Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, April 9, 2019	USDL-19-0610

Technical information:	(202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt    
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – FEBRUARY 2019

The number of job openings fell to 7.1 million on the last business day of February, the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were little changed at 5.7 million 
and 5.6 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 2.3 percent and the 
layoffs and discharges rate was little changed at 1.2 percent. This release includes estimates of the 
number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by four 
geographic regions.

    
Job Openings

On the last business day of February, the job openings level fell to 7.1 million (-538,000). The job 
openings rate was 4.5 percent. The number of job openings fell for total private (-523,000) and was little 
changed for government. Job openings decreased in a number of industries, with the largest decreases in 
accommodation and food services (-103,000), real estate and rental and leasing (-72,000), and 
transportation, warehousing, and utilities (-66,000). The number of job openings fell in the Northeast, 
South, and Midwest regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was little changed at 5.7 million in February. The hires rate was 3.8 percent. The 
hires level was little changed for total private and fell for government (-40,000). The number of hires 
decreased in construction (-73,000), nondurable goods manufacturing (-33,000), and state and local 
government education (-22,000). The number of hires was little changed in all four regions. (See table 
2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.6 million in February. The total separations rate 
was 3.7 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
Total separations increased in educational services (+30,000), but decreased in nondurable goods 
manufacturing (-32,000) and real estate and rental and leasing (-26,000). The number of total 
separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in February at 3.5 million. The quits rate was 2.3 percent. The 
quits level was little changed for total private and for government. Quits increased in educational 
services (+23,000) but decreased in real estate and rental and leasing (-15,000). The number of quits was 
little changed in all four regions. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in February at 1.7 million. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.2 percent. The layoffs and discharges level was little changed for total private and 
for government. The number of layoffs and discharges decreased in federal government (-4,000). The 
number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in February. The other separations level was little 
changed for total private and edged up for government (+9,000). Other separations increased in federal 
government (+5,000), but decreased in construction (-13,000) and real estate and rental and leasing 
(-6,000). The number of other separations fell in the South region. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in February, hires totaled 69.3 million 
and separations totaled 66.6 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.7 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

____________	
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for March 2019 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, May 7, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

6,530 7,625 7,087 5,594 5,829 5,696 5,270 5,532 5,556

Total private

5,925 6,929 6,406 5,243 5,434 5,341 4,930 5,146 5,187

Mining and logging(1)

27 38 28 35 35 30 29 31 32

Construction(1)

198 313 286 391 433 360 318 387 366

Manufacturing

436 458 477 371 377 349 348 355 341

Durable goods(1)

268 295 308 209 190 196 192 174 193

Nondurable goods(1)

169 163 169 162 187 154 156 180 148

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,292 1,454 1,294 1,087 1,127 1,167 1,016 1,098 1,113

Wholesale trade

197 264 211 134 138 144 134 141 134

Retail trade

827 881 840 718 748 767 682 735 724

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

268 309 243 235 241 256 200 222 255

Information(1)

123 136 125 91 82 89 91 93 88

Financial activities

406 433 320 215 192 202 192 184 183

Finance and insurance

343 291 251 145 112 138 140 113 138

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

63 142 70 70 80 65 52 71 45

Professional and business services

1,138 1,472 1,421 1,171 1,120 1,174 1,101 1,085 1,134

Education and health services

1,173 1,372 1,267 668 724 714 643 662 709

Educational services(1)

91 117 94 90 113 103 107 87 117

Health care and social assistance

1,081 1,254 1,173 578 611 611 537 575 593

Leisure and hospitality

905 1,077 972 1,040 1,116 1,075 1,011 1,043 1,032

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

116 109 106 183 181 179 170 151 162

Accommodation and food services

789 969 866 856 935 896 840 892 870

Other services

228 175 215 175 228 180 180 208 189

Government

605 696 681 351 395 355 341 386 369

Federal(1)

73 121 111 31 35 36 35 32 36

State and local

532 576 571 320 360 319 305 353 333

State and local education

202 226 223 163 184 162 157 182 170

State and local, excluding education(1)

330 350 348 157 176 157 149 172 163





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.2 4.8 4.5 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7

Total private

4.5 5.1 4.8 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.0

Mining and logging(1)

3.6 4.8 3.6 4.9 4.6 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2

Construction(1)

2.7 4.0 3.7 5.4 5.8 4.8 4.4 5.2 4.9

Manufacturing

3.3 3.4 3.6 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.7

Durable goods(1)

3.3 3.5 3.7 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.4

Nondurable goods(1)

3.4 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.2 3.3 3.8 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

4.5 5.0 4.4 3.9 4.0 4.2 3.7 3.9 4.0

Wholesale trade

3.3 4.3 3.4 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.3

Retail trade

5.0 5.3 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.3 4.6 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

4.3 4.8 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.2 3.4 3.6 4.2

Information(1)

4.2 4.6 4.3 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.1

Financial activities

4.5 4.8 3.6 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.1

Finance and insurance

5.2 4.4 3.8 2.3 1.8 2.2 2.2 1.8 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

2.8 5.8 2.9 3.1 3.5 2.8 2.3 3.1 2.0

Professional and business services

5.2 6.5 6.3 5.6 5.3 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.3

Education and health services

4.8 5.4 5.0 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.0

Educational services(1)

2.4 3.0 2.4 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.3 3.1

Health care and social assistance

5.2 5.8 5.5 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

5.3 6.1 5.5 6.4 6.7 6.5 6.2 6.3 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4.7 4.2 4.1 7.7 7.3 7.3 7.2 6.1 6.5

Accommodation and food services

5.4 6.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.1

Other services

3.8 2.9 3.5 3.0 3.9 3.1 3.1 3.5 3.2

Government

2.6 3.0 2.9 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.6

Federal(1)

2.6 4.1 3.8 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3

State and local

2.6 2.8 2.8 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.7

State and local education

1.9 2.1 2.1 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.6

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.5 3.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.8

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

6,530 7,593 7,626 7,479 7,625 7,087 4.2 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,925 6,956 6,962 6,860 6,929 6,406 4.5 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.8

Mining and logging(3)

27 36 35 29 38 28 3.6 4.6 4.4 3.8 4.8 3.6

Construction(3)

198 278 279 299 313 286 2.7 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.0 3.7

Manufacturing

436 500 501 435 458 477 3.3 3.8 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.6

Durable goods(3)

268 311 315 298 295 308 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.7

Nondurable goods(3)

169 189 185 137 163 169 3.4 3.8 3.7 2.8 3.3 3.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,292 1,558 1,642 1,482 1,454 1,294 4.5 5.3 5.6 5.1 5.0 4.4

Wholesale trade

197 219 217 178 264 211 3.3 3.6 3.6 2.9 4.3 3.4

Retail trade

827 1,080 1,103 986 881 840 5.0 6.4 6.5 5.9 5.3 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

268 259 322 318 309 243 4.3 4.1 5.0 5.0 4.8 3.8

Information(3)

123 149 124 123 136 125 4.2 5.0 4.2 4.2 4.6 4.3

Financial activities

406 435 412 380 433 320 4.5 4.8 4.6 4.2 4.8 3.6

Finance and insurance

343 303 324 317 291 251 5.2 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.4 3.8

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

63 132 88 63 142 70 2.8 5.5 3.7 2.7 5.8 2.9

Professional and business services

1,138 1,363 1,313 1,391 1,472 1,421 5.2 6.0 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.3

Education and health services

1,173 1,285 1,324 1,348 1,372 1,267 4.8 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.0

Educational services(3)

91 92 96 91 117 94 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.4 3.0 2.4

Health care and social assistance

1,081 1,192 1,228 1,258 1,254 1,173 5.2 5.6 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.5

Leisure and hospitality

905 1,039 1,050 1,102 1,077 972 5.3 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.1 5.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

116 94 102 154 109 106 4.7 3.7 4.0 5.9 4.2 4.1

Accommodation and food services

789 944 948 948 969 866 5.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.4 5.8

Other services

228 314 282 271 175 215 3.8 5.1 4.6 4.4 2.9 3.5

Government

605 637 665 619 696 681 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.7 3.0 2.9

Federal(3)

73 101 110 87 121 111 2.6 3.5 3.8 3.0 4.1 3.8

State and local

532 536 554 532 576 571 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8

State and local education

202 231 230 229 226 223 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1

State and local, excluding education(3)

330 304 325 304 350 348 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.7 3.6

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,100 1,277 1,284 1,230 1,281 1,169 3.9 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.1

South

2,357 2,862 2,878 2,848 2,836 2,648 4.2 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.6

Midwest

1,548 1,800 1,805 1,767 1,827 1,655 4.5 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.2 4.8

West

1,526 1,655 1,660 1,634 1,681 1,615 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

5,594 5,877 5,821 5,717 5,829 5,696 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,243 5,515 5,447 5,353 5,434 5,341 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.2

Mining and logging

35 37 32 39 35 30 4.9 4.9 4.2 5.1 4.6 4.0

Construction

391 363 393 399 433 360 5.4 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.8 4.8

Manufacturing

371 382 368 351 377 349 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.7

Durable goods

209 228 202 186 190 196 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4

Nondurable goods

162 155 166 165 187 154 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,087 1,225 1,183 1,176 1,127 1,167 3.9 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.0 4.2

Wholesale trade

134 163 186 151 138 144 2.3 2.8 3.2 2.6 2.3 2.4

Retail trade

718 785 744 802 748 767 4.5 5.0 4.7 5.1 4.7 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

235 277 253 224 241 256 4.0 4.6 4.2 3.7 4.0 4.2

Information

91 85 97 80 82 89 3.2 3.0 3.4 2.8 2.9 3.1

Financial activities

215 170 213 201 192 202 2.5 2.0 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.3

Finance and insurance

145 102 135 133 112 138 2.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.8 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

70 68 79 67 80 65 3.1 3.0 3.4 2.9 3.5 2.8

Professional and business services

1,171 1,200 1,136 1,144 1,120 1,174 5.6 5.7 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.5

Education and health services

668 715 692 717 724 714 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0

Educational services

90 97 106 124 113 103 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.3 3.0 2.8

Health care and social assistance

578 618 586 593 611 611 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

1,040 1,114 1,085 1,037 1,116 1,075 6.4 6.8 6.6 6.3 6.7 6.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

183 191 180 154 181 179 7.7 7.9 7.4 6.3 7.3 7.3

Accommodation and food services

856 923 905 883 935 896 6.2 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.6 6.3

Other services

175 224 249 209 228 180 3.0 3.8 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.1

Government

351 362 375 364 395 355 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.6

Federal

31 37 44 36 35 36 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.3

State and local

320 325 331 328 360 319 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6

State and local education

163 170 178 176 184 162 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6

State and local, excluding education

157 155 153 152 176 157 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

853 870 924 871 879 868 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1

South

2,194 2,394 2,268 2,204 2,334 2,349 4.1 4.4 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.3

Midwest

1,269 1,287 1,312 1,324 1,300 1,276 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9

West

1,279 1,326 1,318 1,318 1,316 1,203 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

5,270 5,642 5,597 5,469 5,532 5,556 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,930 5,279 5,230 5,122 5,146 5,187 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0

Mining and logging

29 31 35 34 31 32 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.5 4.1 4.2

Construction

318 344 380 369 387 366 4.4 4.7 5.2 5.0 5.2 4.9

Manufacturing

348 352 361 342 355 341 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7

Durable goods

192 208 203 175 174 193 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.4

Nondurable goods

156 144 157 167 180 148 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,016 1,195 1,141 1,134 1,098 1,113 3.7 4.3 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0

Wholesale trade

134 154 165 143 141 134 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.3

Retail trade

682 801 741 765 735 724 4.3 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

200 240 235 226 222 255 3.4 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.6 4.2

Information

91 68 88 87 93 88 3.2 2.4 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.1

Financial activities

192 166 195 180 184 183 2.3 1.9 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1

Finance and insurance

140 104 132 131 113 138 2.2 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.8 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

52 63 63 49 71 45 2.3 2.8 2.8 2.1 3.1 2.0

Professional and business services

1,101 1,161 1,092 1,116 1,085 1,134 5.3 5.5 5.1 5.3 5.1 5.3

Education and health services

643 663 651 652 662 709 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.0

Educational services

107 99 101 101 87 117 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.3 3.1

Health care and social assistance

537 564 549 551 575 593 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,011 1,079 1,056 1,007 1,043 1,032 6.2 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.3 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

170 176 177 153 151 162 7.2 7.2 7.3 6.3 6.1 6.5

Accommodation and food services

840 904 879 853 892 870 6.1 6.4 6.3 6.0 6.3 6.1

Other services

180 219 233 201 208 189 3.1 3.7 4.0 3.4 3.5 3.2

Government

341 363 367 347 386 369 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.6

Federal

35 32 35 44 32 36 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.3

State and local

305 332 332 304 353 333 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.7

State and local education

157 185 184 163 182 170 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6

State and local, excluding education

149 147 147 141 172 163 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.9 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

792 816 790 820 770 767 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.8

South

2,131 2,193 2,253 2,197 2,280 2,332 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2

Midwest

1,093 1,314 1,347 1,231 1,224 1,202 3.4 4.0 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.6

West

1,255 1,319 1,206 1,221 1,258 1,256 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

3,176 3,469 3,379 3,391 3,483 3,480 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,012 3,287 3,184 3,205 3,282 3,288 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6

Mining and logging

20 19 20 22 19 20 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.7

Construction

153 180 174 185 185 186 2.1 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5

Manufacturing

214 205 226 211 212 209 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6

Durable goods

119 112 126 111 110 121 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.5

Nondurable goods

95 93 100 100 101 87 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

649 732 706 715 727 740 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7

Wholesale trade

83 85 95 89 87 90 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

Retail trade

450 514 480 493 512 501 2.8 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

116 133 131 133 128 149 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.5

Information

48 43 56 43 51 49 1.7 1.5 2.0 1.5 1.8 1.7

Financial activities

114 108 101 106 102 103 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Finance and insurance

78 61 64 76 64 79 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

36 47 37 31 38 23 1.6 2.1 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.0

Professional and business services

625 673 625 649 664 645 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0

Education and health services

401 461 451 448 433 459 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9

Educational services

53 66 52 52 39 62 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.7

Health care and social assistance

349 395 400 397 394 397 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

685 732 686 706 753 758 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

75 89 70 56 74 79 3.2 3.7 2.9 2.3 3.0 3.2

Accommodation and food services

609 643 615 650 679 679 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.8

Other services

103 134 139 120 137 119 1.8 2.3 2.4 2.0 2.3 2.0

Government

165 182 195 186 201 191 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9

Federal

14 16 18 20 14 16 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6

State and local

151 166 178 166 187 175 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9

State and local education

79 92 96 89 105 99 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9

State and local, excluding education

72 74 81 77 82 76 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8

REGION(4)

Northeast

451 406 412 464 441 427 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5

South

1,341 1,436 1,391 1,423 1,448 1,499 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7

Midwest

665 797 817 744 797 761 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.3

West

719 831 759 760 797 793 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

1,763 1,855 1,889 1,751 1,695 1,742 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,646 1,731 1,780 1,653 1,562 1,626 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.3

Mining and logging

7 10 13 10 11 9 1.0 1.3 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.3

Construction

161 148 192 164 181 171 2.2 2.0 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.3

Manufacturing

116 130 109 111 123 114 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9

Durable goods

60 83 60 51 52 59 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7

Nondurable goods

56 47 49 60 70 55 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

301 409 366 360 305 313 1.1 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.1

Wholesale trade(3)

43 58 50 45 43 34 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

Retail trade

184 256 221 230 179 185 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

74 96 94 85 82 94 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.5

Information

35 21 24 38 32 31 1.3 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.1

Financial activities

45 34 64 58 57 56 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6

Finance and insurance

31 20 44 44 33 37 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

15 14 20 14 24 19 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.6 1.0 0.8

Professional and business services

425 418 426 406 358 416 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.7 2.0

Education and health services

181 165 166 155 175 197 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8

Educational services

44 28 45 42 42 49 1.2 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.3

Health care and social assistance

138 136 121 112 133 149 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

308 320 329 279 263 258 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

91 85 100 96 74 82 3.9 3.5 4.1 3.9 3.0 3.3

Accommodation and food services

217 236 230 183 189 176 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.2

Other services

66 75 89 73 59 60 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0

Government

117 125 110 98 132 116 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5

Federal

10 7 5 9 10 6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

State and local

107 118 104 89 122 110 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

State and local education

54 67 63 51 53 48 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local, excluding education

53 51 42 38 70 61 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.7

REGION(4)

Northeast

285 350 318 303 280 280 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0

South

663 663 720 649 676 710 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3

Midwest

363 442 464 407 365 380 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1

West

451 401 387 392 374 372 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

331 318 328 327 355 334 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

272 261 266 263 302 273 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 2 1 2 1 2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

Construction(3)

5 16 14 21 21 8 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1

Manufacturing

19 16 25 19 21 18 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Durable goods

13 12 17 13 12 13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

5 4 8 6 9 5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

66 55 69 59 66 60 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

8 12 20 8 11 10 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2

Retail trade

47 31 40 41 43 39 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

11 12 10 9 12 12 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Information(3)

8 3 7 6 11 7 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3

Financial activities

33 24 30 15 25 25 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

31 23 24 11 16 21 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

2 1 5 4 9 3 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2

Professional and business services

51 70 41 61 63 72 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

61 38 33 49 54 53 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

10 5 5 7 6 6 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

51 33 29 42 48 47 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

18 27 41 22 28 16 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

4 2 7 1 3 1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0

Accommodation and food services(3)

14 25 34 21 25 15 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Other services(3)

11 9 4 9 13 10 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Government

59 57 62 64 53 62 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Federal

12 9 12 15 8 13 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5

State and local

48 48 50 49 44 49 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

24 26 26 23 24 23 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

24 21 24 25 20 26 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

55 61 61 53 49 59 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

127 95 142 125 157 123 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

Midwest

65 74 66 80 62 61 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

85 88 60 70 87 92 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

6,304 7,487 6,708 4.1 4.8 4.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,730 6,818 6,063 4.4 5.1 4.6

Mining and logging

27 38 28 3.7 4.9 3.6

Construction

198 313 286 2.8 4.2 3.9

Manufacturing

436 458 477 3.4 3.5 3.6

Durable goods

268 295 308 3.3 3.6 3.7

Nondurable goods

169 163 169 3.5 3.3 3.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,195 1,287 1,125 4.2 4.4 3.9

Wholesale trade

193 280 201 3.2 4.6 3.3

Retail trade

735 698 681 4.5 4.2 4.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

268 309 243 4.4 4.8 3.9

Information

123 136 125 4.2 4.7 4.3

Financial activities

384 459 285 4.3 5.1 3.2

Finance and insurance

321 317 216 4.9 4.8 3.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

63 142 70 2.8 5.9 3.0

Professional and business services

1,074 1,465 1,350 5.0 6.6 6.0

Education and health services

1,151 1,471 1,227 4.6 5.8 4.8

Educational services

91 117 94 2.3 3.1 2.4

Health care and social assistance

1,060 1,353 1,133 5.1 6.3 5.3

Leisure and hospitality

917 1,025 952 5.6 6.1 5.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

129 103 113 5.7 4.5 4.8

Accommodation and food services

788 922 840 5.5 6.3 5.7

Other services

225 165 207 3.8 2.8 3.4

Government

574 669 645 2.5 2.9 2.8

Federal

73 121 111 2.6 4.2 3.8

State and local

500 548 535 2.5 2.7 2.6

State and local education

170 198 187 1.5 1.9 1.7

State and local, excluding education

330 350 348 3.5 3.7 3.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,067 1,247 1,095 3.8 4.4 3.8

South

2,274 2,802 2,510 4.1 4.9 4.4

Midwest

1,503 1,759 1,585 4.5 5.1 4.6

West

1,461 1,679 1,517 4.1 4.7 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

4,652 5,533 4,695 3.2 3.7 3.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,388 5,169 4,436 3.5 4.1 3.5

Mining and logging

30 39 24 4.2 5.2 3.2

Construction

331 394 300 4.8 5.6 4.3

Manufacturing

334 391 309 2.7 3.1 2.4

Durable goods

191 207 174 2.4 2.6 2.2

Nondurable goods

144 184 135 3.1 3.9 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

834 934 893 3.1 3.4 3.2

Wholesale trade

118 153 123 2.0 2.6 2.1

Retail trade

554 567 588 3.6 3.6 3.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

162 214 181 2.8 3.5 3.0

Information

79 93 77 2.8 3.4 2.7

Financial activities

179 219 163 2.1 2.6 1.9

Finance and insurance

125 133 118 2.0 2.1 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

54 86 45 2.5 3.8 2.0

Professional and business services

1,049 1,162 1,060 5.1 5.6 5.1

Education and health services

558 760 602 2.4 3.2 2.5

Educational services

72 109 81 1.9 3.0 2.1

Health care and social assistance

486 651 521 2.5 3.2 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

850 947 868 5.5 6.0 5.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

120 123 117 5.6 5.6 5.2

Accommodation and food services

730 824 751 5.4 6.0 5.5

Other services

145 230 141 2.5 3.9 2.4

Government

263 364 259 1.2 1.6 1.1

Federal

26 32 29 0.9 1.2 1.1

State and local

237 332 229 1.2 1.7 1.1

State and local education

122 187 118 1.1 1.8 1.1

State and local, excluding education

115 144 111 1.3 1.6 1.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

639 793 645 2.4 2.9 2.4

South

1,921 2,346 2,061 3.6 4.3 3.8

Midwest

1,020 1,176 1,004 3.2 3.6 3.1

West

1,072 1,218 985 3.2 3.6 2.9

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

4,227 6,026 4,474 2.9 4.1 3.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,017 5,680 4,244 3.2 4.5 3.4

Mining and logging

29 35 31 4.1 4.8 4.2

Construction

269 428 313 3.9 6.1 4.4

Manufacturing

296 348 292 2.4 2.7 2.3

Durable goods

162 175 167 2.1 2.2 2.1

Nondurable goods

134 173 125 2.9 3.7 2.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

835 1,420 915 3.1 5.1 3.3

Wholesale trade

114 148 111 2.0 2.5 1.9

Retail trade

573 913 609 3.7 5.8 3.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

148 359 195 2.5 5.9 3.2

Information

82 118 74 2.9 4.2 2.6

Financial activities

160 210 156 1.9 2.5 1.8

Finance and insurance

112 124 116 1.8 2.0 1.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

48 86 40 2.2 3.8 1.8

Professional and business services

948 1,207 984 4.6 5.8 4.7

Education and health services

503 696 560 2.1 2.9 2.3

Educational services

56 83 68 1.5 2.3 1.7

Health care and social assistance

447 613 492 2.3 3.0 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

756 1,018 780 4.9 6.4 4.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

87 113 82 4.1 5.2 3.7

Accommodation and food services

669 904 699 5.0 6.6 5.1

Other services

139 201 138 2.4 3.5 2.4

Government

211 346 230 0.9 1.5 1.0

Federal

29 42 30 1.1 1.5 1.1

State and local

182 304 200 0.9 1.6 1.0

State and local education

83 155 93 0.8 1.5 0.9

State and local, excluding education

98 148 107 1.1 1.6 1.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

602 873 555 2.2 3.2 2.0

South

1,748 2,482 1,929 3.3 4.6 3.5

Midwest

869 1,322 945 2.7 4.1 2.9

West

1,008 1,350 1,045 3.0 3.9 3.0

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

2,579 3,463 2,856 1.8 2.3 1.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,466 3,284 2,727 2.0 2.6 2.2

Mining and logging

18 19 19 2.6 2.5 2.5

Construction

125 173 160 1.8 2.4 2.3

Manufacturing

182 196 179 1.5 1.5 1.4

Durable goods

100 105 103 1.3 1.3 1.3

Nondurable goods

82 92 76 1.8 1.9 1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

524 725 617 1.9 2.6 2.2

Wholesale trade

65 92 70 1.1 1.6 1.2

Retail trade

364 521 420 2.3 3.3 2.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

95 113 127 1.6 1.8 2.1

Information

44 57 42 1.6 2.1 1.5

Financial activities

99 99 92 1.2 1.2 1.1

Finance and insurance

63 61 68 1.0 1.0 1.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

36 38 23 1.6 1.7 1.0

Professional and business services

527 705 543 2.6 3.4 2.6

Education and health services

326 456 373 1.4 1.9 1.5

Educational services

33 38 41 0.8 1.1 1.1

Health care and social assistance

293 417 331 1.5 2.1 1.6

Leisure and hospitality

541 716 616 3.5 4.5 3.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

48 57 52 2.2 2.6 2.3

Accommodation and food services

494 659 564 3.7 4.8 4.1

Other services

80 138 87 1.4 2.4 1.5

Government

113 180 129 0.5 0.8 0.6

Federal

12 15 14 0.4 0.5 0.5

State and local

102 165 115 0.5 0.8 0.6

State and local education

46 90 59 0.4 0.9 0.5

State and local, excluding education

55 75 56 0.6 0.8 0.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

354 471 327 1.3 1.7 1.2

South

1,117 1,450 1,262 2.1 2.7 2.3

Midwest

532 762 602 1.6 2.3 1.8

West

576 781 666 1.7 2.3 1.9

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

1,364 2,145 1,323 0.9 1.4 0.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,306 2,034 1,265 1.1 1.6 1.0

Mining and logging

9 15 11 1.3 2.0 1.5

Construction

140 235 145 2.0 3.3 2.1

Manufacturing

98 127 98 0.8 1.0 0.8

Durable goods

52 56 54 0.7 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

46 72 44 1.0 1.5 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

249 609 243 0.9 2.2 0.9

Wholesale trade

43 43 34 0.7 0.7 0.6

Retail trade

164 333 152 1.1 2.1 1.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

43 234 56 0.7 3.8 0.9

Information

30 50 24 1.1 1.8 0.9

Financial activities

36 78 45 0.4 0.9 0.5

Finance and insurance

26 40 31 0.4 0.6 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

10 39 14 0.5 1.7 0.6

Professional and business services

377 409 374 1.8 2.0 1.8

Education and health services

122 187 135 0.5 0.8 0.6

Educational services

18 39 23 0.5 1.1 0.6

Health care and social assistance

103 148 113 0.5 0.7 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

197 274 148 1.3 1.7 0.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

36 54 29 1.7 2.5 1.3

Accommodation and food services

161 220 119 1.2 1.6 0.9

Other services

48 50 41 0.8 0.9 0.7

Government

57 111 58 0.3 0.5 0.3

Federal

8 14 5 0.3 0.5 0.2

State and local

49 97 53 0.2 0.5 0.3

State and local education

25 47 23 0.2 0.4 0.2

State and local, excluding education

24 50 30 0.3 0.6 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

202 346 177 0.7 1.3 0.6

South

522 846 560 1.0 1.6 1.0

Midwest

285 476 297 0.9 1.5 0.9

West

354 476 289 1.0 1.4 0.8

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019(p)

Total

285 418 295 0.2 0.3 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

244 362 252 0.2 0.3 0.2

Mining and logging

1 2 2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Construction

5 21 8 0.1 0.3 0.1

Manufacturing

16 24 15 0.1 0.2 0.1

Durable goods

11 15 10 0.1 0.2 0.1

Nondurable goods

5 9 5 0.1 0.2 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

62 86 55 0.2 0.3 0.2

Wholesale trade

6 13 7 0.1 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

45 60 36 0.3 0.4 0.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

11 12 12 0.2 0.2 0.2

Information

8 11 7 0.3 0.4 0.3

Financial activities

24 32 20 0.3 0.4 0.2

Finance and insurance

22 23 16 0.4 0.4 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2 9 3 0.1 0.4 0.2

Professional and business services

44 93 66 0.2 0.4 0.3

Education and health services

56 54 52 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

5 6 4 0.1 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance

51 48 47 0.3 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

18 28 16 0.1 0.2 0.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4 3 1 0.2 0.1 0.0

Accommodation and food services

14 25 15 0.1 0.2 0.1

Other services

11 13 10 0.2 0.2 0.2

Government

41 56 43 0.2 0.2 0.2

Federal

9 14 11 0.3 0.5 0.4

State and local

31 42 32 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

12 19 11 0.1 0.2 0.1

State and local, excluding education

19 23 21 0.2 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

46 55 51 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

109 187 108 0.2 0.3 0.2

Midwest

52 83 47 0.2 0.3 0.1

West

78 93 89 0.2 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: April 09, 2019