Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 6, 2018	USDL-18-0204

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – DECEMBER 2017

The number of job openings was little changed at 5.8 million on the last business day of December, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were little 
changed at 5.5 million and 5.2 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate and the layoffs 
and discharges rate were little changed at 2.2 percent and 1.1 percent, respectively. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of December, there were 5.8 million job openings, little changed from 
November. The job openings rate was 3.8 percent in December. The number of job openings was little 
changed for total private and for government. Job openings increased in information (+33,000) and 
federal government (+13,000). Job openings decreased in a number of industries with the largest 
decreases occurring in professional and business services (-119,000), retail trade (-85,000), and 
construction (-52,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was little changed at 5.5 million in December. The hires rate was 3.7 percent. The 
number of hires was little changed for total private, for government, and in all industries and regions. 
(See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.2 million in December. The total separations 
rate was 3.6 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for 
government. Total separations increased in state and local government education (+17,000). The number 
of total separations increased in the Midwest region. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed at 3.3 million in December. The quits rate was 2.2 percent. The 
number of quits was little changed for total private and for government. Quits decreased in federal 
government (-4,000). The number of quits increased in the Midwest region. (See table 4.)

There were 1.6 million layoffs and discharges in December, little changed from November. The layoffs 
and discharges rate was 1.1 percent in December. The number of layoffs and discharges was little 
changed for total private and for government. Layoffs and discharges increased in state and local 
government education (+15,000). The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all four 
regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in December at 334,000. The number of other 
separations was little changed for total private and edged down for government. Other separations 
decreased in state and local government, excluding education (-11,000). The number of other 
separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in December, hires totaled 64.7 million 
and separations totaled 62.6 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.2 million. These totals 
include workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year. 
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for January 2018 are scheduled to be 
released on Friday, March 16, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

____________________________________________________________________________________________________
|                                   Revisions to the JOLTS Data                                    |
|                                                                                                  |
|With the release of January 2018 data on March 16, 2018, BLS will revise the job openings, hires, |
|and separations data to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics       |
|employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. Unadjusted data and seasonally    |
|adjusted data from January 2013 forward are subject to revision.                                  |
|__________________________________________________________________________________________________|


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,539 5,978 5,811 5,303 5,493 5,488 5,084 5,212 5,238

Total private

5,065 5,466 5,290 4,984 5,119 5,129 4,754 4,863 4,885

Mining and logging(1)

17 20 21 22 36 32 22 30 36

Construction(1)

140 210 158 400 346 336 369 334 306

Manufacturing

342 404 364 293 343 352 287 317 329

Durable goods(1)

194 248 228 171 196 205 163 173 187

Nondurable goods(1)

148 156 136 122 147 147 124 144 142

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,014 1,138 1,084 1,009 1,035 1,046 958 1,002 1,031

Wholesale trade(1)

182 177 207 130 146 144 142 123 143

Retail trade

650 788 703 672 684 690 631 688 673

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

182 173 174 208 206 212 185 191 216

Information(1)

81 79 112 79 78 90 82 69 85

Financial activities

357 345 348 190 195 191 162 172 174

Finance and insurance

272 270 267 126 127 126 107 131 122

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

85 75 81 64 68 65 55 41 52

Professional and business services

989 1,075 956 1,140 1,181 1,191 1,132 1,177 1,143

Education and health services

1,158 1,108 1,136 642 688 667 596 623 624

Educational services(1)

93 100 74 78 99 107 73 84 95

Health care and social assistance

1,065 1,008 1,062 564 588 561 522 539 529

Leisure and hospitality

730 848 890 1,031 1,014 1,014 974 978 969

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

89 75 82 162 159 153 156 167 141

Accommodation and food services

640 773 808 869 855 861 817 811 828

Other services(1)

236 240 221 178 205 209 172 162 188

Government

474 511 521 319 373 359 330 348 352

Federal(1)

110 71 84 45 39 32 41 38 33

State and local

364 440 437 275 334 327 289 311 319

State and local education

143 165 170 137 171 169 133 148 165

State and local, excluding education(1)

220 275 267 137 164 157 156 162 154





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.7 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.6

Total private

4.0 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.9

Mining and logging(1)

2.5 2.7 2.8 3.2 5.0 4.4 3.3 4.1 5.0

Construction(1)

2.0 2.9 2.2 5.9 5.0 4.8 5.4 4.8 4.4

Manufacturing

2.7 3.1 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.8 2.3 2.5 2.6

Durable goods(1)

2.5 3.1 2.8 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.1 2.2 2.4

Nondurable goods(1)

3.1 3.2 2.8 2.6 3.1 3.1 2.7 3.1 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.6 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.8

Wholesale trade(1)

3.0 2.9 3.4 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.1 2.4

Retail trade

3.9 4.7 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.3 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.1 3.0 3.0 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.8

Information(1)

2.8 2.8 4.0 2.8 2.9 3.3 3.0 2.5 3.1

Financial activities

4.1 3.9 3.9 2.3 2.3 2.3 1.9 2.0 2.1

Finance and insurance

4.2 4.1 4.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.7 2.1 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.8 3.3 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.5 1.8 2.3

Professional and business services

4.6 4.9 4.4 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.5

Education and health services

4.8 4.5 4.6 2.8 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.7

Educational services(1)

2.5 2.6 2.0 2.2 2.7 2.9 2.0 2.3 2.6

Health care and social assistance

5.2 4.9 5.1 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

4.4 5.0 5.3 6.5 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.8 3.2 3.5 7.2 7.0 6.7 7.0 7.3 6.2

Accommodation and food services

4.5 5.3 5.5 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.1 5.9 6.0

Other services(1)

4.0 4.0 3.7 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.0 2.8 3.2

Government

2.1 2.2 2.3 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6

Federal(1)

3.8 2.5 2.9 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.2

State and local

1.8 2.2 2.2 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.6

State and local education

1.4 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.6

State and local, excluding education(1)

2.4 2.9 2.8 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

5,539 6,090 6,177 5,925 5,978 5,811 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,065 5,584 5,650 5,408 5,466 5,290 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1

Mining and logging(3)

17 25 20 27 20 21 2.5 3.4 2.7 3.6 2.7 2.8

Construction(3)

140 230 179 195 210 158 2.0 3.2 2.5 2.7 2.9 2.2

Manufacturing

342 435 435 409 404 364 2.7 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.8

Durable goods(3)

194 248 262 247 248 228 2.5 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.8

Nondurable goods(3)

148 187 173 162 156 136 3.1 3.8 3.6 3.3 3.2 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,014 1,116 1,147 967 1,138 1,084 3.6 3.9 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.8

Wholesale trade(3)

182 207 219 135 177 207 3.0 3.4 3.6 2.2 2.9 3.4

Retail trade

650 643 691 623 788 703 3.9 3.9 4.2 3.8 4.7 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

182 266 238 210 173 174 3.1 4.5 4.0 3.6 3.0 3.0

Information(3)

81 122 113 74 79 112 2.8 4.3 4.0 2.6 2.8 4.0

Financial activities

357 341 384 380 345 348 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.9

Finance and insurance

272 267 307 264 270 267 4.2 4.1 4.7 4.0 4.1 4.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

85 74 77 116 75 81 3.8 3.3 3.4 5.0 3.3 3.5

Professional and business services

989 1,037 1,171 1,110 1,075 956 4.6 4.7 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.4

Education and health services

1,158 1,191 1,133 1,102 1,108 1,136 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.6

Educational services(3)

93 104 96 94 100 74 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.0

Health care and social assistance

1,065 1,087 1,037 1,009 1,008 1,062 5.2 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.1

Leisure and hospitality

730 859 770 848 848 890 4.4 5.1 4.6 5.0 5.0 5.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

89 80 88 79 75 82 3.8 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.5

Accommodation and food services

640 778 682 769 773 808 4.5 5.4 4.8 5.3 5.3 5.5

Other services(3)

236 228 297 296 240 221 4.0 3.8 4.9 4.9 4.0 3.7

Government

474 506 527 517 511 521 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.3

Federal(3)

110 66 75 73 71 84 3.8 2.3 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.9

State and local

364 440 453 444 440 437 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2

State and local education

143 146 173 166 165 170 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local, excluding education(3)

220 294 280 278 275 267 2.4 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8

REGION(4)

Northeast

967 1,102 1,066 1,011 1,010 996 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5

South

2,008 2,125 2,174 2,072 2,146 2,029 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.6

Midwest

1,253 1,520 1,595 1,507 1,479 1,402 3.7 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.1

West

1,312 1,343 1,342 1,335 1,343 1,384 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

5,303 5,420 5,320 5,592 5,493 5,488 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,984 5,079 4,976 5,257 5,119 5,129 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.1

Mining and logging

22 36 28 35 36 32 3.2 5.0 3.9 4.8 5.0 4.4

Construction

400 370 389 384 346 336 5.9 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.0 4.8

Manufacturing

293 359 329 344 343 352 2.4 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.8

Durable goods

171 211 189 198 196 205 2.2 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6

Nondurable goods

122 148 140 146 147 147 2.6 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,009 1,029 1,035 1,044 1,035 1,046 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8

Wholesale trade

130 149 139 155 146 144 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.4

Retail trade

672 684 689 688 684 690 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

208 196 208 200 206 212 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.7

Information

79 79 78 74 78 90 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.3

Financial activities

190 213 189 213 195 191 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.3

Finance and insurance

126 135 121 136 127 126 2.0 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

64 78 68 77 68 65 3.0 3.5 3.1 3.5 3.0 2.9

Professional and business services

1,140 1,123 1,150 1,181 1,181 1,191 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.7

Education and health services

642 662 627 677 688 667 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.0 2.9

Educational services

78 98 87 84 99 107 2.2 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.9

Health care and social assistance

564 564 541 593 588 561 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,031 989 961 1,060 1,014 1,014 6.5 6.2 6.1 6.6 6.3 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

162 160 146 162 159 153 7.2 7.0 6.4 7.1 7.0 6.7

Accommodation and food services

869 830 815 899 855 861 6.4 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.2 6.3

Other services

178 219 188 246 205 209 3.1 3.8 3.2 4.2 3.5 3.6

Government

319 340 344 336 373 359 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6

Federal

45 36 38 43 39 32 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.2

State and local

275 305 306 292 334 327 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.7

State and local education

137 144 138 158 171 169 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6

State and local, excluding education

137 160 169 135 164 157 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.8 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

849 801 821 952 789 786 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.5 2.9 2.9

South

2,074 2,167 2,121 2,217 2,260 2,260 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2

Midwest

1,176 1,207 1,181 1,201 1,182 1,210 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.7

West

1,205 1,245 1,197 1,222 1,261 1,231 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

5,084 5,273 5,244 5,251 5,212 5,238 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,754 4,932 4,910 4,910 4,863 4,885 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9

Mining and logging

22 27 23 32 30 36 3.3 3.7 3.1 4.4 4.1 5.0

Construction

369 337 378 361 334 306 5.4 4.9 5.5 5.2 4.8 4.4

Manufacturing

287 301 315 309 317 329 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6

Durable goods

163 172 179 176 173 187 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.4

Nondurable goods

124 128 136 133 144 142 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.8 3.1 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

958 1,020 977 994 1,002 1,031 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.8

Wholesale trade

142 157 122 133 123 143 2.4 2.7 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.4

Retail trade

631 676 668 677 688 673 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

185 187 187 183 191 216 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.8

Information

82 83 96 72 69 85 3.0 3.0 3.5 2.7 2.5 3.1

Financial activities

162 212 180 204 172 174 1.9 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.0 2.1

Finance and insurance

107 131 116 136 131 122 1.7 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

55 81 64 68 41 52 2.5 3.7 2.9 3.1 1.8 2.3

Professional and business services

1,132 1,059 1,119 1,143 1,177 1,143 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.5

Education and health services

596 633 600 642 623 624 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.7

Educational services

73 77 74 89 84 95 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.3 2.6

Health care and social assistance

522 556 525 553 539 529 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

974 998 1,020 933 978 969 6.2 6.2 6.4 5.8 6.1 6.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

156 164 159 141 167 141 7.0 7.2 7.0 6.2 7.3 6.2

Accommodation and food services

817 834 861 792 811 828 6.1 6.1 6.3 5.8 5.9 6.0

Other services

172 263 202 219 162 188 3.0 4.6 3.5 3.8 2.8 3.2

Government

330 341 334 341 348 352 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6

Federal

41 37 37 41 38 33 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.2

State and local

289 304 297 301 311 319 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6

State and local education

133 141 129 157 148 165 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.6

State and local, excluding education

156 162 168 144 162 154 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

812 872 900 815 825 798 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.9

South

1,966 2,007 2,009 2,160 2,174 2,069 3.7 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.1 3.9

Midwest

1,128 1,180 1,168 1,134 1,081 1,198 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.7

West

1,178 1,213 1,167 1,142 1,132 1,173 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

3,085 3,093 3,180 3,187 3,161 3,259 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,915 2,929 3,014 3,020 2,978 3,083 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5

Mining and logging

12 11 15 20 15 19 1.9 1.5 2.1 2.8 2.1 2.7

Construction

134 140 154 164 140 128 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.0 1.8

Manufacturing

165 185 189 192 197 210 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7

Durable goods

89 98 107 109 108 118 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5

Nondurable goods

75 86 81 83 89 91 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

623 639 619 655 639 675 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5

Wholesale trade

94 85 82 93 86 100 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.7

Retail trade

432 456 435 455 440 460 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

97 98 101 107 113 115 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0

Information

49 46 55 46 43 47 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.7

Financial activities

78 118 112 121 115 119 0.9 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4

Finance and insurance

59 73 78 78 92 87 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

19 45 34 43 23 31 0.9 2.0 1.5 1.9 1.0 1.4

Professional and business services

672 590 663 657 713 721 3.3 2.8 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.4

Education and health services

409 395 403 437 411 421 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8

Educational services

41 47 43 44 48 55 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5

Health care and social assistance

367 349 360 393 362 366 1.9 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

688 639 675 619 638 667 4.4 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

73 60 48 61 73 69 3.2 2.7 2.1 2.7 3.2 3.0

Accommodation and food services

615 579 627 557 565 598 4.6 4.2 4.6 4.1 4.1 4.3

Other services(3)

86 166 131 109 69 75 1.5 2.9 2.3 1.9 1.2 1.3

Government

170 164 166 167 183 176 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8

Federal

15 15 15 15 18 14 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5

State and local

155 149 151 152 165 162 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local education

70 75 69 81 82 82 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local, excluding education

85 73 82 71 83 80 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

440 447 434 431 444 427 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

South

1,250 1,205 1,273 1,395 1,315 1,316 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.5

Midwest

664 688 755 660 671 744 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.3

West

730 752 718 700 732 773 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

1,624 1,781 1,746 1,693 1,725 1,645 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,525 1,667 1,643 1,581 1,620 1,521 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

6 13 6 11 13 16 0.9 1.9 0.9 1.5 1.8 2.2

Construction

214 187 217 177 187 168 3.2 2.7 3.1 2.5 2.7 2.4

Manufacturing

100 96 101 94 100 101 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

57 63 57 54 52 57 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

43 33 44 40 48 45 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

247 320 280 268 291 288 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0

Wholesale trade(3)

36 64 36 36 31 33 0.6 1.1 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

Retail trade

142 178 171 171 193 166 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

69 78 72 61 67 89 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.6

Information

23 30 29 23 20 30 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.7 1.1

Financial activities

61 60 44 62 43 40 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5

Finance and insurance

29 28 19 38 26 23 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

32 31 26 24 17 17 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.8

Professional and business services

401 395 432 402 400 372 2.0 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8

Education and health services

142 179 150 161 170 146 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6

Educational services

28 23 30 39 33 36 0.8 0.6 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.0

Health care and social assistance

114 156 121 122 137 110 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

256 314 317 277 311 267 1.6 2.0 2.0 1.7 1.9 1.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

81 99 108 78 89 67 3.6 4.4 4.8 3.4 3.9 2.9

Accommodation and food services

175 215 209 198 222 200 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.5

Other services

75 74 66 106 84 95 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.8 1.4 1.6

Government

99 114 103 112 105 123 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6

Federal

13 13 11 13 12 10 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local

86 101 92 100 93 113 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6

State and local education

40 41 34 50 45 60 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.6

State and local, excluding education

46 60 58 50 47 53 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6

REGION(4)

Northeast

310 360 412 316 322 304 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.1

South

566 654 632 617 728 628 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.2

Midwest

387 409 335 401 346 383 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.2

West

361 358 367 360 330 329 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Aug.
2017
Sept.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

375 398 318 372 326 334 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

314 335 252 310 265 281 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

4 2 2 1 2 1 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Construction(3)

20 10 6 20 8 10 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1

Manufacturing

23 20 26 23 21 18 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Durable goods

17 11 15 13 14 12 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

6 9 11 10 6 6 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

88 60 78 71 72 69 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

13 8 3 4 6 10 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

57 41 61 51 55 47 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

18 11 13 15 11 12 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Information(3)

10 7 12 4 6 9 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3

Financial activities

23 35 24 21 14 15 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Finance and insurance

20 30 19 19 13 12 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

4 5 5 1 1 4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2

Professional and business services

59 74 25 84 64 50 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.2

Education and health services

45 59 46 44 42 57 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services(3)

4 8 2 5 2 4 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

41 51 44 38 40 53 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

30 45 29 38 29 35 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

3 4 3 2 5 4 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Accommodation and food services(3)

27 41 26 36 25 30 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

12 23 5 4 9 17 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3

Government

62 63 66 62 61 53 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Federal

13 10 11 13 8 9 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3

State and local

49 53 55 49 53 44 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

State and local education

23 24 27 26 21 22 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

26 29 28 23 32 21 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(4)

Northeast

62 66 54 68 60 67 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

150 148 104 148 131 125 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Midwest

77 83 78 73 64 70 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

86 102 82 83 70 72 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

5,116 5,748 5,359 3.4 3.7 3.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,658 5,250 4,857 3.6 4.0 3.7

Mining and logging

17 20 21 2.5 2.7 2.8

Construction

140 210 158 2.1 2.9 2.2

Manufacturing

342 404 364 2.7 3.1 2.8

Durable goods

194 248 228 2.5 3.1 2.8

Nondurable goods

148 156 136 3.1 3.2 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

927 1,107 1,008 3.2 3.8 3.4

Wholesale trade

182 177 207 3.0 2.9 3.4

Retail trade

563 757 627 3.3 4.4 3.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

182 173 174 3.0 2.9 2.9

Information

81 79 112 2.8 2.8 3.9

Financial activities

349 326 336 4.0 3.7 3.8

Finance and insurance

264 251 255 4.1 3.9 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

85 75 81 3.8 3.3 3.5

Professional and business services

880 1,046 808 4.1 4.7 3.7

Education and health services

1,116 1,057 1,102 4.6 4.3 4.5

Educational services

93 100 74 2.5 2.5 1.9

Health care and social assistance

1,023 957 1,028 5.0 4.6 5.0

Leisure and hospitality

569 762 727 3.6 4.6 4.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

62 64 59 2.9 2.9 2.7

Accommodation and food services

507 698 669 3.7 4.9 4.7

Other services

236 240 221 4.0 4.0 3.7

Government

458 499 502 2.0 2.1 2.2

Federal

110 71 84 3.7 2.5 2.9

State and local

348 427 419 1.7 2.1 2.1

State and local education

127 152 152 1.2 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education

220 275 267 2.4 2.9 2.9

REGION(3)

Northeast

935 964 947 3.3 3.4 3.3

South

1,873 2,035 1,872 3.4 3.6 3.3

Midwest

1,150 1,476 1,301 3.4 4.3 3.8

West

1,158 1,273 1,239 3.4 3.6 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

3,905 5,090 4,092 2.7 3.4 2.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,711 4,791 3,875 3.0 3.8 3.1

Mining and logging

15 33 21 2.2 4.5 2.9

Construction

231 257 193 3.5 3.6 2.8

Manufacturing

196 278 232 1.6 2.2 1.9

Durable goods

116 161 140 1.5 2.1 1.8

Nondurable goods

80 117 92 1.7 2.5 2.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

816 1,316 853 2.9 4.7 3.0

Wholesale trade

95 108 104 1.6 1.8 1.7

Retail trade

506 900 513 3.1 5.5 3.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

215 308 235 3.7 5.3 4.0

Information

63 74 73 2.3 2.7 2.7

Financial activities

141 164 139 1.7 1.9 1.6

Finance and insurance

94 109 94 1.5 1.7 1.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

46 55 46 2.1 2.5 2.1

Professional and business services

929 1,084 993 4.5 5.1 4.7

Education and health services

465 567 477 2.0 2.4 2.0

Educational services

37 63 52 1.0 1.6 1.4

Health care and social assistance

428 504 425 2.2 2.6 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

741 859 753 4.8 5.5 4.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

112 114 103 5.4 5.3 4.9

Accommodation and food services

629 745 650 4.7 5.5 4.8

Other services

115 159 140 2.0 2.7 2.4

Government

194 299 217 0.9 1.3 1.0

Federal

37 51 28 1.3 1.8 1.0

State and local

157 247 189 0.8 1.2 1.0

State and local education

69 117 88 0.6 1.1 0.8

State and local, excluding education

88 131 101 1.0 1.4 1.1

REGION(3)

Northeast

658 715 582 2.4 2.6 2.1

South

1,508 2,073 1,692 2.8 3.8 3.1

Midwest

861 1,094 900 2.6 3.3 2.7

West

879 1,208 918 2.6 3.6 2.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

4,851 4,566 4,978 3.3 3.1 3.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,562 4,317 4,665 3.7 3.4 3.7

Mining and logging

19 27 33 2.9 3.7 4.5

Construction

432 327 326 6.5 4.6 4.7

Manufacturing

248 271 279 2.0 2.2 2.2

Durable goods

137 140 154 1.8 1.8 2.0

Nondurable goods

111 130 125 2.4 2.8 2.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

965 879 1,068 3.4 3.1 3.8

Wholesale trade

115 105 121 2.0 1.8 2.0

Retail trade

644 602 692 3.9 3.7 4.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

206 172 255 3.5 3.0 4.3

Information

74 60 79 2.7 2.2 2.9

Financial activities

153 143 157 1.8 1.7 1.8

Finance and insurance

102 104 108 1.6 1.7 1.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

51 39 49 2.3 1.8 2.2

Professional and business services

1,150 1,056 1,160 5.6 5.0 5.5

Education and health services

512 494 537 2.2 2.1 2.3

Educational services

54 46 72 1.5 1.2 1.9

Health care and social assistance

458 448 465 2.4 2.3 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

845 905 848 5.5 5.8 5.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

130 173 114 6.3 8.1 5.4

Accommodation and food services

715 733 734 5.4 5.4 5.4

Other services

163 156 178 2.9 2.7 3.1

Government

289 249 312 1.3 1.1 1.4

Federal

40 37 33 1.4 1.3 1.2

State and local

248 211 280 1.3 1.1 1.4

State and local education

103 74 135 1.0 0.7 1.3

State and local, excluding education

145 137 144 1.6 1.5 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

820 726 798 3.0 2.6 2.9

South

1,795 1,839 1,871 3.4 3.4 3.5

Midwest

1,125 992 1,195 3.5 3.0 3.6

West

1,111 1,010 1,113 3.3 3.0 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

2,614 2,650 2,823 1.8 1.8 1.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,483 2,521 2,688 2.0 2.0 2.1

Mining and logging

10 13 16 1.5 1.7 2.2

Construction

104 108 92 1.6 1.5 1.3

Manufacturing

121 148 154 1.0 1.2 1.2

Durable goods

64 79 86 0.8 1.0 1.1

Nondurable goods

57 69 68 1.2 1.5 1.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

560 550 621 2.0 2.0 2.2

Wholesale trade

67 70 78 1.1 1.2 1.3

Retail trade

393 375 426 2.4 2.3 2.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

99 105 117 1.7 1.8 2.0

Information

43 34 42 1.5 1.2 1.5

Financial activities

66 93 103 0.8 1.1 1.2

Finance and insurance

47 70 72 0.8 1.1 1.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

19 23 31 0.9 1.0 1.4

Professional and business services

594 635 676 2.9 3.0 3.2

Education and health services

336 322 350 1.5 1.4 1.5

Educational services

28 30 40 0.8 0.8 1.1

Health care and social assistance

308 292 310 1.6 1.5 1.6

Leisure and hospitality

565 548 559 3.7 3.5 3.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

52 53 50 2.5 2.5 2.4

Accommodation and food services

513 495 509 3.8 3.6 3.7

Other services

86 69 75 1.5 1.2 1.3

Government

131 130 136 0.6 0.6 0.6

Federal

13 16 12 0.5 0.6 0.4

State and local

118 114 124 0.6 0.6 0.6

State and local education

47 49 56 0.4 0.4 0.5

State and local, excluding education

70 65 68 0.8 0.7 0.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

381 372 373 1.4 1.4 1.4

South

1,040 1,085 1,111 2.0 2.0 2.1

Midwest

559 577 643 1.7 1.7 2.0

West

635 616 696 1.9 1.8 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

1,850 1,635 1,817 1.3 1.1 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,756 1,557 1,693 1.4 1.2 1.3

Mining and logging

6 13 16 0.9 1.7 2.1

Construction

308 211 224 4.6 3.0 3.2

Manufacturing

104 106 106 0.8 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

56 51 55 0.7 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

49 55 51 1.1 1.2 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

324 270 384 1.2 1.0 1.4

Wholesale trade

36 31 33 0.6 0.5 0.5

Retail trade

200 184 225 1.2 1.1 1.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

89 55 126 1.5 1.0 2.1

Information

21 20 28 0.8 0.7 1.0

Financial activities

61 37 38 0.7 0.4 0.5

Finance and insurance

33 22 25 0.5 0.3 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

28 15 14 1.3 0.7 0.6

Professional and business services

484 365 426 2.4 1.7 2.0

Education and health services

132 130 131 0.6 0.6 0.6

Educational services

22 14 28 0.6 0.4 0.8

Health care and social assistance

109 116 102 0.6 0.6 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

251 328 254 1.6 2.1 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

76 115 60 3.7 5.4 2.8

Accommodation and food services

175 212 194 1.3 1.6 1.4

Other services

65 78 86 1.2 1.3 1.5

Government

94 78 123 0.4 0.3 0.5

Federal

13 14 10 0.5 0.5 0.3

State and local

81 64 114 0.4 0.3 0.6

State and local education

40 17 64 0.4 0.2 0.6

State and local, excluding education

41 47 49 0.5 0.5 0.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

384 310 362 1.4 1.1 1.3

South

591 631 627 1.1 1.2 1.2

Midwest

491 362 483 1.5 1.1 1.5

West

385 332 345 1.2 1.0 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)
Dec.
2016
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017(p)

Total

387 280 338 0.3 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

323 240 285 0.3 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

4 1 1 0.5 0.2 0.2

Construction

20 8 10 0.3 0.1 0.1

Manufacturing

23 16 19 0.2 0.1 0.2

Durable goods

17 10 13 0.2 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

6 6 6 0.1 0.1 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

81 59 63 0.3 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

12 4 11 0.2 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

51 44 40 0.3 0.3 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

18 11 12 0.3 0.2 0.2

Information

10 6 9 0.4 0.2 0.3

Financial activities

26 13 16 0.3 0.2 0.2

Finance and insurance

22 12 12 0.4 0.2 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

4 1 4 0.2 0.0 0.2

Professional and business services

72 57 59 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

45 42 57 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

4 2 4 0.1 0.1 0.1

Health care and social assistance

41 40 53 0.2 0.2 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

30 29 35 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3 5 4 0.1 0.2 0.2

Accommodation and food services

27 25 30 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services

12 9 17 0.2 0.2 0.3

Government

64 40 53 0.3 0.2 0.2

Federal

14 7 11 0.5 0.2 0.4

State and local

50 34 42 0.3 0.2 0.2

State and local education

16 9 15 0.1 0.1 0.1

State and local, excluding education

34 25 27 0.4 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

56 43 63 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

164 123 133 0.3 0.2 0.2

Midwest

76 52 68 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

91 62 73 0.3 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: February 06, 2018