Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Monday, June 10, 2019	USDL-19-0945

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                              JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – APRIL 2019

The number of job openings was little changed at 7.4 million on the last business day of April, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires edged up to 5.9 million, and separations 
were little changed at 5.6 million. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 2.3 percent and 
the layoffs and discharges rate was little changed at 1.2 percent. This release includes estimates of the 
number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by four 
geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of April, the job openings level was little changed at 7.4 million. The job 
openings rate was 4.7 percent. The number of job openings was little changed for total private and for 
government. The job openings level increased in federal government (+22,000) and educational services 
(+20,000). Job openings decreased in professional and business services (-172,000). The number of job 
openings was little changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires edged up to a series high of 5.9 million (+240,000) in April. The hires rate was 3.9 
percent. The hires level edged up for total private (+217,000) and was little changed for government. 
Hires increased in real estate and rental and leasing (+34,000). The number of hires was little changed in 
all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.6 million in April. The total separations rate 
was 3.7 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
The total separations level increased in real estate and rental and leasing (+43,000) but decreased in 
federal government (-10,000). The number of total separations was little changed in all four regions. 
(See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in April at 3.5 million. The quits rate was 2.3 percent. The quits 
level was little changed for total private and for government. Quits increased in real estate and rental and 
leasing (+28,000) and in state and local government, excluding education (+13,000), but decreased in 
federal government (-8,000). The number of quits decreased in the Northeast region. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in April at 1.8 million. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.2 percent. The layoffs and discharges level was little changed for total private and 
for government. The number of layoffs and discharges increased in real estate and rental and leasing 
(+15,000). The layoffs and discharges level was little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in April. The other separations level was little 
changed for total private and for government. Other separations increased in accommodation and food 
services (+14,000). The number of other separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in April, hires totaled 69.6 million and 
separations totaled 66.8 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.8 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for May 2019 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, July 9, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

7,106 7,474 7,449 5,694 5,697 5,937 5,467 5,508 5,578

Total private

6,497 6,772 6,726 5,334 5,345 5,562 5,128 5,171 5,234

Mining and logging(1)

37 28 33 43 39 29 36 38 35

Construction(1)

258 364 404 367 364 406 330 350 375

Manufacturing

451 461 501 367 357 360 346 364 352

Durable goods(1)

288 304 322 217 190 204 195 204 199

Nondurable goods(1)

163 158 180 149 167 156 151 161 153

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,571 1,385 1,469 1,136 1,094 1,144 1,121 1,115 1,120

Wholesale trade

192 220 259 131 134 155 136 138 137

Retail trade

1,032 825 837 772 725 750 767 738 764

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

348 340 373 233 235 240 218 239 219

Information(1)

198 137 131 92 95 86 94 91 97

Financial activities

328 356 365 199 191 234 200 172 225

Finance and insurance

227 234 232 131 131 141 125 120 132

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

102 122 132 68 60 94 75 51 94

Professional and business services

1,232 1,413 1,241 1,157 1,173 1,233 1,102 1,150 1,139

Education and health services

1,249 1,355 1,375 680 720 728 643 683 651

Educational services(1)

110 111 131 102 93 102 93 91 90

Health care and social assistance

1,139 1,244 1,244 578 627 626 550 592 561

Leisure and hospitality

974 1,035 1,004 1,070 1,106 1,124 1,037 1,014 1,053

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

106 106 105 190 171 163 184 132 145

Accommodation and food services

868 929 899 880 935 961 854 882 908

Other services

199 238 203 224 205 218 220 193 186

Government

609 702 723 359 352 375 339 337 344

Federal(1)

83 117 139 39 39 41 35 41 31

State and local

526 585 584 320 313 334 304 297 313

State and local education

187 228 225 158 170 169 160 156 160

State and local, excluding education(1)

339 357 359 162 144 165 144 140 153





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.6 4.7 4.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7

Total private

4.9 5.0 5.0 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.1

Mining and logging(1)

4.9 3.5 4.1 6.0 5.2 3.8 5.0 5.1 4.7

Construction(1)

3.4 4.7 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.4 4.6 4.7 5.0

Manufacturing

3.4 3.5 3.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7

Durable goods(1)

3.5 3.6 3.8 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Nondurable goods(1)

3.3 3.2 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

5.4 4.7 5.0 4.1 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0

Wholesale trade

3.2 3.6 4.2 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.3

Retail trade

6.1 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

5.5 5.3 5.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.6

Information(1)

6.5 4.6 4.4 3.2 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.4

Financial activities

3.7 4.0 4.0 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.3 2.0 2.6

Finance and insurance

3.5 3.6 3.5 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

4.3 5.0 5.4 3.0 2.6 4.0 3.3 2.2 4.0

Professional and business services

5.6 6.2 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.3 5.4 5.3

Education and health services

5.0 5.3 5.4 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.7

Educational services(1)

2.9 2.9 3.4 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.4

Health care and social assistance

5.4 5.8 5.8 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

5.6 5.8 5.7 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.4 6.1 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4.3 4.1 4.0 8.0 6.9 6.5 7.7 5.3 5.8

Accommodation and food services

5.9 6.1 5.9 6.3 6.6 6.8 6.1 6.2 6.4

Other services

3.3 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.3 3.1

Government

2.6 3.0 3.1 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal(1)

2.9 4.0 4.7 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.1

State and local

2.6 2.9 2.9 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.6

State and local education

1.8 2.1 2.1 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.6 3.7 3.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.7

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

7,106 7,479 7,625 7,142 7,474 7,449 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,497 6,860 6,929 6,437 6,772 6,726 4.9 5.1 5.1 4.8 5.0 5.0

Mining and logging(3)

37 29 38 27 28 33 4.9 3.8 4.8 3.5 3.5 4.1

Construction(3)

258 299 313 287 364 404 3.4 3.9 4.0 3.7 4.7 5.1

Manufacturing

451 435 458 480 461 501 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.8

Durable goods(3)

288 298 295 305 304 322 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.8

Nondurable goods(3)

163 137 163 175 158 180 3.3 2.8 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,571 1,482 1,454 1,340 1,385 1,469 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.6 4.7 5.0

Wholesale trade

192 178 264 220 220 259 3.2 2.9 4.3 3.6 3.6 4.2

Retail trade

1,032 986 881 861 825 837 6.1 5.9 5.3 5.2 5.0 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

348 318 309 258 340 373 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.1 5.3 5.8

Information(3)

198 123 136 133 137 131 6.5 4.2 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.4

Financial activities

328 380 433 334 356 365 3.7 4.2 4.8 3.7 4.0 4.0

Finance and insurance

227 317 291 268 234 232 3.5 4.8 4.4 4.1 3.6 3.5

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

102 63 142 65 122 132 4.3 2.7 5.8 2.8 5.0 5.4

Professional and business services

1,232 1,391 1,472 1,424 1,413 1,241 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.3 6.2 5.5

Education and health services

1,249 1,348 1,372 1,212 1,355 1,375 5.0 5.3 5.4 4.8 5.3 5.4

Educational services(3)

110 91 117 100 111 131 2.9 2.4 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.4

Health care and social assistance

1,139 1,258 1,254 1,112 1,244 1,244 5.4 5.9 5.8 5.2 5.8 5.8

Leisure and hospitality

974 1,102 1,077 988 1,035 1,004 5.6 6.2 6.1 5.6 5.8 5.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

106 154 109 106 106 105 4.3 5.9 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0

Accommodation and food services

868 948 969 882 929 899 5.9 6.3 6.4 5.9 6.1 5.9

Other services

199 271 175 214 238 203 3.3 4.4 2.9 3.5 3.9 3.3

Government

609 619 696 705 702 723 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1

Federal(3)

83 87 121 130 117 139 2.9 3.0 4.1 4.5 4.0 4.7

State and local

526 532 576 575 585 584 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9

State and local education

187 229 226 224 228 225 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1

State and local, excluding education(3)

339 304 350 350 357 359 3.6 3.2 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,210 1,230 1,281 1,201 1,224 1,194 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.1

South

2,585 2,848 2,836 2,698 2,846 2,814 4.6 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.9

Midwest

1,711 1,767 1,827 1,641 1,729 1,787 5.0 5.1 5.2 4.7 5.0 5.1

West

1,600 1,634 1,681 1,602 1,675 1,653 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

5,694 5,717 5,829 5,695 5,697 5,937 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,334 5,353 5,434 5,333 5,345 5,562 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.3

Mining and logging

43 39 35 35 39 29 6.0 5.1 4.6 4.6 5.2 3.8

Construction

367 399 433 367 364 406 5.1 5.4 5.8 4.9 4.9 5.4

Manufacturing

367 351 377 351 357 360 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8

Durable goods

217 186 190 192 190 204 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5

Nondurable goods

149 165 187 159 167 156 3.2 3.5 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,136 1,176 1,127 1,143 1,094 1,144 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.1

Wholesale trade

131 151 138 147 134 155 2.3 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.6

Retail trade

772 802 748 744 725 750 4.9 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

233 224 241 252 235 240 3.9 3.7 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.9

Information

92 80 82 85 95 86 3.2 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.0

Financial activities

199 201 192 197 191 234 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.7

Finance and insurance

131 133 112 133 131 141 2.1 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

68 67 80 64 60 94 3.0 2.9 3.5 2.8 2.6 4.0

Professional and business services

1,157 1,144 1,120 1,175 1,173 1,233 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.8

Education and health services

680 717 724 715 720 728 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

Educational services

102 124 113 99 93 102 2.8 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.7

Health care and social assistance

578 593 611 617 627 626 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

1,070 1,037 1,116 1,079 1,106 1,124 6.6 6.3 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

190 154 181 178 171 163 8.0 6.3 7.3 7.2 6.9 6.5

Accommodation and food services

880 883 935 901 935 961 6.3 6.3 6.6 6.4 6.6 6.8

Other services

224 209 228 186 205 218 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.2 3.5 3.7

Government

359 364 395 362 352 375 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.7

Federal

39 36 35 36 39 41 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5

State and local

320 328 360 326 313 334 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7

State and local education

158 176 184 169 170 169 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local, excluding education

162 152 176 157 144 165 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

859 871 879 884 895 933 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.4

South

2,268 2,204 2,334 2,360 2,342 2,357 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3

Midwest

1,266 1,324 1,300 1,258 1,195 1,306 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.9

West

1,301 1,318 1,316 1,193 1,265 1,341 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.4 3.6 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

5,467 5,469 5,532 5,576 5,508 5,578 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,128 5,122 5,146 5,206 5,171 5,234 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.1

Mining and logging

36 34 31 37 38 35 5.0 4.5 4.1 4.9 5.1 4.7

Construction

330 369 387 364 350 375 4.6 5.0 5.2 4.9 4.7 5.0

Manufacturing

346 342 355 347 364 352 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7

Durable goods

195 175 174 192 204 199 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.5

Nondurable goods

151 167 180 154 161 153 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.2 3.4 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,121 1,134 1,098 1,114 1,115 1,120 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0

Wholesale trade

136 143 141 141 138 137 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3

Retail trade

767 765 735 720 738 764 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

218 226 222 253 239 219 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.2 3.9 3.6

Information

94 87 93 89 91 97 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4

Financial activities

200 180 184 182 172 225 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.6

Finance and insurance

125 131 113 140 120 132 2.0 2.1 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

75 49 71 42 51 94 3.3 2.1 3.1 1.8 2.2 4.0

Professional and business services

1,102 1,116 1,085 1,122 1,150 1,139 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.3

Education and health services

643 652 662 710 683 651 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.7

Educational services

93 101 87 110 91 90 2.5 2.7 2.3 2.9 2.4 2.4

Health care and social assistance

550 551 575 600 592 561 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.9 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,037 1,007 1,043 1,044 1,014 1,053 6.4 6.1 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

184 153 151 166 132 145 7.7 6.3 6.1 6.7 5.3 5.8

Accommodation and food services

854 853 892 878 882 908 6.1 6.0 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.4

Other services

220 201 208 197 193 186 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.1

Government

339 347 386 370 337 344 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5

Federal

35 44 32 36 41 31 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.1

State and local

304 304 353 335 297 313 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.6

State and local education

160 163 182 172 156 160 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5

State and local, excluding education

144 141 172 162 140 153 1.6 1.5 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

855 820 770 779 856 804 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.8 3.1 2.9

South

2,170 2,197 2,280 2,378 2,315 2,315 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.2

Midwest

1,176 1,231 1,224 1,203 1,160 1,212 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.6

West

1,267 1,221 1,258 1,216 1,177 1,246 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

3,339 3,391 3,483 3,447 3,461 3,482 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,154 3,205 3,282 3,259 3,278 3,300 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6

Mining and logging

21 22 19 21 23 19 2.9 2.9 2.5 2.7 3.0 2.5

Construction

164 185 185 184 149 156 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.1

Manufacturing

205 211 212 211 222 218 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

Durable goods

113 111 110 118 118 125 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6

Nondurable goods

92 100 101 93 104 93 1.9 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.2 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

692 715 727 729 738 722 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6

Wholesale trade

83 89 87 88 102 94 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6

Retail trade

485 493 512 494 500 500 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

124 133 128 147 137 129 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.1

Information

47 43 51 48 52 57 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.8 2.0

Financial activities

100 106 102 97 104 145 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.7

Finance and insurance

47 76 64 75 67 79 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

53 31 38 22 37 65 2.4 1.3 1.7 0.9 1.6 2.8

Professional and business services

678 649 664 645 656 639 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.0

Education and health services

423 448 433 461 467 429 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8

Educational services

52 52 39 58 47 48 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.6 1.3 1.3

Health care and social assistance

371 397 394 403 420 381 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

702 706 753 748 735 756 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

68 56 74 80 82 79 2.9 2.3 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.2

Accommodation and food services

634 650 679 668 653 677 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.8

Other services

122 120 137 114 132 159 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.9 2.2 2.7

Government

185 186 201 188 184 182 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8

Federal

16 20 14 17 22 14 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.5

State and local

169 166 187 171 162 168 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9

State and local education

88 89 105 96 94 86 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8

State and local, excluding education

80 77 82 75 68 81 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

469 464 441 425 513 451 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.6

South

1,351 1,423 1,448 1,489 1,425 1,481 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.7

Midwest

733 744 797 754 757 772 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3

West

786 760 797 779 767 778 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

1,788 1,751 1,695 1,784 1,693 1,752 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,697 1,653 1,562 1,664 1,601 1,648 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3

Mining and logging

14 10 11 14 15 16 1.9 1.3 1.4 1.8 1.9 2.1

Construction

155 164 181 169 181 197 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.6

Manufacturing

121 111 123 118 122 113 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

68 51 52 61 76 63 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.8

Nondurable goods

53 60 70 56 46 49 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.0 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

357 360 305 324 326 358 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3

Wholesale trade(3)

41 45 43 42 30 36 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6

Retail trade

236 230 179 190 207 243 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

80 85 82 92 88 78 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3

Information

42 38 32 30 24 26 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.9

Financial activities

73 58 57 48 32 54 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.6

Finance and insurance

53 44 33 31 22 29 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

20 14 24 17 10 25 0.9 0.6 1.0 0.7 0.4 1.1

Professional and business services

360 406 358 423 422 424 1.7 1.9 1.7 2.0 2.0 2.0

Education and health services

175 155 175 193 164 175 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7

Educational services

33 42 42 46 38 37 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0

Health care and social assistance

143 112 133 147 126 138 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

317 279 263 274 262 267 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

113 96 74 84 48 64 4.7 3.9 3.0 3.4 1.9 2.6

Accommodation and food services

204 183 189 189 214 202 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.4

Other services

84 73 59 72 54 20 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.3

Government

91 98 132 120 92 104 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5

Federal

7 9 10 6 7 7 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local

84 89 122 114 86 97 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5

State and local education

48 51 53 53 38 50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

State and local, excluding education

36 38 70 61 48 47 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

311 303 280 282 291 304 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1

South

692 649 676 750 748 699 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3

Midwest

385 407 365 385 331 376 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1

West

399 392 374 368 322 373 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

340 327 355 346 354 344 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

277 263 302 284 293 287 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 2 1 3 1 1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1

Construction(3)

10 21 21 11 21 22 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

21 19 21 18 21 22 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

14 13 12 13 10 10 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Nondurable goods(3)

7 6 9 5 11 12 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

72 59 66 61 51 40 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Wholesale trade

12 8 11 10 6 7 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Retail trade

45 41 43 36 30 21 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

15 9 12 14 15 13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Information(3)

5 6 11 11 15 14 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Financial activities

27 15 25 37 35 27 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3

Finance and insurance

25 11 16 34 31 24 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

2 4 9 3 5 4 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.2

Professional and business services

63 61 63 55 72 76 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4

Education and health services

44 49 54 55 52 47 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

8 7 6 6 5 5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

36 42 48 49 46 42 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

19 22 28 22 18 30 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

3 1 3 1 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

16 21 25 21 14 28 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Other services(3)

14 9 13 10 7 7 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Government

64 64 53 62 61 58 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

13 15 8 13 12 10 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3

State and local

51 49 44 49 49 48 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

24 23 24 23 25 23 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

27 25 20 26 24 25 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

75 53 49 72 53 49 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

South

127 125 157 139 142 135 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Midwest

58 80 62 64 72 64 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

81 70 87 70 87 96 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

7,611 7,383 7,858 4.9 4.7 4.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

7,011 6,698 7,150 5.3 5.0 5.3

Mining and logging

37 28 33 4.9 3.6 4.2

Construction

258 364 404 3.5 4.8 5.2

Manufacturing

451 461 501 3.5 3.5 3.8

Durable goods

288 304 322 3.5 3.6 3.8

Nondurable goods

163 158 180 3.4 3.2 3.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,590 1,279 1,442 5.5 4.4 5.0

Wholesale trade

207 215 275 3.4 3.5 4.4

Retail trade

1,035 724 795 6.2 4.4 4.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

348 340 373 5.6 5.3 5.8

Information

198 137 131 6.5 4.6 4.4

Financial activities

367 338 399 4.1 3.8 4.4

Finance and insurance

266 216 267 4.1 3.3 4.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

102 122 132 4.4 5.1 5.4

Professional and business services

1,328 1,409 1,327 6.0 6.3 5.8

Education and health services

1,370 1,324 1,499 5.5 5.2 5.8

Educational services

110 111 131 2.7 2.8 3.2

Health care and social assistance

1,260 1,213 1,368 6.0 5.6 6.3

Leisure and hospitality

1,168 1,079 1,180 6.8 6.2 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

154 121 151 6.3 5.0 5.9

Accommodation and food services

1,013 958 1,029 6.8 6.4 6.8

Other services

245 278 235 4.0 4.5 3.8

Government

600 686 708 2.6 2.9 3.0

Federal

83 117 139 2.9 4.0 4.7

State and local

517 569 569 2.5 2.8 2.8

State and local education

178 212 210 1.6 1.9 1.9

State and local, excluding education

339 357 359 3.6 3.8 3.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,285 1,205 1,250 4.5 4.2 4.3

South

2,791 2,816 2,984 4.9 4.9 5.1

Midwest

1,802 1,722 1,865 5.2 5.0 5.3

West

1,733 1,640 1,759 4.8 4.5 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

6,090 5,330 6,369 4.1 3.6 4.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,808 5,077 6,074 4.6 4.0 4.7

Mining and logging

47 37 32 6.6 4.9 4.3

Construction

510 358 569 7.1 5.0 7.7

Manufacturing

374 338 368 3.0 2.6 2.9

Durable goods

220 181 211 2.8 2.3 2.6

Nondurable goods

154 157 158 3.3 3.3 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,123 1,021 1,134 4.1 3.7 4.1

Wholesale trade

136 137 164 2.3 2.3 2.8

Retail trade

780 698 762 5.0 4.5 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

207 187 208 3.5 3.1 3.5

Information

92 86 84 3.2 3.1 3.0

Financial activities

210 178 252 2.5 2.1 2.9

Finance and insurance

124 124 138 2.0 2.0 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

86 55 115 3.9 2.4 5.0

Professional and business services

1,276 1,110 1,369 6.1 5.3 6.4

Education and health services

661 671 711 2.8 2.8 2.9

Educational services

77 60 75 2.0 1.5 1.9

Health care and social assistance

583 611 635 2.9 3.0 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

1,267 1,099 1,313 7.9 6.8 7.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

282 166 234 12.2 7.2 9.6

Accommodation and food services

986 932 1,080 7.1 6.7 7.6

Other services

249 179 241 4.3 3.0 4.1

Government

282 253 295 1.2 1.1 1.3

Federal

36 36 39 1.3 1.3 1.4

State and local

247 217 256 1.2 1.1 1.3

State and local education

84 95 88 0.8 0.9 0.8

State and local, excluding education

163 122 169 1.8 1.3 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

949 819 1,034 3.5 3.0 3.7

South

2,372 2,212 2,466 4.4 4.0 4.5

Midwest

1,383 1,146 1,433 4.2 3.5 4.3

West

1,387 1,153 1,437 4.0 3.3 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

5,263 4,883 5,383 3.5 3.3 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,017 4,653 5,139 4.0 3.7 4.0

Mining and logging

37 37 37 5.2 5.0 5.0

Construction

314 315 354 4.4 4.4 4.8

Manufacturing

348 346 355 2.8 2.7 2.8

Durable goods

198 194 206 2.5 2.4 2.6

Nondurable goods

150 152 149 3.2 3.2 3.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,066 992 1,065 3.9 3.6 3.9

Wholesale trade

146 138 146 2.5 2.3 2.5

Retail trade

727 653 730 4.6 4.2 4.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

194 201 190 3.3 3.3 3.1

Information

94 80 98 3.3 2.8 3.5

Financial activities

211 161 239 2.5 1.9 2.8

Finance and insurance

134 112 142 2.1 1.8 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

77 49 97 3.5 2.1 4.2

Professional and business services

1,095 1,078 1,153 5.3 5.1 5.4

Education and health services

618 624 626 2.6 2.6 2.6

Educational services

70 54 63 1.8 1.4 1.6

Health care and social assistance

548 570 563 2.8 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,021 853 1,025 6.3 5.2 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

184 101 133 8.0 4.4 5.5

Accommodation and food services

837 752 892 6.1 5.4 6.3

Other services

213 168 187 3.7 2.9 3.2

Government

245 230 244 1.1 1.0 1.1

Federal

32 38 27 1.2 1.4 1.0

State and local

213 191 217 1.1 1.0 1.1

State and local education

93 84 91 0.9 0.8 0.8

State and local, excluding education

119 107 126 1.3 1.2 1.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

810 718 756 3.0 2.6 2.7

South

2,132 2,080 2,285 3.9 3.8 4.1

Midwest

1,067 1,015 1,109 3.3 3.1 3.3

West

1,254 1,070 1,233 3.7 3.1 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

3,311 3,165 3,460 2.2 2.1 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,166 3,025 3,317 2.5 2.4 2.6

Mining and logging

21 21 18 2.9 2.9 2.5

Construction

172 134 157 2.4 1.9 2.1

Manufacturing

213 215 226 1.7 1.7 1.8

Durable goods

120 111 135 1.5 1.4 1.7

Nondurable goods

92 104 91 2.0 2.2 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

694 695 724 2.5 2.5 2.6

Wholesale trade

91 102 102 1.6 1.7 1.7

Retail trade

477 463 492 3.0 3.0 3.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

126 130 131 2.2 2.2 2.2

Information

44 45 57 1.6 1.6 2.0

Financial activities

100 99 149 1.2 1.1 1.7

Finance and insurance

47 61 84 0.7 1.0 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

53 37 65 2.4 1.6 2.8

Professional and business services

674 617 636 3.2 2.9 3.0

Education and health services

424 438 429 1.8 1.8 1.8

Educational services

44 33 39 1.1 0.8 1.0

Health care and social assistance

380 405 389 1.9 2.0 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

701 640 759 4.3 3.9 4.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

55 66 64 2.4 2.9 2.6

Accommodation and food services

646 574 695 4.7 4.1 4.9

Other services

123 120 162 2.1 2.0 2.7

Government

145 140 143 0.6 0.6 0.6

Federal

16 21 14 0.6 0.8 0.5

State and local

129 119 129 0.6 0.6 0.6

State and local education

55 58 52 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local, excluding education

74 61 77 0.8 0.7 0.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

466 454 450 1.7 1.6 1.6

South

1,364 1,315 1,501 2.5 2.4 2.7

Midwest

692 686 736 2.1 2.1 2.2

West

789 711 773 2.3 2.1 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

1,622 1,388 1,591 1.1 0.9 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,572 1,345 1,535 1.3 1.1 1.2

Mining and logging

15 14 18 2.0 1.9 2.5

Construction

132 160 175 1.8 2.2 2.4

Manufacturing

114 110 106 0.9 0.9 0.8

Durable goods

63 73 60 0.8 0.9 0.7

Nondurable goods

51 38 46 1.1 0.8 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

297 253 301 1.1 0.9 1.1

Wholesale trade

41 30 36 0.7 0.5 0.6

Retail trade

204 166 218 1.3 1.1 1.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

52 56 46 0.9 0.9 0.8

Information

45 19 27 1.6 0.7 1.0

Financial activities

78 30 58 0.9 0.3 0.7

Finance and insurance

56 23 30 0.9 0.4 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

22 7 28 1.0 0.3 1.2

Professional and business services

362 385 443 1.7 1.8 2.1

Education and health services

152 137 152 0.6 0.6 0.6

Educational services

20 19 21 0.5 0.5 0.5

Health care and social assistance

132 118 132 0.7 0.6 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

301 196 236 1.9 1.2 1.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

125 32 67 5.4 1.4 2.8

Accommodation and food services

176 164 168 1.3 1.2 1.2

Other services

76 41 18 1.3 0.7 0.3

Government

50 43 56 0.2 0.2 0.2

Federal

4 6 4 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local

45 37 52 0.2 0.2 0.3

State and local education

24 14 25 0.2 0.1 0.2

State and local, excluding education

21 23 27 0.2 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

267 216 259 1.0 0.8 0.9

South

651 635 657 1.2 1.2 1.2

Midwest

321 266 315 1.0 0.8 1.0

West

383 271 360 1.1 0.8 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)

Total

330 330 332 0.2 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

279 284 287 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 1 1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Construction

10 21 22 0.1 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

22 21 23 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

15 10 11 0.2 0.1 0.1

Nondurable goods

7 11 12 0.1 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

75 45 40 0.3 0.2 0.1

Wholesale trade

14 6 7 0.2 0.1 0.1

Retail trade

46 24 20 0.3 0.2 0.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

15 15 13 0.3 0.2 0.2

Information

5 15 14 0.2 0.6 0.5

Financial activities

33 32 32 0.4 0.4 0.4

Finance and insurance

31 28 29 0.5 0.4 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2 5 4 0.1 0.2 0.2

Professional and business services

59 75 74 0.3 0.4 0.3

Education and health services

42 49 44 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

6 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Health care and social assistance

36 46 42 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

19 18 30 0.1 0.1 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services

16 14 28 0.1 0.1 0.2

Other services

14 7 7 0.2 0.1 0.1

Government

51 46 45 0.2 0.2 0.2

Federal

12 11 9 0.4 0.4 0.3

State and local

38 35 36 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

14 13 14 0.1 0.1 0.1

State and local, excluding education

24 23 22 0.3 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

77 49 47 0.3 0.2 0.2

South

118 129 127 0.2 0.2 0.2

Midwest

54 64 58 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

81 88 100 0.2 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: June 10, 2019