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Economic News Release
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JOLTS JLT Program Links

State Job Openings and Labor Turnover News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, July 24, 2024    USDL-24-1475
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870    JoltsInfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov

				 STATE JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER  MAY 2024

Job openings rates increased in 6 states and decreased in 1 state on the last business day of May, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires rates and total separations rates both increased in 3 
states and decreased in 1 state. Nationally, the job openings, hires, and total separations rates showed 
little or no change in May. 

This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, total separations, quits, and 
layoffs and discharges for the total nonfarm sector and for all states and the District of Columbia. Also 
included with this release are annual JOLTS state levels and rates for 2023.

Job Openings

In May, job openings rates increased in 6 states, decreased in 1 state, and were little changed in 43 
states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases in job openings rates occurred in Washington 
(+1.0 percentage point) and in Indiana and New Jersey (+0.8 point each). The decrease occurred in 
Texas (-0.5 point). Over the month, the national job openings rate was little changed. (See table 1.)

The number of job openings increased in 6 states, decreased in 3 states, and was little changed in 41 
states and the District of Columbia in May. The largest increases in the job openings level occurred in 
California (+90,000) and New York (+45,000), as well as in New Jersey and Washington  
(+38,000 each). The decreases occurred in Texas (-76,000), Tennessee (-22,000), and Arizona (-21,000). 
Nationally, the number of job openings changed little. (See table 1.)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|                                      Revisions to JOLTS State Estimates                                   |
|                                                                                                           |
|Effective with this release, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) state estimates reflect    |
|annual revisions to JOLTS national estimates, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment           |
|estimates, and the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) data. See the box note at the           |
|end of the release for more information. In addition, annual estimates for state data series are published |
|concurrently with the state annual revisions. (See tables 11 through 20)                                   |
|___________________________________________________________________________________________________________|

Hires

In May, hires rates increased in 3 states, decreased in 1 state, and were little changed in 46 states and 
the District of Columbia. The increases in the hires rate occurred in North Dakota  
(+0.8 percentage point), Michigan (+0.7 point), and New York (+0.4 point). The decrease occurred in 
Louisiana (-0.8 point). The national hires rate changed little over the month. (See table 2.)

The number of hires increased in 3 states, decreased in 1 state, and was little changed in 46 states and 
the District of Columbia in May. The increases in the hires level occurred in New York (+43,000), 
Michigan (+32,000), and North Dakota (+4,000). The decrease occurred in Louisiana (-15,000). 
Nationally, the number of hires changed little over the month. (See table 2.)

Total Separations

In May, total separations rates increased in 3 states, decreased in 1 state, and were little changed in 46 
states and the District of Columbia. The increases in total separations rates occurred in Montana  
(+1.6 percentage points), Idaho (+1.0 point), and Massachusetts (+0.8 point). The decrease occurred in 
Ohio (-0.5 point). Over the month, the national total separations rate was unchanged. (See table 3.)

The number of total separations increased in 3 states, decreased in 1 state, and was little changed in 46 
states and the District of Columbia in May. The increases in the total separations level occurred in 
Massachusetts (+30,000), as well as in Idaho and Montana (+9,000 each). The decrease occurred in 
Ohio (-32,000). Nationally, the number of total separations changed little over the month. (See table 3.)
 
Quits

In May, quits rates increased in 3 states, decreased in 3 states, and were little changed in 44 states and 
the District of Columbia. The increases in quits rates occurred in Idaho (+0.7 percentage point), 
Massachusetts (+0.5 point), and California (+0.4 point). The decreases occurred in Colorado  
(-0.8 point), Florida (-0.7 point), and Ohio (-0.4 point). Over the month, the national quits rate was 
unchanged. (See table 4.)

The number of quits increased in 4 states, decreased in 3 states, and was little changed in 43 states and 
the District of Columbia in May. The increases in the quits level occurred in California (+75,000) and 
Massachusetts (+19,000), as well as in Idaho and Mississippi (+7,000 each). The decreases occurred in 
Florida (-71,000), Ohio (-25,000), and Colorado (-23,000). Nationally, the number of quits was little 
changed. (See table 4.)

Layoffs and Discharges
 
In May, layoffs and discharges rates increased in 4 states, decreased in 2 states, and were little changed 
in 44 states and the District of Columbia. The largest increases occurred in Montana 
(+1.7 percentage points), Florida (+0.6 point), and Oklahoma (+0.5 point). The decreases occurred in 
Connecticut (-0.5 point) and Arizona (-0.4 point). Over the month, the national layoffs and discharges 
rate was unchanged. (See table 5.)

The number of layoffs and discharges increased in 4 states, decreased in 2 states, and was little 
changed in 44 states and the District of Columbia in May. The increases in the layoffs and discharges 
level occurred in Florida (+51,000), Texas (+34,000), as well as in Montana and Oklahoma  
(+9,000 each). The decreases occurred in Arizona (-12,000) and Connecticut (-7,000). Nationally, the 
number of layoffs and discharges was little changed. (See table 5.)

For more information, please see the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) interactive 
charts at www.bls.gov/charts/state-job-openings-and-labor-turnover/state-job-openings-rates.htm#.  
______________	
State Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for June 2024 are scheduled to be 
released on Friday, August 16, 2024, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|                       Annual Revisions to Job Openings and Labor Turnover State Data                        |
|                                                                                                             |
|The JOLTS state data are revised annually to reflect updates to the JOLTS national estimates, the Current    |
|Employment Statistics (CES) employment estimates, and the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages           |
|(QCEW) through fourth quarter 2023. This annual benchmarking process results in revisions to both the        |
|seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted JOLTS state data series. Seasonally adjusted and not         |
|seasonally adjusted data from January 2019 forward are subject to revision.                                  |
|                                                                                                             |
|Tables displaying revisions to seasonally adjusted JOLTS state data from January 2023 through April 2024     |
|will be available on the JOLTS website later in the day following this release. The website also contains all|
|revised seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data. The revision tables can be accessed through    |
|the JOLTS webpage at www.bls.gov/jlt/jlt-statedata-revisions.htm.                                            |
|_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________|

Technical Note

This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The JOLTS 
program provides information on labor demand and turnover. Additional information about the JOLTS program can 
be found at www.bls.gov/jlt/. State estimates are published for job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
total separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well as civilian federal, state, 
and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Starting with data for January 2023, 
industries are classified in accordance with the 2022 North American Industry Classification System.

Definitions

Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that 
includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and 
hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of 
unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on strike for the entire pay period, and employees 
on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, 
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by 
the establishment where they are working. JOLTS does not publish employment estimates but uses the reported 
employment for validation of the other reported data elements.

Job Openings. Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the reference month. 
A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions: 
* A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-
time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal. 
* The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate during that time. 
* The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position. Active recruiting 
means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in newspapers, on 
television, or on the radio; posting internet notices, posting "help wanted" signs, networking, or making "word-
of-mouth" announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; 
or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or similar sources.

Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs. Also 
excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future; positions for which employees 
have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work; and positions to be filled by employees of 
temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is 
computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that 
quotient by 100.

Hires. Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly hired and 
rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees; employees 
who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension from pay status) lasting more than 7 
days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated; workers who 
were hired and separated during the month, and transfers from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions 
within the reporting location, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee 
leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by 
employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations. Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month and is 
reported by type of separation:  quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include employees who 
left voluntarily, with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs and discharges includes 
involuntary separations initiated by the employer, such as layoffs with no intent to rehire; layoffs (formal 
suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, 
downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or short-term employees; 
and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return the next season). Other 
separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. 
Other separations comprise less than 8 percent of total separations. Other separations rates are generally very low, 
and other separations variance estimates are relatively high. Consequently, the other separations component is not 
published for states. 

Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; employees of temporary help 
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The separations rate is computed by 
dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits and layoffs and 
discharges rates are computed similarly.

State Estimation Method

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of approximately 21,000 nonfarm business and 
government establishments. The sample is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment size 
class. The JOLTS sample of 21,000 establishments does not directly support the production of sample-based state 
estimates. However, state estimates have been produced by combining the available sample with model-based 
estimates.

The state estimates consist of four major estimating models; the Composite Regional model (an unpublished 
intermediate model), the Synthetic model (an unpublished intermediate model), the Composite Synthetic model 
(published historical series through the most current benchmark year), and the Extended Composite Synthetic model 
(published current-year monthly series). The Composite Regional model uses JOLTS microdata, JOLTS regional 
published estimates, and Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment data. The Composite Synthetic model 
uses JOLTS microdata and Synthetic model estimates derived from monthly employment changes in microdata from 
the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and JOLTS published regional data. The Extended 
Composite Synthetic model extends the Composite Synthetic estimates by ratio-adjusting the Composite Synthetic 
model by the ratio of the current Composite Regional model estimate to the Composite Regional model estimate 
from the previous year.

The Extended Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the Composite Regional model) is used 
to extend the Composite Synthetic estimates because all of the inputs required by this model are available at the time 
monthly estimate are produced. In contrast, the Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the 
Synthetic model) can only be produced when the latest QCEW data are available. The Extended Composite 
Synthetic model estimates are used to extend the Composite Synthetic model estimates during the annual JOLTS
retabulation process. The extension of the Composite Synthetic model using current data-based Composite Regional 
model estimates ensures that the Composite Synthetic model estimates reflect current economic trends.

The Composite Regional approach calculates state-level JOLTS estimates from JOLTS microdata using sample 
weights and the adjustments for non-response. The Composite Regional estimate is then benchmarked to CES state-
supersector employment to produce state-supersector estimates. The JOLTS sample, by itself, cannot ensure a 
reasonably sized sample for each state-supersector cell. The small JOLTS sample results in several state-supersector 
cells that lack enough data to produce a reasonable estimate. To overcome this issue, the state-level estimates 
derived directly from the JOLTS sample are augmented using JOLTS regional estimates when the number of 
respondents is low (that is, less than 30). This approach is known as a composite estimate, which leverages the small 
JOLTS sample to the greatest extent possible and supplements that with a model-based estimate. Previous research 
has found that regional industry estimates are a good proxy at finer levels of geographical detail. That is, one can 
make a reliable prediction of JOLTS estimates at the regional-level using only national industry-level JOLTS rates. 
The assumption in this approach is that one can make a good prediction of JOLTS estimates at the state-level using 
only regional industry-level JOLTS rates.)

In this approach, the JOLTS microdata-based estimate is used, without model augmentation, in all state-
supersector cells that have 30 or more respondents. The JOLTS regional estimate will be used, without a sample-
based component, in all state-supersector cells that have fewer than five respondents. In all state-supersector cells 
with 5 to 30 respondents, an estimate is calculated that is a composition of a weighted estimate of the microdata-
based estimate and a weighted estimate of the JOLTS regional estimate. The weight assigned to the JOLTS data in 
those cells is proportional the number of JOLTS respondents in the cell (weight=n/30, where n is the number of 
respondents). The sum of state estimates within a region is made equal to the aligned regional JOLTS published 
regional estimates.

Seasonal adjustment. BLS uses the seasonal adjustment program (X-13ARIMA-SEATS) to seasonally adjust 
the JOLTS series. Each month, a concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology uses all relevant data, up to and 
including the current month, to calculate new seasonal adjustment factors. Moving averages are used as seasonal 
filters in seasonal adjustment. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and multiplicative models, as well 
as regression with autocorrelated errors (REGARIMA) modeling, to improve the seasonal adjustment factors at the 
beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series. 

Annual estimates and benchmarking. The JOLTS state estimates utilize and leverage data from three BLS 
programs; JOLTS, CES, and QCEW. These state estimates are published as a historical series made up of a 
historical annually revised benchmark component ofthe Composite Synthetic model and a current component of the 
Extended Composite Synthetic model that provides monthly "real-time" estimates between lagged benchmarks.

The JOLTS employment levels are ratio-adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are 
applied to all JOLTS data elements.

The seasonally adjusted estimates are recalculated for the most recent 5 years to reflect updated seasonal 
adjustment factors. These annual updates result in revisions to both the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally 
adjusted JOLTS data series for the period since the last benchmark was established.

Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the 
12 published monthly levels. 

Annual average levels for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 published monthly levels 
by 12. 

Annual average rates for hires, total separations quits, and layoffs and discharges are calculated by dividing the 
sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published levels for each data element by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published 
employment levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100. 

Annual average rates for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published 
levels by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published employment levels plus the sum of the 12 monthly job openings 
levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.)

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to two types of error:  sampling error and nonsampling error.

Sampling error can result when a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed. There is a chance that 
the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling 
error, varies with the sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. This means that there is a 90-percent chance 
that the true population mean will fall into the interval created by the sample mean plus or minus 1.65 standard 
errors. Estimates of median standard errors are released monthly as part of the significant change tables on the 
JOLTS webpage. Standard errors are updated annually with the most recent 5 years of data. For sampling error 
estimates, see www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a segment of the population, the 
inability to obtain data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a 
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors from 
the employment benchmark data used in estimation. The JOLTS program uses quality control procedures to reduce 
nonsampling error in the survey's design. 

The JOLTS state variance estimates account for both sampling error and the error attributable to modeling. A 
small area domain model uses a Bayesian approach to develop estimates of JOLTS state variance. The small area 
model uses QCEW-based JOLTS synthetic model data to generate a Bayesian prior distribution, then updates the 
prior distribution using JOLTS microdata and sample-based variance estimates at the state and US Census regional 
level to generate a Bayesian posterior distribution. Once the Bayesian posterior distribution has been generated, 
estimates of JOLTS state variances are made by drawing 2,500 estimates from the Bayesian posterior distribution. 
This Bayesian approach thus indirectly accounts for sampling error and directly for model error.

Other information

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications 
relay services.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

9,311 8,813 8,355 7,919 8,140 221 5.6 5.3 5.0 4.8 4.9 0.1


Alabama

132 122 121 124 124 0 5.8 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.3 0.0

Alaska

24 27 25 24 25 1 6.9 7.5 6.9 6.7 6.9 0.2

Arizona

189 188 147 185 164 -21 5.6 5.5 4.3 5.4 4.8 -0.6

Arkansas

90 81 76 86 84 -2 6.2 5.6 5.3 5.9 5.8 -0.1

California

857 855 711 596 686 90 4.6 4.5 3.8 3.2 3.7 0.5

Colorado

175 204 204 192 178 -14 5.6 6.4 6.4 6.1 5.6 -0.5

Connecticut

84 91 88 90 90 0 4.7 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.0 0.0

Delaware

34 31 29 28 30 2 6.6 6.0 5.6 5.4 5.8 0.4

District of Columbia

42 37 36 37 39 2 5.2 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.8 0.2

Florida

623 515 524 508 501 -7 6.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 -0.1

Georgia

338 273 256 273 283 10 6.5 5.2 4.9 5.2 5.4 0.2

Hawaii

31 31 27 26 27 1 4.7 4.7 4.1 3.9 4.1 0.2

Idaho

54 49 47 53 48 -5 6.0 5.4 5.2 5.8 5.2 -0.6

Illinois

409 381 380 320 346 26 6.3 5.9 5.8 5.0 5.3 0.3

Indiana

174 197 154 137 165 28 5.1 5.7 4.5 4.0 4.8 0.8

Iowa

96 83 75 67 75 8 5.7 4.9 4.4 4.0 4.4 0.4

Kansas

82 81 81 72 72 0 5.4 5.3 5.3 4.7 4.7 0.0

Kentucky

131 116 122 133 136 3 6.1 5.4 5.7 6.1 6.2 0.1

Louisiana

142 127 117 122 120 -2 6.8 6.1 5.6 5.8 5.8 0.0

Maine

40 38 37 41 40 -1 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.9 5.7 -0.2

Maryland

193 199 187 176 184 8 6.6 6.8 6.4 6.0 6.3 0.3

Massachusetts

250 233 222 207 213 6 6.3 5.9 5.6 5.3 5.4 0.1

Michigan

253 238 242 229 226 -3 5.4 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.8 0.0

Minnesota

213 173 169 145 169 24 6.7 5.4 5.3 4.6 5.3 0.7

Mississippi

85 72 69 69 70 1 6.7 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.5 0.0

Missouri

164 187 158 146 152 6 5.2 5.8 5.0 4.6 4.7 0.1

Montana

38 37 33 33 34 1 6.8 6.6 5.9 5.9 6.0 0.1

Nebraska

63 59 54 46 49 3 5.7 5.3 4.8 4.1 4.4 0.3

Nevada

96 85 77 75 73 -2 5.9 5.1 4.7 4.5 4.4 -0.1

New Hampshire

39 40 40 39 39 0 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.2 5.2 0.0

New Jersey

207 203 255 202 240 38 4.6 4.4 5.5 4.4 5.2 0.8

New Mexico

56 60 57 56 60 4 6.0 6.4 6.1 6.0 6.3 0.3

New York

439 509 514 432 477 45 4.3 4.9 5.0 4.2 4.6 0.4

North Carolina

402 275 256 279 287 8 7.5 5.2 4.9 5.3 5.4 0.1

North Dakota

32 28 25 23 25 2 6.8 6.0 5.4 5.0 5.3 0.3

Ohio

370 289 289 236 256 20 6.2 4.9 4.9 4.0 4.3 0.3

Oklahoma

123 122 110 113 113 0 6.6 6.4 5.8 6.0 6.0 0.0

Oregon

119 108 105 107 100 -7 5.7 5.2 5.0 5.1 4.8 -0.3

Pennsylvania

353 353 310 328 314 -14 5.5 5.4 4.8 5.1 4.8 -0.3

Rhode Island

30 32 30 28 32 4 5.6 5.9 5.5 5.2 5.9 0.7

South Carolina

172 161 159 159 167 8 7.0 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.6 0.3

South Dakota

31 30 26 22 24 2 6.3 6.0 5.2 4.5 4.9 0.4

Tennessee

218 186 177 195 173 -22 6.2 5.3 5.1 5.5 4.9 -0.6

Texas

785 808 775 754 678 -76 5.4 5.4 5.2 5.1 4.6 -0.5

Utah

104 90 90 85 86 1 5.7 4.9 4.9 4.6 4.7 0.1

Vermont

17 17 17 16 17 1 5.2 5.2 5.1 4.8 5.1 0.3

Virginia

283 279 255 253 257 4 6.4 6.2 5.7 5.6 5.7 0.1

Washington

167 178 164 129 167 38 4.4 4.7 4.3 3.4 4.4 1.0

West Virginia

54 43 44 45 49 4 7.1 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.4 0.5

Wisconsin

184 174 173 161 158 -3 5.8 5.4 5.4 5.0 4.9 -0.1

Wyoming

19 18 17 17 17 0 6.1 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.5 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,171 5,781 5,617 5,615 5,756 141 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.6 0.1


Alabama

101 90 89 86 89 3 4.7 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0 0.1

Alaska

19 20 17 17 17 0 5.8 6.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 0.0

Arizona

141 121 109 123 126 3 4.4 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.9 0.1

Arkansas

64 61 58 59 60 1 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.4 0.1

California

555 524 598 545 517 -28 3.1 2.9 3.3 3.0 2.9 -0.1

Colorado

115 108 110 111 117 6 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 0.2

Connecticut

62 61 58 56 57 1 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 0.0

Delaware

24 23 21 21 22 1 5.0 4.7 4.3 4.3 4.5 0.2

District of Columbia

25 25 23 23 23 0 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 0.0

Florida

405 431 426 404 392 -12 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.9 -0.2

Georgia

223 205 189 206 188 -18 4.6 4.2 3.8 4.1 3.8 -0.3

Hawaii

20 21 19 19 20 1 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.1 0.1

Idaho

40 37 37 43 41 -2 4.7 4.3 4.3 5.0 4.7 -0.3

Illinois

254 184 226 236 244 8 4.2 3.0 3.7 3.8 4.0 0.2

Indiana

153 116 115 129 121 -8 4.7 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Iowa

61 52 47 56 55 -1 3.8 3.2 2.9 3.5 3.4 -0.1

Kansas

57 50 54 56 54 -2 4.0 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.7 -0.1

Kentucky

89 86 79 74 83 9 4.4 4.2 3.9 3.6 4.1 0.5

Louisiana

106 94 85 98 83 -15 5.4 4.8 4.3 5.0 4.2 -0.8

Maine

25 28 26 25 26 1 3.9 4.3 4.0 3.8 4.0 0.2

Maryland

120 107 102 108 112 4 4.4 3.9 3.7 3.9 4.1 0.2

Massachusetts

127 110 122 96 100 4 3.4 2.9 3.3 2.6 2.7 0.1

Michigan

170 151 158 152 184 32 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.4 4.1 0.7

Minnesota

123 98 94 102 107 5 4.1 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.5 0.1

Mississippi

54 51 46 51 52 1 4.6 4.3 3.9 4.3 4.4 0.1

Missouri

112 107 104 105 106 1 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5 0.1

Montana

27 26 26 26 27 1 5.2 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.1 0.2

Nebraska

42 36 38 37 39 2 4.0 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.6 0.1

Nevada

60 66 64 62 66 4 3.9 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.2 0.3

New Hampshire

29 27 27 25 24 -1 4.2 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.4 -0.1

New Jersey

171 153 183 153 147 -6 4.0 3.5 4.2 3.5 3.3 -0.2

New Mexico

33 30 33 34 35 1 3.8 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.9 0.1

New York

271 250 270 225 268 43 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.7 0.4

North Carolina

221 231 169 204 200 -4 4.5 4.6 3.4 4.1 4.0 -0.1

North Dakota

22 17 16 17 21 4 5.0 3.9 3.6 3.9 4.7 0.8

Ohio

200 213 197 211 213 2 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.8 0.1

Oklahoma

82 84 77 85 79 -6 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.8 4.4 -0.4

Oregon

85 73 72 78 75 -3 4.3 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Pennsylvania

195 185 171 170 174 4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 0.0

Rhode Island

22 22 21 18 20 2 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.5 3.9 0.4

South Carolina

118 108 114 117 120 3 5.1 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 0.2

South Dakota

21 19 17 18 20 2 4.6 4.1 3.6 3.9 4.3 0.4

Tennessee

148 170 134 152 162 10 4.5 5.1 4.0 4.6 4.9 0.3

Texas

604 596 491 477 527 50 4.4 4.2 3.5 3.4 3.7 0.3

Utah

71 64 65 69 73 4 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.2 0.3

Vermont

12 12 12 11 11 0 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.5 0.0

Virginia

178 176 168 166 189 23 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.9 4.5 0.6

Washington

136 119 103 111 121 10 3.8 3.3 2.8 3.0 3.3 0.3

West Virginia

36 35 31 32 31 -1 5.1 4.9 4.3 4.5 4.3 -0.2

Wisconsin

125 95 93 102 103 1 4.2 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4 0.0

Wyoming

14 13 13 14 14 0 4.8 4.4 4.4 4.8 4.8 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

5,846 5,539 5,330 5,337 5,422 85 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 0.0


Alabama

95 79 87 81 83 2 4.4 3.6 4.0 3.7 3.8 0.1

Alaska

17 21 22 20 20 0 5.2 6.3 6.6 6.0 5.9 -0.1

Arizona

120 121 115 142 123 -19 3.8 3.7 3.5 4.4 3.8 -0.6

Arkansas

63 57 51 54 56 2 4.7 4.2 3.7 3.9 4.1 0.2

California

536 496 451 472 541 69 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.6 3.0 0.4

Colorado

101 116 102 143 125 -18 3.4 3.9 3.4 4.8 4.2 -0.6

Connecticut

60 61 61 68 61 -7 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.0 3.6 -0.4

Delaware

22 20 18 19 19 0 4.6 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.9 0.0

District of Columbia

24 21 22 20 21 1 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.7 0.1

Florida

413 393 391 384 361 -23 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.6 -0.3

Georgia

233 170 165 166 178 12 4.8 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.6 0.3

Hawaii

19 22 22 20 23 3 3.0 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.6 0.5

Idaho

40 41 38 38 47 9 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.4 5.4 1.0

Illinois

196 185 205 204 216 12 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.5 0.2

Indiana

132 122 130 116 114 -2 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.5 3.5 0.0

Iowa

57 58 56 58 53 -5 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.3 -0.3

Kansas

51 50 58 58 55 -3 3.5 3.4 4.0 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Kentucky

92 78 72 76 80 4 4.6 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.9 0.2

Louisiana

100 85 75 90 84 -6 5.1 4.3 3.8 4.6 4.3 -0.3

Maine

27 31 29 30 28 -2 4.2 4.7 4.4 4.6 4.3 -0.3

Maryland

114 101 94 95 95 0 4.1 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.4 -0.1

Massachusetts

104 108 101 80 110 30 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.1 2.9 0.8

Michigan

168 138 158 140 134 -6 3.8 3.1 3.5 3.1 3.0 -0.1

Minnesota

106 122 99 91 92 1 3.6 4.1 3.3 3.0 3.1 0.1

Mississippi

63 49 44 46 54 8 5.3 4.1 3.7 3.9 4.5 0.6

Missouri

104 105 104 101 107 6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.5 0.2

Montana

27 29 29 28 37 9 5.2 5.5 5.5 5.3 6.9 1.6

Nebraska

37 36 37 38 36 -2 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4 -0.2

Nevada

57 76 61 66 65 -1 3.7 4.8 3.9 4.2 4.1 -0.1

New Hampshire

26 33 27 29 29 0 3.7 4.7 3.8 4.1 4.1 0.0

New Jersey

122 120 145 150 141 -9 2.8 2.7 3.3 3.4 3.2 -0.2

New Mexico

29 34 34 37 33 -4 3.3 3.9 3.8 4.2 3.7 -0.5

New York

287 265 288 251 272 21 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.8 0.2

North Carolina

215 165 161 166 152 -14 4.4 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.0 -0.3

North Dakota

17 18 20 19 17 -2 3.9 4.1 4.5 4.3 3.8 -0.5

Ohio

214 197 195 211 179 -32 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.2 -0.5

Oklahoma

77 68 68 63 74 11 4.4 3.8 3.8 3.5 4.2 0.7

Oregon

73 82 73 80 77 -3 3.7 4.2 3.7 4.0 3.9 -0.1

Pennsylvania

185 188 196 190 192 2 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 0.0

Rhode Island

19 21 20 23 21 -2 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.5 4.1 -0.4

South Carolina

105 103 82 96 97 1 4.6 4.4 3.5 4.1 4.1 0.0

South Dakota

18 19 19 21 19 -2 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.5 4.1 -0.4

Tennessee

152 141 129 133 139 6 4.6 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.2 0.2

Texas

600 584 470 416 452 36 4.3 4.1 3.3 2.9 3.2 0.3

Utah

71 75 71 70 74 4 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.2 0.2

Vermont

13 14 13 12 14 2 4.2 4.5 4.1 3.8 4.4 0.6

Virginia

181 152 159 151 168 17 4.3 3.6 3.8 3.6 4.0 0.4

Washington

106 121 109 115 115 0 2.9 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.1 -0.1

West Virginia

34 29 31 32 30 -2 4.8 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.2 -0.3

Wisconsin

111 104 106 110 98 -12 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.2 -0.4

Wyoming

13 16 15 14 15 1 4.5 5.5 5.1 4.8 5.1 0.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,009 3,527 3,409 3,452 3,459 7 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 0.0


Alabama

70 50 52 55 56 1 3.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 0.0

Alaska

12 14 14 12 12 0 3.7 4.2 4.2 3.6 3.6 0.0

Arizona

91 79 67 83 80 -3 2.9 2.4 2.1 2.5 2.5 0.0

Arkansas

46 37 34 34 38 4 3.4 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.8 0.3

California

341 326 271 258 333 75 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.8 0.4

Colorado

71 77 66 95 72 -23 2.4 2.6 2.2 3.2 2.4 -0.8

Connecticut

42 33 34 33 35 2 2.5 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0 0.1

Delaware

16 13 12 12 12 0 3.3 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.5 0.1

District of Columbia

17 14 14 13 13 0 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 0.0

Florida

296 295 271 290 219 -71 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.2 -0.7

Georgia

150 111 119 108 125 17 3.1 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.5 0.3

Hawaii

13 14 13 12 14 2 2.1 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.2 0.3

Idaho

28 27 23 23 30 7 3.3 3.1 2.7 2.7 3.4 0.7

Illinois

129 112 129 135 132 -3 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Indiana

90 81 76 80 77 -3 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.3 -0.1

Iowa

37 35 35 35 33 -2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.0 -0.2

Kansas

35 32 36 36 38 2 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.6 0.1

Kentucky

67 52 48 49 55 6 3.3 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.7 0.3

Louisiana

70 52 50 59 52 -7 3.6 2.7 2.6 3.0 2.7 -0.3

Maine

19 15 18 16 17 1 2.9 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.6 0.2

Maryland

80 62 61 59 63 4 2.9 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.3 0.2

Massachusetts

66 57 61 42 61 19 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.1 1.6 0.5

Michigan

99 88 93 91 85 -6 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 -0.1

Minnesota

72 63 60 65 62 -3 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 0.0

Mississippi

41 32 29 31 38 7 3.5 2.7 2.4 2.6 3.2 0.6

Missouri

75 73 66 73 77 4 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.5 0.1

Montana

18 19 17 18 19 1 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.4 3.6 0.2

Nebraska

24 23 22 24 23 -1 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.2 -0.1

Nevada

42 47 36 38 38 0 2.7 3.0 2.3 2.4 2.4 0.0

New Hampshire

16 15 16 15 17 2 2.3 2.1 2.3 2.1 2.4 0.3

New Jersey

79 63 86 83 79 -4 1.8 1.4 2.0 1.9 1.8 -0.1

New Mexico

20 21 20 23 20 -3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.3 -0.3

New York

183 162 186 174 173 -1 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.0

North Carolina

150 105 116 103 99 -4 3.0 2.1 2.3 2.1 2.0 -0.1

North Dakota

12 11 11 13 12 -1 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.9 2.7 -0.2

Ohio

138 120 127 142 117 -25 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.1 -0.4

Oklahoma

54 47 45 44 46 2 3.1 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 0.1

Oregon

52 52 40 49 47 -2 2.6 2.6 2.0 2.5 2.4 -0.1

Pennsylvania

121 114 116 111 120 9 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.1

Rhode Island

12 11 12 13 12 -1 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.3 -0.2

South Carolina

75 74 53 66 68 2 3.3 3.1 2.2 2.8 2.9 0.1

South Dakota

11 12 11 15 13 -2 2.4 2.6 2.3 3.2 2.8 -0.4

Tennessee

111 86 90 92 93 1 3.3 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 0.0

Texas

450 379 342 312 309 -3 3.2 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.2 0.0

Utah

48 48 43 44 45 1 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.6 0.1

Vermont

8 7 7 7 8 1 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.5 0.3

Virginia

132 95 104 96 111 15 3.2 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.6 0.3

Washington

76 77 60 69 70 1 2.1 2.1 1.6 1.9 1.9 0.0

West Virginia

23 18 22 22 20 -2 3.2 2.5 3.1 3.1 2.8 -0.3

Wisconsin

73 67 69 72 62 -10 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.0 -0.4

Wyoming

9 10 9 9 9 0 3.1 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.1 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)
May
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr. 2024 -
May 2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,531 1,681 1,601 1,542 1,654 112 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0


Alabama

21 25 27 21 23 2 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.0

Alaska

4 5 7 6 6 0 1.2 1.5 2.1 1.8 1.8 0.0

Arizona

23 36 43 49 37 -12 0.7 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.1 -0.4

Arkansas

15 17 14 16 15 -1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 -0.1

California

165 140 150 191 177 -14 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.0 -0.1

Colorado

26 33 30 41 47 6 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.6 0.2

Connecticut

16 20 21 30 23 -7 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.3 -0.5

Delaware

5 6 5 5 6 1 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.2

District of Columbia

5 5 6 5 6 1 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.2

Florida

100 89 102 74 125 51 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.3 0.6

Georgia

72 51 37 48 45 -3 1.5 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.9 -0.1

Hawaii

5 7 8 6 7 1 0.8 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.1 0.2

Idaho

10 11 13 12 15 3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.7 0.3

Illinois

60 58 66 61 73 12 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.2

Indiana

37 34 48 29 31 2 1.1 1.0 1.5 0.9 0.9 0.0

Iowa

17 18 18 19 15 -4 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.9 -0.3

Kansas

13 14 18 15 13 -2 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.9 -0.1

Kentucky

20 22 19 21 22 1 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.1

Louisiana

20 28 20 26 27 1 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.4 0.1

Maine

6 14 9 11 9 -2 0.9 2.1 1.4 1.7 1.4 -0.3

Maryland

29 33 26 29 28 -1 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.0 -0.1

Massachusetts

27 39 31 30 40 10 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.3

Michigan

58 42 58 38 40 2 1.3 0.9 1.3 0.8 0.9 0.1

Minnesota

30 54 32 20 19 -1 1.0 1.8 1.1 0.7 0.6 -0.1

Mississippi

20 14 12 12 14 2 1.7 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.2

Missouri

23 24 32 21 22 1 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.7 0.7 0.0

Montana

8 8 11 8 17 9 1.5 1.5 2.1 1.5 3.2 1.7

Nebraska

11 11 13 10 9 -1 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.8 -0.1

Nevada

13 25 21 23 23 0 0.8 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.5 0.0

New Hampshire

8 14 9 11 10 -1 1.1 2.0 1.3 1.6 1.4 -0.2

New Jersey

33 46 48 55 50 -5 0.8 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.1 -0.2

New Mexico

6 9 12 10 10 0 0.7 1.0 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.0

New York

90 90 90 64 85 21 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.2

North Carolina

55 51 37 49 44 -5 1.1 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.9 -0.1

North Dakota

4 6 7 5 4 -1 0.9 1.4 1.6 1.1 0.9 -0.2

Ohio

60 63 55 61 49 -12 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.9 -0.2

Oklahoma

20 18 19 15 24 9 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.3 0.5

Oregon

18 23 27 24 25 1 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.1

Pennsylvania

52 53 66 66 60 -6 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 -0.1

Rhode Island

6 8 7 9 8 -1 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.8 1.6 -0.2

South Carolina

24 25 24 25 26 1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.0

South Dakota

5 5 7 5 5 0 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.1 1.1 0.0

Tennessee

35 49 32 32 40 8 1.1 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.2

Texas

125 181 107 87 121 34 0.9 1.3 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.3

Utah

19 22 25 21 26 5 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.5 0.3

Vermont

3 6 4 4 5 1 1.0 1.9 1.3 1.3 1.6 0.3

Virginia

41 49 44 43 49 6 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.2

Washington

23 35 44 35 39 4 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.1

West Virginia

8 9 7 8 8 0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.0

Wisconsin

33 31 31 30 28 -2 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 -0.1

Wyoming

3 5 5 4 5 1 1.0 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.7 0.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

9,093 8,453 7,846 5.5 5.1 4.7


Alabama

130 126 119 5.7 5.4 5.1

Alaska

34 23 34 9.3 6.6 9.0

Arizona

166 191 142 5.0 5.5 4.2

Arkansas

90 91 83 6.2 6.2 5.7

California

826 633 646 4.4 3.4 3.5

Colorado

168 201 166 5.4 6.4 5.3

Connecticut

90 95 96 5.0 5.3 5.3

Delaware

34 32 30 6.5 6.1 5.7

District of Columbia

39 37 35 4.8 4.7 4.3

Florida

585 549 463 5.7 5.2 4.5

Georgia

329 293 269 6.3 5.6 5.1

Hawaii

25 21 20 3.7 3.3 3.0

Idaho

51 59 43 5.7 6.4 4.7

Illinois

416 344 350 6.4 5.3 5.4

Indiana

178 160 167 5.2 4.7 4.8

Iowa

95 81 74 5.6 4.8 4.3

Kansas

77 74 67 5.1 4.8 4.3

Kentucky

132 143 138 6.1 6.5 6.3

Louisiana

132 131 109 6.3 6.2 5.3

Maine

43 43 43 6.3 6.2 6.1

Maryland

187 197 177 6.3 6.7 6.0

Massachusetts

250 210 213 6.3 5.3 5.4

Michigan

273 250 239 5.7 5.3 5.0

Minnesota

224 162 175 6.9 5.1 5.5

Mississippi

83 74 68 6.6 5.8 5.4

Missouri

153 164 139 4.9 5.1 4.3

Montana

40 34 35 7.1 6.0 6.1

Nebraska

61 49 47 5.5 4.4 4.2

Nevada

92 74 69 5.6 4.5 4.1

New Hampshire

39 39 38 5.3 5.3 5.1

New Jersey

194 199 230 4.3 4.4 5.0

New Mexico

47 58 49 5.1 6.2 5.2

New York

421 435 458 4.1 4.2 4.4

North Carolina

409 293 292 7.6 5.5 5.5

North Dakota

35 24 28 7.3 5.1 5.8

Ohio

365 262 250 6.1 4.5 4.2

Oklahoma

113 120 102 6.1 6.3 5.4

Oregon

102 106 83 4.9 5.1 4.0

Pennsylvania

350 326 308 5.4 5.0 4.7

Rhode Island

31 30 33 5.7 5.5 6.0

South Carolina

169 176 162 6.8 6.9 6.4

South Dakota

36 23 29 7.3 4.7 5.7

Tennessee

215 212 167 6.1 6.0 4.8

Texas

762 822 647 5.2 5.5 4.4

Utah

99 94 80 5.5 5.1 4.4

Vermont

17 15 16 5.2 4.7 5.0

Virginia

285 273 255 6.4 6.0 5.7

Washington

151 155 150 4.0 4.1 3.9

West Virginia

54 50 48 7.0 6.5 6.1

Wisconsin

173 183 146 5.4 5.7 4.6

Wyoming

24 16 20 7.5 5.2 6.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 7. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,825 5,876 6,426 4.4 3.7 4.0


Alabama

113 86 99 5.2 3.9 4.5

Alaska

33 16 30 9.9 4.9 8.8

Arizona

136 137 123 4.3 4.2 3.8

Arkansas

69 58 65 5.1 4.2 4.7

California

546 566 507 3.1 3.1 2.8

Colorado

137 129 140 4.7 4.4 4.7

Connecticut

73 64 67 4.3 3.8 3.9

Delaware

28 24 25 5.8 5.0 5.2

District of Columbia

24 22 22 3.2 2.9 2.9

Florida

416 396 403 4.3 4.0 4.1

Georgia

247 210 209 5.0 4.2 4.2

Hawaii

20 17 20 3.1 2.7 3.1

Idaho

47 49 49 5.5 5.6 5.6

Illinois

282 234 279 4.6 3.8 4.5

Indiana

167 137 139 5.1 4.2 4.2

Iowa

74 62 67 4.6 3.9 4.1

Kansas

63 55 61 4.3 3.8 4.2

Kentucky

95 74 88 4.7 3.6 4.3

Louisiana

114 96 88 5.8 4.9 4.5

Maine

36 30 36 5.5 4.6 5.5

Maryland

127 115 118 4.6 4.2 4.3

Massachusetts

155 101 121 4.2 2.7 3.2

Michigan

207 160 225 4.6 3.6 5.0

Minnesota

160 106 143 5.3 3.5 4.7

Mississippi

57 49 54 4.8 4.1 4.5

Missouri

114 105 111 3.8 3.4 3.6

Montana

35 28 36 6.8 5.3 6.8

Nebraska

46 37 44 4.4 3.4 4.1

Nevada

70 60 77 4.6 3.8 4.8

New Hampshire

34 28 29 4.9 3.9 4.0

New Jersey

188 164 163 4.3 3.8 3.7

New Mexico

33 37 35 3.8 4.1 4.0

New York

311 246 309 3.2 2.5 3.1

North Carolina

263 221 239 5.3 4.4 4.8

North Dakota

29 16 28 6.6 3.6 6.2

Ohio

243 226 261 4.3 4.0 4.6

Oklahoma

83 89 79 4.7 5.0 4.4

Oregon

89 79 79 4.5 4.0 4.0

Pennsylvania

222 198 197 3.6 3.2 3.2

Rhode Island

26 21 24 5.1 4.2 4.7

South Carolina

136 126 139 5.9 5.3 5.8

South Dakota

31 17 30 6.6 3.7 6.3

Tennessee

167 159 184 5.0 4.8 5.5

Texas

648 496 572 4.7 3.5 4.0

Utah

83 74 87 4.8 4.2 4.9

Vermont

14 11 13 4.6 3.5 4.2

Virginia

196 169 208 4.7 4.0 4.9

Washington

139 117 126 3.8 3.2 3.4

West Virginia

41 33 35 5.7 4.5 4.8

Wisconsin

139 112 120 4.6 3.7 3.9

Wyoming

21 14 22 7.2 4.8 7.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

5,761 5,314 5,411 3.7 3.4 3.4


Alabama

100 86 87 4.6 3.9 3.9

Alaska

16 17 19 4.9 5.1 5.4

Arizona

124 165 136 3.9 5.0 4.2

Arkansas

65 54 57 4.8 3.9 4.1

California

520 457 548 2.9 2.5 3.0

Colorado

94 171 119 3.2 5.8 4.0

Connecticut

53 70 55 3.1 4.2 3.2

Delaware

20 19 17 4.1 3.8 3.5

District of Columbia

24 19 20 3.1 2.5 2.6

Florida

454 389 401 4.7 3.9 4.0

Georgia

244 175 187 5.0 3.5 3.8

Hawaii

18 20 22 2.9 3.1 3.5

Idaho

36 39 46 4.3 4.5 5.2

Illinois

187 188 205 3.0 3.1 3.3

Indiana

134 120 117 4.1 3.7 3.5

Iowa

58 52 55 3.6 3.2 3.4

Kansas

55 56 60 3.8 3.8 4.1

Kentucky

92 74 82 4.6 3.6 4.0

Louisiana

103 94 87 5.2 4.8 4.4

Maine

24 29 25 3.7 4.6 3.8

Maryland

100 89 83 3.6 3.3 3.0

Massachusetts

94 74 103 2.5 2.0 2.7

Michigan

169 134 137 3.8 3.0 3.0

Minnesota

103 89 89 3.4 3.0 2.9

Mississippi

64 44 56 5.5 3.7 4.7

Missouri

104 91 108 3.5 3.0 3.5

Montana

26 26 35 4.9 4.9 6.5

Nebraska

39 33 38 3.7 3.1 3.5

Nevada

54 67 64 3.5 4.2 4.0

New Hampshire

25 28 29 3.6 4.0 4.1

New Jersey

97 141 114 2.2 3.2 2.6

New Mexico

25 37 30 2.9 4.2 3.4

New York

259 246 256 2.7 2.5 2.6

North Carolina

221 167 156 4.5 3.3 3.1

North Dakota

19 17 19 4.3 4.0 4.2

Ohio

212 197 176 3.8 3.5 3.1

Oklahoma

81 62 77 4.6 3.5 4.3

Oregon

65 81 72 3.3 4.1 3.6

Pennsylvania

167 190 179 2.7 3.1 2.9

Rhode Island

17 22 20 3.4 4.4 3.8

South Carolina

104 102 98 4.5 4.3 4.1

South Dakota

18 19 20 3.9 4.1 4.3

Tennessee

158 135 146 4.8 4.0 4.4

Texas

605 420 450 4.4 3.0 3.2

Utah

67 76 75 3.9 4.3 4.2

Vermont

17 14 18 5.4 4.6 5.9

Virginia

185 142 172 4.4 3.4 4.0

Washington

91 118 102 2.5 3.3 2.8

West Virginia

33 33 29 4.6 4.6 4.0

Wisconsin

111 112 100 3.7 3.7 3.3

Wyoming

12 14 14 4.0 4.8 4.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,095 3,575 3,583 2.6 2.3 2.3


Alabama

74 59 58 3.4 2.7 2.6

Alaska

11 10 12 3.4 3.0 3.4

Arizona

94 97 86 3.0 3.0 2.6

Arkansas

47 36 39 3.5 2.6 2.8

California

353 267 356 2.0 1.5 2.0

Colorado

70 105 73 2.4 3.6 2.4

Connecticut

40 37 35 2.4 2.2 2.0

Delaware

14 12 11 2.9 2.5 2.3

District of Columbia

17 12 13 2.2 1.6 1.7

Florida

319 311 239 3.3 3.1 2.4

Georgia

160 117 131 3.3 2.4 2.6

Hawaii

14 12 14 2.1 1.9 2.3

Idaho

27 23 30 3.2 2.7 3.4

Illinois

123 126 128 2.0 2.1 2.1

Indiana

96 88 84 3.0 2.7 2.6

Iowa

42 33 38 2.6 2.1 2.4

Kansas

40 37 44 2.7 2.5 3.0

Kentucky

69 50 57 3.4 2.5 2.8

Louisiana

73 62 54 3.7 3.1 2.7

Maine

18 17 17 2.8 2.6 2.6

Maryland

72 59 57 2.6 2.2 2.1

Massachusetts

62 42 61 1.7 1.1 1.6

Michigan

108 95 94 2.4 2.1 2.1

Minnesota

73 65 64 2.4 2.2 2.1

Mississippi

43 31 39 3.6 2.6 3.3

Missouri

76 66 79 2.5 2.2 2.6

Montana

20 16 21 3.8 3.0 3.9

Nebraska

27 23 26 2.5 2.1 2.4

Nevada

41 39 38 2.7 2.4 2.4

New Hampshire

18 16 20 2.6 2.2 2.8

New Jersey

69 90 72 1.6 2.1 1.6

New Mexico

19 23 19 2.1 2.6 2.1

New York

182 176 180 1.9 1.8 1.8

North Carolina

154 113 101 3.1 2.3 2.0

North Dakota

14 12 14 3.2 2.7 3.1

Ohio

146 143 126 2.6 2.5 2.2

Oklahoma

57 43 49 3.3 2.4 2.7

Oregon

48 49 45 2.4 2.5 2.3

Pennsylvania

115 118 117 1.9 1.9 1.9

Rhode Island

12 12 13 2.5 2.4 2.5

South Carolina

76 71 68 3.3 3.0 2.9

South Dakota

13 14 15 2.8 3.1 3.1

Tennessee

118 94 100 3.5 2.8 3.0

Texas

460 323 312 3.3 2.3 2.2

Utah

48 46 47 2.8 2.6 2.7

Vermont

13 9 13 4.1 2.8 4.1

Virginia

136 96 113 3.3 2.3 2.7

Washington

66 68 63 1.8 1.9 1.7

West Virginia

24 24 20 3.4 3.4 2.8

Wisconsin

79 77 69 2.6 2.6 2.3

Wyoming

9 9 9 3.0 3.0 3.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,380 1,415 1,547 0.9 0.9 1.0


Alabama

22 21 25 1.0 0.9 1.1

Alaska

3 5 6 1.0 1.6 1.6

Arizona

26 59 45 0.8 1.8 1.4

Arkansas

15 15 16 1.1 1.1 1.2

California

139 168 166 0.8 0.9 0.9

Colorado

21 57 41 0.7 1.9 1.4

Connecticut

10 30 17 0.6 1.7 1.0

Delaware

5 5 5 1.0 1.0 1.1

District of Columbia

5 4 6 0.7 0.6 0.8

Florida

121 60 148 1.2 0.6 1.5

Georgia

74 46 48 1.5 0.9 1.0

Hawaii

4 6 6 0.6 1.0 1.0

Idaho

8 12 14 0.9 1.4 1.6

Illinois

58 54 69 1.0 0.9 1.1

Indiana

33 26 26 1.0 0.8 0.8

Iowa

14 15 11 0.9 0.9 0.7

Kansas

12 12 12 0.8 0.8 0.8

Kentucky

20 19 22 1.0 0.9 1.1

Louisiana

21 27 29 1.1 1.4 1.5

Maine

4 11 7 0.6 1.7 1.0

Maryland

23 23 22 0.8 0.8 0.8

Massachusetts

21 25 36 0.6 0.7 0.9

Michigan

49 29 33 1.1 0.6 0.7

Minnesota

26 18 16 0.9 0.6 0.5

Mississippi

19 11 14 1.6 0.9 1.2

Missouri

22 19 20 0.7 0.6 0.7

Montana

5 7 13 1.0 1.4 2.3

Nebraska

10 8 8 0.9 0.7 0.7

Nevada

11 22 22 0.7 1.4 1.4

New Hampshire

5 11 8 0.8 1.5 1.1

New Jersey

20 41 35 0.5 0.9 0.8

New Mexico

5 10 9 0.6 1.2 1.1

New York

63 58 66 0.6 0.6 0.7

North Carolina

59 41 47 1.2 0.8 0.9

North Dakota

4 4 4 0.9 0.9 0.8

Ohio

46 47 32 0.8 0.8 0.6

Oklahoma

21 14 26 1.2 0.8 1.5

Oregon

14 24 23 0.7 1.2 1.2

Pennsylvania

39 63 52 0.6 1.0 0.8

Rhode Island

4 9 6 0.7 1.7 1.1

South Carolina

25 25 27 1.1 1.0 1.1

South Dakota

4 3 4 0.9 0.7 0.8

Tennessee

35 29 40 1.0 0.9 1.2

Texas

118 86 117 0.8 0.6 0.8

Utah

16 24 25 0.9 1.4 1.4

Vermont

3 5 5 1.1 1.5 1.6

Virginia

42 34 52 1.0 0.8 1.2

Washington

19 38 34 0.5 1.0 0.9

West Virginia

7 7 7 1.0 0.9 1.0

Wisconsin

27 25 23 0.9 0.8 0.7

Wyoming

2 4 4 0.8 1.4 1.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Annual average job openings levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

7,157 6,361 9,985 11,181 9,352


Alabama

96 96 141 155 136

Alaska

23 18 28 31 27

Arizona

159 148 207 239 199

Arkansas

62 57 85 100 88

California

767 671 1,037 1,246 887

Colorado

147 110 197 227 224

Connecticut

65 59 96 121 92

Delaware

23 21 32 37 31

District of Columbia

31 29 43 45 40

Florida

419 379 603 676 603

Georgia

233 232 381 420 349

Hawaii

31 25 38 40 33

Idaho

40 37 57 65 57

Illinois

276 236 373 438 386

Indiana

157 139 216 219 170

Iowa

75 65 100 115 89

Kansas

72 62 86 101 82

Kentucky

90 94 147 161 126

Louisiana

92 90 131 154 139

Maine

31 27 43 47 44

Maryland

140 139 201 212 188

Massachusetts

169 144 245 284 250

Michigan

218 193 336 322 256

Minnesota

140 113 179 221 194

Mississippi

53 55 81 89 83

Missouri

148 119 185 210 175

Montana

27 24 39 45 37

Nebraska

50 45 63 71 61

Nevada

67 65 108 106 96

New Hampshire

32 31 51 54 43

New Jersey

183 185 278 267 227

New Mexico

46 39 63 68 59

New York

389 338 548 555 450

North Carolina

282 216 338 380 334

North Dakota

26 19 28 31 29

Ohio

275 237 353 404 341

Oklahoma

81 81 114 127 119

Oregon

102 93 138 145 121

Pennsylvania

275 250 407 447 376

Rhode Island

24 21 35 38 31

South Carolina

113 110 169 180 172

South Dakota

22 19 30 31 28

Tennessee

141 144 224 263 223

Texas

575 484 856 988 805

Utah

80 70 105 120 106

Vermont

16 13 22 24 18

Virginia

220 198 279 324 283

Washington

163 134 203 232 174

West Virginia

40 43 54 62 55

Wisconsin

154 131 189 225 198

Wyoming

17 14 21 23 19

Footnotes
(1) The annual average job openings level is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels divided by 12.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 12. Annual average job openings rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

4.5 4.3 6.4 6.8 5.7


Alabama

4.4 4.6 6.5 6.8 5.9

Alaska

6.5 5.7 8.3 8.9 7.5

Arizona

5.1 4.9 6.5 7.1 5.9

Arkansas

4.6 4.3 6.2 7.0 6.1

California

4.2 4.0 5.8 6.6 4.7

Colorado

5.0 4.0 6.7 7.3 7.1

Connecticut

3.7 3.6 5.6 6.8 5.2

Delaware

4.6 4.6 6.5 7.3 6.0

District of Columbia

3.8 3.8 5.5 5.6 5.0

Florida

4.5 4.3 6.3 6.7 5.8

Georgia

4.8 5.0 7.7 8.0 6.6

Hawaii

4.5 4.3 6.1 6.0 4.9

Idaho

5.0 4.7 6.7 7.3 6.3

Illinois

4.3 4.0 6.0 6.8 5.9

Indiana

4.7 4.4 6.6 6.4 5.0

Iowa

4.5 4.1 6.1 6.8 5.3

Kansas

4.8 4.4 5.9 6.6 5.4

Kentucky

4.4 4.9 7.2 7.6 5.9

Louisiana

4.4 4.6 6.5 7.4 6.6

Maine

4.7 4.3 6.5 6.8 6.3

Maryland

4.8 5.1 7.0 7.2 6.4

Massachusetts

4.4 4.1 6.5 7.2 6.3

Michigan

4.7 4.6 7.4 6.9 5.4

Minnesota

4.5 3.9 5.9 7.0 6.1

Mississippi

4.3 4.7 6.6 7.1 6.6

Missouri

4.8 4.1 6.1 6.7 5.5

Montana

5.3 4.9 7.3 8.2 6.7

Nebraska

4.6 4.4 5.9 6.5 5.5

Nevada

4.5 4.8 7.3 6.6 5.9

New Hampshire

4.4 4.6 7.2 7.2 5.8

New Jersey

4.2 4.6 6.5 5.9 5.0

New Mexico

5.1 4.7 7.2 7.4 6.4

New York

3.8 3.7 5.7 5.5 4.4

North Carolina

5.8 4.7 6.8 7.3 6.3

North Dakota

5.6 4.4 6.3 6.7 6.2

Ohio

4.7 4.3 6.2 6.8 5.7

Oklahoma

4.6 4.8 6.5 6.9 6.4

Oregon

5.0 4.8 6.8 6.9 5.7

Pennsylvania

4.3 4.3 6.6 7.0 5.8

Rhode Island

4.6 4.3 6.8 7.1 5.8

South Carolina

4.9 5.0 7.3 7.4 7.0

South Dakota

4.8 4.3 6.3 6.5 5.8

Tennessee

4.3 4.6 6.7 7.5 6.3

Texas

4.3 3.8 6.3 6.8 5.5

Utah

4.9 4.4 6.1 6.7 5.8

Vermont

4.8 4.4 7.0 7.2 5.6

Virginia

5.1 4.9 6.6 7.4 6.4

Washington

4.5 3.9 5.7 6.2 4.6

West Virginia

5.3 6.1 7.4 8.2 7.2

Wisconsin

4.9 4.4 6.1 7.0 6.2

Wyoming

5.6 4.7 7.1 7.6 6.2

Footnotes
(1) The annual average job openings rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels and the sum of the 12 monthly job openings levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 13. Annual hires levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

69,959 72,555 76,170 76,816 71,024


Alabama

954 1,005 1,163 1,241 1,128

Alaska

235 212 229 246 227

Arizona

1,496 1,510 1,585 1,810 1,614

Arkansas

676 667 751 776 720

California

7,011 7,953 7,963 7,601 6,714

Colorado

1,381 1,466 1,546 1,549 1,386

Connecticut

683 767 724 739 717

Delaware

256 249 268 300 270

District of Columbia

288 240 277 281 286

Florida

4,243 4,271 4,845 4,938 4,822

Georgia

2,243 2,386 2,918 3,187 2,709

Hawaii

282 299 301 281 247

Idaho

431 493 484 517 476

Illinois

2,554 2,790 3,164 3,051 2,746

Indiana

1,720 1,670 1,725 1,688 1,557

Iowa

680 716 761 744 680

Kansas

650 588 686 673 624

Kentucky

987 1,123 1,211 1,178 1,065

Louisiana

1,069 978 1,135 1,151 1,194

Maine

303 303 311 316 316

Maryland

1,268 1,178 1,139 1,392 1,383

Massachusetts

1,491 1,499 1,555 1,555 1,447

Michigan

2,010 2,415 2,479 2,104 1,909

Minnesota

1,178 1,166 1,220 1,302 1,319

Mississippi

579 635 668 688 632

Missouri

1,332 1,430 1,400 1,320 1,227

Montana

284 312 333 351 309

Nebraska

471 475 492 474 472

Nevada

702 945 956 881 746

New Hampshire

318 320 348 357 345

New Jersey

1,642 2,180 1,936 1,912 1,902

New Mexico

441 399 479 452 396

New York

3,567 3,646 3,684 3,672 3,433

North Carolina

2,820 2,669 2,828 2,830 2,383

North Dakota

240 227 237 226 222

Ohio

2,525 2,789 2,645 2,669 2,429

Oklahoma

877 867 937 1,045 1,004

Oregon

1,007 1,002 1,034 1,054 934

Pennsylvania

2,460 2,502 2,540 2,366 2,240

Rhode Island

238 265 267 258 252

South Carolina

1,204 1,239 1,245 1,326 1,316

South Dakota

206 206 228 232 230

Tennessee

1,662 1,749 1,778 1,966 1,697

Texas

6,841 6,409 7,217 7,403 7,081

Utah

852 838 854 916 822

Vermont

161 155 155 153 145

Virginia

1,927 1,920 1,975 2,058 2,068

Washington

1,636 1,553 1,579 1,629 1,342

West Virginia

379 386 393 427 404

Wisconsin

1,326 1,317 1,334 1,331 1,280

Wyoming

179 163 178 185 162

Footnotes
(1) The annual hires level is the sum of the 12 monthly hires levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 14. Annual average hires rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

3.9 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.8


Alabama

3.8 4.2 4.7 4.9 4.3

Alaska

5.9 5.8 6.1 6.4 5.8

Arizona

4.2 4.4 4.4 4.8 4.2

Arkansas

4.4 4.5 4.9 4.9 4.4

California

3.4 4.1 4.0 3.6 3.1

Colorado

4.1 4.6 4.7 4.5 3.9

Connecticut

3.4 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.5

Delaware

4.6 4.7 4.9 5.3 4.7

District of Columbia

3.0 2.7 3.1 3.1 3.1

Florida

3.9 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.1

Georgia

4.0 4.5 5.3 5.5 4.6

Hawaii

3.6 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.3

Idaho

4.7 5.4 5.1 5.2 4.7

Illinois

3.5 4.1 4.5 4.2 3.7

Indiana

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.4 4.0

Iowa

3.6 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.6

Kansas

3.8 3.6 4.1 4.0 3.6

Kentucky

4.2 5.1 5.3 5.0 4.4

Louisiana

4.5 4.4 5.0 5.0 5.1

Maine

4.0 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1

Maryland

3.8 3.8 3.6 4.3 4.2

Massachusetts

3.3 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.2

Michigan

3.8 5.0 4.9 4.0 3.6

Minnesota

3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7

Mississippi

4.2 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.5

Missouri

3.8 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.4

Montana

4.9 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.0

Nebraska

3.8 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.7

Nevada

4.1 6.1 5.8 4.9 4.0

New Hampshire

3.9 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.1

New Jersey

3.3 4.7 4.0 3.8 3.7

New Mexico

4.3 4.2 4.9 4.4 3.8

New York

3.0 3.4 3.4 3.2 2.9

North Carolina

5.1 5.0 5.1 4.9 4.0

North Dakota

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.4 4.2

Ohio

3.8 4.4 4.1 4.0 3.6

Oklahoma

4.3 4.4 4.7 5.1 4.8

Oregon

4.3 4.6 4.6 4.5 3.9

Pennsylvania

3.4 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.1

Rhode Island

3.9 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.2

South Carolina

4.6 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.8

South Dakota

3.9 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.1

Tennessee

4.4 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.3

Texas

4.4 4.4 4.7 4.6 4.2

Utah

4.6 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.0

Vermont

4.2 4.5 4.4 4.2 3.9

Virginia

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1

Washington

3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.1

West Virginia

4.4 4.8 4.8 5.1 4.7

Wisconsin

3.7 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.5

Wyoming

5.1 5.0 5.3 5.4 4.6

Footnotes
(1) The annual average hires rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly hires levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 15. Annual total separations levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

68,039 80,898 68,886 72,231 68,062


Alabama

947 1,018 1,105 1,152 1,050

Alaska

250 225 227 250 222

Arizona

1,422 1,536 1,465 1,698 1,588

Arkansas

644 693 688 712 675

California

7,413 8,941 7,117 7,509 6,690

Colorado

1,374 1,764 1,485 1,517 1,260

Connecticut

620 855 616 674 651

Delaware

248 268 251 274 256

District of Columbia

269 306 244 300 282

Florida

4,056 4,893 4,402 4,955 4,777

Georgia

2,216 2,692 2,863 3,119 2,468

Hawaii

297 369 258 253 247

Idaho

411 454 450 485 463

Illinois

2,356 3,347 2,779 2,727 2,485

Indiana

1,710 1,858 1,613 1,591 1,540

Iowa

673 780 711 717 685

Kansas

628 689 623 628 620

Kentucky

927 1,179 1,119 1,077 991

Louisiana

1,084 1,135 1,038 1,080 1,106

Maine

279 325 292 288 301

Maryland

1,246 1,298 1,038 1,342 1,261

Massachusetts

1,305 1,747 1,375 1,324 1,130

Michigan

1,993 2,707 2,158 1,865 1,840

Minnesota

1,110 1,410 1,107 1,234 1,256

Mississippi

589 679 677 690 628

Missouri

1,305 1,627 1,350 1,335 1,218

Montana

303 307 312 338 310

Nebraska

451 521 458 441 454

Nevada

697 1,200 768 784 725

New Hampshire

289 345 325 348 310

New Jersey

1,727 2,452 1,663 1,829 1,705

New Mexico

432 468 402 420 375

New York

3,421 4,307 3,181 3,336 3,384

North Carolina

2,658 2,688 2,615 2,556 2,390

North Dakota

233 284 210 218 216

Ohio

2,501 3,057 2,417 2,517 2,474

Oklahoma

895 942 867 899 901

Oregon

1,046 1,170 942 955 893

Pennsylvania

2,377 3,015 2,264 2,265 2,219

Rhode Island

225 284 225 238 228

South Carolina

1,208 1,240 1,148 1,220 1,199

South Dakota

203 230 202 209 217

Tennessee

1,446 1,821 1,729 1,890 1,630

Texas

6,394 7,028 6,364 6,692 6,674

Utah

871 815 795 841 817

Vermont

149 178 148 147 136

Virginia

1,812 1,944 1,734 1,891 1,953

Washington

1,503 1,725 1,293 1,528 1,353

West Virginia

388 419 377 407 388

Wisconsin

1,251 1,473 1,235 1,289 1,254

Wyoming

189 181 173 184 162

Footnotes
(1) The annual total separations level is the sum of the 12 monthly total separations levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 16. Annual average total separations rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

3.8 4.7 3.9 3.9 3.6


Alabama

3.8 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.0

Alaska

6.3 6.2 6.1 6.5 5.6

Arizona

4.0 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.1

Arkansas

4.2 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.2

California

3.5 4.6 3.5 3.5 3.1

Colorado

4.1 5.5 4.5 4.4 3.6

Connecticut

3.0 4.5 3.2 3.4 3.2

Delaware

4.4 5.1 4.6 4.8 4.4

District of Columbia

2.8 3.4 2.8 3.3 3.1

Florida

3.8 4.8 4.1 4.4 4.1

Georgia

4.0 5.1 5.2 5.4 4.2

Hawaii

3.8 5.5 3.7 3.4 3.3

Idaho

4.5 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.6

Illinois

3.2 4.9 4.0 3.8 3.4

Indiana

4.5 5.2 4.4 4.2 4.0

Iowa

3.5 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.6

Kansas

3.7 4.2 3.8 3.7 3.6

Kentucky

4.0 5.3 4.9 4.6 4.1

Louisiana

4.5 5.1 4.6 4.7 4.7

Maine

3.7 4.5 3.9 3.8 3.9

Maryland

3.7 4.2 3.3 4.1 3.8

Massachusetts

2.9 4.3 3.2 3.0 2.5

Michigan

3.7 5.6 4.3 3.6 3.4

Minnesota

3.1 4.2 3.2 3.5 3.5

Mississippi

4.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.4

Missouri

3.7 4.9 4.0 3.8 3.4

Montana

5.2 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.0

Nebraska

3.7 4.4 3.8 3.6 3.6

Nevada

4.1 7.8 4.7 4.4 3.9

New Hampshire

3.5 4.5 4.1 4.2 3.7

New Jersey

3.4 5.3 3.4 3.6 3.3

New Mexico

4.2 4.9 4.1 4.1 3.6

New York

2.9 4.1 2.9 2.9 2.9

North Carolina

4.8 5.1 4.7 4.4 4.0

North Dakota

4.4 5.7 4.2 4.2 4.1

Ohio

3.7 4.8 3.7 3.8 3.7

Oklahoma

4.4 4.8 4.4 4.4 4.3

Oregon

4.5 5.3 4.2 4.1 3.8

Pennsylvania

3.3 4.5 3.3 3.2 3.0

Rhode Island

3.7 5.1 3.9 4.0 3.8

South Carolina

4.6 5.0 4.4 4.5 4.3

South Dakota

3.8 4.5 3.8 3.8 3.9

Tennessee

3.9 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.1

Texas

4.2 4.8 4.2 4.1 4.0

Utah

4.7 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.0

Vermont

3.9 5.2 4.2 4.0 3.7

Virginia

3.7 4.2 3.7 3.9 3.9

Washington

3.6 4.4 3.2 3.6 3.1

West Virginia

4.5 5.2 4.6 4.9 4.5

Wisconsin

3.5 4.3 3.6 3.6 3.5

Wyoming

5.4 5.5 5.2 5.4 4.6

Footnotes
(1) The annual average total separations rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly total separations levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 17. Annual quits levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

42,159 35,941 47,566 50,507 44,379


Alabama

603 571 766 829 716

Alaska

154 101 159 164 144

Arizona

975 788 1,110 1,277 1,074

Arkansas

421 378 490 510 463

California

4,370 3,461 4,744 5,124 4,031

Colorado

893 722 1,020 1,001 836

Connecticut

335 300 400 446 404

Delaware

155 137 176 197 170

District of Columbia

162 149 153 199 184

Florida

2,628 2,471 3,201 3,617 3,317

Georgia

1,449 1,419 2,024 2,228 1,748

Hawaii

195 158 180 179 166

Idaho

273 218 330 340 317

Illinois

1,523 1,479 1,851 1,775 1,580

Indiana

1,039 851 1,159 1,150 1,013

Iowa

415 363 492 507 440

Kansas

411 324 443 447 406

Kentucky

588 595 783 786 700

Louisiana

702 569 745 768 748

Maine

153 129 195 195 182

Maryland

770 593 694 897 829

Massachusetts

746 592 883 909 676

Michigan

1,286 1,142 1,491 1,339 1,121

Minnesota

711 555 780 870 820

Mississippi

374 359 483 482 420

Missouri

815 818 984 925 813

Montana

181 141 221 237 206

Nebraska

292 261 320 305 289

Nevada

459 414 507 542 479

New Hampshire

160 126 207 215 185

New Jersey

977 912 1,069 1,159 970

New Mexico

290 210 282 288 246

New York

1,785 1,505 1,938 2,137 1,882

North Carolina

1,643 1,264 1,776 1,779 1,567

North Dakota

146 123 141 145 141

Ohio

1,619 1,366 1,652 1,670 1,556

Oklahoma

599 471 615 654 626

Oregon

658 471 667 667 600

Pennsylvania

1,339 1,087 1,445 1,561 1,430

Rhode Island

121 94 146 155 134

South Carolina

751 665 811 902 828

South Dakota

128 104 145 149 140

Tennessee

946 929 1,200 1,354 1,105

Texas

4,096 3,533 4,603 5,052 4,694

Utah

559 395 588 613 558

Vermont

84 59 92 99 87

Virginia

1,121 937 1,221 1,313 1,298

Washington

884 711 904 1,040 853

West Virginia

245 211 264 294 263

Wisconsin

805 641 892 900 823

Wyoming

118 79 122 128 108

Footnotes
(1) The annual quits level is the sum of the 12 monthly quits levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 18. Annual average quits rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

2.3 2.1 2.7 2.8 2.4


Alabama

2.4 2.4 3.1 3.3 2.8

Alaska

3.9 2.8 4.3 4.3 3.7

Arizona

2.8 2.3 3.1 3.4 2.8

Arkansas

2.7 2.5 3.2 3.2 2.9

California

2.1 1.8 2.4 2.4 1.9

Colorado

2.7 2.3 3.1 2.9 2.4

Connecticut

1.6 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.0

Delaware

2.8 2.6 3.2 3.5 2.9

District of Columbia

1.7 1.7 1.7 2.2 2.0

Florida

2.4 2.4 3.0 3.2 2.8

Georgia

2.6 2.7 3.7 3.9 3.0

Hawaii

2.5 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.2

Idaho

3.0 2.4 3.5 3.4 3.1

Illinois

2.1 2.2 2.7 2.5 2.2

Indiana

2.7 2.4 3.1 3.0 2.6

Iowa

2.2 2.0 2.7 2.7 2.3

Kansas

2.4 2.0 2.7 2.6 2.3

Kentucky

2.5 2.7 3.4 3.3 2.9

Louisiana

2.9 2.6 3.3 3.3 3.2

Maine

2.0 1.8 2.6 2.5 2.3

Maryland

2.3 1.9 2.2 2.8 2.5

Massachusetts

1.7 1.5 2.1 2.1 1.5

Michigan

2.4 2.4 3.0 2.6 2.1

Minnesota

2.0 1.7 2.3 2.5 2.3

Mississippi

2.7 2.7 3.5 3.4 3.0

Missouri

2.3 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.3

Montana

3.1 2.5 3.7 3.9 3.3

Nebraska

2.4 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.3

Nevada

2.7 2.7 3.1 3.0 2.6

New Hampshire

1.9 1.6 2.6 2.6 2.2

New Jersey

1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 1.9

New Mexico

2.8 2.2 2.9 2.8 2.3

New York

1.5 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.6

North Carolina

3.0 2.4 3.2 3.1 2.6

North Dakota

2.8 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.7

Ohio

2.4 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.3

Oklahoma

2.9 2.4 3.1 3.2 3.0

Oregon

2.8 2.1 3.0 2.9 2.5

Pennsylvania

1.8 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.0

Rhode Island

2.0 1.7 2.5 2.6 2.2

South Carolina

2.9 2.7 3.1 3.4 3.0

South Dakota

2.4 2.0 2.7 2.7 2.5

Tennessee

2.5 2.6 3.2 3.5 2.8

Texas

2.7 2.4 3.0 3.1 2.8

Utah

3.0 2.1 3.0 3.0 2.7

Vermont

2.2 1.7 2.6 2.7 2.3

Virginia

2.3 2.0 2.6 2.7 2.6

Washington

2.1 1.8 2.2 2.5 2.0

West Virginia

2.9 2.6 3.2 3.5 3.1

Wisconsin

2.2 1.9 2.6 2.5 2.3

Wyoming

3.4 2.4 3.7 3.7 3.1

Footnotes
(1) The annual average quits rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly quits levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 19. Annual layoffs and discharges levels for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

21,878 40,847 17,082 17,622 19,759


Alabama

269 389 266 259 278

Alaska

83 107 51 71 63

Arizona

377 680 299 345 440

Arkansas

190 268 159 167 181

California

2,532 4,928 1,813 1,857 2,183

Colorado

409 916 407 417 347

Connecticut

244 511 175 180 203

Delaware

79 118 63 64 77

District of Columbia

83 141 66 69 72

Florida

1,215 2,236 969 1,050 1,199

Georgia

633 1,128 668 718 604

Hawaii

85 193 60 58 70

Idaho

120 222 98 122 126

Illinois

714 1,715 789 810 781

Indiana

594 925 358 359 465

Iowa

222 374 170 166 213

Kansas

181 326 140 150 179

Kentucky

280 524 279 235 243

Louisiana

326 505 235 254 303

Maine

107 180 80 73 94

Maryland

385 637 277 363 357

Massachusetts

473 1,082 398 342 363

Michigan

590 1,442 527 433 603

Minnesota

324 782 240 304 371

Mississippi

180 285 154 167 177

Missouri

417 743 279 348 341

Montana

108 151 75 86 89

Nebraska

131 229 108 112 143

Nevada

210 733 225 207 218

New Hampshire

110 205 96 106 101

New Jersey

606 1,435 492 557 610

New Mexico

119 235 92 105 103

New York

1,403 2,562 982 982 1,238

North Carolina

868 1,271 686 632 701

North Dakota

73 148 60 60 64

Ohio

746 1,554 637 698 764

Oklahoma

239 415 201 197 232

Oregon

337 638 228 222 247

Pennsylvania

885 1,797 681 561 624

Rhode Island

89 175 66 67 79

South Carolina

390 494 273 251 315

South Dakota

62 112 45 52 64

Tennessee

428 813 438 458 451

Texas

1,997 3,165 1,363 1,339 1,640

Utah

266 383 162 187 222

Vermont

54 112 42 36 42

Virginia

579 911 401 466 561

Washington

514 929 306 400 426

West Virginia

118 184 89 87 99

Wisconsin

372 745 272 324 361

Wyoming

60 91 43 47 44

Footnotes
(1) The annual layoffs and discharges level is the sum of the 12 monthly layoffs and discharges levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 20. Annual average layoffs and discharges rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
State 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

TOTAL U.S.

1.2 2.4 1.0 1.0 1.1


Alabama

1.1 1.6 1.1 1.0 1.1

Alaska

2.1 2.9 1.4 1.9 1.6

Arizona

1.1 2.0 0.8 0.9 1.1

Arkansas

1.2 1.8 1.0 1.0 1.1

California

1.2 2.5 0.9 0.9 1.0

Colorado

1.2 2.9 1.2 1.2 1.0

Connecticut

1.2 2.7 0.9 0.9 1.0

Delaware

1.4 2.2 1.2 1.1 1.3

District of Columbia

0.9 1.6 0.7 0.8 0.8

Florida

1.1 2.2 0.9 0.9 1.0

Georgia

1.1 2.1 1.2 1.2 1.0

Hawaii

1.1 2.9 0.9 0.8 0.9

Idaho

1.3 2.5 1.0 1.2 1.2

Illinois

1.0 2.5 1.1 1.1 1.1

Indiana

1.6 2.6 1.0 0.9 1.2

Iowa

1.2 2.1 0.9 0.9 1.1

Kansas

1.1 2.0 0.8 0.9 1.0

Kentucky

1.2 2.4 1.2 1.0 1.0

Louisiana

1.4 2.3 1.0 1.1 1.3

Maine

1.4 2.5 1.1 1.0 1.2

Maryland

1.2 2.1 0.9 1.1 1.1

Massachusetts

1.1 2.7 0.9 0.8 0.8

Michigan

1.1 3.0 1.0 0.8 1.1

Minnesota

0.9 2.3 0.7 0.9 1.0

Mississippi

1.3 2.1 1.1 1.2 1.3

Missouri

1.2 2.2 0.8 1.0 1.0

Montana

1.9 2.7 1.3 1.4 1.4

Nebraska

1.1 1.9 0.9 0.9 1.1

Nevada

1.2 4.8 1.4 1.2 1.2

New Hampshire

1.3 2.7 1.2 1.3 1.2

New Jersey

1.2 3.1 1.0 1.1 1.2

New Mexico

1.2 2.4 0.9 1.0 1.0

New York

1.2 2.4 0.9 0.9 1.1

North Carolina

1.6 2.4 1.2 1.1 1.2

North Dakota

1.4 3.0 1.2 1.2 1.2

Ohio

1.1 2.5 1.0 1.1 1.1

Oklahoma

1.2 2.1 1.0 1.0 1.1

Oregon

1.4 2.9 1.0 1.0 1.0

Pennsylvania

1.2 2.7 1.0 0.8 0.9

Rhode Island

1.5 3.2 1.1 1.1 1.3

South Carolina

1.5 2.0 1.1 0.9 1.1

South Dakota

1.2 2.2 0.9 1.0 1.2

Tennessee

1.1 2.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

Texas

1.3 2.1 0.9 0.8 1.0

Utah

1.4 2.1 0.8 0.9 1.1

Vermont

1.4 3.3 1.2 1.0 1.1

Virginia

1.2 2.0 0.8 1.0 1.1

Washington

1.2 2.4 0.8 0.9 1.0

West Virginia

1.4 2.3 1.1 1.0 1.2

Wisconsin

1.0 2.2 0.8 0.9 1.0

Wyoming

1.7 2.8 1.3 1.4 1.3

Footnotes
(1) The annual average layoffs and discharges rate is equal to the sum of the 12 monthly layoffs and discharges levels as a percent of the sum of the 12 monthly CES employment levels.

NOTE: Data incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Last Modified Date: July 24, 2024