Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Monday, December 10, 2018	USDL-18-1936

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – OCTOBER 2018

The number of job openings was little changed at 7.1 million on the last business day of October, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires edged up to 5.9 million, and 
separations were little changed at 5.6 million. Within separations, the quits rate was little changed at 2.3 
percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.1 percent. This release includes estimates 
of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by 
four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of October, the job openings level was little changed at 7.1 million. The job 
openings rate was 4.5 percent in October. The number of job openings was little changed for total 
private and for government. Job openings increased in information (+45,000), real estate and rental and 
leasing (+38,000), educational services (+20,000), and state and local government education (+17,000). 
The number of job openings decreased in state and local government, excluding education (-38,000) and 
transportation, warehousing, and utilities (-33,000). Job openings were little changed in all four regions. 
(See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires edged up to 5.9 million (+196,000) in October, nearly matching its series high in 
August. The hires rate was 3.9 percent in October. The number of hires was little changed for total 
private and for government. Hires increased in transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+90,000) and 
durable goods manufacturing (+43,000), but decreased in mining and logging (-11,000). The number of 
hires was little changed in all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.6 million in October. The total separations rate 
was 3.7 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
Total separations increased in transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+37,000). The number of total 
separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in October at 3.5 million. The quits rate was 2.3 percent. The 
number of quits was little changed for total private and unchanged for government. Quits increased in 
health care and social assistance (+33,000), transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+30,000), and 
educational services (+12,000). The number of quits decreased in other services (-39,000). Quits 
decreased in the Northeast region. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in October at 1.7 million. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for total 
private and for government. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all industries 
and regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in October at 351,000. The other separations level 
was little changed for total private and for government. Other separations increased in construction 
(+18,000). The number of other separations decreased in a number of industries, with the largest 
decreases in health care and social assistance (-17,000) and arts, entertainment, and recreation  
(-6,000). The number of other separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in October, hires totaled 67.8 million and 
separations totaled 65.3 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.5 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

____________	
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for November 2018 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, January 8, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

6,059 6,960 7,079 5,600 5,696 5,892 5,272 5,641 5,556

Total private

5,515 6,340 6,489 5,267 5,358 5,537 4,929 5,306 5,210

Mining and logging(1)

28 34 29 32 44 33 31 34 29

Construction(1)

233 272 292 372 369 349 344 343 315

Manufacturing

410 485 522 343 322 384 314 315 345

Durable goods(1)

248 307 332 195 184 227 177 179 200

Nondurable goods(1)

162 178 189 148 138 157 137 136 145

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,031 1,282 1,280 1,059 1,167 1,273 1,014 1,192 1,183

Wholesale trade(1)

152 230 231 156 137 170 138 137 146

Retail trade

655 772 802 693 806 790 691 848 792

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

223 280 247 210 224 314 185 207 244

Information(1)

96 104 149 82 78 80 81 81 68

Financial activities

365 345 375 235 225 190 219 209 183

Finance and insurance

254 264 256 158 148 122 152 143 120

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

111 81 119 77 77 68 67 66 62

Professional and business services

1,084 1,248 1,227 1,141 1,180 1,184 1,077 1,161 1,131

Education and health services

1,127 1,278 1,297 679 692 721 669 646 659

Educational services(1)

93 83 103 86 92 97 102 89 89

Health care and social assistance

1,034 1,195 1,194 593 601 625 567 557 570

Leisure and hospitality

850 1,058 1,044 1,074 1,079 1,103 968 1,097 1,090

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

82 95 76 180 171 176 155 164 170

Accommodation and food services

768 963 968 894 908 927 812 933 920

Other services(1)

292 234 273 249 201 219 212 228 207

Government

544 620 590 333 338 355 342 335 347

Federal(1)

87 89 80 41 38 35 42 34 31

State and local

457 531 510 292 300 320 301 301 316

State and local education

156 200 217 153 159 165 158 157 169

State and local, excluding education(1)

301 331 293 139 141 155 142 144 147





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.0 4.4 4.5 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.7

Total private

4.2 4.8 4.8 4.2 4.2 4.3 3.9 4.2 4.1

Mining and logging(1)

3.9 4.3 3.6 4.7 5.9 4.4 4.4 4.5 3.8

Construction(1)

3.2 3.6 3.8 5.3 5.1 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.3

Manufacturing

3.2 3.7 3.9 2.7 2.5 3.0 2.5 2.5 2.7

Durable goods(1)

3.1 3.7 4.0 2.5 2.3 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.5

Nondurable goods(1)

3.3 3.6 3.8 3.1 2.9 3.3 2.9 2.8 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.6 4.4 4.4 3.8 4.2 4.6 3.7 4.3 4.2

Wholesale trade(1)

2.5 3.7 3.7 2.6 2.3 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.4

Retail trade

4.0 4.6 4.8 4.4 5.1 5.0 4.4 5.3 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.7 4.5 4.0 3.6 3.8 5.3 3.2 3.5 4.1

Information(1)

3.3 3.6 5.1 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.4

Financial activities

4.1 3.9 4.2 2.8 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.4 2.1

Finance and insurance

3.9 4.0 3.9 2.5 2.3 1.9 2.4 2.3 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

4.8 3.4 5.0 3.5 3.4 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.7

Professional and business services

5.0 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.2 5.5 5.4

Education and health services

4.6 5.1 5.2 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.8

Educational services(1)

2.5 2.2 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.4

Health care and social assistance

5.0 5.6 5.6 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

5.0 6.1 6.0 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.0 6.7 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.4 3.9 3.1 7.7 7.2 7.4 6.6 7.0 7.2

Accommodation and food services

5.3 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.6 5.9 6.7 6.6

Other services(1)

4.8 3.8 4.4 4.3 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.5

Government

2.4 2.7 2.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal(1)

3.0 3.1 2.8 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.1

State and local

2.3 2.6 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6

State and local education

1.5 1.9 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.2 3.5 3.1 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, and federal government data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

6,059 6,822 7,077 7,293 6,960 7,079 4.0 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,515 6,183 6,384 6,595 6,340 6,489 4.2 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.8

Mining and logging(3)

28 27 33 36 34 29 3.9 3.5 4.3 4.6 4.3 3.6

Construction(3)

233 267 275 317 272 292 3.2 3.6 3.7 4.2 3.6 3.8

Manufacturing

410 475 496 508 485 522 3.2 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.9

Durable goods(3)

248 293 289 304 307 332 3.1 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.7 4.0

Nondurable goods(3)

162 182 207 204 178 189 3.3 3.7 4.2 4.1 3.6 3.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,031 1,348 1,333 1,267 1,282 1,280 3.6 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.4

Wholesale trade(3)

152 222 261 221 230 231 2.5 3.6 4.2 3.5 3.7 3.7

Retail trade

655 842 773 760 772 802 4.0 5.0 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

223 285 300 287 280 247 3.7 4.6 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.0

Information(3)

96 136 146 149 104 149 3.3 4.7 5.0 5.1 3.6 5.1

Financial activities

365 352 396 450 345 375 4.1 3.9 4.4 5.0 3.9 4.2

Finance and insurance

254 244 309 354 264 256 3.9 3.7 4.6 5.3 4.0 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

111 108 88 96 81 119 4.8 4.6 3.8 4.1 3.4 5.0

Professional and business services

1,084 1,155 1,244 1,374 1,248 1,227 5.0 5.2 5.6 6.1 5.6 5.5

Education and health services

1,127 1,295 1,247 1,275 1,278 1,297 4.6 5.2 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2

Educational services(3)

93 147 120 123 83 103 2.5 3.8 3.1 3.2 2.2 2.7

Health care and social assistance

1,034 1,148 1,127 1,152 1,195 1,194 5.0 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.6

Leisure and hospitality

850 931 993 996 1,058 1,044 5.0 5.4 5.7 5.7 6.1 6.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

82 86 93 94 95 76 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.1

Accommodation and food services

768 845 900 901 963 968 5.3 5.7 6.0 6.0 6.4 6.5

Other services(3)

292 198 220 223 234 273 4.8 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.4

Government

544 639 693 698 620 590 2.4 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.6

Federal(3)

87 115 96 108 89 80 3.0 3.9 3.3 3.7 3.1 2.8

State and local

457 524 597 591 531 510 2.3 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.5

State and local education

156 194 213 206 200 217 1.5 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.0

State and local, excluding education(3)

301 330 383 384 331 293 3.2 3.5 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.1

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,018 1,174 1,201 1,177 1,191 1,177 3.6 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1

South

2,089 2,429 2,565 2,765 2,506 2,539 3.7 4.3 4.5 4.8 4.4 4.4

Midwest

1,536 1,672 1,707 1,707 1,657 1,729 4.5 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.8 5.0

West

1,417 1,547 1,604 1,644 1,605 1,634 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

5,600 5,677 5,713 5,906 5,696 5,892 3.8 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.8 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,267 5,328 5,366 5,551 5,358 5,537 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.3

Mining and logging

32 41 38 43 44 33 4.7 5.5 5.2 5.7 5.9 4.4

Construction

372 360 373 366 369 349 5.3 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.1 4.8

Manufacturing

343 360 392 368 322 384 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.5 3.0

Durable goods

195 207 231 205 184 227 2.5 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.8

Nondurable goods

148 153 161 163 138 157 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.4 2.9 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,059 1,120 1,142 1,218 1,167 1,273 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.2 4.6

Wholesale trade

156 135 134 164 137 170 2.6 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.3 2.8

Retail trade

693 755 790 818 806 790 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

210 230 218 236 224 314 3.6 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.8 5.3

Information

82 78 76 77 78 80 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9

Financial activities

235 247 215 221 225 190 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.2

Finance and insurance

158 169 136 141 148 122 2.5 2.7 2.2 2.2 2.3 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

77 79 79 80 77 68 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.0

Professional and business services

1,141 1,160 1,180 1,253 1,180 1,184 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.9 5.6 5.6

Education and health services

679 712 701 715 692 721 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.0

Educational services

86 91 104 92 92 97 2.3 2.4 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.6

Health care and social assistance

593 620 598 623 601 625 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

1,074 1,047 1,065 1,059 1,079 1,103 6.6 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

180 166 146 173 171 176 7.7 7.1 6.2 7.4 7.2 7.4

Accommodation and food services

894 881 918 886 908 927 6.5 6.3 6.6 6.3 6.5 6.6

Other services

249 202 184 231 201 219 4.3 3.4 3.1 3.9 3.4 3.7

Government

333 349 347 355 338 355 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6

Federal

41 30 33 32 38 35 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.3

State and local

292 320 314 322 300 320 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6

State and local education

153 165 157 173 159 165 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education

139 155 157 149 141 155 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

930 898 936 880 803 830 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.2 2.9 3.0

South

2,279 2,286 2,305 2,400 2,388 2,501 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.6

Midwest

1,151 1,245 1,271 1,296 1,309 1,273 3.5 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.8

West

1,240 1,249 1,201 1,330 1,196 1,288 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.9 3.5 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

5,272 5,514 5,596 5,779 5,641 5,556 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,929 5,172 5,242 5,422 5,306 5,210 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1

Mining and logging

31 34 33 35 34 29 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.5 3.8

Construction

344 350 337 334 343 315 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.3

Manufacturing

314 337 358 343 315 345 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.7

Durable goods

177 180 195 188 179 200 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.5

Nondurable goods

137 156 162 154 136 145 2.9 3.3 3.4 3.2 2.8 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,014 1,116 1,130 1,206 1,192 1,183 3.7 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.2

Wholesale trade

138 131 125 151 137 146 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.5 2.3 2.4

Retail trade

691 778 806 837 848 792 4.4 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

185 207 200 218 207 244 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.5 4.1

Information

81 81 79 83 81 68 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.9 2.4

Financial activities

219 234 225 231 209 183 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.1

Finance and insurance

152 154 145 143 143 120 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

67 79 80 88 66 62 3.0 3.5 3.6 3.9 2.9 2.7

Professional and business services

1,077 1,132 1,118 1,194 1,161 1,131 5.2 5.4 5.3 5.7 5.5 5.4

Education and health services

669 665 664 665 646 659 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8

Educational services

102 71 97 88 89 89 2.8 1.9 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.4

Health care and social assistance

567 594 566 577 557 570 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

968 1,018 1,058 1,072 1,097 1,090 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

155 173 138 177 164 170 6.6 7.4 5.9 7.5 7.0 7.2

Accommodation and food services

812 845 920 895 933 920 5.9 6.0 6.6 6.4 6.7 6.6

Other services

212 207 240 260 228 207 3.7 3.5 4.1 4.4 3.9 3.5

Government

342 341 354 357 335 347 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5

Federal

42 32 34 33 34 31 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

State and local

301 309 320 324 301 316 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6

State and local education

158 153 160 172 157 169 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education

142 156 160 152 144 147 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

815 857 773 856 841 764 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.1 2.8

South

2,156 2,189 2,311 2,356 2,378 2,287 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.2

Midwest

1,137 1,236 1,257 1,257 1,255 1,300 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9

West

1,165 1,232 1,256 1,310 1,167 1,205 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.4 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

3,224 3,477 3,608 3,648 3,564 3,514 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,059 3,285 3,422 3,480 3,391 3,340 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6

Mining and logging

19 21 21 21 21 19 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6

Construction

164 164 178 165 164 154 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.1

Manufacturing

195 206 217 212 198 201 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6

Durable goods

109 113 120 119 108 109 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4

Nondurable goods

86 93 96 93 90 92 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

666 751 730 759 761 745 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7

Wholesale trade

98 79 78 108 85 86 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.8 1.4 1.4

Retail trade

464 550 535 529 569 523 2.9 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

104 122 117 122 106 136 1.8 2.1 2.0 2.1 1.8 2.3

Information

44 51 49 49 47 48 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7

Financial activities

122 129 141 155 126 112 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.3

Finance and insurance

79 78 77 89 75 64 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.0

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

44 52 64 66 50 48 2.0 2.3 2.8 2.9 2.2 2.1

Professional and business services

641 723 709 696 704 682 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2

Education and health services

453 440 449 469 431 476 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.8 2.0

Educational services

50 34 45 35 47 59 1.4 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.3 1.6

Health care and social assistance

403 407 404 434 384 417 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.2 1.9 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

646 705 765 777 780 782 4.0 4.3 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

63 77 76 84 85 90 2.7 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.6 3.8

Accommodation and food services

583 629 689 693 695 692 4.2 4.5 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9

Other services(3)

109 95 163 177 159 120 1.9 1.6 2.8 3.0 2.7 2.0

Government

166 192 187 168 174 174 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Federal

16 14 14 13 16 16 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

State and local

150 178 172 155 158 158 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local education

80 92 91 85 83 84 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local, excluding education

70 86 82 70 75 74 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8

REGION(4)

Northeast

444 460 442 448 459 404 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5

South

1,401 1,432 1,504 1,500 1,533 1,511 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8

Midwest

670 819 824 856 799 789 2.1 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.4

West

709 766 838 845 773 809 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

1,711 1,652 1,622 1,790 1,707 1,691 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,595 1,568 1,520 1,666 1,609 1,579 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

10 11 11 13 11 9 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.1

Construction

160 176 151 159 169 133 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 1.8

Manufacturing

100 111 120 112 95 124 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.0

Durable goods

57 55 60 60 59 77 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 1.0

Nondurable goods

43 56 60 52 36 47 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.1 0.8 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

274 290 329 384 374 380 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4

Wholesale trade(3)

34 37 34 38 44 49 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8

Retail trade

174 184 230 264 242 233 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

66 70 66 82 89 98 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.6

Information

33 22 24 27 28 16 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.6

Financial activities

76 68 57 55 59 47 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.5

Finance and insurance

54 44 43 40 44 33 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

22 23 15 15 14 14 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6

Professional and business services

376 341 326 443 376 376 1.8 1.6 1.6 2.1 1.8 1.8

Education and health services

170 172 167 141 154 145 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6

Educational services

45 29 42 45 33 26 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.7

Health care and social assistance

125 143 125 96 121 119 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

295 283 263 265 278 276 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

90 94 60 87 72 78 3.8 4.0 2.6 3.7 3.0 3.3

Accommodation and food services

205 189 202 177 206 198 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4

Other services

99 94 72 67 65 74 1.7 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.3

Government

116 84 102 125 98 112 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5

Federal

12 6 7 7 6 6 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local

104 78 95 118 92 106 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5

State and local education

53 34 44 60 51 58 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6

State and local, excluding education

51 44 51 57 41 48 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

306 316 277 322 308 297 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1

South

632 632 685 731 714 655 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2

Midwest

397 334 347 348 375 430 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3

West

377 369 314 389 311 309 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

336 384 365 341 369 351 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

276 319 300 277 307 291 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 2 1 1 1 1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Construction(3)

21 10 8 10 10 28 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4

Manufacturing

19 20 22 19 22 19 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

11 13 15 9 12 14 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

8 7 7 10 10 5 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

74 75 71 64 57 58 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

6 15 14 6 7 11 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

53 44 41 44 37 37 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

15 15 17 14 12 10 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Information(3)

3 8 5 7 6 4 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Financial activities

21 37 27 21 25 24 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

19 33 25 14 23 23 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

1 4 1 7 2 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0

Professional and business services

59 69 84 54 80 73 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3

Education and health services

47 52 48 54 60 38 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Educational services(3)

8 8 10 8 8 3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

39 44 38 47 52 35 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

26 29 30 31 40 31 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

3 3 1 5 8 2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

24 27 28 25 32 30 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

4 18 5 16 5 13 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2

Government

61 65 65 64 63 60 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

14 12 13 13 12 9 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3

State and local

47 53 53 51 51 52 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

25 27 25 26 24 27 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

State and local, excluding education

22 26 27 25 27 25 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

64 80 54 86 74 63 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

South

123 124 122 125 131 120 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Midwest

70 83 86 53 81 82 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

79 97 103 77 83 87 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

6,304 7,027 7,320 4.1 4.5 4.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,768 6,409 6,732 4.4 4.8 5.0

Mining and logging

28 34 29 3.9 4.2 3.6

Construction

233 272 292 3.1 3.5 3.7

Manufacturing

410 485 522 3.2 3.7 3.9

Durable goods

248 307 332 3.1 3.7 4.0

Nondurable goods

162 178 189 3.3 3.6 3.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,115 1,391 1,362 3.9 4.8 4.7

Wholesale trade

152 230 231 2.5 3.7 3.7

Retail trade

740 881 884 4.5 5.3 5.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

223 280 247 3.7 4.5 4.0

Information

96 104 149 3.3 3.6 5.1

Financial activities

378 339 378 4.3 3.8 4.2

Finance and insurance

267 259 259 4.1 3.9 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

111 81 119 4.8 3.4 5.0

Professional and business services

1,163 1,279 1,291 5.3 5.7 5.7

Education and health services

1,188 1,246 1,365 4.8 5.0 5.4

Educational services

93 83 103 2.4 2.2 2.6

Health care and social assistance

1,095 1,162 1,261 5.3 5.5 5.9

Leisure and hospitality

865 1,026 1,071 5.1 5.8 6.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

83 83 75 3.5 3.3 3.1

Accommodation and food services

783 943 996 5.4 6.3 6.6

Other services

292 234 273 4.8 3.8 4.4

Government

537 618 588 2.3 2.7 2.5

Federal

87 89 80 3.0 3.1 2.8

State and local

450 529 508 2.2 2.6 2.5

State and local education

149 197 215 1.4 1.9 1.9

State and local, excluding education

301 331 293 3.2 3.5 3.1

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,070 1,233 1,221 3.8 4.3 4.2

South

2,153 2,499 2,588 3.8 4.4 4.5

Midwest

1,595 1,688 1,796 4.6 4.9 5.1

West

1,487 1,607 1,715 4.2 4.5 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

5,966 5,751 6,338 4.0 3.8 4.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,650 5,324 5,988 4.5 4.2 4.7

Mining and logging

36 43 36 5.2 5.7 4.7

Construction

378 349 352 5.3 4.7 4.7

Manufacturing

350 330 392 2.8 2.6 3.1

Durable goods

188 185 219 2.4 2.3 2.7

Nondurable goods

162 144 173 3.4 3.0 3.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,300 1,174 1,541 4.7 4.2 5.5

Wholesale trade

165 136 186 2.8 2.3 3.1

Retail trade

891 799 1,009 5.6 5.1 6.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

243 239 347 4.2 4.0 5.8

Information

96 75 94 3.4 2.7 3.4

Financial activities

250 211 200 2.9 2.5 2.3

Finance and insurance

165 141 126 2.6 2.2 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

84 71 74 3.8 3.1 3.2

Professional and business services

1,204 1,156 1,246 5.8 5.5 5.8

Education and health services

753 750 811 3.2 3.2 3.4

Educational services

82 152 91 2.1 4.1 2.3

Health care and social assistance

671 598 720 3.4 3.0 3.6

Leisure and hospitality

1,046 1,045 1,106 6.5 6.3 6.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

161 143 162 7.0 5.9 6.9

Accommodation and food services

885 902 944 6.4 6.4 6.7

Other services

238 191 211 4.1 3.3 3.6

Government

316 427 350 1.4 1.9 1.5

Federal

39 37 37 1.4 1.3 1.3

State and local

277 390 313 1.4 2.0 1.6

State and local education

153 266 173 1.4 2.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education

124 124 139 1.4 1.4 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

980 888 868 3.6 3.2 3.1

South

2,412 2,344 2,694 4.5 4.3 4.9

Midwest

1,221 1,306 1,352 3.7 3.9 4.1

West

1,354 1,213 1,423 4.0 3.5 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

5,394 6,005 5,634 3.6 4.0 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,107 5,631 5,343 4.1 4.4 4.2

Mining and logging

34 37 30 4.8 4.9 4.0

Construction

379 356 333 5.3 4.8 4.4

Manufacturing

326 330 355 2.6 2.6 2.8

Durable goods

177 186 198 2.3 2.3 2.5

Nondurable goods

150 144 157 3.2 3.0 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

992 1,157 1,156 3.6 4.2 4.1

Wholesale trade

151 137 159 2.5 2.3 2.6

Retail trade

665 835 755 4.2 5.3 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

176 186 242 3.0 3.1 4.0

Information

80 85 66 2.9 3.1 2.4

Financial activities

225 205 181 2.6 2.4 2.1

Finance and insurance

153 140 116 2.4 2.2 1.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

71 65 64 3.2 2.8 2.8

Professional and business services

1,090 1,190 1,129 5.2 5.6 5.3

Education and health services

657 661 657 2.8 2.8 2.7

Educational services

74 92 66 1.9 2.5 1.7

Health care and social assistance

583 569 591 3.0 2.8 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,104 1,360 1,216 6.9 8.2 7.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

220 276 228 9.6 11.4 9.8

Accommodation and food services

884 1,084 988 6.4 7.7 7.0

Other services

221 250 220 3.8 4.3 3.7

Government

288 375 291 1.3 1.7 1.3

Federal

43 38 35 1.5 1.3 1.2

State and local

244 337 256 1.2 1.7 1.3

State and local education

95 131 104 0.9 1.3 1.0

State and local, excluding education

149 206 152 1.6 2.2 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

802 1,011 728 2.9 3.7 2.6

South

2,217 2,455 2,338 4.1 4.5 4.2

Midwest

1,166 1,328 1,335 3.6 4.0 4.0

West

1,211 1,211 1,233 3.6 3.5 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

3,334 3,784 3,604 2.2 2.5 2.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,192 3,605 3,458 2.5 2.8 2.7

Mining and logging

22 24 21 3.1 3.2 2.7

Construction

181 173 163 2.5 2.3 2.2

Manufacturing

204 206 209 1.6 1.6 1.6

Durable goods

113 115 111 1.5 1.4 1.4

Nondurable goods

91 91 98 1.9 1.9 2.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

701 793 791 2.5 2.9 2.8

Wholesale trade

111 87 101 1.9 1.4 1.7

Retail trade

476 599 535 3.0 3.8 3.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

114 107 155 2.0 1.8 2.6

Information

43 50 47 1.6 1.8 1.7

Financial activities

126 128 114 1.5 1.5 1.3

Finance and insurance

83 77 66 1.3 1.2 1.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

44 50 48 2.0 2.2 2.1

Professional and business services

676 732 701 3.2 3.5 3.3

Education and health services

460 450 488 2.0 1.9 2.0

Educational services

40 57 48 1.0 1.5 1.2

Health care and social assistance

420 393 440 2.1 2.0 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

670 890 805 4.2 5.4 4.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

65 113 96 2.8 4.7 4.1

Accommodation and food services

606 777 709 4.4 5.5 5.1

Other services

109 159 120 1.9 2.7 2.0

Government

141 179 146 0.6 0.8 0.6

Federal

16 17 17 0.6 0.6 0.6

State and local

125 162 129 0.6 0.8 0.6

State and local education

57 73 58 0.5 0.7 0.5

State and local, excluding education

69 88 71 0.8 1.0 0.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

446 528 389 1.6 1.9 1.4

South

1,443 1,586 1,558 2.7 2.9 2.8

Midwest

700 868 816 2.1 2.6 2.4

West

744 801 842 2.2 2.3 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

1,748 1,863 1,703 1.2 1.2 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,647 1,727 1,602 1.3 1.4 1.3

Mining and logging

10 11 9 1.5 1.5 1.1

Construction

177 173 142 2.5 2.3 1.9

Manufacturing

104 104 127 0.8 0.8 1.0

Durable goods

53 61 74 0.7 0.8 0.9

Nondurable goods

51 43 54 1.1 0.9 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

227 312 318 0.8 1.1 1.1

Wholesale trade

34 44 49 0.6 0.7 0.8

Retail trade

146 201 192 0.9 1.3 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

48 67 77 0.8 1.1 1.3

Information

33 29 14 1.2 1.0 0.5

Financial activities

79 54 44 0.9 0.6 0.5

Finance and insurance

53 41 29 0.8 0.6 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

26 13 16 1.2 0.6 0.7

Professional and business services

351 377 351 1.7 1.8 1.6

Education and health services

150 151 131 0.6 0.6 0.5

Educational services

26 27 15 0.7 0.7 0.4

Health care and social assistance

124 124 116 0.6 0.6 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

407 430 379 2.5 2.6 2.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

153 156 130 6.7 6.4 5.6

Accommodation and food services

255 275 249 1.8 1.9 1.8

Other services

108 86 87 1.9 1.5 1.5

Government

101 136 101 0.4 0.6 0.4

Federal

14 8 9 0.5 0.3 0.3

State and local

87 129 92 0.4 0.7 0.5

State and local education

26 39 32 0.2 0.4 0.3

State and local, excluding education

61 90 60 0.7 1.0 0.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

290 403 278 1.1 1.5 1.0

South

660 746 668 1.2 1.4 1.2

Midwest

406 382 447 1.2 1.2 1.3

West

393 331 311 1.2 1.0 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Total nonfarm, government, federal government, and regional data in this table have been corrected for the months January 2011 through March 2018.


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018(p)

Total

313 359 326 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

267 299 282 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

1 1 1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Construction

21 10 28 0.3 0.1 0.4

Manufacturing

19 20 19 0.1 0.2 0.1

Durable goods

11 11 14 0.1 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

8 10 5 0.2 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

64 52 48 0.2 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

6 6 10 0.1 0.1 0.2

Retail trade

43 34 28 0.3 0.2 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

15 12 10 0.3 0.2 0.2

Information

3 6 4 0.1 0.2 0.2

Financial activities

19 23 22 0.2 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

18 21 21 0.3 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

1 2 1 0.1 0.1 0.0

Professional and business services

63 81 77 0.3 0.4 0.4

Education and health services

47 60 38 0.2 0.3 0.2

Educational services

8 8 3 0.2 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance

39 52 35 0.2 0.3 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

26 40 31 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3 8 2 0.1 0.3 0.1

Accommodation and food services

24 32 30 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services

4 5 13 0.1 0.1 0.2

Government

46 60 44 0.2 0.3 0.2

Federal

14 13 9 0.5 0.5 0.3

State and local

32 47 35 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

13 19 14 0.1 0.2 0.1

State and local, excluding education

19 28 21 0.2 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

66 80 62 0.2 0.3 0.2

South

114 122 112 0.2 0.2 0.2

Midwest

59 78 72 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

74 79 80 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: December 10, 2018