Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, September 11, 2018	USDL-18-1451

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                              JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – JULY 2018

The number of job openings was little changed at 6.9 million on the last business day of July, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were little changed at 
5.7 million and 5.5 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was little changed at 2.4 
percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.1 percent. This release includes estimates 
of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by 
four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of July, the job openings level was little changed but reached a new series high 
of 6.9 million. The job openings rate was 4.4 percent. The number of job openings was little changed for 
total private and for government. Job openings increased in finance and insurance (+46,000) and 
nondurable goods manufacturing (+32,000) but decreased in retail trade (-85,000), educational services 
(-34,000), and federal government (-19,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four 
regions. (See table 1.)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|                     Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) Data Corrections                      |
|This news release contains corrections to previously released data in tables A, 1-3, 5, 7-9, and 11. More |
|information on these corrections as well as a complete list of corrections in this news release and in    |
|the JOLTS database can be found at www.bls.gov/bls/errata/jolts-errata-06122018.htm.                      |
|__________________________________________________________________________________________________________|

Hires

The number of hires was little changed at 5.7 million in July. The hires rate was 3.8 percent. The 
number of hires was little changed for total private and for government. Hires decreased in finance and 
insurance (-36,000). The number of hires was little changed in all four regions. (See table 2.)
 
Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.5 million in July. The total separations rate was 
3.7 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
Total separations increased in educational services (+26,000) but decreased in arts, entertainment, and 
recreation (-43,000). Total separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in July at 3.6 million. The quits rate was 2.4 percent. The 
number of quits edged up for total private (+109,000) and was little changed for government. Quits 
increased in accommodation and food services (+61,000), other services (+49,000), and educational 
services (+12,000). The number of quits was little changed in all four regions. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed at 1.6 million in July. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for total 
private and for government. Layoffs and discharges increased in retail trade (+53,000) but decreased in 
arts, entertainment, and recreation (-40,000). The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in 
all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in July at 349,000. The other separations level was 
little changed for total private and for government. Other separations were little changed in all 
industries. The number of other separations decreased in the Northeast region. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in July, hires totaled 66.7 million and 
separations totaled 64.2 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.5 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for August 2018 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, October 16, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

6,202 6,822 6,939 5,498 5,677 5,679 5,406 5,514 5,534

Total private

5,674 6,183 6,316 5,164 5,328 5,339 5,065 5,172 5,187

Mining and logging(1)

26 27 28 34 41 39 27 34 37

Construction(1)

255 267 273 355 360 377 368 350 347

Manufacturing

391 475 506 339 360 393 332 337 346

Durable goods(1)

189 293 292 192 207 236 195 180 187

Nondurable goods(1)

201 182 214 148 153 158 137 156 159

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,138 1,348 1,307 1,026 1,120 1,136 1,019 1,116 1,139

Wholesale trade(1)

227 222 251 141 135 136 145 131 125

Retail trade

655 842 757 688 755 786 690 778 812

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

256 285 299 196 230 214 184 207 202

Information(1)

110 136 146 80 78 79 88 81 80

Financial activities

365 352 378 207 247 211 200 234 233

Finance and insurance

276 244 290 141 169 133 127 154 148

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

90 108 88 66 79 78 72 79 84

Professional and business services

1,077 1,155 1,203 1,206 1,160 1,160 1,147 1,132 1,072

Education and health services

1,158 1,295 1,249 669 712 693 619 665 659

Educational services(1)

140 147 113 90 91 93 83 71 97

Health care and social assistance

1,018 1,148 1,136 579 620 600 536 594 561

Leisure and hospitality

828 931 1,003 1,030 1,047 1,064 1,008 1,018 1,047

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

81 86 94 177 166 145 205 173 130

Accommodation and food services

748 845 909 853 881 919 803 845 917

Other services(1)

326 198 224 219 202 187 258 207 227

Government

529 639 623 334 349 340 341 341 348

Federal(1)

90 115 96 32 30 35 38 32 35

State and local

439 524 526 302 320 305 303 309 313

State and local education

161 194 191 146 165 151 150 153 157

State and local, excluding education(1)

278 330 335 156 155 154 152 156 156





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.1 4.4 4.4 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7

Total private

4.4 4.7 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1

Mining and logging(1)

3.7 3.5 3.7 5.0 5.5 5.2 4.0 4.6 5.0

Construction(1)

3.5 3.6 3.6 5.1 5.0 5.2 5.3 4.8 4.8

Manufacturing

3.0 3.6 3.8 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.7

Durable goods(1)

2.4 3.6 3.5 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.5 2.3 2.3

Nondurable goods(1)

4.1 3.7 4.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

4.0 4.6 4.5 3.7 4.0 4.1 3.7 4.0 4.1

Wholesale trade(1)

3.7 3.6 4.0 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.1

Retail trade

4.0 5.0 4.5 4.3 4.7 4.9 4.4 4.9 5.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

4.3 4.6 4.8 3.4 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.4

Information(1)

3.8 4.7 5.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.9

Financial activities

4.1 3.9 4.2 2.4 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.7 2.7

Finance and insurance

4.2 3.7 4.4 2.3 2.7 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.9 4.6 3.8 3.0 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.8

Professional and business services

5.0 5.2 5.4 5.9 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.1

Education and health services

4.7 5.2 5.0 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8

Educational services(1)

3.7 3.8 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.2 1.9 2.6

Health care and social assistance

4.9 5.5 5.4 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

4.9 5.4 5.8 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.3 3.5 3.8 7.6 7.1 6.2 8.8 7.4 5.5

Accommodation and food services

5.1 5.7 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.6 5.8 6.0 6.5

Other services(1)

5.3 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.4 3.2 4.5 3.5 3.9

Government

2.3 2.8 2.7 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6

Federal(1)

3.1 3.9 3.3 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.2

State and local

2.2 2.6 2.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local education

1.5 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.0 3.5 3.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, and federal government data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

6,202 6,638 6,840 6,659 6,822 6,939 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,674 6,026 6,263 6,052 6,183 6,316 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7

Mining and logging(3)

26 22 27 34 27 28 3.7 3.0 3.6 4.5 3.5 3.7

Construction(3)

255 235 243 253 267 273 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.6

Manufacturing

391 421 452 474 475 506 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.8

Durable goods(3)

189 253 281 296 293 292 2.4 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.5

Nondurable goods(3)

201 168 171 178 182 214 4.1 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,138 1,231 1,298 1,308 1,348 1,307 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.5

Wholesale trade(3)

227 199 214 183 222 251 3.7 3.2 3.5 3.0 3.6 4.0

Retail trade

655 733 771 793 842 757 4.0 4.4 4.6 4.7 5.0 4.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

256 299 313 332 285 299 4.3 4.9 5.1 5.4 4.6 4.8

Information(3)

110 152 188 132 136 146 3.8 5.2 6.3 4.5 4.7 5.0

Financial activities

365 368 335 350 352 378 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.2

Finance and insurance

276 281 237 262 244 290 4.2 4.3 3.6 4.0 3.7 4.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

90 87 98 88 108 88 3.9 3.7 4.2 3.8 4.6 3.8

Professional and business services

1,077 1,160 1,254 1,159 1,155 1,203 5.0 5.3 5.7 5.3 5.2 5.4

Education and health services

1,158 1,269 1,287 1,248 1,295 1,249 4.7 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.0

Educational services(3)

140 103 114 112 147 113 3.7 2.7 3.0 2.9 3.8 2.9

Health care and social assistance

1,018 1,166 1,173 1,136 1,148 1,136 4.9 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.4

Leisure and hospitality

828 900 940 877 931 1,003 4.9 5.2 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

81 86 113 88 86 94 3.3 3.5 4.6 3.6 3.5 3.8

Accommodation and food services

748 815 827 789 845 909 5.1 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.7 6.1

Other services(3)

326 268 239 218 198 224 5.3 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.3 3.7

Government

529 612 577 607 639 623 2.3 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.7

Federal(3)

90 101 82 97 115 96 3.1 3.5 2.9 3.4 3.9 3.3

State and local

439 511 495 510 524 526 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6

State and local education

161 174 175 173 194 191 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.8

State and local, excluding education(3)

278 337 320 337 330 335 3.0 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,119 1,135 1,196 1,104 1,174 1,175 4.0 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.1

South

2,246 2,331 2,405 2,414 2,429 2,515 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.4

Midwest

1,407 1,630 1,656 1,667 1,672 1,686 4.2 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9

West

1,430 1,542 1,582 1,474 1,547 1,562 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

5,498 5,476 5,581 5,747 5,677 5,679 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,164 5,150 5,236 5,404 5,328 5,339 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.2

Mining and logging

34 35 39 42 41 39 5.0 4.9 5.3 5.7 5.5 5.2

Construction

355 343 347 386 360 377 5.1 4.8 4.8 5.3 5.0 5.2

Manufacturing

339 353 358 356 360 393 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.1

Durable goods

192 211 213 208 207 236 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.0

Nondurable goods

148 142 145 149 153 158 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,026 1,080 1,109 1,099 1,120 1,136 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1

Wholesale trade

141 139 128 130 135 136 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3

Retail trade

688 721 759 738 755 786 4.3 4.5 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

196 220 222 231 230 214 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.6

Information

80 84 84 89 78 79 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.8 2.9

Financial activities

207 183 194 202 247 211 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.9 2.5

Finance and insurance

141 115 127 129 169 133 2.3 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.7 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

66 68 68 73 79 78 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.5

Professional and business services

1,206 1,178 1,143 1,190 1,160 1,160 5.9 5.7 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.5

Education and health services

669 662 687 723 712 693 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.0 2.9

Educational services

90 91 103 102 91 93 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.5

Health care and social assistance

579 571 584 621 620 600 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

1,030 1,013 1,050 1,081 1,047 1,064 6.4 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

177 161 171 181 166 145 7.6 6.9 7.3 7.7 7.1 6.2

Accommodation and food services

853 852 879 900 881 919 6.2 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.3 6.6

Other services

219 219 223 236 202 187 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.4 3.2

Government

334 326 344 343 349 340 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5

Federal

32 29 37 29 30 35 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.3

State and local

302 297 308 314 320 305 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local education

146 146 155 147 165 151 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.5

State and local, excluding education

156 151 153 167 155 154 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

878 785 806 854 898 916 3.2 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.3

South

2,118 2,178 2,229 2,304 2,286 2,309 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2

Midwest

1,291 1,216 1,224 1,336 1,245 1,278 4.0 3.7 3.7 4.1 3.8 3.9

West

1,211 1,297 1,322 1,252 1,249 1,176 3.6 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

5,406 5,321 5,424 5,419 5,514 5,534 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,065 4,986 5,085 5,093 5,172 5,187 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1

Mining and logging

27 34 34 35 34 37 4.0 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.6 5.0

Construction

368 352 318 340 350 347 5.3 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.8 4.8

Manufacturing

332 342 343 342 337 346 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7

Durable goods

195 198 198 193 180 187 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3

Nondurable goods

137 145 145 149 156 159 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,019 1,067 1,104 1,073 1,116 1,139 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.1

Wholesale trade

145 131 136 119 131 125 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.1

Retail trade

690 732 757 726 778 812 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.9 5.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

184 205 211 228 207 202 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.4

Information

88 75 85 92 81 80 3.1 2.7 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.9

Financial activities

200 171 198 191 234 233 2.4 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.7

Finance and insurance

127 106 122 120 154 148 2.0 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

72 64 76 71 79 84 3.3 2.9 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.8

Professional and business services

1,147 1,163 1,114 1,143 1,132 1,072 5.6 5.6 5.3 5.5 5.4 5.1

Education and health services

619 615 641 652 665 659 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8

Educational services

83 91 91 95 71 97 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.6 1.9 2.6

Health care and social assistance

536 525 549 557 594 561 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,008 973 1,050 1,038 1,018 1,047 6.3 6.0 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

205 145 176 166 173 130 8.8 6.2 7.5 7.1 7.4 5.5

Accommodation and food services

803 828 874 872 845 917 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.3 6.0 6.5

Other services

258 194 199 188 207 227 4.5 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.9

Government

341 335 339 326 341 348 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6

Federal

38 39 35 31 32 35 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2

State and local

303 296 304 295 309 313 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6

State and local education

150 149 160 144 153 157 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5

State and local, excluding education

152 147 144 150 156 156 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

875 773 802 795 857 781 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.8

South

2,148 2,166 2,194 2,173 2,189 2,300 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2

Midwest

1,213 1,125 1,144 1,237 1,236 1,249 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.7 3.8

West

1,171 1,258 1,285 1,214 1,232 1,204 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

3,240 3,387 3,349 3,480 3,477 3,583 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,076 3,217 3,166 3,287 3,285 3,394 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7

Mining and logging

18 21 22 23 21 22 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.0

Construction

149 149 154 162 164 175 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Manufacturing

203 211 204 197 206 209 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

Durable goods

121 126 116 111 113 117 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5

Nondurable goods

82 85 88 86 93 92 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

677 667 688 737 751 724 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6

Wholesale trade

91 84 84 86 79 79 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

Retail trade

471 461 486 512 550 533 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

115 122 119 138 122 113 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.1 1.9

Information

52 43 48 56 51 48 1.9 1.6 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.7

Financial activities

117 101 97 110 129 144 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7

Finance and insurance

78 62 45 66 78 77 1.2 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

39 39 52 44 52 67 1.8 1.7 2.3 2.0 2.3 3.0

Professional and business services

630 715 671 692 723 728 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Education and health services

396 433 433 468 440 437 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.8

Educational services

45 46 52 50 34 46 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 0.9 1.2

Health care and social assistance

351 387 381 417 407 391 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

667 731 724 714 705 763 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

64 92 70 71 77 74 2.7 3.9 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.1

Accommodation and food services

603 639 653 643 629 690 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.9

Other services(3)

166 145 125 129 95 144 2.9 2.5 2.1 2.2 1.6 2.4

Government

164 171 184 193 192 189 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8

Federal

14 15 16 15 14 15 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

150 156 168 178 178 174 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

State and local education

77 79 90 93 92 93 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

State and local, excluding education

73 77 78 85 86 81 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

458 438 460 471 460 463 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7

South

1,353 1,419 1,385 1,457 1,432 1,510 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8

Midwest

697 718 717 775 819 827 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.5

West

732 813 786 777 766 783 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

1,816 1,546 1,731 1,618 1,652 1,602 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,695 1,448 1,640 1,538 1,568 1,503 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

6 11 11 10 11 14 0.9 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.9

Construction

210 180 156 159 176 163 3.0 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.2

Manufacturing

108 110 118 124 111 116 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

61 60 69 69 55 55 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

47 50 49 55 56 61 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

267 302 343 262 290 345 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.2

Wholesale trade(3)

43 32 43 21 37 33 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

166 199 220 163 184 237 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

58 71 80 79 70 75 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.3

Information

24 27 29 25 22 26 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9

Financial activities

60 41 72 72 68 60 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7

Finance and insurance

29 23 50 46 44 44 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

30 19 22 26 23 16 1.4 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.7

Professional and business services

447 376 386 383 341 281 2.2 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.3

Education and health services

170 143 165 146 172 170 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7

Educational services

29 37 33 38 29 42 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.1

Health care and social assistance

141 106 132 108 143 128 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

319 224 303 304 283 255 2.0 1.4 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

139 49 102 91 94 54 6.0 2.1 4.3 3.9 4.0 2.3

Accommodation and food services

180 174 201 213 189 201 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4

Other services

83 34 59 51 94 74 1.4 0.6 1.0 0.9 1.6 1.3

Government

121 98 91 80 84 100 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

Federal

15 11 6 7 6 7 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

State and local

106 87 85 73 78 93 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5

State and local education

51 45 46 33 34 38 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4

State and local, excluding education

55 42 39 40 44 54 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6

REGION(4)

Northeast

351 268 263 267 316 263 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0

South

678 604 680 610 632 668 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2

Midwest

440 326 366 392 334 349 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1

West

347 350 422 349 369 322 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

350 387 344 321 384 349 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

294 322 279 268 319 289 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Mining and logging

2 2 1 2 2 1 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1

Construction(3)

10 22 8 19 10 9 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1

Manufacturing

21 21 21 21 20 21 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

13 13 13 13 13 15 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

8 9 8 8 7 7 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

75 98 73 74 75 70 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

10 14 10 12 15 13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Retail trade

53 72 52 51 44 42 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

11 12 12 11 15 15 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Information(3)

12 4 8 10 8 7 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2

Financial activities

22 29 29 9 37 29 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.3

Finance and insurance

20 21 27 8 33 28 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

3 7 2 1 4 1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

69 72 57 67 69 62 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

53 39 43 39 52 51 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services(3)

8 7 6 6 8 9 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

44 32 36 32 44 42 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

22 19 24 19 29 29 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

1 4 4 4 3 2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

20 15 20 15 27 27 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

9 16 15 8 18 9 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.2

Government

56 66 65 52 65 59 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Federal

9 13 13 8 12 12 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local

47 53 52 44 53 47 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local education

23 25 25 19 27 26 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

State and local, excluding education

24 28 28 25 26 21 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(4)

Northeast

66 67 78 57 80 55 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

South

117 144 128 106 124 122 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Midwest

75 81 60 70 83 73 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

West

92 95 77 88 97 99 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

6,502 6,786 7,313 4.2 4.3 4.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,931 6,123 6,642 4.5 4.6 4.9

Mining and logging

26 27 28 3.7 3.4 3.6

Construction

255 267 273 3.4 3.5 3.5

Manufacturing

391 475 506 3.0 3.6 3.8

Durable goods

189 293 292 2.4 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

201 182 214 4.1 3.7 4.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,223 1,339 1,385 4.3 4.6 4.7

Wholesale trade

227 222 251 3.7 3.6 4.0

Retail trade

740 832 835 4.5 5.0 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

256 285 299 4.3 4.6 4.9

Information

110 136 146 3.8 4.6 5.0

Financial activities

373 341 392 4.2 3.8 4.3

Finance and insurance

283 233 305 4.3 3.5 4.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

90 108 88 3.9 4.5 3.7

Professional and business services

1,126 1,166 1,302 5.2 5.2 5.8

Education and health services

1,213 1,245 1,309 5.0 5.0 5.3

Educational services

140 147 113 4.0 4.0 3.2

Health care and social assistance

1,073 1,097 1,196 5.2 5.2 5.7

Leisure and hospitality

890 931 1,077 5.0 5.2 5.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

79 78 95 2.8 2.9 3.4

Accommodation and food services

810 853 981 5.4 5.6 6.4

Other services

326 198 224 5.3 3.2 3.6

Government

571 662 671 2.6 2.9 3.1

Federal

90 115 96 3.1 3.9 3.3

State and local

481 548 574 2.6 2.7 3.1

State and local education

203 218 240 2.3 2.1 2.6

State and local, excluding education

278 330 335 2.9 3.4 3.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,164 1,154 1,234 4.2 4.0 4.3

South

2,404 2,457 2,729 4.3 4.3 4.8

Midwest

1,451 1,633 1,728 4.3 4.7 5.0

West

1,482 1,541 1,622 4.2 4.3 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

5,916 6,500 6,125 4.0 4.3 4.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,546 6,065 5,744 4.4 4.7 4.5

Mining and logging

37 48 43 5.3 6.4 5.7

Construction

415 416 446 5.8 5.6 5.9

Manufacturing

371 448 434 3.0 3.5 3.4

Durable goods

204 251 253 2.6 3.1 3.2

Nondurable goods

167 197 181 3.5 4.1 3.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,025 1,136 1,137 3.7 4.1 4.1

Wholesale trade

159 155 153 2.7 2.6 2.5

Retail trade

678 764 786 4.3 4.8 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

188 216 197 3.3 3.7 3.4

Information

85 88 82 3.0 3.2 3.0

Financial activities

231 288 235 2.7 3.3 2.7

Finance and insurance

162 196 151 2.6 3.1 2.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

69 92 84 3.1 4.0 3.6

Professional and business services

1,259 1,253 1,211 6.1 5.9 5.7

Education and health services

762 799 784 3.3 3.4 3.4

Educational services

108 109 108 3.2 3.1 3.2

Health care and social assistance

654 689 676 3.3 3.5 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

1,100 1,312 1,151 6.5 7.7 6.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

184 282 144 6.8 10.6 5.3

Accommodation and food services

916 1,029 1,007 6.5 7.2 7.0

Other services

263 278 220 4.5 4.7 3.7

Government

369 435 381 1.8 2.0 1.8

Federal

28 39 37 1.0 1.4 1.3

State and local

342 396 344 1.9 2.0 1.9

State and local education

158 131 164 1.8 1.3 1.9

State and local, excluding education

183 265 181 1.9 2.8 1.9

REGION(3)

Northeast

984 1,106 1,048 3.7 4.0 3.8

South

2,256 2,472 2,449 4.2 4.5 4.5

Midwest

1,327 1,468 1,333 4.1 4.4 4.1

West

1,348 1,454 1,295 4.0 4.2 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

5,782 5,774 5,977 3.9 3.8 4.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,365 5,223 5,551 4.3 4.1 4.3

Mining and logging

30 33 40 4.3 4.5 5.4

Construction

395 314 387 5.5 4.2 5.2

Manufacturing

360 348 374 2.9 2.7 2.9

Durable goods

221 188 213 2.9 2.3 2.7

Nondurable goods

138 160 161 2.9 3.3 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,050 1,090 1,154 3.8 3.9 4.2

Wholesale trade

157 134 138 2.6 2.2 2.3

Retail trade

698 758 813 4.4 4.8 5.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

195 198 203 3.4 3.4 3.5

Information

93 77 85 3.3 2.7 3.0

Financial activities

202 236 233 2.4 2.7 2.7

Finance and insurance

127 157 148 2.0 2.5 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

75 80 85 3.3 3.5 3.7

Professional and business services

1,197 1,147 1,128 5.8 5.4 5.3

Education and health services

736 775 787 3.2 3.3 3.4

Educational services

119 123 146 3.6 3.5 4.3

Health care and social assistance

617 652 641 3.2 3.3 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

1,035 999 1,123 6.1 5.9 6.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

158 140 125 5.9 5.2 4.6

Accommodation and food services

877 859 998 6.2 6.0 6.9

Other services

268 203 239 4.6 3.4 4.0

Government

417 551 426 2.0 2.5 2.0

Federal

33 30 33 1.2 1.1 1.2

State and local

384 521 393 2.1 2.7 2.2

State and local education

229 358 235 2.6 3.5 2.7

State and local, excluding education

155 164 157 1.6 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

932 870 837 3.5 3.2 3.1

South

2,344 2,320 2,546 4.4 4.2 4.7

Midwest

1,236 1,275 1,312 3.8 3.8 4.0

West

1,271 1,310 1,282 3.8 3.8 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

3,653 3,711 4,044 2.5 2.5 2.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,451 3,408 3,810 2.8 2.7 3.0

Mining and logging

21 20 25 3.0 2.7 3.4

Construction

187 170 224 2.6 2.3 3.0

Manufacturing

236 220 242 1.9 1.7 1.9

Durable goods

144 118 140 1.9 1.5 1.7

Nondurable goods

92 102 103 1.9 2.1 2.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

723 758 772 2.6 2.7 2.8

Wholesale trade

101 81 87 1.7 1.4 1.4

Retail trade

489 557 558 3.1 3.5 3.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

133 120 127 2.3 2.0 2.2

Information

58 48 54 2.1 1.7 1.9

Financial activities

124 137 152 1.5 1.6 1.8

Finance and insurance

85 85 85 1.3 1.3 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

39 52 67 1.8 2.3 2.9

Professional and business services

694 735 799 3.4 3.5 3.8

Education and health services

470 492 513 2.1 2.1 2.2

Educational services

64 50 67 1.9 1.4 2.0

Health care and social assistance

405 442 446 2.1 2.2 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

771 732 884 4.6 4.3 5.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

82 84 94 3.0 3.1 3.5

Accommodation and food services

689 648 790 4.9 4.5 5.5

Other services

166 95 144 2.8 1.6 2.4

Government

202 303 234 1.0 1.4 1.1

Federal

14 15 15 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

187 288 219 1.0 1.5 1.2

State and local education

105 193 129 1.2 1.9 1.5

State and local, excluding education

82 95 89 0.9 1.0 1.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

514 475 519 1.9 1.7 1.9

South

1,545 1,543 1,738 2.9 2.8 3.2

Midwest

774 873 927 2.4 2.6 2.8

West

820 820 860 2.4 2.4 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

1,764 1,615 1,569 1.2 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,621 1,497 1,451 1.3 1.2 1.1

Mining and logging

6 11 14 0.9 1.4 1.9

Construction

198 134 154 2.8 1.8 2.1

Manufacturing

101 107 108 0.8 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

63 55 56 0.8 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

38 52 52 0.8 1.1 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

244 262 307 0.9 0.9 1.1

Wholesale trade

43 37 33 0.7 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

150 163 213 0.9 1.0 1.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

51 63 61 0.9 1.1 1.0

Information

24 20 24 0.8 0.7 0.9

Financial activities

60 62 58 0.7 0.7 0.7

Finance and insurance

28 39 42 0.4 0.6 0.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

33 23 16 1.5 1.0 0.7

Professional and business services

438 343 267 2.1 1.6 1.3

Education and health services

213 230 223 0.9 1.0 1.0

Educational services

46 65 70 1.4 1.8 2.1

Health care and social assistance

167 165 153 0.9 0.8 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

242 237 210 1.4 1.4 1.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

75 53 28 2.8 2.0 1.0

Accommodation and food services

167 184 181 1.2 1.3 1.3

Other services

94 90 86 1.6 1.5 1.5

Government

143 117 117 0.7 0.5 0.6

Federal

10 4 6 0.4 0.2 0.2

State and local

133 113 111 0.7 0.6 0.6

State and local education

89 76 66 1.0 0.7 0.8

State and local, excluding education

44 37 44 0.5 0.4 0.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

345 300 256 1.3 1.1 0.9

South

678 633 686 1.3 1.2 1.3

Midwest

386 309 310 1.2 0.9 0.9

West

357 373 316 1.1 1.1 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)
July
2017
June
2018
July
2018(p)

Total

365 449 365 0.2 0.3 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

293 317 290 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

3 2 1 0.4 0.3 0.1

Construction

10 10 9 0.1 0.1 0.1

Manufacturing

22 22 23 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

14 15 16 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods

8 7 7 0.2 0.1 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

82 70 75 0.3 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

12 16 18 0.2 0.3 0.3

Retail trade

58 38 42 0.4 0.2 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

11 15 15 0.2 0.3 0.3

Information

12 8 7 0.4 0.3 0.2

Financial activities

17 38 22 0.2 0.4 0.3

Finance and insurance

14 33 21 0.2 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

3 4 1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

65 69 63 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

53 52 51 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

8 8 9 0.3 0.2 0.3

Health care and social assistance

44 44 42 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

22 29 29 0.1 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services

20 27 27 0.1 0.2 0.2

Other services

9 18 9 0.1 0.3 0.2

Government

72 132 75 0.3 0.6 0.4

Federal

8 11 12 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local

64 120 63 0.3 0.6 0.3

State and local education

35 89 40 0.4 0.9 0.5

State and local, excluding education

28 31 23 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

73 93 62 0.3 0.3 0.2

South

121 145 123 0.2 0.3 0.2

Midwest

77 94 74 0.2 0.3 0.2

West

95 117 106 0.3 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: September 11, 2018