6 7.6 6.3 6.6 6.4

New York

588 473 451 419 430 5.9 4.7 4.5 4.1 4.2

North Carolina

424 367 340 366 372 8.2 7.0 6.5 7.0 7.1

North Dakota

34 35 28 27 29 7.4 7.5 6.1 5.9 6.3

Ohio

407 409 375 316 339 6.9 6.9 6.3 5.4 5.7

Oklahoma

148 135 136 122 121 8.1 7.3 7.3 6.6 6.5

Oregon

158 153 133 122 120 7.5 7.1 6.3 5.8 5.7

Pennsylvania

514 458 441 432 398 8.0 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.1

Rhode Island

43 37 36 33 32 8.0 6.9 6.7 6.2 6.0

South Carolina

209 188 177 176 189 8.7 7.7 7.2 7.2 7.6

South Dakota

34 33 37 31 27 7.1 6.7 7.5 6.3 5.5

Tennessee

265 263 236 254 245 7.6 7.4 6.7 7.1 6.9

Texas

1,003 1,033 943 881 829 7.1 7.0 6.4 6.0 5.7

Utah

123 112 106 102 102 6.9 6.3 5.9 5.6 5.6

Vermont

26 22 24 20 20 8.0 6.7 7.3 6.1 6.1

Virginia

340 344 337 335 347 7.8 7.7 7.5 7.5 7.7

Washington

244 242 241 200 178 6.6 6.4 6.3 5.2 4.7

West Virginia

61 69 72 59 54 8.0 8.9 9.4 7.8 7.2

Wisconsin

221 236 235 173 171 7.0 7.4 7.3 5.5 5.4

Wyoming

25 22 20 19 20 8.1 7.1 6.5 6.2 6.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,577 6,251 6,327 6,150 6,149 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.0


Alabama

106 103 98 97 91 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.2

Alaska

21 22 21 19 19 6.6 6.8 6.4 5.8 5.9

Arizona

157 135 156 137 138 5.2 4.3 5.0 4.4 4.4

Arkansas

73 67 64 65 59 5.6 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.4

California

631 542 665 593 606 3.6 3.0 3.7 3.3 3.4

Colorado

134 116 115 122 112 4.7 4.0 4.0 4.2 3.9

Connecticut

58 58 55 54 60 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.6

Delaware

24 24 22 25 24 5.3 5.2 4.6 5.2 5.0

District of Columbia

27 28 23 25 28 3.5 3.6 3.0 3.2 3.6

Florida

468 371 372 364 371 5.1 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8

Georgia

275 248 258 238 237 5.8 5.1 5.3 4.9 4.9

Hawaii

31 24 26 27 24 5.2 3.9 4.1 4.3 3.8

Idaho

42 37 42 37 39 5.2 4.5 5.0 4.4 4.6

Illinois

263 257 254 253 237 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.9

Indiana

148 149 141 150 136 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.2

Iowa

65 64 62 62 58 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.6

Kansas

53 59 57 59 48 3.8 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.3

Kentucky

123 96 96 103 93 6.3 4.9 4.8 5.2 4.6

Louisiana

99 102 100 105 99 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.4 5.1

Maine

27 28 25 24 32 4.2 4.3 3.9 3.7 5.0

Maryland

124 113 116 116 117 4.6 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.3

Massachusetts

126 126 133 128 137 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6

Michigan

202 175 173 162 163 4.7 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.7

Minnesota

108 126 98 102 111 3.7 4.3 3.3 3.4 3.7

Mississippi

57 58 59 58 47 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.0

Missouri

105 147 109 108 108 3.6 5.0 3.7 3.6 3.6

Montana

29 29 29 29 28 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.4

Nebraska

43 40 41 49 36 4.2 3.8 3.9 4.7 3.4

Nevada

69 74 75 64 71 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.2 4.6

New Hampshire

28 30 28 28 32 4.1 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.6

New Jersey

178 141 141 152 215 4.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 5.0

New Mexico

40 40 37 36 36 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.2 4.2

New York

309 323 299 315 313 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.2

North Carolina

250 239 210 221 189 5.3 4.9 4.3 4.5 3.9

North Dakota

19 19 15 18 19 4.5 4.4 3.5 4.2 4.4

Ohio

211 195 220 200 211 3.9 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.8

Oklahoma

95 85 85 82 76 5.7 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.4

Oregon

93 85 88 81 83 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.2

Pennsylvania

199 183 211 180 193 3.4 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.2

Rhode Island

23 22 20 21 24 4.7 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.8

South Carolina

120 113 110 112 102 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.5

South Dakota

20 20 24 21 20 4.5 4.4 5.2 4.6 4.3

Tennessee

159 161 160 145 149 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.4 4.5

Texas

605 608 589 604 605 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.4

Utah

82 79 78 70 74 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.1 4.3

Vermont

14 12 14 12 13 4.7 4.0 4.6 3.9 4.2

Virginia

197 177 176 183 188 4.9 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5

Washington

148 138 157 135 121 4.3 3.9 4.4 3.7 3.3

West Virginia

35 37 39 35 38 5.0 5.2 5.6 5.0 5.4

Wisconsin

115 112 124 110 101 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.7 3.4

Wyoming

17 16 16 16 17 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,194 5,906 5,900 5,841 5,932 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8


Alabama

101 99 100 96 90 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.2

Alaska

22 18 21 19 17 6.9 5.6 6.4 5.8 5.2

Arizona

158 125 122 127 135 5.2 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.3

Arkansas

61 55 65 63 67 4.7 4.2 4.8 4.7 5.0

California

656 598 579 603 631 3.8 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.5

Colorado

134 128 117 120 120 4.7 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.2

Connecticut

53 56 52 50 55 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.3

Delaware

21 21 22 23 22 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.6

District of Columbia

24 24 22 28 22 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.6 2.8

Florida

519 373 397 415 397 5.6 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.1

Georgia

263 220 248 253 223 5.5 4.5 5.1 5.2 4.6

Hawaii

22 23 20 21 21 3.7 3.7 3.2 3.3 3.3

Idaho

37 47 39 39 36 4.6 5.7 4.6 4.6 4.3

Illinois

232 210 218 215 221 3.9 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.6

Indiana

144 154 126 139 126 4.5 4.8 3.9 4.3 3.9

Iowa

57 67 55 58 56 3.6 4.2 3.5 3.6 3.5

Kansas

48 59 52 52 56 3.4 4.2 3.6 3.6 3.9

Kentucky

100 93 97 93 94 5.2 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.7

Louisiana

87 100 104 104 105 4.6 5.1 5.4 5.3 5.4

Maine

24 29 25 28 27 3.8 4.5 3.9 4.3 4.2

Maryland

103 90 105 125 143 3.8 3.3 3.8 4.6 5.2

Massachusetts

100 109 108 104 129 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.4

Michigan

158 160 157 135 167 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.1 3.8

Minnesota

99 89 106 97 105 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.3 3.5

Mississippi

57 53 53 54 52 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.4

Missouri

99 124 106 101 104 3.4 4.2 3.6 3.4 3.5

Montana

26 28 27 25 29 5.1 5.5 5.2 4.8 5.6

Nebraska

40 38 39 34 36 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.4

Nevada

62 69 70 64 67 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.2 4.3

New Hampshire

29 32 31 24 32 4.3 4.6 4.4 3.4 4.6

New Jersey

185 141 183 129 142 4.4 3.3 4.2 3.0 3.3

New Mexico

32 37 36 37 37 3.8 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.3

New York

269 280 267 263 255 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6

North Carolina

241 175 213 196 183 5.1 3.6 4.4 4.0 3.7

North Dakota

17 18 16 17 17 4.0 4.2 3.7 3.9 3.9

Ohio

196 209 198 198 196 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5

Oklahoma

74 75 74 80 76 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.6 4.4

Oregon

79 81 80 78 80 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.0

Pennsylvania

181 200 189 171 198 3.1 3.3 3.1 2.8 3.2

Rhode Island

21 22 22 19 20 4.3 4.4 4.4 3.8 4.0

South Carolina

115 111 113 101 105 5.2 4.9 5.0 4.4 4.6

South Dakota

17 18 17 18 17 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.7

Tennessee

154 150 144 154 186 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.7 5.6

Texas

584 573 567 566 495 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.6

Utah

81 82 70 65 65 4.9 4.9 4.1 3.8 3.8

Vermont

14 12 13 12 13 4.7 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.2

Virginia

160 153 149 161 181 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.9 4.4

Washington

132 126 123 122 138 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.8

West Virginia

33 34 34 36 33 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1 4.7

Wisconsin

111 102 97 94 98 3.8 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.3

Wyoming

16 17 15 15 15 5.6 5.9 5.2 5.2 5.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,452 4,091 3,878 3,980 3,851 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.5


Alabama

69 70 64 71 64 3.3 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.0

Alaska

17 13 13 12 10 5.4 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.1

Arizona

130 94 87 89 87 4.3 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8

Arkansas

43 40 45 47 47 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.5

California

456 399 404 381 363 2.6 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.0

Colorado

100 93 81 81 73 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.5

Connecticut

34 35 33 33 33 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0

Delaware

15 15 14 16 15 3.3 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.1

District of Columbia

16 16 14 20 15 2.1 2.1 1.8 2.6 1.9

Florida

383 287 265 289 281 4.1 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.9

Georgia

168 162 166 199 154 3.5 3.3 3.4 4.1 3.2

Hawaii

17 16 14 14 14 2.8 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.2

Idaho

29 34 28 25 22 3.6 4.1 3.3 3.0 2.6

Illinois

167 141 136 129 132 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2

Indiana

110 99 84 94 89 3.5 3.1 2.6 2.9 2.7

Iowa

42 43 38 38 39 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.4

Kansas

36 38 34 35 37 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.6

Kentucky

70 69 70 67 67 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3

Louisiana

63 66 68 75 73 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.7

Maine

16 17 14 18 17 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.8 2.6

Maryland

68 55 69 85 98 2.5 2.0 2.5 3.1 3.6

Massachusetts

72 65 59 67 60 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.6

Michigan

110 111 96 85 98 2.5 2.5 2.2 1.9 2.2

Minnesota

72 60 70 64 69 2.5 2.0 2.4 2.1 2.3

Mississippi

38 37 36 39 36 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.1

Missouri

70 76 74 67 72 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.4

Montana

20 20 18 16 17 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.1 3.3

Nebraska

30 26 23 22 24 2.9 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.3

Nevada

47 49 48 44 41 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.7

New Hampshire

17 17 16 15 20 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.9

New Jersey

111 77 76 82 84 2.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9

New Mexico

25 26 24 24 23 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.7

New York

181 183 162 168 165 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7

North Carolina

154 127 129 136 119 3.3 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.4

North Dakota

11 12 11 11 10 2.6 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.3

Ohio

145 148 135 128 138 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.5

Oklahoma

53 49 49 54 52 3.2 2.9 2.8 3.1 3.0

Oregon

58 62 55 51 50 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.5

Pennsylvania

131 124 121 101 126 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.7 2.1

Rhode Island

14 12 12 12 13 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6

South Carolina

86 79 75 76 75 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3

South Dakota

13 13 12 11 11 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.4

Tennessee

102 105 103 108 100 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.0

Texas

439 440 394 432 369 3.3 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.7

Utah

66 63 50 46 41 4.0 3.8 2.9 2.7 2.4

Vermont

9 7 8 8 7 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.3

Virginia

105 109 95 117 125 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.8 3.0

Washington

106 89 87 81 79 3.0 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.2

West Virginia

23 23 23 26 24 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.7 3.4

Wisconsin

79 67 66 63 65 2.7 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2

Wyoming

13 12 10 10 9 4.6 4.2 3.5 3.5 3.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,395 1,475 1,719 1,557 1,805 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.2


Alabama

24 23 23 19 21 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0

Alaska

4 4 6 6 6 1.3 1.2 1.8 1.8 1.8

Arizona

21 22 28 32 37 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2

Arkansas

15 13 17 13 17 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.3

California

164 163 152 189 236 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.3

Colorado

27 23 28 32 36 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.3

Connecticut

15 17 14 15 20 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.2

Delaware

5 5 7 6 6 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.2

District of Columbia

6 5 6 6 5 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.6

Florida

104 68 117 108 97 1.1 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.0

Georgia

77 47 69 44 56 1.6 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.1

Hawaii

4 5 4 6 6 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.9

Idaho

6 10 8 12 11 0.7 1.2 0.9 1.4 1.3

Illinois

55 61 73 71 83 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.4

Indiana

26 49 36 39 35 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.1

Iowa

11 19 15 16 16 0.7 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.0

Kansas

9 17 14 15 17 0.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2

Kentucky

24 19 23 21 22 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1

Louisiana

18 21 32 25 27 0.9 1.1 1.6 1.3 1.4

Maine

6 9 9 7 9 0.9 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.4

Maryland

28 29 29 32 37 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.4

Massachusetts

21 37 39 30 63 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.7

Michigan

33 43 49 42 65 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.5

Minnesota

21 24 30 28 32 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.1

Mississippi

16 13 14 12 12 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0

Missouri

21 42 27 30 29 0.7 1.4 0.9 1.0 1.0

Montana

5 7 6 7 10 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.9

Nebraska

7 10 13 10 11 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.1

Nevada

12 15 18 17 23 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.5

New Hampshire

8 13 13 7 10 1.2 1.9 1.9 1.0 1.4

New Jersey

60 58 98 41 53 1.4 1.4 2.3 1.0 1.2

New Mexico

6 8 8 11 12 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4

New York

67 74 89 83 76 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8

North Carolina

65 42 76 51 53 1.4 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.1

North Dakota

5 5 5 5 5 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Ohio

40 52 57 61 52 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.9

Oklahoma

16 20 21 21 20 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Oregon

17 13 18 22 23 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.2

Pennsylvania

34 60 60 64 67 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1

Rhode Island

5 8 9 6 7 1.0 1.6 1.8 1.2 1.4

South Carolina

23 24 33 20 24 1.0 1.1 1.4 0.9 1.1

South Dakota

3 5 5 6 5 0.7 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.1

Tennessee

43 35 35 35 80 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.4

Texas

123 114 154 107 110 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.8

Utah

13 15 16 16 20 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.2

Vermont

4 4 4 4 5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.6

Virginia

42 35 45 33 46 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.8 1.1

Washington

20 30 26 36 50 0.6 0.8 0.7 1.0 1.4

West Virginia

7 7 9 8 7 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.0

Wisconsin

25 30 26 25 29 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0

Wyoming

3 4 4 4 4 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

11,979 9,617 9,356 7.4 5.9 5.7


Alabama

151 139 135 6.8 6.1 5.9

Alaska

29 26 22 8.7 7.6 6.6

Arizona

240 188 182 7.3 5.6 5.5

Arkansas

110 96 93 7.8 6.6 6.4

California

1,277 939 886 6.9 5.0 4.7

Colorado

219 255 195 7.2 8.2 6.4

Connecticut

105 95 92 6.1 5.4 5.2

Delaware

34 29 33 7.1 5.8 6.4

District of Columbia

46 38 45 5.8 4.7 5.6

Florida

765 612 665 7.6 5.9 6.4

Georgia

425 418 384 8.2 7.9 7.3

Hawaii

45 37 31 6.9 5.5 4.6

Idaho

60 54 54 7.0 6.1 6.1

Illinois

483 393 363 7.5 6.1 5.7

Indiana

237 158 171 7.0 4.7 5.0

Iowa

117 91 86 7.0 5.5 5.2

Kansas

101 87 73 6.8 5.7 4.9

Kentucky

217 126 142 10.1 6.0 6.7

Louisiana

152 145 148 7.4 7.0 7.0

Maine

43 41 38 6.5 6.1 5.6

Maryland

243 198 186 8.3 6.8 6.4

Massachusetts

297 250 261 7.7 6.4 6.6

Michigan

345 243 236 7.5 5.3 5.1

Minnesota

232 179 172 7.5 5.8 5.6

Mississippi

95 80 79 7.6 6.4 6.3

Missouri

235 190 172 7.5 6.1 5.5

Montana

42 33 33 7.8 6.0 6.1

Nebraska

78 61 55 7.1 5.5 5.0

Nevada

115 104 91 7.4 6.4 5.6

New Hampshire

53 45 43 7.2 6.1 5.8

New Jersey

265 267 224 6.0 5.9 5.0

New Mexico

67 58 57 7.3 6.3 6.2

New York

591 432 408 6.0 4.3 4.1

North Carolina

430 357 373 8.4 6.8 7.1

North Dakota

32 25 28 7.1 5.5 6.1

Ohio

416 305 345 7.1 5.2 5.9

Oklahoma

150 109 116 8.2 6.0 6.3

Oregon

158 123 116 7.6 5.9 5.5

Pennsylvania

500 425 387 7.9 6.6 6.0

Rhode Island

42 35 30 7.9 6.6 5.7

South Carolina

196 169 180 8.2 6.9 7.3

South Dakota

34 27 27 7.2 5.7 5.6

Tennessee

262 245 238 7.6 6.9 6.7

Texas

999 821 808 7.0 5.6 5.5

Utah

117 99 97 6.6 5.5 5.4

Vermont

23 19 16 7.1 5.8 5.1

Virginia

327 315 324 7.5 7.1 7.3

Washington

241 196 181 6.5 5.2 4.8

West Virginia

65 53 56 8.5 7.1 7.5

Wisconsin

211 171 165 6.8 5.5 5.3

Wyoming

20 16 17 6.7 5.4 5.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 7. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,079 5,054 5,603 4.0 3.3 3.6


Alabama

95 83 79 4.6 3.9 3.7

Alaska

15 15 14 5.0 4.6 4.3

Arizona

141 117 121 4.6 3.7 3.9

Arkansas

69 57 54 5.2 4.2 4.0

California

550 506 516 3.2 2.8 2.9

Colorado

121 99 98 4.3 3.4 3.4

Connecticut

56 41 58 3.5 2.4 3.5

Delaware

21 18 21 4.6 3.8 4.4

District of Columbia

23 21 25 3.0 2.8 3.2

Florida

453 331 369 4.9 3.4 3.8

Georgia

241 206 205 5.1 4.2 4.2

Hawaii

25 21 19 4.1 3.2 2.9

Idaho

37 30 35 4.5 3.6 4.1

Illinois

255 211 228 4.3 3.5 3.8

Indiana

134 125 124 4.2 3.9 3.9

Iowa

59 46 52 3.8 2.9 3.3

Kansas

49 51 45 3.6 3.5 3.1

Kentucky

115 81 85 6.0 4.1 4.3

Louisiana

93 92 95 4.9 4.7 4.9

Maine

19 17 24 3.1 2.7 3.8

Maryland

110 93 108 4.1 3.5 4.0

Massachusetts

106 91 116 3.0 2.5 3.1

Michigan

182 138 147 4.3 3.2 3.4

Minnesota

89 73 93 3.1 2.5 3.2

Mississippi

53 48 43 4.6 4.1 3.7

Missouri

104 90 105 3.6 3.1 3.5

Montana

23 20 22 4.7 3.9 4.2

Nebraska

40 40 34 3.9 3.8 3.2

Nevada

67 54 63 4.7 3.5 4.1

New Hampshire

23 21 27 3.4 3.0 3.9

New Jersey

164 124 213 4.0 2.9 5.0

New Mexico

35 29 31 4.2 3.4 3.6

New York

274 247 282 3.0 2.6 2.9

North Carolina

239 188 179 5.1 3.9 3.7

North Dakota

17 14 17 4.0 3.3 3.9

Ohio

198 151 193 3.7 2.7 3.5

Oklahoma

89 65 72 5.3 3.8 4.2

Oregon

86 65 75 4.4 3.3 3.8

Pennsylvania

198 135 193 3.4 2.2 3.2

Rhode Island

20 18 22 4.2 3.6 4.5

South Carolina

109 98 92 5.0 4.3 4.1

South Dakota

17 15 17 3.9 3.3 3.9

Tennessee

152 122 140 4.8 3.7 4.2

Texas

548 513 553 4.2 3.7 4.0

Utah

65 58 60 3.9 3.4 3.5

Vermont

11 9 11 3.6 2.9 3.5

Virginia

175 141 177 4.4 3.4 4.3

Washington

141 105 115 4.1 2.9 3.2

West Virginia

32 25 36 4.6 3.7 5.1

Wisconsin

101 90 88 3.5 3.0 3.0

Wyoming

12 9 11 4.1 3.3 3.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

5,532 4,766 5,230 3.7 3.1 3.4


Alabama

101 76 88 4.9 3.6 4.1

Alaska

15 10 11 5.0 3.3 3.5

Arizona

151 103 124 5.0 3.3 3.9

Arkansas

54 54 60 4.1 4.0 4.4

California

568 502 552 3.3 2.8 3.1

Colorado

112 92 101 4.0 3.2 3.5

Connecticut

41 37 46 2.5 2.2 2.8

Delaware

18 19 19 4.0 4.1 4.0

District of Columbia

22 24 18 2.9 3.1 2.4

Florida

496 359 378 5.3 3.7 3.9

Georgia

267 209 218 5.6 4.3 4.5

Hawaii

19 17 18 3.1 2.7 2.8

Idaho

31 28 30 3.9 3.4 3.5

Illinois

204 179 200 3.4 3.0 3.3

Indiana

123 108 109 3.9 3.4 3.4

Iowa

46 47 45 3.0 3.0 2.9

Kansas

41 44 48 2.9 3.1 3.3

Kentucky

89 78 84 4.6 3.9 4.2

Louisiana

84 92 102 4.4 4.7 5.2

Maine

18 19 20 2.8 3.0 3.2

Maryland

84 106 121 3.1 3.9 4.4

Massachusetts

83 78 95 2.3 2.1 2.6

Michigan

123 103 131 2.9 2.4 3.0

Minnesota

85 75 91 3.0 2.6 3.1

Mississippi

62 45 54 5.4 3.8 4.6

Missouri

91 85 95 3.1 2.9 3.2

Montana

20 19 21 4.1 3.7 4.0

Nebraska

34 27 30 3.3 2.6 2.9

Nevada

59 53 60 4.1 3.5 3.9

New Hampshire

25 17 28 3.7 2.5 4.1

New Jersey

147 95 122 3.6 2.3 2.9

New Mexico

28 29 31 3.3 3.3 3.5

New York

205 203 206 2.2 2.1 2.1

North Carolina

232 177 170 4.9 3.6 3.5

North Dakota

14 13 14 3.4 3.0 3.2

Ohio

164 161 164 3.0 2.9 3.0

Oklahoma

66 73 66 4.0 4.3 3.9

Oregon

66 63 65 3.4 3.2 3.3

Pennsylvania

143 128 158 2.4 2.1 2.6

Rhode Island

17 13 18 3.5 2.7 3.7

South Carolina

115 80 108 5.2 3.5 4.7

South Dakota

15 14 14 3.3 3.1 3.2

Tennessee

148 127 173 4.6 3.8 5.2

Texas

562 473 462 4.3 3.4 3.3

Utah

72 50 57 4.4 2.9 3.3

Vermont

12 8 11 3.9 2.6 3.5

Virginia

145 128 167 3.6 3.1 4.1

Washington

115 104 110 3.3 2.9 3.1

West Virginia

29 33 29 4.2 4.8 4.2

Wisconsin

91 76 80 3.2 2.6 2.7

Wyoming

12 11 11 4.4 4.0 3.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,092 3,174 3,475 2.7 2.1 2.2


Alabama

71 55 63 3.4 2.6 3.0

Alaska

12 7 7 3.9 2.1 2.2

Arizona

127 70 85 4.2 2.2 2.7

Arkansas

38 38 41 2.9 2.8 3.0

California

387 303 315 2.2 1.7 1.8

Colorado

84 61 62 3.0 2.1 2.1

Connecticut

29 25 29 1.8 1.5 1.8

Delaware

13 13 13 2.8 2.7 2.7

District of Columbia

14 16 12 1.9 2.1 1.6

Florida

382 240 268 4.1 2.5 2.8

Georgia

168 161 145 3.5 3.3 3.0

Hawaii

14 11 12 2.4 1.8 1.8

Idaho

25 18 19 3.1 2.1 2.3

Illinois

151 108 122 2.6 1.8 2.0

Indiana

95 72 79 3.0 2.2 2.5

Iowa

35 31 31 2.2 2.0 2.0

Kansas

31 28 33 2.2 2.0 2.3

Kentucky

63 54 60 3.3 2.7 3.0

Louisiana

62 65 72 3.2 3.4 3.7

Maine

12 12 12 1.9 1.9 2.0

Maryland

58 70 83 2.2 2.6 3.1

Massachusetts

63 53 49 1.8 1.4 1.3

Michigan

89 62 81 2.1 1.4 1.8

Minnesota

64 52 63 2.3 1.8 2.2

Mississippi

41 32 38 3.6 2.7 3.2

Missouri

64 55 67 2.2 1.9 2.3

Montana

16 12 13 3.1 2.4 2.5

Nebraska

26 17 21 2.6 1.7 2.0

Nevada

46 34 38 3.2 2.2 2.5

New Hampshire

15 12 19 2.3 1.7 2.7

New Jersey

91 64 71 2.2 1.5 1.7

New Mexico

22 18 20 2.6 2.1 2.3

New York

153 132 145 1.6 1.4 1.5

North Carolina

149 119 106 3.2 2.5 2.2

North Dakota

10 8 9 2.4 1.9 2.2

Ohio

126 101 125 2.3 1.8 2.3

Oklahoma

48 47 46 2.9 2.7 2.7

Oregon

52 40 43 2.7 2.1 2.2

Pennsylvania

108 75 106 1.8 1.2 1.7

Rhode Island

12 9 11 2.4 1.8 2.2

South Carolina

88 57 79 4.0 2.5 3.5

South Dakota

11 8 10 2.6 1.8 2.2

Tennessee

99 87 91 3.1 2.6 2.7

Texas

433 344 350 3.3 2.5 2.5

Utah

59 34 36 3.6 2.0 2.1

Vermont

8 5 6 2.7 1.7 2.1

Virginia

98 89 116 2.5 2.2 2.8

Washington

94 67 70 2.7 1.9 1.9

West Virginia

20 23 21 2.9 3.4 3.0

Wisconsin

68 52 56 2.4 1.7 1.9

Wyoming

10 7 7 3.5 2.5 2.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,116 1,317 1,500 0.7 0.9 1.0


Alabama

23 16 20 1.1 0.7 1.0

Alaska

2 3 3 0.7 0.9 0.9

Arizona

18 28 30 0.6 0.9 1.0

Arkansas

12 12 16 1.0 0.9 1.2

California

147 172 202 0.8 1.0 1.1

Colorado

21 26 29 0.7 0.9 1.0

Connecticut

8 10 15 0.5 0.6 0.9

Delaware

4 5 5 0.9 1.1 1.1

District of Columbia

7 6 5 0.9 0.7 0.6

Florida

87 98 95 0.9 1.0 1.0

Georgia

82 36 61 1.7 0.7 1.2

Hawaii

3 5 5 0.5 0.8 0.8

Idaho

5 9 8 0.6 1.1 0.9

Illinois

45 61 72 0.8 1.0 1.2

Indiana

20 30 27 0.6 0.9 0.8

Iowa

8 13 12 0.5 0.8 0.8

Kansas

7 13 13 0.5 0.9 0.9

Kentucky

21 19 20 1.1 1.0 1.0

Louisiana

17 22 26 0.9 1.1 1.3

Maine

4 4 7 0.7 0.7 1.1

Maryland

21 27 31 0.8 1.0 1.2

Massachusetts

14 20 43 0.4 0.5 1.1

Michigan

22 36 47 0.5 0.8 1.1

Minnesota

15 18 25 0.5 0.6 0.8

Mississippi

17 10 12 1.5 0.9 1.1

Missouri

17 27 24 0.6 0.9 0.8

Montana

4 6 6 0.7 1.1 1.1

Nebraska

5 8 9 0.5 0.8 0.8

Nevada

11 16 18 0.8 1.0 1.2

New Hampshire

7 5 9 1.0 0.7 1.3

New Jersey

43 28 47 1.1 0.7 1.1

New Mexico

4 9 8 0.5 1.0 0.9

New York

33 61 46 0.4 0.6 0.5

North Carolina

59 49 52 1.3 1.0 1.1

North Dakota

3 4 4 0.8 1.0 0.9

Ohio

29 52 35 0.5 0.9 0.6

Oklahoma

14 21 17 0.8 1.2 1.0

Oregon

11 19 17 0.5 1.0 0.8

Pennsylvania

20 49 48 0.3 0.8 0.8

Rhode Island

4 4 6 0.8 0.8 1.3

South Carolina

22 17 24 1.0 0.8 1.1

South Dakota

2 5 3 0.5 1.1 0.8

Tennessee

41 29 77 1.3 0.9 2.3

Texas

111 103 99 0.8 0.7 0.7

Utah

10 13 15 0.6 0.8 0.9

Vermont

3 2 4 0.8 0.8 1.3

Virginia

34 28 43 0.9 0.7 1.1

Washington

13 32 31 0.4 0.9 0.9

West Virginia

6 7 7 0.9 1.1 1.0

Wisconsin

17 20 21 0.6 0.7 0.7

Wyoming

2 3 3 0.6 1.2 0.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: May 17, 2023