Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Monday, December 11, 2017	USDL-17-1641

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – OCTOBER 2017

The number of job openings was little changed at 6.0 million on the last business day of October, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires increased to 5.6 million and 
separations were little changed at 5.2 million. Within separations, the quits rate and the layoffs and 
discharges rate were little changed at 2.2 percent and 1.1 percent, respectively. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of October, there were 6.0 million job openings, little changed from 
September. Job openings have been at or near record high levels since June. The job openings rate was 
3.9 percent in October. The number of job openings edged down for total private and was little changed 
for government. Job openings increased in accommodation and food services (+94,000), construction 
(+48,000), and real estate and rental and leasing (+40,000). Job openings decreased in wholesale trade 
(-90,000), finance and insurance (-47,000), information (-32,000), and nondurable goods manufacturing 
(-26,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires increased to 5.6 million in October (+232,000), and the hires rate was 3.8 percent. 
The number of hires increased to 5.2 million for total private (+247,000) and was little changed for 
government. At the industry level, the number of hires increased in other services (+55,000) and health 
care and social assistance (+45,000). Hires decreased for state and local government, excluding 
education (-32,000). The number of hires increased in the Northeast region. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.2 million in October. The total separations rate 
was 3.5 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
Total separations increased in finance and insurance (+40,000) and in mining and logging (+11,000). 
Total separations decreased in accommodation and food services (-78,000), information (-32,000), and 
state and local government, excluding education (-21,000). The number of total separations decreased in 
the Northeast region. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was unchanged at 3.2 million in October. The quits rate was 2.2 percent. The 
number of quits was little changed for total private, for government, and in all industries. In the regions, 
the number of quits increased in the South and decreased in the Midwest. (See table 4.)

There were 1.6 million layoffs and discharges in October, little changed from September. The layoffs 
and discharges rate was 1.1 percent in October. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed 
for total private and for government. The layoffs and discharges level increased in finance and insurance 
(+37,000) and in mining and logging (+7,000). Layoffs and discharges decreased in construction 
(-69,000) and in state and local government, excluding education (-15,000). The number of layoffs and 
discharges decreased in the Northeast region. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations edged up in October to 367,000. Other separations edged up for total 
private and was little changed for government. Other separations increased in professional and business 
services (+53,000), construction (+20,000), and educational services (+5,000). Other separations 
decreased in information (-9,000). The number of other separations increased in the South region. (See 
table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in October, hires totaled 64.3 million and 
separations totaled 62.2 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.1 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for November 2017 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, January 9, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,587 6,177 5,996 5,200 5,320 5,552 5,041 5,244 5,178

Total private

5,103 5,650 5,462 4,870 4,976 5,223 4,699 4,910 4,852

Mining and logging(1)

12 20 21 28 28 34 30 23 34

Construction(1)

196 179 227 343 389 377 322 378 346

Manufacturing

314 435 402 279 329 345 282 315 308

Durable goods(1)

199 262 255 161 189 201 159 179 174

Nondurable goods(1)

115 173 147 118 140 143 123 136 134

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,021 1,147 1,010 1,083 1,035 1,046 1,049 977 1,013

Wholesale trade(1)

185 219 129 128 139 162 122 122 143

Retail trade

650 691 655 740 689 679 732 668 682

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

186 238 226 214 208 204 196 187 189

Information(1)

74 113 81 72 78 74 76 96 64

Financial activities

317 384 377 170 189 227 161 180 229

Finance and insurance

242 307 260 104 121 146 99 116 156

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

75 77 117 66 68 81 62 64 73

Professional and business services

1,083 1,171 1,083 1,092 1,150 1,151 1,051 1,119 1,090

Education and health services

1,161 1,133 1,126 638 627 680 592 600 627

Educational services(1)

107 96 100 75 87 94 73 74 86

Health care and social assistance

1,054 1,037 1,026 563 541 586 520 525 541

Leisure and hospitality

731 770 852 986 961 1,047 966 1,020 922

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

96 88 76 159 146 160 155 159 139

Accommodation and food services

636 682 776 827 815 886 811 861 783

Other services(1)

194 297 284 180 188 243 170 202 219

Government

484 527 535 330 344 330 342 334 326

Federal(1)

74 75 86 41 38 42 35 37 39

State and local

410 453 448 289 306 287 307 297 287

State and local education

126 173 165 118 138 150 136 129 140

State and local, excluding education(1)

284 280 283 171 169 137 170 168 147





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.7 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.5

Total private

4.0 4.3 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.9

Mining and logging(1)

1.7 2.7 2.8 4.3 3.9 4.7 4.5 3.1 4.7

Construction(1)

2.8 2.5 3.2 5.1 5.6 5.4 4.8 5.5 5.0

Manufacturing

2.5 3.4 3.1 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.3 2.5 2.5

Durable goods(1)

2.5 3.3 3.2 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.2

Nondurable goods(1)

2.4 3.6 3.0 2.6 3.0 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.6 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.7

Wholesale trade(1)

3.0 3.6 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.7 2.1 2.1 2.4

Retail trade

3.9 4.2 4.0 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.2 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.3

Information(1)

2.6 4.0 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.7 2.7 3.5 2.4

Financial activities

3.7 4.3 4.3 2.0 2.2 2.7 1.9 2.1 2.7

Finance and insurance

3.8 4.7 4.0 1.7 1.9 2.3 1.6 1.9 2.5

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.4 3.4 5.0 3.1 3.1 3.7 2.9 2.9 3.3

Professional and business services

5.1 5.3 4.9 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.4 5.2

Education and health services

4.8 4.7 4.6 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.7

Educational services(1)

2.9 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.0 2.0 2.3

Health care and social assistance

5.2 5.0 5.0 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

4.5 4.6 5.1 6.3 6.1 6.5 6.2 6.4 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4.1 3.7 3.2 7.1 6.4 7.0 6.9 7.0 6.1

Accommodation and food services

4.5 4.8 5.4 6.1 6.0 6.5 6.0 6.3 5.7

Other services(1)

3.3 4.9 4.7 3.2 3.2 4.2 3.0 3.5 3.8

Government

2.1 2.3 2.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal(1)

2.6 2.6 3.0 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.4

State and local

2.1 2.3 2.2 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5

State and local education

1.2 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.3

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.0 3.0 3.0 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.9 1.8 1.6

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

5,587 6,116 6,140 6,090 6,177 5,996 3.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,103 5,545 5,625 5,584 5,650 5,462 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2

Mining and logging(3)

12 22 24 25 20 21 1.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 2.7 2.8

Construction(3)

196 212 237 230 179 227 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.2 2.5 3.2

Manufacturing

314 419 414 435 435 402 2.5 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.1

Durable goods(3)

199 232 207 248 262 255 2.5 2.9 2.6 3.1 3.3 3.2

Nondurable goods(3)

115 187 207 187 173 147 2.4 3.9 4.2 3.8 3.6 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,021 1,027 1,074 1,116 1,147 1,010 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.6

Wholesale trade(3)

185 229 230 207 219 129 3.0 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.6 2.1

Retail trade

650 615 618 643 691 655 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

186 183 226 266 238 226 3.2 3.1 3.9 4.5 4.0 3.8

Information(3)

74 102 93 122 113 81 2.6 3.6 3.3 4.3 4.0 2.9

Financial activities

317 353 362 341 384 377 3.7 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3

Finance and insurance

242 285 279 267 307 260 3.8 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.7 4.0

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

75 68 83 74 77 117 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.3 3.4 5.0

Professional and business services

1,083 1,171 1,088 1,037 1,171 1,083 5.1 5.4 5.0 4.7 5.3 4.9

Education and health services

1,161 1,203 1,164 1,191 1,133 1,126 4.8 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.6

Educational services(3)

107 92 144 104 96 100 2.9 2.5 3.8 2.8 2.6 2.6

Health care and social assistance

1,054 1,111 1,020 1,087 1,037 1,026 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.3 5.0 5.0

Leisure and hospitality

731 819 839 859 770 852 4.5 4.9 5.0 5.1 4.6 5.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

96 90 84 80 88 76 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.2

Accommodation and food services

636 729 755 778 682 776 4.5 5.1 5.2 5.4 4.8 5.4

Other services(3)

194 218 330 228 297 284 3.3 3.7 5.4 3.8 4.9 4.7

Government

484 571 515 506 527 535 2.1 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3

Federal(3)

74 101 83 66 75 86 2.6 3.5 2.9 2.3 2.6 3.0

State and local

410 471 432 440 453 448 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2

State and local education

126 154 155 146 173 165 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6

State and local, excluding education(3)

284 317 277 294 280 283 3.0 3.4 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0

REGION(4)

Northeast

983 1,059 1,119 1,102 1,066 983 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.5

South

1,978 2,234 2,243 2,125 2,174 2,096 3.6 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.8

Midwest

1,278 1,467 1,378 1,520 1,595 1,550 3.8 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.7 4.5

West

1,349 1,356 1,400 1,343 1,342 1,368 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

5,200 5,432 5,521 5,420 5,320 5,552 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,870 5,102 5,175 5,079 4,976 5,223 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.2

Mining and logging

28 33 35 36 28 34 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.0 3.9 4.7

Construction

343 345 354 370 389 377 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.4 5.6 5.4

Manufacturing

279 324 353 359 329 345 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.8

Durable goods

161 190 205 211 189 201 2.1 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.6

Nondurable goods

118 134 148 148 140 143 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,083 1,057 1,023 1,029 1,035 1,046 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8

Wholesale trade

128 134 145 149 139 162 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.7

Retail trade

740 726 687 684 689 679 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

214 196 192 196 208 204 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.6

Information

72 68 77 79 78 74 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.7

Financial activities

170 205 206 213 189 227 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.7

Finance and insurance

104 132 137 135 121 146 1.7 2.1 2.2 2.2 1.9 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

66 74 69 78 68 81 3.1 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.1 3.7

Professional and business services

1,092 1,191 1,200 1,123 1,150 1,151 5.4 5.8 5.8 5.4 5.5 5.5

Education and health services

638 644 669 662 627 680 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.9

Educational services

75 76 88 98 87 94 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.6

Health care and social assistance

563 567 581 564 541 586 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

986 1,018 1,021 989 961 1,047 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

159 167 171 160 146 160 7.1 7.4 7.5 7.0 6.4 7.0

Accommodation and food services

827 851 850 830 815 886 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.0 6.0 6.5

Other services

180 218 235 219 188 243 3.2 3.8 4.1 3.8 3.2 4.2

Government

330 330 346 340 344 330 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal

41 28 38 36 38 42 1.5 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5

State and local

289 302 308 305 306 287 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5

State and local education

118 141 149 144 138 150 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4

State and local, excluding education

171 160 159 160 169 137 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

876 902 894 801 821 951 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.5

South

2,066 2,118 2,105 2,167 2,121 2,224 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.2

Midwest

1,140 1,256 1,305 1,207 1,181 1,176 3.5 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.6

West

1,118 1,157 1,216 1,245 1,197 1,201 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

5,041 5,309 5,362 5,273 5,244 5,178 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,699 4,997 5,012 4,932 4,910 4,852 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9

Mining and logging

30 25 29 27 23 34 4.5 3.5 4.0 3.7 3.1 4.7

Construction

322 340 367 337 378 346 4.8 4.9 5.3 4.9 5.5 5.0

Manufacturing

282 315 320 301 315 308 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.5

Durable goods

159 182 181 172 179 174 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2

Nondurable goods

123 133 139 128 136 134 2.7 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,049 1,063 1,015 1,020 977 1,013 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.7

Wholesale trade

122 131 150 157 122 143 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.7 2.1 2.4

Retail trade

732 737 682 676 668 682 4.6 4.7 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

196 196 184 187 187 189 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Information

76 67 87 83 96 64 2.7 2.4 3.2 3.0 3.5 2.4

Financial activities

161 200 200 212 180 229 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.1 2.7

Finance and insurance

99 130 125 131 116 156 1.6 2.1 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

62 70 75 81 64 73 2.9 3.2 3.4 3.7 2.9 3.3

Professional and business services

1,051 1,182 1,127 1,059 1,119 1,090 5.2 5.7 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.2

Education and health services

592 619 616 633 600 627 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7

Educational services

73 93 79 77 74 86 2.0 2.6 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3

Health care and social assistance

520 526 537 556 525 541 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

966 980 991 998 1,020 922 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.4 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

155 170 188 164 159 139 6.9 7.5 8.3 7.2 7.0 6.1

Accommodation and food services

811 809 803 834 861 783 6.0 5.9 5.9 6.1 6.3 5.7

Other services

170 206 260 263 202 219 3.0 3.6 4.5 4.6 3.5 3.8

Government

342 312 351 341 334 326 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal

35 31 41 37 37 39 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4

State and local

307 282 310 304 297 287 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5

State and local education

136 131 156 141 129 140 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.3

State and local, excluding education

170 150 154 162 168 147 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

796 865 886 872 900 787 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.3 2.9

South

1,951 2,164 2,173 2,007 2,009 2,131 3.7 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.8 4.0

Midwest

1,141 1,143 1,195 1,180 1,168 1,121 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.4

West

1,153 1,138 1,108 1,213 1,167 1,139 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

3,078 3,130 3,194 3,093 3,180 3,180 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,912 2,966 3,023 2,929 3,014 3,011 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

Mining and logging

12 15 18 11 15 19 1.9 2.1 2.5 1.5 2.1 2.7

Construction

127 135 141 140 154 172 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.5

Manufacturing

165 197 191 185 189 192 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Durable goods

88 108 109 98 107 105 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3

Nondurable goods

76 90 82 86 81 87 1.6 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

681 641 662 639 619 673 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.5

Wholesale trade

73 74 91 85 82 101 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.7

Retail trade

493 462 456 456 435 461 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

114 105 115 98 101 111 2.0 1.9 2.1 1.7 1.8 2.0

Information

42 37 58 46 55 44 1.5 1.4 2.1 1.7 2.0 1.6

Financial activities

91 105 116 118 112 122 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4

Finance and insurance

65 61 75 73 78 77 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

27 44 41 45 34 45 1.2 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.5 2.0

Professional and business services

617 634 615 590 663 617 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.0

Education and health services

396 422 391 395 403 425 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8

Educational services

43 49 42 47 43 42 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1

Health care and social assistance

353 373 349 349 360 383 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

668 648 666 639 675 630 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.2 3.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

69 63 66 60 48 58 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.1 2.5

Accommodation and food services

600 585 601 579 627 572 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.6 4.2

Other services(3)

112 132 165 166 131 118 2.0 2.3 2.9 2.9 2.3 2.0

Government

167 164 171 164 166 169 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8

Federal

12 14 14 15 15 14 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

155 151 157 149 151 154 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local education

75 76 81 75 69 75 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

State and local, excluding education

80 75 75 73 82 80 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

434 458 445 447 434 433 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

South

1,229 1,281 1,372 1,205 1,273 1,375 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.6

Midwest

692 661 700 688 755 675 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.1

West

723 730 677 752 718 697 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

1,593 1,806 1,789 1,781 1,746 1,631 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,482 1,713 1,667 1,667 1,643 1,536 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

11 7 8 13 6 13 1.7 1.0 1.2 1.9 0.9 1.9

Construction

180 194 215 187 217 148 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.1

Manufacturing

94 95 109 96 101 94 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

56 61 60 63 57 56 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

38 34 50 33 44 38 0.8 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.9 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

268 317 275 320 280 268 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0

Wholesale trade(3)

35 32 48 64 36 36 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

167 208 171 178 171 170 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

66 77 56 78 72 62 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.1

Information

20 25 22 30 29 17 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.6

Financial activities

54 63 62 60 44 82 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.5 1.0

Finance and insurance

22 42 31 28 19 56 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

32 22 31 31 26 26 1.5 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2

Professional and business services

377 488 436 395 432 395 1.9 2.4 2.1 1.9 2.1 1.9

Education and health services

162 153 170 179 150 159 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.7

Educational services

26 34 29 23 30 37 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.8 1.0

Health care and social assistance

136 119 141 156 121 122 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

268 309 289 314 317 261 1.7 1.9 1.8 2.0 2.0 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

84 106 119 99 108 79 3.7 4.7 5.2 4.4 4.8 3.5

Accommodation and food services

184 203 170 215 209 182 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.6 1.5 1.3

Other services

47 62 81 74 66 98 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.7

Government

111 93 122 114 103 95 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

Federal

11 8 17 13 11 12 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4

State and local

100 85 105 101 92 83 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

State and local education

39 33 51 41 34 40 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4

State and local, excluding education

61 52 54 60 58 43 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

299 345 360 360 412 299 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.1

South

576 730 676 654 632 601 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1

Midwest

362 408 421 409 335 361 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.1

West

357 322 333 358 367 369 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
June
2017
July
2017
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

370 373 379 398 318 367 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

305 318 321 335 252 305 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

6 3 2 2 2 1 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Construction(3)

15 12 11 10 6 26 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.4

Manufacturing

23 23 20 20 26 22 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

15 13 12 11 15 13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

8 10 8 9 11 8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

100 105 78 60 78 73 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

13 25 10 8 3 6 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Retail trade

71 67 55 41 61 50 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

15 14 13 11 13 16 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Information(3)

14 5 7 7 12 3 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.1

Financial activities

16 32 23 35 24 25 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

12 27 19 30 19 24 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

3 4 3 5 5 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

56 60 75 74 25 78 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.4

Education and health services

34 44 55 59 46 43 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Educational services(3)

3 10 9 8 2 7 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

31 34 47 51 44 36 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

30 22 36 45 29 31 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

2 2 4 4 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

28 21 33 41 26 29 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

11 12 13 23 5 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.1

Government

64 55 58 63 66 62 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

13 8 9 10 11 12 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local

52 46 49 53 55 50 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

23 23 24 24 27 26 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local, excluding education

29 23 24 29 28 24 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

63 61 81 66 54 55 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

147 154 126 148 104 154 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

87 73 74 83 78 85 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

West

73 85 98 102 82 73 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

5,853 6,232 6,263 3.9 4.1 4.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,375 5,712 5,736 4.2 4.4 4.4

Mining and logging

12 20 21 1.7 2.7 2.8

Construction

196 179 227 2.7 2.5 3.1

Manufacturing

314 435 402 2.5 3.4 3.1

Durable goods

199 262 255 2.5 3.3 3.2

Nondurable goods

115 173 147 2.4 3.5 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,102 1,274 1,103 3.9 4.5 3.9

Wholesale trade

185 219 129 3.0 3.5 2.1

Retail trade

731 818 748 4.4 5.0 4.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

186 238 226 3.2 4.0 3.8

Information

74 113 81 2.6 4.0 2.9

Financial activities

341 398 390 3.9 4.5 4.4

Finance and insurance

266 321 273 4.1 4.9 4.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

75 77 117 3.4 3.3 5.0

Professional and business services

1,157 1,169 1,156 5.3 5.3 5.2

Education and health services

1,232 1,107 1,194 5.1 4.6 4.8

Educational services

107 96 100 2.8 2.6 2.5

Health care and social assistance

1,125 1,011 1,094 5.5 4.9 5.3

Leisure and hospitality

753 720 879 4.6 4.3 5.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

98 74 78 4.3 3.1 3.4

Accommodation and food services

656 646 801 4.6 4.5 5.5

Other services

194 297 284 3.3 4.9 4.7

Government

479 520 527 2.1 2.3 2.3

Federal

74 75 86 2.6 2.6 3.0

State and local

404 446 441 2.0 2.2 2.2

State and local education

121 166 158 1.1 1.6 1.4

State and local, excluding education

284 280 283 3.0 3.0 3.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,035 1,104 1,027 3.7 3.9 3.6

South

2,078 2,171 2,164 3.8 3.9 3.9

Midwest

1,311 1,630 1,600 3.9 4.8 4.6

West

1,429 1,327 1,472 4.1 3.8 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

5,529 5,411 5,930 3.8 3.7 4.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,223 4,986 5,618 4.2 4.0 4.5

Mining and logging

31 27 35 4.5 3.7 4.9

Construction

344 356 380 5.0 5.0 5.3

Manufacturing

285 341 351 2.3 2.7 2.8

Durable goods

156 192 196 2.0 2.5 2.5

Nondurable goods

129 149 155 2.8 3.2 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,342 1,063 1,299 4.9 3.9 4.7

Wholesale trade

133 141 171 2.3 2.4 2.9

Retail trade

957 688 880 6.0 4.4 5.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

252 234 248 4.5 4.1 4.3

Information

77 76 79 2.8 2.8 2.9

Financial activities

184 177 251 2.2 2.1 3.0

Finance and insurance

111 113 160 1.8 1.8 2.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

73 64 91 3.4 2.9 4.1

Professional and business services

1,151 1,109 1,214 5.6 5.3 5.8

Education and health services

700 711 750 3.0 3.1 3.2

Educational services

75 153 93 2.0 4.2 2.4

Health care and social assistance

625 558 657 3.3 2.9 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

935 938 1,019 6.0 5.8 6.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

134 133 137 6.1 5.7 6.1

Accommodation and food services

801 805 882 6.0 5.9 6.4

Other services

174 188 239 3.0 3.3 4.1

Government

307 424 312 1.4 1.9 1.4

Federal

39 35 44 1.4 1.3 1.6

State and local

268 389 268 1.3 2.0 1.3

State and local education

114 240 148 1.1 2.3 1.4

State and local, excluding education

154 149 120 1.7 1.6 1.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

926 905 1,003 3.4 3.3 3.7

South

2,201 2,095 2,401 4.1 3.9 4.5

Midwest

1,178 1,177 1,209 3.6 3.6 3.7

West

1,224 1,233 1,318 3.7 3.7 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

5,228 5,659 5,339 3.6 3.9 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,929 5,260 5,061 4.0 4.2 4.0

Mining and logging

31 25 36 4.6 3.5 5.0

Construction

362 384 381 5.2 5.4 5.3

Manufacturing

298 342 324 2.4 2.7 2.6

Durable goods

160 192 176 2.1 2.5 2.3

Nondurable goods

139 150 148 3.0 3.2 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,049 962 1,012 3.8 3.5 3.7

Wholesale trade

137 127 159 2.3 2.1 2.7

Retail trade

716 660 666 4.5 4.2 4.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

196 175 187 3.5 3.1 3.3

Information

77 97 65 2.8 3.6 2.4

Financial activities

166 173 233 2.0 2.0 2.8

Finance and insurance

98 111 157 1.6 1.8 2.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

68 62 76 3.1 2.8 3.4

Professional and business services

1,076 1,125 1,117 5.2 5.4 5.3

Education and health services

578 618 613 2.5 2.7 2.6

Educational services

51 75 59 1.4 2.1 1.5

Health care and social assistance

527 543 555 2.7 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,119 1,310 1,058 7.2 8.2 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

212 302 195 9.7 13.0 8.7

Accommodation and food services

907 1,008 864 6.7 7.3 6.3

Other services

172 223 222 3.0 3.9 3.8

Government

299 399 278 1.3 1.8 1.2

Federal

36 39 41 1.3 1.4 1.5

State and local

263 360 237 1.3 1.8 1.2

State and local education

84 107 86 0.8 1.0 0.8

State and local, excluding education

179 252 151 2.0 2.8 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

809 1,090 785 3.0 4.0 2.9

South

2,023 2,070 2,197 3.8 3.9 4.1

Midwest

1,193 1,240 1,167 3.7 3.8 3.5

West

1,203 1,258 1,190 3.6 3.7 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

3,209 3,377 3,332 2.2 2.3 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,064 3,201 3,184 2.5 2.6 2.5

Mining and logging

14 17 22 2.1 2.4 3.0

Construction

139 161 190 2.0 2.3 2.7

Manufacturing

173 203 204 1.4 1.6 1.6

Durable goods

92 117 109 1.2 1.5 1.4

Nondurable goods

82 86 95 1.8 1.8 2.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

719 650 721 2.6 2.4 2.6

Wholesale trade

84 87 116 1.4 1.5 1.9

Retail trade

511 458 482 3.2 2.9 3.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

125 104 123 2.2 1.8 2.2

Information

44 58 46 1.6 2.1 1.7

Financial activities

94 111 127 1.1 1.3 1.5

Finance and insurance

67 78 82 1.1 1.2 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

27 34 45 1.2 1.5 2.0

Professional and business services

656 667 662 3.2 3.2 3.1

Education and health services

395 419 430 1.7 1.8 1.8

Educational services

34 48 31 0.9 1.3 0.8

Health care and social assistance

361 371 398 1.9 1.9 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

716 784 666 4.6 4.9 4.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

72 64 58 3.3 2.8 2.6

Accommodation and food services

644 719 608 4.8 5.2 4.4

Other services

112 131 118 2.0 2.3 2.0

Government

146 176 148 0.6 0.8 0.7

Federal

12 17 14 0.4 0.6 0.5

State and local

134 159 134 0.7 0.8 0.7

State and local education

53 62 53 0.5 0.6 0.5

State and local, excluding education

81 97 82 0.9 1.1 0.9

REGION(3)

Northeast

446 507 445 1.7 1.9 1.6

South

1,258 1,302 1,421 2.4 2.4 2.6

Midwest

742 812 726 2.3 2.5 2.2

West

764 755 740 2.3 2.2 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

1,672 1,972 1,662 1.1 1.3 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,568 1,810 1,579 1.3 1.5 1.3

Mining and logging

11 6 13 1.6 0.8 1.9

Construction

208 216 165 3.0 3.0 2.3

Manufacturing

103 115 99 0.8 0.9 0.8

Durable goods

54 61 54 0.7 0.8 0.7

Nondurable goods

48 54 45 1.0 1.1 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

235 234 228 0.9 0.9 0.8

Wholesale trade

35 36 36 0.6 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

144 140 145 0.9 0.9 0.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

56 57 47 1.0 1.0 0.8

Information

19 28 15 0.7 1.0 0.6

Financial activities

56 40 82 0.7 0.5 1.0

Finance and insurance

19 16 52 0.3 0.3 0.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

37 24 30 1.7 1.1 1.3

Professional and business services

365 435 373 1.8 2.1 1.8

Education and health services

149 153 141 0.6 0.7 0.6

Educational services

14 25 20 0.4 0.7 0.5

Health care and social assistance

135 128 121 0.7 0.7 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

373 497 362 2.4 3.1 2.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

138 234 135 6.3 10.1 6.0

Accommodation and food services

235 263 227 1.7 1.9 1.7

Other services

48 87 101 0.8 1.5 1.7

Government

104 162 83 0.5 0.7 0.4

Federal

12 11 14 0.4 0.4 0.5

State and local

93 151 69 0.5 0.8 0.3

State and local education

19 24 20 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

74 127 49 0.8 1.4 0.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

300 521 288 1.1 1.9 1.1

South

626 676 620 1.2 1.3 1.1

Midwest

377 356 366 1.2 1.1 1.1

West

370 419 388 1.1 1.2 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)
Oct.
2016
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017(p)

Total

346 310 345 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

298 248 298 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

6 2 1 0.9 0.2 0.2

Construction

15 6 26 0.2 0.1 0.4

Manufacturing

22 24 22 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

14 14 13 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods

8 11 8 0.2 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

95 79 63 0.3 0.3 0.2

Wholesale trade

18 4 7 0.3 0.1 0.1

Retail trade

61 62 40 0.4 0.4 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

15 13 16 0.3 0.2 0.3

Information

14 12 3 0.5 0.4 0.1

Financial activities

15 22 24 0.2 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

12 18 23 0.2 0.3 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

3 5 1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

55 23 82 0.3 0.1 0.4

Education and health services

34 46 43 0.1 0.2 0.2

Educational services

3 2 7 0.1 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance

31 44 36 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

30 29 31 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services

28 26 29 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services

11 5 3 0.2 0.1 0.1

Government

48 62 47 0.2 0.3 0.2

Federal

12 12 13 0.4 0.4 0.5

State and local

36 50 34 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local education

11 21 13 0.1 0.2 0.1

State and local, excluding education

25 29 21 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

63 61 52 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

139 93 156 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

75 73 75 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

69 83 62 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: December 11, 2017