Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 7, 2017	USDL-17-0179

Technical information:	(202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                        JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – DECEMBER 2016

The number of job openings was little changed at 5.5 million on the last business day of December, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were also little 
changed at 5.3 million and 5.0 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was little changed 
at 2.0 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.1 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of December, there were 5.5 million job openings, little changed from 
November. The job openings rate was 3.6 percent in December. The number of job openings was little 
changed for total private and decreased for government (-75,000). Job openings increased in other 
services (+50,000) and federal government (+13,000) but decreased in state and local government, 
excluding education (-85,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four regions. (See 
table 1.)

Hires	

The number of hires was essentially unchanged at 5.3 million in December. The hires rate was 3.6 
percent. The number of hires was little changed for total private and decreased for government 
(-38,000). Hires decreased in state and local government, excluding education (-33,000), and in mining 
and logging (-7,000). The number of hires was little changed in all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 5.0 million total separations in December, little changed from November. The total 
separations rate in December was 3.4 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for 
total private and decreased for government (-37,000). Total separations decreased in state and local 
government education (-28,000). The number of total separations was little changed in all four regions. 
(See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in December at 3.0 million. The quits rate was 2.0 percent. Over 
the month, the number of quits was little changed for total private and for government. Quits decreased 
in state and local government education (-14,000). The number of quits was little changed in all four 
regions. (See table 4.)

There were 1.6 million layoffs and discharges in December, essentially unchanged from November. 
The layoffs and discharges rate was 1.1 percent in December. The number of layoffs and discharges was 
little changed for total private and decreased for government (-27,000). The layoffs and discharges level 
increased in construction (+75,000) but decreased in health care and social assistance (-46,000), state 
and local government, excluding education (-15,000), and state and local government education 
(-12,000). Layoffs and discharges were little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

In December, the number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and 
government as well as in all industries and all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in December, hires totaled 62.5 million 
and separations totaled 60.1 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.4 million. These totals 
include workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

_____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for January 2017 are scheduled to be 
released on Thursday, March 16, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

  ______________________________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                                             |
 |                            Revisions to the JOLTS Data                                      |
 |                                                                                             |
 | With the release of January 2017 data on March 16, 2017, BLS will revise the job openings,  |
 | hires, and separations data to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment     |
 | Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. Unadjusted data  |
 | and seasonally adjusted data from January 2012 forward are subject to revision.             |
 |_____________________________________________________________________________________________|

Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,281 5,505 5,501 5,401 5,212 5,252 5,128 5,018 4,968

Total private

4,786 4,946 5,017 5,042 4,854 4,931 4,774 4,672 4,659

Mining and logging(1)

14 16 19 33 30 23 45 28 29

Construction(1)

124 174 148 322 332 388 283 318 363

Manufacturing

317 314 325 274 283 283 263 286 274

Durable goods(1)

174 181 183 163 166 163 162 165 153

Nondurable goods(1)

143 133 141 112 117 119 101 121 121

Trade, transportation, and utilities

822 1,016 1,034 1,087 1,015 1,010 1,074 1,021 973

Wholesale trade(1)

137 199 184 128 132 133 133 133 139

Retail trade

538 640 661 760 672 673 762 685 653

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

147 177 188 199 211 204 178 203 180

Information(1)

101 69 89 72 73 78 61 75 83

Financial activities

390 326 357 217 174 175 203 159 158

Finance and insurance

319 260 275 142 112 117 142 117 108

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

71 66 82 75 62 58 62 42 50

Professional and business services

1,034 935 911 1,175 1,034 1,112 1,095 1,005 1,065

Education and health services

1,075 1,148 1,193 641 655 649 578 609 589

Educational services(1)

93 83 93 84 82 81 74 69 75

Health care and social assistance

982 1,065 1,100 557 573 569 504 540 514

Leisure and hospitality

710 758 703 1,024 1,048 1,028 1,003 997 954

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

62 102 99 151 156 185 141 144 163

Accommodation and food services

648 656 604 873 891 842 862 853 792

Other services(1)

199 190 240 198 209 185 168 173 171

Government

495 558 483 359 359 321 354 346 309

Federal(1)

80 82 95 45 41 42 40 41 41

State and local

415 477 388 314 318 279 314 306 268

State and local education

171 151 147 165 144 138 161 148 120

State and local, excluding education(1)

245 326 241 149 174 141 153 158 148





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.6 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4

Total private

3.8 3.9 3.9 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8

Mining and logging(1)

1.8 2.3 2.8 4.3 4.5 3.4 5.9 4.1 4.3

Construction(1)

1.8 2.5 2.2 4.9 4.9 5.8 4.3 4.7 5.4

Manufacturing

2.5 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.3 2.2

Durable goods(1)

2.2 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.0

Nondurable goods(1)

3.0 2.8 3.0 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

2.9 3.6 3.6 4.0 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.7 3.5

Wholesale trade(1)

2.3 3.2 3.0 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3

Retail trade

3.3 3.8 4.0 4.8 4.2 4.2 4.8 4.3 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

2.6 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.3 3.7 3.3

Information(1)

3.5 2.4 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.2 2.7 3.0

Financial activities

4.5 3.8 4.1 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.5 1.9 1.9

Finance and insurance

5.0 4.0 4.3 2.3 1.8 1.9 2.3 1.9 1.7

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.3 3.0 3.7 3.6 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.0 2.3

Professional and business services

4.9 4.4 4.3 5.9 5.0 5.4 5.5 4.9 5.2

Education and health services

4.6 4.8 4.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.6

Educational services(1)

2.6 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.1 1.9 2.1

Health care and social assistance

4.9 5.2 5.4 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

4.4 4.6 4.3 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2.7 4.3 4.3 6.9 7.0 8.3 6.5 6.4 7.3

Accommodation and food services

4.7 4.7 4.3 6.6 6.7 6.3 6.6 6.4 5.9

Other services(1)

3.4 3.2 4.0 3.5 3.7 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0

Government

2.2 2.5 2.1 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.4

Federal(1)

2.8 2.8 3.3 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5

State and local

2.1 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.4

State and local education

1.6 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.2

State and local, excluding education(1)

2.6 3.5 2.6 1.6 1.9 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.6

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

5,281 5,453 5,631 5,451 5,505 5,501 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,786 4,941 5,112 4,951 4,946 5,017 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9

Mining and logging(3)

14 11 20 14 16 19 1.8 1.6 2.8 2.0 2.3 2.8

Construction(3)

124 192 221 193 174 148 1.8 2.8 3.2 2.8 2.5 2.2

Manufacturing

317 326 328 320 314 325 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6

Durable goods(3)

174 185 206 197 181 183 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3

Nondurable goods(3)

143 141 122 123 133 141 3.0 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

822 997 1,020 1,024 1,016 1,034 2.9 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6

Wholesale trade(3)

137 160 169 181 199 184 2.3 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.0

Retail trade

538 628 663 653 640 661 3.3 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

147 208 188 190 177 188 2.6 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.3

Information(3)

101 83 97 76 69 89 3.5 2.9 3.4 2.7 2.4 3.1

Financial activities

390 332 355 331 326 357 4.5 3.8 4.1 3.8 3.8 4.1

Finance and insurance

319 253 265 257 260 275 5.0 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

71 79 89 74 66 82 3.3 3.5 4.0 3.3 3.0 3.7

Professional and business services

1,034 1,022 1,113 980 935 911 4.9 4.8 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.3

Education and health services

1,075 1,041 1,072 1,159 1,148 1,193 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.8 4.9

Educational services(3)

93 95 102 90 83 93 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.5

Health care and social assistance

982 946 970 1,069 1,065 1,100 4.9 4.7 4.8 5.3 5.2 5.4

Leisure and hospitality

710 749 710 670 758 703 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.6 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

62 74 67 82 102 99 2.7 3.2 2.9 3.5 4.3 4.3

Accommodation and food services

648 675 642 589 656 604 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.2 4.7 4.3

Other services(3)

199 189 177 182 190 240 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.2 4.0

Government

495 511 519 501 558 483 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.5 2.1

Federal(3)

80 88 101 82 82 95 2.8 3.0 3.5 2.8 2.8 3.3

State and local

415 424 419 419 477 388 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.0

State and local education

171 147 130 131 151 147 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education(3)

245 276 289 288 326 241 2.6 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.5 2.6

REGION(4)

Northeast

887 944 1,034 980 960 1,001 3.2 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.6

South

1,981 1,961 2,028 1,984 2,030 1,924 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.5

Midwest

1,100 1,223 1,270 1,247 1,221 1,232 3.3 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7

West

1,313 1,324 1,299 1,240 1,294 1,343 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

5,401 5,268 5,121 5,160 5,212 5,252 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,042 4,888 4,757 4,804 4,854 4,931 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0

Mining and logging

33 31 28 32 30 23 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.7 4.5 3.4

Construction

322 337 314 331 332 388 4.9 5.1 4.7 4.9 4.9 5.8

Manufacturing

274 274 279 274 283 283 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3

Durable goods

163 152 163 159 166 163 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1

Nondurable goods

112 122 116 114 117 119 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,087 1,091 1,097 1,083 1,015 1,010 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.7

Wholesale trade

128 160 136 132 132 133 2.2 2.7 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2

Retail trade

760 752 769 739 672 673 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.2 4.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

199 179 193 212 211 204 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.7

Information

72 71 80 71 73 78 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.5 2.6 2.8

Financial activities

217 192 170 170 174 175 2.6 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1

Finance and insurance

142 133 110 106 112 117 2.3 2.2 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

75 59 60 63 62 58 3.6 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.7

Professional and business services

1,175 1,072 1,080 1,043 1,034 1,112 5.9 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.0 5.4

Education and health services

641 634 616 646 655 649 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.8

Educational services

84 92 87 75 82 81 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.3

Health care and social assistance

557 543 528 571 573 569 2.9 2.8 2.7 3.0 3.0 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,024 1,005 909 972 1,048 1,028 6.7 6.5 5.8 6.2 6.7 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

151 174 119 148 156 185 6.9 7.7 5.3 6.6 7.0 8.3

Accommodation and food services

873 831 790 824 891 842 6.6 6.2 5.9 6.2 6.7 6.3

Other services

198 180 185 183 209 185 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.7 3.2

Government

359 380 365 356 359 321 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.4

Federal

45 40 40 42 41 42 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5

State and local

314 339 325 314 318 279 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.4

State and local education

165 160 159 134 144 138 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.3

State and local, excluding education

149 180 165 180 174 141 1.6 2.0 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

827 895 802 864 822 842 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.1

South

2,109 2,002 2,000 2,061 1,991 2,058 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.9

Midwest

1,249 1,182 1,141 1,131 1,196 1,161 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.6

West

1,216 1,189 1,178 1,104 1,204 1,191 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

5,128 5,052 4,936 4,966 5,018 4,968 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,774 4,696 4,578 4,631 4,672 4,659 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8

Mining and logging

45 31 26 33 28 29 5.9 4.6 3.9 4.9 4.1 4.3

Construction

283 327 296 311 318 363 4.3 4.9 4.4 4.6 4.7 5.4

Manufacturing

263 268 278 269 286 274 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2

Durable goods

162 157 166 157 165 153 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.0

Nondurable goods

101 111 112 113 121 121 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,074 1,009 1,039 1,046 1,021 973 4.0 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.5

Wholesale trade

133 147 117 121 133 139 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.3

Retail trade

762 707 722 736 685 653 4.8 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.3 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

178 156 199 189 203 180 3.3 2.8 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.3

Information

61 72 89 72 75 83 2.2 2.6 3.2 2.6 2.7 3.0

Financial activities

203 186 163 156 159 158 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9

Finance and insurance

142 123 107 98 117 108 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

62 63 56 59 42 50 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.0 2.3

Professional and business services

1,095 1,008 1,009 1,016 1,005 1,065 5.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.2

Education and health services

578 595 560 591 609 589 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.6

Educational services

74 85 69 68 69 75 2.1 2.4 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.1

Health care and social assistance

504 510 491 523 540 514 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

1,003 988 928 965 997 954 6.5 6.4 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

141 193 147 149 144 163 6.5 8.6 6.6 6.7 6.4 7.3

Accommodation and food services

862 795 781 815 853 792 6.6 6.0 5.9 6.1 6.4 5.9

Other services

168 211 191 173 173 171 3.0 3.7 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.0

Government

354 357 357 334 346 309 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4

Federal

40 37 37 33 41 41 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.5

State and local

314 320 320 302 306 268 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.4

State and local education

161 162 152 137 148 120 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.2

State and local, excluding education

153 157 169 165 158 148 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

855 876 799 791 848 827 3.2 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.1

South

2,011 1,960 1,922 1,927 1,954 1,890 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.6

Midwest

1,105 1,052 1,037 1,119 1,079 1,088 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.3

West

1,156 1,164 1,178 1,128 1,137 1,163 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

3,088 3,009 3,052 3,023 3,077 2,979 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,922 2,847 2,867 2,861 2,914 2,825 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3

Mining and logging

16 13 13 13 14 15 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.2

Construction

137 137 124 128 151 121 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.2 1.8

Manufacturing

133 140 150 155 163 160 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3

Durable goods

80 76 85 86 93 84 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1

Nondurable goods

54 64 64 69 69 76 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

719 651 654 675 661 640 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.3

Wholesale trade

81 90 71 72 91 96 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6

Retail trade

518 475 462 492 457 446 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

120 85 121 111 113 99 2.2 1.6 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.8

Information

35 38 57 40 37 43 1.3 1.4 2.1 1.4 1.3 1.6

Financial activities

122 105 86 91 83 77 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9

Finance and insurance

87 68 57 64 64 59 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

36 37 29 27 19 18 1.7 1.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 0.8

Professional and business services

614 598 597 588 620 612 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0

Education and health services

385 375 411 396 394 407 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.8

Educational services

49 51 45 38 43 40 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.1

Health care and social assistance

336 324 366 358 351 367 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

671 639 671 668 709 669 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

60 63 73 69 75 74 2.7 2.8 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.3

Accommodation and food services

611 576 599 600 634 595 4.6 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.7 4.4

Other services(3)

89 150 103 108 84 81 1.6 2.6 1.8 1.9 1.5 1.4

Government

166 162 185 163 163 153 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

Federal

13 13 13 12 16 14 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5

State and local

153 149 172 151 148 140 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7

State and local education

75 76 78 73 76 62 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6

State and local, excluding education

78 73 93 77 72 78 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

445 433 419 428 477 442 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.6

South

1,286 1,214 1,242 1,210 1,246 1,194 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.3

Midwest

656 625 648 678 667 639 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0

West

701 737 743 707 687 703 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

1,672 1,692 1,513 1,569 1,619 1,635 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,549 1,557 1,402 1,460 1,496 1,539 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3

Mining and logging(3)

26 13 8 13 10 8 3.4 1.9 1.2 1.9 1.5 1.2

Construction

138 171 153 169 148 223 2.1 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.2 3.3

Manufacturing

104 110 100 92 101 94 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

65 70 60 56 56 55 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

39 40 40 37 45 40 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

266 276 294 269 291 249 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.9

Wholesale trade(3)

39 48 33 35 31 30 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

Retail trade

177 175 205 171 188 151 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

50 54 57 63 72 68 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.2

Information

19 24 21 20 28 27 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 1.0

Financial activities

62 51 52 50 55 60 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

Finance and insurance

38 32 29 22 33 30 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

24 18 23 29 23 30 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.4

Professional and business services

414 358 352 368 342 391 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.9

Education and health services

149 179 108 160 185 145 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.6

Educational services

22 26 19 27 24 31 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.9

Health care and social assistance

127 153 89 133 160 114 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

298 317 231 264 254 258 1.9 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

80 125 71 78 68 87 3.6 5.5 3.2 3.5 3.0 3.9

Accommodation and food services

219 192 161 186 187 171 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3

Other services

72 58 82 54 81 84 1.3 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.4 1.5

Government

123 134 111 109 123 96 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4

Federal

10 13 12 11 14 15 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

State and local

113 122 100 99 108 81 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4

State and local education

61 64 49 39 49 37 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4

State and local, excluding education

52 58 50 60 59 44 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

324 372 308 299 307 323 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2

South

601 601 537 575 579 552 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0

Midwest

374 356 315 351 352 378 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2

West

372 362 353 344 381 381 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

368 351 370 373 322 355 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

303 291 310 311 261 296 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

3 5 6 7 4 6 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.6 0.8

Construction(3)

8 19 18 14 19 20 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

26 18 28 22 23 20 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

17 11 21 15 16 15 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

8 7 7 7 7 5 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

89 82 90 103 69 83 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

14 9 13 13 11 13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Retail trade

68 57 55 74 40 56 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

8 16 22 15 18 14 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2

Information(3)

7 10 11 12 9 12 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4

Financial activities

19 31 25 15 21 21 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

17 23 21 12 20 19 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

2 7 4 3 1 2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1

Professional and business services

66 52 60 60 44 63 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Education and health services

44 40 40 35 30 36 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Educational services(3)

4 7 5 3 1 4 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

40 33 35 32 29 32 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

34 32 26 32 34 28 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

2 5 4 2 2 3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

32 27 22 30 32 25 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

7 3 5 11 7 6 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Government

65 60 61 62 61 59 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

17 11 12 10 11 12 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local

48 49 49 52 50 47 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

State and local education

25 22 24 24 24 22 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

23 27 25 28 26 26 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

86 71 72 64 63 62 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

125 145 143 143 128 144 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

75 70 74 90 61 71 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

West

82 65 81 77 69 78 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

4,844 5,233 5,040 3.3 3.5 3.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,368 4,686 4,573 3.5 3.6 3.6

Mining and logging

14 16 19 1.8 2.3 2.7

Construction

124 174 148 1.9 2.5 2.2

Manufacturing

317 314 325 2.5 2.5 2.6

Durable goods

174 181 183 2.2 2.3 2.3

Nondurable goods

143 133 141 3.0 2.8 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

717 957 933 2.5 3.3 3.2

Wholesale trade

137 199 184 2.3 3.2 3.0

Retail trade

433 581 560 2.6 3.4 3.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

147 177 188 2.5 3.1 3.2

Information

101 69 89 3.5 2.4 3.1

Financial activities

350 303 337 4.1 3.5 3.9

Finance and insurance

279 238 256 4.4 3.7 4.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

71 66 82 3.3 3.0 3.7

Professional and business services

959 882 809 4.6 4.1 3.8

Education and health services

1,015 1,107 1,149 4.3 4.6 4.7

Educational services

93 83 93 2.5 2.2 2.5

Health care and social assistance

923 1,024 1,056 4.6 5.0 5.2

Leisure and hospitality

571 672 525 3.7 4.2 3.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

43 84 69 2.1 3.9 3.3

Accommodation and food services

529 588 456 3.9 4.2 3.3

Other services

199 190 240 3.4 3.2 4.0

Government

475 547 467 2.1 2.4 2.0

Federal

80 82 95 2.8 2.8 3.3

State and local

396 466 372 2.0 2.3 1.9

State and local education

151 139 131 1.4 1.3 1.2

State and local, excluding education

245 326 241 2.7 3.5 2.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

811 914 928 2.9 3.3 3.3

South

1,854 1,897 1,790 3.4 3.4 3.3

Midwest

1,016 1,201 1,142 3.1 3.5 3.4

West

1,161 1,221 1,181 3.4 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

3,919 4,823 3,809 2.7 3.3 2.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,697 4,544 3,614 3.0 3.7 2.9

Mining and logging

22 27 16 2.8 3.9 2.3

Construction

183 254 224 2.8 3.7 3.4

Manufacturing

183 233 189 1.5 1.9 1.5

Durable goods

109 138 109 1.4 1.8 1.4

Nondurable goods

74 95 79 1.6 2.1 1.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

874 1,316 812 3.1 4.7 2.9

Wholesale trade

94 97 95 1.6 1.6 1.6

Retail trade

577 909 499 3.5 5.5 3.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

203 309 218 3.6 5.5 3.8

Information

57 69 63 2.0 2.5 2.3

Financial activities

160 153 131 2.0 1.8 1.6

Finance and insurance

106 99 89 1.7 1.6 1.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

54 54 42 2.6 2.5 1.9

Professional and business services

894 928 860 4.5 4.5 4.2

Education and health services

469 527 471 2.1 2.3 2.0

Educational services

42 48 38 1.2 1.3 1.0

Health care and social assistance

427 479 433 2.3 2.5 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

722 869 731 4.8 5.7 4.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

103 106 128 5.1 5.1 6.2

Accommodation and food services

619 763 604 4.8 5.8 4.6

Other services

133 167 118 2.4 2.9 2.1

Government

222 280 195 1.0 1.2 0.9

Federal

37 53 36 1.3 1.9 1.3

State and local

184 227 159 0.9 1.1 0.8

State and local education

86 92 68 0.8 0.9 0.6

State and local, excluding education

99 135 91 1.1 1.5 1.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

609 755 616 2.3 2.8 2.3

South

1,524 1,825 1,503 2.9 3.4 2.8

Midwest

900 1,113 832 2.8 3.4 2.5

West

886 1,130 858 2.7 3.4 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

4,822 4,367 4,698 3.3 3.0 3.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,511 4,125 4,428 3.7 3.3 3.6

Mining and logging

41 25 27 5.4 3.6 3.9

Construction

304 311 428 4.7 4.6 6.5

Manufacturing

234 248 237 1.9 2.0 1.9

Durable goods

141 139 127 1.8 1.8 1.7

Nondurable goods

93 109 110 2.0 2.4 2.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,102 889 980 4.0 3.2 3.5

Wholesale trade

109 109 114 1.9 1.8 1.9

Retail trade

780 593 660 4.8 3.6 4.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

212 187 206 3.8 3.3 3.6

Information

53 69 76 1.9 2.5 2.7

Financial activities

189 139 152 2.3 1.7 1.8

Finance and insurance

131 96 104 2.2 1.6 1.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

58 43 48 2.8 2.0 2.2

Professional and business services

1,064 881 1,043 5.3 4.3 5.1

Education and health services

504 480 506 2.2 2.1 2.2

Educational services

55 37 55 1.5 1.0 1.5

Health care and social assistance

448 443 451 2.4 2.3 2.3

Leisure and hospitality

867 915 819 5.8 6.0 5.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

109 146 129 5.4 7.0 6.3

Accommodation and food services

758 768 690 5.8 5.8 5.2

Other services

154 167 160 2.7 2.9 2.8

Government

311 242 270 1.4 1.1 1.2

Federal

37 37 38 1.3 1.3 1.3

State and local

275 206 232 1.4 1.0 1.2

State and local education

134 70 96 1.3 0.6 0.9

State and local, excluding education

141 136 137 1.6 1.5 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

842 737 824 3.2 2.7 3.0

South

1,828 1,641 1,721 3.5 3.1 3.2

Midwest

1,100 1,001 1,091 3.4 3.1 3.3

West

1,052 988 1,063 3.2 3.0 3.2

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

2,604 2,565 2,507 1.8 1.8 1.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,476 2,455 2,387 2.0 2.0 1.9

Mining and logging

12 12 13 1.6 1.7 1.9

Construction

106 117 94 1.6 1.7 1.4

Manufacturing

97 126 119 0.8 1.0 1.0

Durable goods

58 72 60 0.7 0.9 0.8

Nondurable goods

39 53 59 0.9 1.2 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

654 563 574 2.3 2.0 2.0

Wholesale trade

58 70 70 1.0 1.2 1.2

Retail trade

471 387 403 2.9 2.4 2.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

125 106 101 2.2 1.9 1.8

Information

28 32 37 1.0 1.2 1.3

Financial activities

107 66 65 1.3 0.8 0.8

Finance and insurance

71 48 47 1.2 0.8 0.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

36 19 18 1.7 0.9 0.8

Professional and business services

527 534 525 2.6 2.6 2.5

Education and health services

317 305 335 1.4 1.3 1.4

Educational services

34 25 27 0.9 0.7 0.7

Health care and social assistance

283 280 308 1.5 1.4 1.6

Leisure and hospitality

539 616 543 3.6 4.0 3.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

43 56 53 2.1 2.7 2.6

Accommodation and food services

496 560 490 3.8 4.2 3.7

Other services

89 84 81 1.6 1.5 1.4

Government

129 110 120 0.6 0.5 0.5

Federal

11 13 11 0.4 0.5 0.4

State and local

118 97 109 0.6 0.5 0.6

State and local education

54 42 44 0.5 0.4 0.4

State and local, excluding education

64 54 65 0.7 0.6 0.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

365 389 367 1.4 1.4 1.4

South

1,080 1,030 998 2.1 1.9 1.9

Midwest

558 581 541 1.7 1.8 1.7

West

601 565 601 1.8 1.7 1.8

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

1,844 1,525 1,822 1.3 1.0 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,727 1,432 1,735 1.4 1.2 1.4

Mining and logging

26 10 8 3.4 1.5 1.2

Construction

190 176 314 2.9 2.6 4.8

Manufacturing

112 105 98 0.9 0.9 0.8

Durable goods

67 57 53 0.9 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

45 48 45 1.0 1.1 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

369 268 328 1.3 1.0 1.2

Wholesale trade

39 31 30 0.7 0.5 0.5

Retail trade

250 174 206 1.5 1.1 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

80 62 91 1.4 1.1 1.6

Information

18 28 27 0.6 1.0 1.0

Financial activities

60 50 63 0.7 0.6 0.7

Finance and insurance

40 27 35 0.7 0.4 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

20 23 28 1.0 1.1 1.3

Professional and business services

458 310 441 2.3 1.5 2.1

Education and health services

142 145 134 0.6 0.6 0.6

Educational services

18 11 24 0.5 0.3 0.7

Health care and social assistance

125 134 110 0.7 0.7 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

294 264 248 2.0 1.7 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

65 88 73 3.2 4.2 3.6

Accommodation and food services

230 176 175 1.8 1.3 1.3

Other services

58 76 73 1.0 1.3 1.3

Government

116 93 87 0.5 0.4 0.4

Federal

7 14 12 0.3 0.5 0.4

State and local

109 79 74 0.6 0.4 0.4

State and local education

62 17 36 0.6 0.2 0.3

State and local, excluding education

47 62 38 0.5 0.7 0.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

396 301 400 1.5 1.1 1.5

South

609 495 557 1.2 0.9 1.0

Midwest

470 368 483 1.5 1.1 1.5

West

368 361 382 1.1 1.1 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016(p)

Total

375 277 369 0.3 0.2 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

308 238 306 0.3 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

3 3 6 0.4 0.4 0.8

Construction

8 19 20 0.1 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

25 17 19 0.2 0.1 0.2

Durable goods

17 10 14 0.2 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

8 7 5 0.2 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

80 58 77 0.3 0.2 0.3

Wholesale trade

13 7 14 0.2 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

59 32 50 0.4 0.2 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

8 18 14 0.1 0.3 0.2

Information

7 9 12 0.3 0.3 0.4

Financial activities

22 22 25 0.3 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

20 22 23 0.3 0.4 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2 1 2 0.1 0.0 0.1

Professional and business services

78 38 77 0.4 0.2 0.4

Education and health services

44 30 36 0.2 0.1 0.2

Educational services

4 1 4 0.1 0.0 0.1

Health care and social assistance

40 29 32 0.2 0.1 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

34 34 28 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2 2 3 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services

32 32 25 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services

7 7 6 0.1 0.1 0.1

Government

66 39 63 0.3 0.2 0.3

Federal

18 9 14 0.7 0.3 0.5

State and local

48 30 49 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

18 10 15 0.2 0.1 0.1

State and local, excluding education

30 20 34 0.3 0.2 0.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

80 47 56 0.3 0.2 0.2

South

140 116 166 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

72 52 66 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

83 62 81 0.3 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: February 07, 2017