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Economic News Release
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JOLTS JLT Program Links

State Job Openings and Labor Turnover News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, February 14, 2024  USDL-24-0267
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870    JoltsInfo@bls.gov    www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov

			    STATE JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER  DECEMBER 2023

Job openings rates decreased in 4 states and increased in 3 states on the last business day of December, 
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires rates increased in 2 states and decreased in 1 
state. Total separations rates decreased in 5 states and increased in 2 states. Nationally, the job openings, 
hires, and total separations rates showed little or no change in December. 

This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, total separations, quits, and 
layoffs and discharges for the total nonfarm sector and for all states and the District of Columbia. 

Job Openings

In December, job openings rates decreased in 4 states, increased in 3 states, and were little changed in 
43 states and the District of Columbia. The decreases in job openings rates occurred in Maine  
(-1.1 percentage points) and North Dakota (-0.8 point), as well as in Illinois and Wisconsin  
(-0.6 point each). The increases occurred in Michigan (+1.2 points), Louisiana (+0.7 point), and 
California (+0.4 point). Over the month, the national job openings rate was unchanged. (See table 1.)

The number of job openings decreased in 7 states, increased in 4 states, and was little changed in 39 
states and the District of Columbia in December. The largest decreases in the job openings level 
occurred in Illinois (-42,000), Arizona (-21,000), and Wisconsin (-20,000). The largest increases 
occurred in California (+79,000), Michigan (+63,000), and Louisiana (+15,000). Nationally, the number 
of job openings changed little. (See table 1.)

Hires

In December, hires rates increased in 2 states, decreased in 1 state, and were little changed in 47 states 
and the District of Columbia. The increases in the hires rate occurred in Nevada (+0.9 percentage point) 
and in California (+0.5 point). The decrease occurred in Georgia (-0.7 point). The national hires rate 
changed little over the month. (See table 2.)

The number of hires increased in 4 states, decreased in 1 state, and was little changed in 45 states and 
the District of Columbia in December. The largest increases in the hires level occurred in California 
(+81,000), Arizona (+20,000), and Nevada (+15,000). The decrease occurred in Georgia 
(-36,000). Nationally, the number of hires changed little over the month. (See table 2.)

Total Separations

In December, total separations rates decreased in 5 states, increased in 2 states, and were little changed 
in 43 states and the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in total separations rates occurred in 
Michigan (-1.1 percentage points), and in Oregon and South Dakota (-0.9 point each). The increases 
occurred in Maryland (+0.9 point) and South Carolina (+0.8 point). Over the month, the national total 
separations rate was unchanged. (See table 3.)

The number of total separations decreased in 5 states, increased in 2 states, and was little changed in 
43 states and the District of Columbia in December. The largest decreases in the total separations level 
occurred in Michigan (-50,000), Pennsylvania (-28,000), and Colorado (-20,000). The increases 
occurred in Maryland (+23,000) and South Carolina (+18,000). Nationally, the number of total 
separations changed little over the month. (See table 3.)
 
Quits

In December, quits rates decreased in 9 states, increased in 1 state, and were little changed in 40 states 
and the District of Columbia. The largest decreases in quits rates occurred in Michigan  
(-1.0 percentage point), South Dakota (-0.9 point), and Oregon (-0.8 point). The increase occurred in 
Georgia (+0.6 point). Over the month, the national quits rate was unchanged. (See table 4.)

The number of quits decreased in 10 states, increased in 1 state, and was little changed in 39 states and 
the District of Columbia in December. The largest decreases in the quits level occurred in Michigan  
(-41,000) and Arizona (-17,000), as well as in Indiana and Oregon (-16,000 each). The increase occurred 
in Georgia (+29,000). Nationally, the number of quits was little changed. (See table 4.)

Layoffs and Discharges 
In December, layoffs and discharges rates increased in 3 states and were little changed in 47 states and 
the District of Columbia. The increases occurred in Maryland (+0.7 percentage point), Indiana  
(+0.4 point), and Illinois (+0.3 point). Over the month, the national layoffs and discharges rate was 
unchanged. (See table 5.)

The number of layoffs and discharges increased in 4 states and was little changed in 46 states and the 
District of Columbia in December. The largest increases occurred in Illinois (+21,000), Maryland 
(+20,000), and Indiana (+12,000). Nationally, the number of layoffs and discharges was little changed. 
(See table 5.)

For more information, please see the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) interactive 
charts at www.bls.gov/charts/state-job-openings-and-labor-turnover/state-job-openings-rates.htm#.  
	
_______________
State Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for January 2024 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, March 19, 2024, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

Technical Note

This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The JOLTS 
program provides information on labor demand and turnover. Additional information about the JOLTS program can 
be found at www.bls.gov/jlt/. State estimates are published for job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
total separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well as civilian federal, state, 
and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Starting with data for January 2023, 
industries are classified in accordance with the 2022 North American Industry Classification System.

Definitions

Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that 
includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and 
hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of 
unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on strike for the entire pay period, and employees 
on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, 
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by 
the establishment where they are working. JOLTS does not publish employment estimates but uses the reported 
employment for validation of the other reported data elements.

Job Openings. Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the reference month. 
A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions: 
* A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-
time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal. 
* The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate during that time. 
* The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position. Active recruiting 
means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in newspapers, on 
television, or on the radio; posting internet notices, posting "help wanted" signs, networking, or making "word-
of-mouth" announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; 
or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or similar sources.

Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs. Also 
excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future; positions for which employees 
have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work; and positions to be filled by employees of 
temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is 
computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that 
quotient by 100.

Hires. Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly hired and 
rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees; employees 
who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension from pay status) lasting more than 7 
days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated; workers who 
were hired and separated during the month, and transfers from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions 
within the reporting location, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee 
leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by 
employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations. Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month and is 
reported by type of separation:  quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include employees who 
left voluntarily, with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs and discharges includes 
involuntary separations initiated by the employer, such as layoffs with no intent to rehire; layoffs (formal 
suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, 
downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or short-term employees; 
and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return the next season). Other 
separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. 
Other separations comprise less than 8 percent of total separations. Other separations rates are generally very low, 
and other separations variance estimates are relatively high. Consequently, the other separations component is not 
published for states. 

Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; employees of temporary help 
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The separations rate is computed by 
dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits and layoffs and 
discharges rates are computed similarly.

State Estimation Method

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of approximately 21,000 nonfarm business and 
government establishments. The sample is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment size 
class. The JOLTS sample of 21,000 establishments does not directly support the production of sample-based state 
estimates. However, state estimates have been produced by combining the available sample with model-based 
estimates.

The state estimates consist of four major estimating models; the Composite Regional model (an unpublished 
intermediate model), the Synthetic model (an unpublished intermediate model), the Composite Synthetic model 
(published historical series through the most current benchmark year), and the Extended Composite Synthetic model 
(published current-year monthly series). The Composite Regional model uses JOLTS microdata, JOLTS regional 
published estimates, and Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment data. The Composite Synthetic model 
uses JOLTS microdata and Synthetic model estimates derived from monthly employment changes in microdata from 
the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and JOLTS published regional data. The Extended 
Composite Synthetic model extends the Composite Synthetic estimates by ratio-adjusting the Composite Synthetic 
model by the ratio of the current Composite Regional model estimate to the Composite Regional model estimate 
from the previous year.

The Extended Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the Composite Regional model) is used 
to extend the Composite Synthetic estimates because all of the inputs required by this model are available at the time 
monthly estimate are produced. In contrast, the Composite Synthetic model (and its major component-the 
Synthetic model) can only be produced when the latest QCEW data are available. The Extended Composite 
Synthetic model estimates are used to extend the Composite Synthetic model estimates during the annual JOLTS
retabulation process. The extension of the Composite Synthetic model using current data-based Composite Regional 
model estimates ensures that the Composite Synthetic model estimates reflect current economic trends.

The Composite Regional approach calculates state-level JOLTS estimates from JOLTS microdata using sample 
weights and the adjustments for non-response. The Composite Regional estimate is then benchmarked to CES state-
supersector employment to produce state-supersector estimates. The JOLTS sample, by itself, cannot ensure a 
reasonably sized sample for each state-supersector cell. The small JOLTS sample results in several state-supersector 
cells that lack enough data to produce a reasonable estimate. To overcome this issue, the state-level estimates 
derived directly from the JOLTS sample are augmented using JOLTS regional estimates when the number of 
respondents is low (that is, less than 30). This approach is known as a composite estimate, which leverages the small 
JOLTS sample to the greatest extent possible and supplements that with a model-based estimate. Previous research 
has found that regional industry estimates are a good proxy at finer levels of geographical detail. That is, one can 
make a reliable prediction of JOLTS estimates at the regional-level using only national industry-level JOLTS rates. 
The assumption in this approach is that one can make a good prediction of JOLTS estimates at the state-level using 
only regional industry-level JOLTS rates.)

In this approach, the JOLTS microdata-based estimate is used, without model augmentation, in all state-
supersector cells that have 30 or more respondents. The JOLTS regional estimate will be used, without a sample-
based component, in all state-supersector cells that have fewer than five respondents. In all state-supersector cells 
with 5 to 30 respondents, an estimate is calculated that is a composition of a weighted estimate of the microdata-
based estimate and a weighted estimate of the JOLTS regional estimate. The weight assigned to the JOLTS data in 
those cells is proportional the number of JOLTS respondents in the cell (weight=n/30, where n is the number of 
respondents). The sum of state estimates within a region is made equal to the aligned regional JOLTS published 
regional estimates.

Seasonal adjustment. BLS uses the seasonal adjustment program (X-13ARIMA-SEATS) to seasonally adjust 
the JOLTS series. Each month, a concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology uses all relevant data, up to and 
including the current month, to calculate new seasonal adjustment factors. Moving averages are used as seasonal 
filters in seasonal adjustment. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and multiplicative models, as well 
as regression with autocorrelated errors (REGARIMA) modeling, to improve the seasonal adjustment factors at the 
beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series. 

Annual estimates and benchmarking. The JOLTS state estimates utilize and leverage data from three BLS 
programs; JOLTS, CES, and QCEW. These state estimates are published as a historical series made up of a 
historical annually revised benchmark component ofthe Composite Synthetic model and a current component of the 
Extended Composite Synthetic model that provides monthly "real-time" estimates between lagged benchmarks.

The JOLTS employment levels are ratio-adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are 
applied to all JOLTS data elements.

The seasonally adjusted estimates are recalculated for the most recent 5 years to reflect updated seasonal 
adjustment factors. These annual updates result in revisions to both the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally 
adjusted JOLTS data series for the period since the last benchmark was established.

Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the 
12 published monthly levels. 

Annual average levels for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 published monthly levels 
by 12. 

Annual average rates for hires, total separations quits, and layoffs and discharges are calculated by dividing the 
sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published levels for each data element by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published 
employment levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100. 

Annual average rates for job openings are calculated by dividing the sum of the 12 monthly JOLTS published 
levels by the sum of the 12 monthly CES published employment levels plus the sum of the 12 monthly job openings 
levels, and multiplying that quotient by 100.)

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to two types of error:  sampling error and nonsampling error.

Sampling error can result when a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed. There is a chance that 
the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling 
error, varies with the sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. This means that there is a 90-percent chance 
that the true population mean will fall into the interval created by the sample mean plus or minus 1.65 standard 
errors. Estimates of median standard errors are released monthly as part of the significant change tables on the 
JOLTS webpage. Standard errors are updated annually with the most recent 5 years of data. For sampling error 
estimates, see www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a segment of the population, the 
inability to obtain data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a 
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors from 
the employment benchmark data used in estimation. The JOLTS program uses quality control procedures to reduce 
nonsampling error in the survey's design. 

The JOLTS state variance estimates account for both sampling error and the error attributable to modeling. A 
small area domain model uses a Bayesian approach to develop estimates of JOLTS state variance. The small area 
model uses QCEW-based JOLTS synthetic model data to generate a Bayesian prior distribution, then updates the 
prior distribution using JOLTS microdata and sample-based variance estimates at the state and US Census regional 
level to generate a Bayesian posterior distribution. Once the Bayesian posterior distribution has been generated, 
estimates of JOLTS state variances are made by drawing 2,500 estimates from the Bayesian posterior distribution. 
This Bayesian approach thus indirectly accounts for sampling error and directly for model error.

Other information

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access telecommunications 
relay services.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

11,234 9,350 8,852 8,925 9,026 101 6.8 5.6 5.3 5.4 5.4 0.0


Alabama

157 138 122 119 133 14 6.8 6.0 5.4 5.2 5.8 0.6

Alaska

31 26 25 26 23 -3 8.7 7.4 7.1 7.3 6.5 -0.8

Arizona

209 193 184 184 163 -21 6.3 5.7 5.5 5.5 4.9 -0.6

Arkansas

102 88 81 81 82 1 7.0 6.1 5.6 5.6 5.7 0.1

California

1,244 867 800 751 830 79 6.5 4.6 4.2 4.0 4.4 0.4

Colorado

222 202 211 224 207 -17 7.1 6.5 6.7 7.1 6.6 -0.5

Connecticut

116 102 88 88 94 6 6.5 5.7 4.9 4.9 5.3 0.4

Delaware

38 33 30 30 31 1 7.4 6.3 5.8 5.8 6.0 0.2

District of Columbia

47 43 37 40 43 3 5.8 5.2 4.5 4.9 5.2 0.3

Florida

673 606 590 548 535 -13 6.5 5.8 5.7 5.3 5.1 -0.2

Georgia

389 353 333 302 313 11 7.4 6.7 6.3 5.7 5.9 0.2

Hawaii

37 32 30 29 27 -2 5.6 4.8 4.5 4.4 4.1 -0.3

Idaho

68 55 56 52 47 -5 7.5 6.0 6.1 5.7 5.2 -0.5

Illinois

451 371 326 412 370 -42 6.9 5.7 5.0 6.3 5.7 -0.6

Indiana

213 168 165 161 149 -12 6.2 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.3 -0.4

Iowa

128 83 90 89 89 0 7.5 5.0 5.4 5.3 5.3 0.0

Kansas

110 81 79 87 86 -1 7.1 5.3 5.2 5.6 5.6 0.0

Kentucky

148 131 118 116 118 2 7.0 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.5 0.1

Louisiana

181 148 122 117 132 15 8.5 7.0 5.8 5.6 6.3 0.7

Maine

45 45 44 44 36 -8 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.3 5.2 -1.1

Maryland

205 183 173 177 177 0 7.0 6.2 5.9 6.0 6.0 0.0

Massachusetts

268 255 239 228 234 6 6.7 6.3 5.9 5.7 5.8 0.1

Michigan

378 242 234 263 326 63 7.9 5.2 5.0 5.6 6.8 1.2

Minnesota

239 201 192 209 210 1 7.5 6.3 6.0 6.5 6.5 0.0

Mississippi

90 83 88 80 79 -1 7.1 6.6 7.0 6.4 6.3 -0.1

Missouri

220 180 176 174 162 -12 6.9 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.1 -0.4

Montana

46 36 36 35 33 -2 8.2 6.5 6.5 6.3 5.9 -0.4

Nebraska

77 59 55 61 59 -2 6.9 5.3 5.0 5.5 5.3 -0.2

Nevada

106 99 88 85 78 -7 6.5 5.9 5.3 5.1 4.7 -0.4

New Hampshire

51 44 41 40 39 -1 6.8 5.9 5.5 5.4 5.2 -0.2

New Jersey

266 228 215 224 221 -3 5.8 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.8 -0.1

New Mexico

63 57 56 57 54 -3 6.9 6.1 6.0 6.1 5.8 -0.3

New York

483 466 457 467 472 5 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6 0.0

North Carolina

367 312 290 294 295 1 7.0 5.9 5.5 5.6 5.6 0.0

North Dakota

31 28 28 29 25 -4 6.7 6.0 6.0 6.2 5.4 -0.8

Ohio

422 354 338 323 330 7 7.1 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.5 0.1

Oklahoma

128 113 105 109 111 2 6.9 6.1 5.7 5.9 6.0 0.1

Oregon

140 116 112 103 94 -9 6.6 5.5 5.3 4.9 4.5 -0.4

Pennsylvania

457 380 390 381 388 7 7.0 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.9 0.1

Rhode Island

38 31 31 30 32 2 7.1 5.9 5.9 5.7 6.0 0.3

South Carolina

190 172 164 166 170 4 7.7 6.9 6.6 6.7 6.8 0.1

South Dakota

31 28 27 29 28 -1 6.4 5.7 5.5 5.8 5.6 -0.2

Tennessee

253 293 215 207 214 7 7.1 8.1 6.1 5.9 6.1 0.2

Texas

1,029 795 742 854 902 48 7.0 5.4 5.0 5.7 6.0 0.3

Utah

122 102 97 85 85 0 6.7 5.6 5.3 4.7 4.7 0.0

Vermont

22 20 19 19 17 -2 6.7 6.1 5.8 5.8 5.3 -0.5

Virginia

352 260 259 254 275 21 7.9 5.9 5.9 5.7 6.2 0.5

Washington

226 170 172 168 152 -16 5.9 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.0 -0.4

West Virginia

67 54 53 52 52 0 8.8 7.1 7.0 6.8 6.8 0.0

Wisconsin

236 206 211 205 185 -20 7.3 6.4 6.5 6.4 5.8 -0.6

Wyoming

24 19 19 18 18 0 7.7 6.1 6.1 5.7 5.7 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

6,251 5,904 5,828 5,554 5,621 67 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.6 0.1


Alabama

107 92 79 83 87 4 5.0 4.3 3.7 3.8 4.0 0.2

Alaska

21 18 17 19 19 0 6.5 5.5 5.2 5.8 5.8 0.0

Arizona

142 130 138 115 135 20 4.5 4.1 4.4 3.6 4.2 0.6

Arkansas

68 59 55 59 60 1 5.0 4.3 4.0 4.3 4.4 0.1

California

550 560 550 457 538 81 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.5 3.0 0.5

Colorado

120 117 130 129 132 3 4.2 4.0 4.5 4.4 4.5 0.1

Connecticut

60 59 63 55 59 4 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.2 3.5 0.3

Delaware

25 25 24 23 23 0 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.7 0.0

District of Columbia

24 24 23 24 23 -1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.9 -0.2

Florida

381 427 396 400 416 16 4.0 4.4 4.0 4.1 4.2 0.1

Georgia

243 214 224 213 177 -36 5.0 4.3 4.5 4.3 3.6 -0.7

Hawaii

24 21 21 17 20 3 3.8 3.3 3.3 2.7 3.2 0.5

Idaho

42 38 38 36 39 3 5.0 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.5 0.3

Illinois

247 197 225 226 208 -18 4.1 3.2 3.7 3.7 3.4 -0.3

Indiana

142 122 138 123 115 -8 4.4 3.7 4.2 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Iowa

64 52 62 55 48 -7 4.0 3.3 3.9 3.5 3.0 -0.5

Kansas

66 49 51 52 53 1 4.6 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 0.0

Kentucky

92 104 76 74 83 9 4.7 5.1 3.7 3.7 4.1 0.4

Louisiana

100 108 86 90 89 -1 5.2 5.5 4.4 4.6 4.5 -0.1

Maine

27 26 25 24 23 -1 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Maryland

116 109 107 111 94 -17 4.3 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.4 -0.6

Massachusetts

116 125 112 104 110 6 3.1 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.9 0.2

Michigan

176 142 151 155 137 -18 4.0 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.1 -0.4

Minnesota

119 111 110 112 107 -5 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6 -0.1

Mississippi

57 53 52 50 49 -1 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 -0.1

Missouri

152 110 110 100 98 -2 5.1 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.3 0.0

Montana

29 25 28 23 28 5 5.6 4.8 5.4 4.4 5.3 0.9

Nebraska

42 38 37 38 35 -3 4.0 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.3 -0.3

Nevada

71 62 64 55 70 15 4.7 4.0 4.1 3.5 4.4 0.9

New Hampshire

30 29 28 28 27 -1 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.8 -0.2

New Jersey

147 163 152 164 152 -12 3.4 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.5 -0.3

New Mexico

36 34 35 32 32 0 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.7 0.0

New York

329 274 282 295 295 0 3.4 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 0.0

North Carolina

230 194 174 164 159 -5 4.7 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.2 -0.1

North Dakota

19 18 18 18 16 -2 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.6 -0.5

Ohio

202 231 204 180 191 11 3.6 4.1 3.6 3.2 3.4 0.2

Oklahoma

83 85 81 76 74 -2 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.3 -0.1

Oregon

77 76 79 67 70 3 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.4 3.5 0.1

Pennsylvania

179 220 193 196 182 -14 2.9 3.6 3.1 3.2 2.9 -0.3

Rhode Island

21 21 21 20 20 0 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.0 0.0

South Carolina

122 105 106 94 103 9 5.4 4.5 4.6 4.0 4.4 0.4

South Dakota

20 18 19 19 18 -1 4.4 3.9 4.1 4.1 3.8 -0.3

Tennessee

154 159 140 130 138 8 4.7 4.8 4.2 3.9 4.2 0.3

Texas

613 550 579 555 579 24 4.5 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.1 0.2

Utah

78 69 73 65 70 5 4.6 4.0 4.2 3.8 4.1 0.3

Vermont

13 13 13 13 12 -1 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.9 -0.3

Virginia

177 173 167 161 154 -7 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Washington

134 112 117 107 113 6 3.7 3.1 3.2 2.9 3.1 0.2

West Virginia

36 34 33 30 31 1 5.2 4.8 4.7 4.2 4.3 0.1

Wisconsin

111 96 108 103 95 -8 3.7 3.2 3.6 3.4 3.1 -0.3

Wyoming

15 13 13 13 14 1 5.2 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.7 0.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

5,906 5,595 5,632 5,401 5,365 -36 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.4 0.0


Alabama

93 86 85 85 80 -5 4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Alaska

20 18 17 17 18 1 6.2 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.5 0.3

Arizona

125 135 133 132 120 -12 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.2 3.8 -0.4

Arkansas

58 56 52 56 54 -2 4.3 4.1 3.8 4.1 4.0 -0.1

California

616 520 494 513 517 4 3.4 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8 0.0

Colorado

122 100 118 117 97 -20 4.2 3.4 4.0 4.0 3.3 -0.7

Connecticut

58 51 59 51 57 6 3.5 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.4 0.4

Delaware

22 24 24 21 20 -1 4.6 4.9 4.9 4.3 4.1 -0.2

District of Columbia

26 23 24 24 22 -2 3.4 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.8 -0.3

Florida

373 391 381 385 374 -11 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Georgia

204 202 204 185 206 21 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.7 4.2 0.5

Hawaii

22 23 18 19 19 0 3.5 3.6 2.8 3.0 3.0 0.0

Idaho

51 43 37 42 37 -5 6.1 5.0 4.3 4.9 4.3 -0.6

Illinois

217 185 194 172 191 19 3.6 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.1 0.3

Indiana

143 129 125 132 126 -6 4.4 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Iowa

61 54 55 57 54 -3 3.9 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4 -0.2

Kansas

56 56 46 52 55 3 3.9 3.9 3.2 3.6 3.8 0.2

Kentucky

87 88 77 76 70 -6 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Louisiana

93 100 96 81 86 5 4.8 5.1 4.9 4.1 4.4 0.3

Maine

26 25 33 27 24 -3 4.0 3.9 5.1 4.1 3.7 -0.4

Maryland

123 107 110 89 112 23 4.5 3.9 4.0 3.2 4.1 0.9

Massachusetts

97 82 113 102 102 0 2.6 2.2 3.0 2.7 2.7 0.0

Michigan

161 146 138 161 111 -50 3.7 3.3 3.1 3.6 2.5 -1.1

Minnesota

98 119 96 106 100 -6 3.3 4.0 3.2 3.5 3.3 -0.2

Mississippi

50 54 52 48 49 1 4.3 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.2 0.1

Missouri

119 114 106 98 101 3 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.4 0.1

Montana

28 30 30 28 27 -1 5.4 5.8 5.8 5.4 5.2 -0.2

Nebraska

36 38 33 38 38 0 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.6 0.0

Nevada

65 60 59 62 60 -2 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8 -0.1

New Hampshire

28 27 31 24 24 0 4.0 3.8 4.4 3.4 3.4 0.0

New Jersey

155 129 183 140 138 -2 3.6 3.0 4.2 3.2 3.2 0.0

New Mexico

33 35 33 34 30 -4 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.4 -0.5

New York

280 260 299 291 277 -14 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.0 2.8 -0.2

North Carolina

179 202 205 167 180 13 3.7 4.1 4.2 3.4 3.6 0.2

North Dakota

20 18 15 19 19 0 4.6 4.1 3.4 4.3 4.3 0.0

Ohio

208 202 201 188 187 -1 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.3 0.0

Oklahoma

74 70 73 63 66 3 4.3 4.0 4.2 3.6 3.8 0.2

Oregon

68 79 77 76 58 -18 3.4 3.9 3.8 3.8 2.9 -0.9

Pennsylvania

203 177 234 190 162 -28 3.3 2.9 3.8 3.1 2.6 -0.5

Rhode Island

21 19 22 19 20 1 4.2 3.8 4.4 3.8 4.0 0.2

South Carolina

113 113 101 81 99 18 5.0 4.9 4.4 3.5 4.3 0.8

South Dakota

20 19 17 23 19 -4 4.4 4.1 3.6 4.9 4.0 -0.9

Tennessee

142 142 150 131 138 7 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.0 4.2 0.2

Texas

580 524 497 478 529 51 4.2 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.8 0.4

Utah

84 73 65 73 75 2 5.0 4.2 3.8 4.2 4.3 0.1

Vermont

13 12 14 12 13 1 4.3 3.9 4.6 3.9 4.2 0.3

Virginia

154 147 156 141 150 9 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.6 0.2

Washington

128 123 98 117 104 -13 3.6 3.4 2.7 3.2 2.8 -0.4

West Virginia

31 35 33 29 33 4 4.5 5.0 4.7 4.1 4.6 0.5

Wisconsin

110 109 101 110 105 -5 3.7 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Wyoming

16 15 14 15 14 -1 5.5 5.1 4.8 5.1 4.7 -0.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,091 3,646 3,628 3,524 3,392 -132 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 0.0


Alabama

68 56 58 54 57 3 3.2 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.6 0.1

Alaska

14 11 10 11 10 -1 4.3 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.0 -0.4

Arizona

94 93 87 82 65 -17 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.0 -0.6

Arkansas

41 37 35 38 36 -2 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.6 -0.2

California

416 316 311 310 312 2 2.3 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 0.0

Colorado

85 65 68 68 53 -15 2.9 2.2 2.3 2.3 1.8 -0.5

Connecticut

36 33 29 30 32 2 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.9 0.1

Delaware

15 16 15 13 13 0 3.1 3.3 3.1 2.7 2.7 0.0

District of Columbia

17 15 15 14 14 0 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.0

Florida

288 283 268 286 261 -25 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.6 -0.3

Georgia

154 140 139 119 148 29 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.4 3.0 0.6

Hawaii

16 13 11 12 11 -1 2.6 2.1 1.7 1.9 1.7 -0.2

Idaho

39 28 22 27 21 -6 4.7 3.3 2.6 3.1 2.4 -0.7

Illinois

143 124 138 131 123 -8 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.0 -0.1

Indiana

97 85 88 81 65 -16 3.0 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.0 -0.5

Iowa

41 34 37 39 35 -4 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.2 -0.3

Kansas

38 33 30 36 36 0 2.6 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.5 0.0

Kentucky

66 60 54 51 46 -5 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.3 -0.2

Louisiana

65 65 60 53 53 0 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.7 0.0

Maine

16 14 15 18 14 -4 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.7 2.1 -0.6

Maryland

73 69 69 57 60 3 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.2 0.1

Massachusetts

62 55 59 52 61 9 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.6 0.2

Michigan

107 92 90 109 68 -41 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.5 1.5 -1.0

Minnesota

67 65 68 76 67 -9 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.2 -0.3

Mississippi

35 35 36 32 33 1 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.7 2.8 0.1

Missouri

75 67 73 69 65 -4 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.2 -0.1

Montana

21 18 17 17 16 -1 4.1 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Nebraska

24 24 22 26 24 -2 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.3 -0.2

Nevada

48 40 38 37 35 -2 3.1 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2 -0.1

New Hampshire

16 15 17 15 14 -1 2.3 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.0 -0.1

New Jersey

83 85 88 74 79 5 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.7 1.8 0.1

New Mexico

23 23 22 22 16 -6 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 1.8 -0.7

New York

181 148 161 174 174 0 1.9 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 0.0

North Carolina

129 133 134 99 106 7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.0 2.1 0.1

North Dakota

13 12 11 13 12 -1 3.0 2.7 2.5 3.0 2.7 -0.3

Ohio

147 117 131 130 114 -16 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.0 -0.3

Oklahoma

49 46 50 43 41 -2 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.4 -0.1

Oregon

52 50 49 52 36 -16 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.6 1.8 -0.8

Pennsylvania

125 121 129 126 111 -15 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.8 -0.2

Rhode Island

12 11 11 12 11 -1 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.2 -0.2

South Carolina

79 75 65 57 65 8 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.5 2.8 0.3

South Dakota

13 12 11 16 12 -4 2.8 2.6 2.4 3.4 2.5 -0.9

Tennessee

96 96 108 85 90 5 2.9 2.9 3.3 2.6 2.7 0.1

Texas

441 383 363 334 368 34 3.2 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.6 0.2

Utah

65 47 43 47 47 0 3.8 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.7 0.0

Vermont

8 7 7 8 8 0 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.6 0.0

Virginia

108 101 103 93 95 2 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.3 0.1

Washington

85 74 61 71 61 -10 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.9 1.7 -0.2

West Virginia

23 23 22 19 22 3 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.7 3.1 0.4

Wisconsin

70 72 71 74 68 -6 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.2 -0.2

Wyoming

12 10 9 10 8 -2 4.2 3.4 3.1 3.4 2.7 -0.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2023 -
Dec. 2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,475 1,610 1,643 1,531 1,616 85 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0


Alabama

20 25 22 25 20 -5 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.9 -0.3

Alaska

5 6 5 5 6 1 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8 0.3

Arizona

23 33 38 43 36 -7 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.1 -0.3

Arkansas

13 17 14 14 15 1 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.1

California

159 162 158 171 163 -8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.0

Colorado

25 27 41 39 35 -4 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.3 1.2 -0.1

Connecticut

18 12 25 17 19 2 1.1 0.7 1.5 1.0 1.1 0.1

Delaware

5 7 7 6 6 0 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2 0.0

District of Columbia

6 7 6 7 7 0 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.0

Florida

66 89 94 83 93 10 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.1

Georgia

39 49 45 54 47 -7 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.9 -0.2

Hawaii

5 7 6 6 7 1 0.8 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.2

Idaho

10 11 12 13 13 0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 0.0

Illinois

66 52 50 35 56 21 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.3

Indiana

40 33 32 43 55 12 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.7 0.4

Iowa

16 17 15 14 16 2 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.1

Kansas

15 20 13 13 15 2 1.0 1.4 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.1

Kentucky

15 24 18 20 20 0 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.0

Louisiana

20 30 28 22 27 5 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.4 0.3

Maine

8 7 15 7 8 1 1.2 1.1 2.3 1.1 1.2 0.1

Maryland

41 32 31 25 45 20 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.9 1.6 0.7

Massachusetts

27 18 43 39 30 -9 0.7 0.5 1.1 1.0 0.8 -0.2

Michigan

47 48 41 44 34 -10 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.8 -0.2

Minnesota

25 48 22 24 30 6 0.8 1.6 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.2

Mississippi

12 17 12 12 14 2 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.2

Missouri

39 41 27 22 30 8 1.3 1.4 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.3

Montana

6 8 12 9 9 0 1.2 1.5 2.3 1.7 1.7 0.0

Nebraska

10 12 8 11 12 1 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.1

Nevada

14 16 17 21 21 0 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.3 0.0

New Hampshire

10 8 11 7 7 0 1.4 1.1 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.0

New Jersey

64 33 84 38 41 3 1.5 0.8 1.9 0.9 0.9 0.0

New Mexico

7 9 9 9 12 3 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.4 0.4

New York

76 94 118 100 83 -17 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.9 -0.1

North Carolina

42 64 52 58 63 5 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3 0.1

North Dakota

6 6 4 5 6 1 1.4 1.4 0.9 1.1 1.4 0.3

Ohio

51 74 58 49 61 12 0.9 1.3 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.2

Oklahoma

20 21 17 15 21 6 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.3

Oregon

11 22 23 20 17 -3 0.6 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.8 -0.2

Pennsylvania

64 46 92 46 43 -3 1.1 0.7 1.5 0.7 0.7 0.0

Rhode Island

7 6 9 6 7 1 1.4 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.4 0.2

South Carolina

24 35 29 20 30 10 1.1 1.5 1.3 0.9 1.3 0.4

South Dakota

6 6 4 5 6 1 1.3 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.3 0.2

Tennessee

37 42 35 38 42 4 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.3 0.2

Texas

120 123 111 128 137 9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1

Utah

16 20 18 23 21 -2 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.2 -0.1

Vermont

4 3 5 3 4 1 1.3 1.0 1.6 1.0 1.3 0.3

Virginia

35 42 42 36 47 11 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.2

Washington

36 39 31 40 34 -6 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.1 0.9 -0.2

West Virginia

6 10 8 8 8 0 0.9 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.0

Wisconsin

35 32 25 28 30 2 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1

Wyoming

3 4 4 4 4 0 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Job openings levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

10,164 8,262 8,363 6.1 5.0 5.0


Alabama

148 111 128 6.4 4.8 5.5

Alaska

28 20 20 8.2 6.0 6.1

Arizona

203 174 150 6.0 5.1 4.4

Arkansas

93 69 76 6.4 4.8 5.2

California

1,128 707 752 5.9 3.7 3.9

Colorado

210 206 200 6.8 6.6 6.4

Connecticut

106 84 88 5.9 4.6 4.9

Delaware

31 25 27 6.0 4.9 5.2

District of Columbia

39 36 37 4.8 4.4 4.5

Florida

622 520 492 6.0 5.0 4.7

Georgia

362 283 295 6.9 5.4 5.6

Hawaii

42 27 30 6.1 4.1 4.4

Idaho

68 47 46 7.5 5.1 5.1

Illinois

411 368 353 6.3 5.6 5.4

Indiana

182 156 131 5.3 4.5 3.8

Iowa

110 85 83 6.5 5.0 5.0

Kansas

96 83 80 6.2 5.3 5.2

Kentucky

134 112 107 6.3 5.2 5.0

Louisiana

153 103 117 7.3 4.9 5.5

Maine

44 42 36 6.4 6.0 5.2

Maryland

190 152 168 6.5 5.2 5.7

Massachusetts

242 208 217 6.1 5.2 5.4

Michigan

307 256 273 6.5 5.4 5.8

Minnesota

216 187 204 6.8 5.8 6.4

Mississippi

82 69 73 6.5 5.5 5.9

Missouri

203 167 152 6.4 5.2 4.8

Montana

49 32 35 8.7 5.7 6.3

Nebraska

67 57 54 6.0 5.1 4.9

Nevada

99 79 69 6.1 4.7 4.2

New Hampshire

52 38 41 6.9 5.1 5.5

New Jersey

255 215 219 5.6 4.7 4.8

New Mexico

59 52 50 6.4 5.5 5.4

New York

444 422 451 4.4 4.1 4.4

North Carolina

319 261 262 6.1 5.0 5.0

North Dakota

28 27 24 6.2 5.8 5.1

Ohio

364 303 290 6.1 5.1 4.9

Oklahoma

118 98 104 6.4 5.3 5.6

Oregon

140 96 91 6.6 4.5 4.3

Pennsylvania

439 359 392 6.7 5.4 5.9

Rhode Island

33 26 29 6.3 5.0 5.4

South Carolina

175 147 165 7.1 5.9 6.6

South Dakota

28 26 26 5.7 5.2 5.3

Tennessee

210 192 182 6.0 5.4 5.2

Texas

860 782 807 5.9 5.2 5.4

Utah

122 77 84 6.7 4.2 4.6

Vermont

24 18 19 7.2 5.5 5.9

Virginia

336 235 271 7.5 5.3 6.1

Washington

199 155 132 5.3 4.1 3.5

West Virginia

60 44 46 7.9 5.7 6.1

Wisconsin

208 211 164 6.5 6.5 5.1

Wyoming

27 15 20 8.6 4.9 6.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 7. Hires levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

4,641 5,067 4,102 3.0 3.2 2.6


Alabama

83 73 65 3.9 3.4 3.0

Alaska

12 13 11 3.9 4.0 3.5

Arizona

97 104 92 3.1 3.2 2.8

Arkansas

46 49 41 3.4 3.6 3.0

California

401 464 396 2.2 2.5 2.2

Colorado

94 117 106 3.2 4.0 3.6

Connecticut

42 50 42 2.5 2.9 2.4

Delaware

17 20 15 3.5 4.1 3.0

District of Columbia

17 20 16 2.2 2.5 2.0

Florida

293 385 324 3.0 3.9 3.2

Georgia

186 190 132 3.8 3.8 2.7

Hawaii

20 16 17 3.1 2.6 2.6

Idaho

30 33 28 3.6 3.8 3.2

Illinois

207 213 170 3.4 3.4 2.8

Indiana

108 122 82 3.3 3.7 2.5

Iowa

49 50 37 3.1 3.1 2.3

Kansas

49 47 42 3.4 3.2 2.9

Kentucky

68 73 62 3.4 3.6 3.0

Louisiana

73 69 56 3.7 3.5 2.8

Maine

19 18 17 3.0 2.8 2.6

Maryland

87 104 69 3.2 3.8 2.5

Massachusetts

79 84 72 2.1 2.2 1.9

Michigan

144 147 105 3.3 3.3 2.4

Minnesota

95 102 85 3.2 3.4 2.8

Mississippi

42 46 36 3.6 3.9 3.1

Missouri

111 89 70 3.8 2.9 2.3

Montana

23 20 23 4.5 3.8 4.4

Nebraska

34 34 28 3.3 3.2 2.7

Nevada

46 49 47 3.0 3.1 2.9

New Hampshire

23 22 20 3.3 3.1 2.8

New Jersey

103 140 102 2.4 3.2 2.3

New Mexico

22 27 20 2.6 3.1 2.2

New York

225 259 206 2.3 2.6 2.1

North Carolina

155 131 103 3.2 2.6 2.1

North Dakota

14 16 12 3.2 3.7 2.6

Ohio

147 175 134 2.6 3.1 2.4

Oklahoma

65 68 54 3.7 3.9 3.1

Oregon

56 60 50 2.8 3.0 2.5

Pennsylvania

133 184 131 2.2 3.0 2.1

Rhode Island

14 16 14 2.9 3.2 2.7

South Carolina

92 86 73 4.0 3.7 3.1

South Dakota

14 16 13 3.2 3.3 2.8

Tennessee

114 120 96 3.4 3.6 2.9

Texas

465 519 439 3.4 3.6 3.1

Utah

58 58 53 3.4 3.3 3.1

Vermont

11 11 10 3.6 3.5 3.2

Virginia

141 147 114 3.4 3.5 2.7

Washington

95 86 75 2.7 2.4 2.0

West Virginia

26 25 22 3.7 3.5 3.0

Wisconsin

84 92 67 2.8 3.0 2.2

Wyoming

13 9 11 4.4 3.1 3.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Total separations levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

5,598 4,784 5,074 3.6 3.0 3.2


Alabama

82 72 69 3.8 3.3 3.2

Alaska

18 21 15 5.6 6.8 4.9

Arizona

109 111 106 3.4 3.4 3.3

Arkansas

52 50 48 3.8 3.7 3.5

California

600 442 510 3.3 2.4 2.8

Colorado

119 109 93 4.1 3.7 3.2

Connecticut

58 45 58 3.4 2.6 3.4

Delaware

19 19 16 3.9 3.8 3.4

District of Columbia

23 19 21 3.0 2.5 2.7

Florida

345 328 339 3.6 3.3 3.4

Georgia

187 152 188 3.8 3.0 3.8

Hawaii

17 14 16 2.7 2.2 2.5

Idaho

47 42 37 5.6 4.8 4.3

Illinois

220 163 189 3.6 2.6 3.1

Indiana

129 119 119 4.0 3.6 3.6

Iowa

60 54 50 3.8 3.4 3.2

Kansas

49 47 47 3.4 3.2 3.2

Kentucky

78 66 63 3.9 3.2 3.1

Louisiana

83 68 74 4.3 3.4 3.7

Maine

26 32 26 4.1 4.9 4.0

Maryland

116 72 113 4.2 2.6 4.1

Massachusetts

93 93 101 2.5 2.4 2.6

Michigan

155 149 105 3.5 3.4 2.4

Minnesota

103 111 102 3.5 3.7 3.4

Mississippi

45 38 42 3.8 3.2 3.6

Missouri

114 82 96 3.8 2.7 3.2

Montana

26 32 24 5.1 6.1 4.5

Nebraska

34 35 35 3.2 3.3 3.3

Nevada

61 60 58 4.0 3.8 3.6

New Hampshire

29 24 24 4.2 3.4 3.4

New Jersey

157 122 135 3.6 2.8 3.1

New Mexico

30 29 28 3.5 3.3 3.2

New York

277 267 276 2.8 2.7 2.8

North Carolina

153 136 152 3.1 2.7 3.1

North Dakota

20 20 19 4.7 4.5 4.3

Ohio

203 164 175 3.6 2.9 3.1

Oklahoma

66 53 60 3.8 3.0 3.4

Oregon

65 74 58 3.2 3.7 2.9

Pennsylvania

215 178 162 3.5 2.9 2.6

Rhode Island

21 19 21 4.2 3.7 4.1

South Carolina

103 68 91 4.5 2.9 3.9

South Dakota

18 22 18 4.0 4.8 3.8

Tennessee

129 103 122 3.9 3.1 3.7

Texas

534 407 505 3.9 2.9 3.5

Utah

79 68 75 4.6 3.9 4.3

Vermont

13 13 13 4.3 4.2 4.2

Virginia

151 117 147 3.6 2.8 3.5

Washington

116 113 93 3.2 3.1 2.5

West Virginia

28 25 29 4.0 3.6 4.1

Wisconsin

108 99 100 3.6 3.3 3.3

Wyoming

13 19 12 4.6 6.5 4.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Quits levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

3,540 3,015 2,852 2.3 1.9 1.8


Alabama

54 45 44 2.5 2.1 2.0

Alaska

12 13 8 3.8 4.1 2.5

Arizona

83 67 56 2.6 2.1 1.7

Arkansas

34 33 29 2.5 2.4 2.1

California

362 265 273 2.0 1.4 1.5

Colorado

86 60 49 3.0 2.1 1.7

Connecticut

31 25 26 1.8 1.4 1.5

Delaware

13 12 10 2.6 2.5 2.1

District of Columbia

14 11 11 1.8 1.4 1.4

Florida

271 247 239 2.8 2.5 2.4

Georgia

133 96 130 2.7 1.9 2.6

Hawaii

12 8 9 2.0 1.3 1.4

Idaho

35 24 18 4.1 2.8 2.1

Illinois

129 116 109 2.1 1.9 1.8

Indiana

81 71 53 2.5 2.1 1.6

Iowa

35 36 28 2.2 2.2 1.7

Kansas

30 32 28 2.1 2.1 1.9

Kentucky

56 43 37 2.8 2.1 1.8

Louisiana

56 43 41 2.9 2.1 2.0

Maine

13 19 11 2.1 3.0 1.8

Maryland

58 47 47 2.1 1.7 1.7

Massachusetts

48 46 49 1.3 1.2 1.3

Michigan

95 95 59 2.2 2.1 1.3

Minnesota

62 71 60 2.1 2.4 2.0

Mississippi

30 25 26 2.6 2.1 2.2

Missouri

65 56 55 2.2 1.9 1.8

Montana

18 19 12 3.5 3.6 2.3

Nebraska

20 22 19 1.9 2.1 1.8

Nevada

44 34 30 2.8 2.1 1.9

New Hampshire

12 13 11 1.8 1.8 1.5

New Jersey

61 61 57 1.4 1.4 1.3

New Mexico

21 19 13 2.4 2.2 1.5

New York

165 151 164 1.7 1.5 1.7

North Carolina

105 81 76 2.1 1.6 1.5

North Dakota

11 13 10 2.6 2.9 2.3

Ohio

127 106 91 2.3 1.9 1.6

Oklahoma

41 35 33 2.4 2.0 1.9

Oregon

47 46 32 2.4 2.3 1.6

Pennsylvania

105 108 88 1.7 1.7 1.4

Rhode Island

10 10 9 2.0 2.1 1.8

South Carolina

68 47 54 3.0 2.0 2.3

South Dakota

11 16 9 2.4 3.3 2.0

Tennessee

84 67 73 2.5 2.0 2.2

Texas

371 283 309 2.7 2.0 2.2

Utah

60 40 44 3.5 2.3 2.5

Vermont

6 7 6 2.0 2.4 1.9

Virginia

96 76 79 2.3 1.8 1.9

Washington

68 62 47 1.9 1.7 1.3

West Virginia

19 16 19 2.7 2.3 2.6

Wisconsin

62 67 58 2.1 2.2 1.9

Wyoming

9 13 6 3.1 4.3 2.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates for total nonfarm by state, not seasonally adjusted
State Levels (in thousands) Rates
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)

TOTAL U.S.

1,698 1,465 1,826 1.1 0.9 1.2


Alabama

23 22 21 1.1 1.0 1.0

Alaska

4 7 6 1.4 2.2 1.9

Arizona

22 39 33 0.7 1.2 1.0

Arkansas

15 13 16 1.1 1.0 1.2

California

185 148 185 1.0 0.8 1.0

Colorado

25 39 35 0.9 1.3 1.2

Connecticut

23 16 25 1.3 0.9 1.5

Delaware

5 5 5 1.1 1.1 1.1

District of Columbia

6 6 8 0.7 0.8 1.0

Florida

55 69 80 0.6 0.7 0.8

Georgia

44 45 49 0.9 0.9 1.0

Hawaii

4 4 6 0.6 0.7 0.9

Idaho

10 16 15 1.2 1.8 1.7

Illinois

82 42 68 1.3 0.7 1.1

Indiana

42 43 61 1.3 1.3 1.9

Iowa

21 15 19 1.3 0.9 1.2

Kansas

16 12 15 1.1 0.8 1.0

Kentucky

18 19 22 0.9 0.9 1.1

Louisiana

21 20 28 1.1 1.0 1.4

Maine

11 10 12 1.7 1.5 1.8

Maryland

50 20 60 1.8 0.7 2.2

Massachusetts

35 39 39 0.9 1.0 1.0

Michigan

53 49 36 1.2 1.1 0.8

Minnesota

34 34 38 1.2 1.1 1.3

Mississippi

12 10 14 1.0 0.8 1.2

Missouri

42 21 34 1.4 0.7 1.1

Montana

7 11 9 1.3 2.1 1.7

Nebraska

12 11 14 1.1 1.1 1.3

Nevada

15 23 23 1.0 1.4 1.4

New Hampshire

15 8 10 2.1 1.2 1.4

New Jersey

90 37 60 2.1 0.8 1.4

New Mexico

7 8 12 0.8 0.9 1.4

New York

81 99 87 0.8 1.0 0.9

North Carolina

41 45 66 0.8 0.9 1.3

North Dakota

8 6 8 1.9 1.3 1.8

Ohio

62 51 68 1.1 0.9 1.2

Oklahoma

21 13 23 1.2 0.8 1.3

Oregon

14 25 20 0.7 1.2 1.0

Pennsylvania

93 52 65 1.5 0.8 1.0

Rhode Island

10 6 9 1.9 1.2 1.9

South Carolina

25 17 32 1.1 0.7 1.4

South Dakota

7 6 7 1.5 1.2 1.6

Tennessee

37 30 43 1.1 0.9 1.3

Texas

143 111 169 1.0 0.8 1.2

Utah

17 24 23 1.0 1.4 1.3

Vermont

6 4 6 1.8 1.3 1.8

Virginia

44 30 59 1.1 0.7 1.4

Washington

39 46 36 1.1 1.3 1.0

West Virginia

7 7 9 0.9 1.0 1.2

Wisconsin

40 27 34 1.3 0.9 1.1

Wyoming

3 6 4 1.2 1.9 1.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: February 14, 2024