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Economic News Release
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JOLTS JLT Program Links

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, April 7, 2020	USDL-20-0565

Technical information:	(202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                            JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – FEBRUARY 2020

The number of job openings was little changed at 6.9 million on the last business day of February, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were little 
changed at 5.9 million and 5.6 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 
2.3 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was little changed at 1.2 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm sector, by 
industry, and by four geographic regions. 

Job Openings
 
On the last business day of February, the job openings level was little changed at 6.9 million and the job 
openings rate was also little changed at 4.3 percent. Job openings decreased in real estate and rental and 
leasing (-30,000) and information (-29,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four 
regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

In February, the number of hires was little changed at 5.9 million while the rate was unchanged at 3.9 
percent. The hires level increased in durable goods manufacturing (+29,000). The number of hires was 
little changed in all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

In February, the number and rate of total separations were little changed at 5.6 million and 3.6 percent, 
respectively. The number of total separations edged up in government (+28,000). The total separations 
level decreased in professional and business services (-122,000) and real estate and rental and leasing    
(-20,000). The number of total separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

In February, the number of quits was little changed at 3.5 million while the rate was unchanged at 2.3 
percent. Total private quits were little changed while the quits level edged up for government (+15,000). 
Quits decreased in real estate and rental and leasing (-27,000). The number of quits decreased in the 
South region. (See table 4.)

The number and rate of layoffs and discharges were little changed in February at 1.8 million and 1.2 
percent, respectively. The layoffs and discharges level increased in real estate and rental and leasing 
(+16,000) and federal government (+6,000). The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in 
all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations decreased in February (-80,000). Other separations decreased for total 
private (-79,000) and was unchanged for government. The largest decreases in other separations were in 
accommodation and food services (-19,000) and health care and social assistance (-17,000). The number 
of other separations decreased in the Northeast and West regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising.

Over the 12 months ending in February, hires totaled 70.3 million and separations totaled 67.9 million, 
yielding a net employment gain of 2.4 million. These totals include workers who may have been hired 
and separated more than once during the year.

____________	
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for March 2020 are scheduled to be 
released on Friday, May 15, 2020 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

7,048 7,012 6,882 5,703 5,925 5,896 5,676 5,703 5,560

Total private

6,343 6,231 6,101 5,346 5,541 5,517 5,310 5,382 5,211

Mining and logging(1)

29 19 25 32 20 25 35 24 21

Construction(1)

277 267 279 357 435 409 381 386 375

Manufacturing

462 408 420 342 311 342 337 331 328

Durable goods(1)

283 256 274 191 174 203 190 184 194

Nondurable goods(1)

178 152 145 151 137 138 147 147 134

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,258 1,214 1,198 1,133 1,220 1,256 1,125 1,220 1,239

Wholesale trade

217 172 175 148 138 145 140 137 144

Retail trade

791 759 727 738 818 836 736 830 824

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

250 283 295 247 264 274 249 253 272

Information(1)

129 152 123 89 86 91 91 75 83

Financial activities

353 427 386 213 217 230 191 217 192

Finance and insurance

274 312 302 143 142 150 137 141 137

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

79 115 85 69 75 81 54 75 55

Professional and business services

1,404 1,265 1,278 1,168 1,163 1,079 1,125 1,151 1,029

Education and health services

1,205 1,294 1,250 737 753 754 740 701 700

Educational services(1)

105 133 117 91 109 97 111 83 89

Health care and social assistance

1,100 1,161 1,134 646 644 657 630 617 611

Leisure and hospitality

1,001 919 927 1,082 1,126 1,103 1,092 1,090 1,033

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

104 148 144 171 176 173 163 172 150

Accommodation and food services

897 771 783 911 949 930 930 918 883

Other services

224 264 214 193 210 229 191 187 210

Government

704 781 782 357 384 380 366 321 349

Federal(1)

130 113 118 37 48 52 32 38 43

State and local

575 669 663 320 336 327 334 283 306

State and local education

218 275 271 161 173 158 173 149 151

State and local, excluding education(1)

357 393 392 159 163 169 161 134 155





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

4.5 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6

Total private

4.7 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.0

Mining and logging(1)

3.7 2.7 3.4 4.4 2.8 3.5 4.8 3.4 2.9

Construction(1)

3.6 3.4 3.5 4.8 5.7 5.4 5.1 5.1 4.9

Manufacturing

3.5 3.1 3.2 2.7 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6

Durable goods(1)

3.4 3.1 3.3 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4

Nondurable goods(1)

3.6 3.1 2.9 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.4 4.5 4.1 4.4 4.5

Wholesale trade

3.6 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4

Retail trade

4.8 4.6 4.4 4.7 5.2 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.9 4.3 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.4

Information(1)

4.3 5.0 4.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 2.6 2.9

Financial activities

3.9 4.6 4.2 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.2

Finance and insurance

4.1 4.6 4.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.3 4.7 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.4 2.3 3.2 2.3

Professional and business services

6.2 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.3 5.3 4.8

Education and health services

4.8 5.0 4.8 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.8

Educational services(1)

2.7 3.4 3.0 2.5 2.8 2.5 3.0 2.2 2.3

Health care and social assistance

5.2 5.3 5.2 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

5.7 5.2 5.2 6.6 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.5 6.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4.1 5.6 5.4 7.1 7.1 6.9 6.7 6.9 6.0

Accommodation and food services

6.0 5.1 5.2 6.5 6.6 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.1

Other services

3.7 4.3 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.3 3.1 3.5

Government

3.0 3.3 3.3 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.5

Federal(1)

4.4 3.8 4.0 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.1 1.3 1.5

State and local

2.8 3.3 3.2 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.4 1.5

State and local education

2.0 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.7 4.0 4.0 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.7

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note

This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The JOLTS 
program provides information on labor demand and turnover. Additional information about the JOLTS program can 
be found at www.bls.gov/jlt/. Estimates are published for job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, 
other separations, and total separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well as 
federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Industries are classified in 
accordance with the North American Industry Classification System.

Definitions

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that 
includes the 12th day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and 
hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacation or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of 
unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or employees on strike for the entire pay period, and employees 
on leave without pay for the entire pay period are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, 
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by 
the establishment where they are working.

Job Openings.  Job openings include all positions that are open on the last business day of the reference month. 

A job is open only if it meets all three of these conditions: 
* A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-
time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal. 
* The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the employer can find a suitable candidate during that time. 
* The employer is actively recruiting workers from outside the establishment to fill the position. Active 
recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in 
newspapers, on television, or on the radio; posting Internet notices, posting “help wanted” signs, 
networking or making “word-of-mouth” announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; 
contacting employment agencies; or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or 
similar sources.

Excluded are positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs. Also 
excluded are openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future, positions for which employees 
have been hired but the employees have not yet reported for work, and positions to be filled by employees of 
temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is 
computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying that 
quotient by 100.

Hires.  Hires include all additions to the payroll during the entire reference month, including newly hired and 
rehired employees; full-time and part-time employees; permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees; employees 
who were recalled to a job at the location following a layoff (formal suspension from pay status) lasting more than 7 
days; on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated; workers who 
were hired and separated during the month, and transfers from other locations. Excluded are transfers or promotions 
within the reporting location, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies, employee 
leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by 
employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations.  Separations include all separations from the payroll during the entire reference month and is 
reported by type of separation: quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits include employees who 
left voluntarily with the exception of retirements or transfers to other locations. Layoffs and discharges includes 
involuntary separations initiated by the employer including layoffs with no intent to rehire; layoffs (formal 
suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, 
downsizing, or closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or short-term employees; 
and terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return the next season). Other 
separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, separations due to employee disability; and deaths. 
Excluded from separations are transfers within the same location; employees on strike; employees of temporary help 
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The separations rate is computed by 
dividing the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits, layoffs and 
discharges, and other separations rates are computed similarly.

Estimation Method

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 20,700 nonfarm business and government 
establishments. The sample is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment size class. The 
establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.4 million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of 
Employment and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state unemployment insurance 
laws and federal agencies subject to the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

Employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted, monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates 
of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the 
levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

Birth/death model.  The time lag from the start up, or birth, of an establishment until its appearance on the 
sampling frame is approximately one year. Also within the first year, new businesses may go out of business, 
referred to as a death. Because not all births and deaths of establishments can be reflected on the sampling frame 
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and separations from them during their early 
existence. BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses establishment birth and death activity from previous 
years. The estimates of job openings, hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to the 
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the estimates for job openings, hires, and separations.

Alignment.  The JOLTS figure for hires minus separations can be used to derive a measure of net employment 
change. This change should be comparable to the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. 
However, definitional differences as well as sampling and non- sampling errors between the two surveys historically 
caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires 
and separations series, BLS implemented the monthly alignment method. There are four steps to this method: 
seasonally adjust, align, back out the seasonal adjustment factors, and re-seasonally adjust.

Seasonal adjustment.  BLS uses X-13 ARIMA for seasonal adjustment. A concurrent seasonal adjustment 
methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up 
to and including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and multiplicative models 
and REGARIMA (regression with auto-correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors at the 
beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series. The seasonally adjusted CES 
employment trends are applied to the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trends (hires minus 
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data. 

Annual estimates.  The JOLTS estimates are revised annually to reflect annual updates to the CES employment 
estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. The JOLTS employment levels (not published) are ratio-
adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are applied to all JOLTS data elements. The 
seasonally adjusted data are recalculated for the most recent 5 years in order to reflect updated seasonal adjustment 
factors. These annual updates result in revisions to both the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted JOLTS 
data series, for the period since the last benchmark was established.

Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the 
12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment 
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This figure will be 
approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates. Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are 
published only for not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news release each year. Annual 
estimates are not calculated for job openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the 
last business day of each month.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. Nonsampling error occurs when a sample 
is surveyed rather than the entire population. There is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true 
population values they represent. The difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample 
selected. This variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS analysis is generally conducted at 
the 90-percent level of confidence. That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an 
estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of 
sampling error. Sampling error estimates are available at www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons 
including: the failure to include a segment of the population; the inability to obtain data from all units in the sample; 
the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a timely basis; mistakes made by respondents; errors 
made in the collection or processing of the data; and errors from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.
Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 
(202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

7,048 7,309 6,793 6,552 7,012 6,882 4.5 4.6 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,343 6,546 6,070 5,838 6,231 6,101 4.7 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.6 4.5

Mining and logging(3)

29 23 20 13 19 25 3.7 3.0 2.7 1.8 2.7 3.4

Construction(3)

277 325 215 216 267 279 3.6 4.1 2.8 2.8 3.4 3.5

Manufacturing

462 403 401 360 408 420 3.5 3.1 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.2

Durable goods(3)

283 258 270 222 256 274 3.4 3.1 3.2 2.7 3.1 3.3

Nondurable goods(3)

178 145 131 138 152 145 3.6 2.9 2.6 2.8 3.1 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,258 1,472 1,271 1,192 1,214 1,198 4.3 5.0 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.1

Wholesale trade

217 268 188 187 172 175 3.6 4.3 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.9

Retail trade

791 877 752 762 759 727 4.8 5.3 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

250 327 331 244 283 295 3.9 5.0 5.1 3.8 4.3 4.5

Information(3)

129 142 136 146 152 123 4.3 4.7 4.5 4.8 5.0 4.1

Financial activities

353 426 348 319 427 386 3.9 4.6 3.8 3.5 4.6 4.2

Finance and insurance

274 323 259 235 312 302 4.1 4.8 3.9 3.5 4.6 4.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

79 103 88 84 115 85 3.3 4.2 3.6 3.4 4.7 3.5

Professional and business services

1,404 1,218 1,217 1,223 1,265 1,278 6.2 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.6 5.6

Education and health services

1,205 1,306 1,311 1,203 1,294 1,250 4.8 5.1 5.1 4.7 5.0 4.8

Educational services(3)

105 131 146 106 133 117 2.7 3.3 3.7 2.7 3.4 3.0

Health care and social assistance

1,100 1,176 1,165 1,097 1,161 1,134 5.2 5.4 5.3 5.0 5.3 5.2

Leisure and hospitality

1,001 975 966 916 919 927 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

104 135 120 127 148 144 4.1 5.2 4.6 4.9 5.6 5.4

Accommodation and food services

897 840 845 789 771 783 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.2 5.1 5.2

Other services

224 256 185 250 264 214 3.7 4.2 3.0 4.1 4.3 3.5

Government

704 763 723 715 781 782 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.3

Federal(3)

130 124 117 88 113 118 4.4 4.2 3.9 3.0 3.8 4.0

State and local

575 638 606 626 669 663 2.8 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.2

State and local education

218 234 220 234 275 271 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.5

State and local, excluding education(3)

357 404 386 393 393 392 3.7 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

REGION(4)

Northeast

1,159 1,234 1,178 1,135 1,224 1,194 4.0 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.1

South

2,643 2,804 2,545 2,439 2,631 2,564 4.6 4.8 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.4

Midwest

1,625 1,648 1,485 1,400 1,522 1,516 4.7 4.8 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.4

West

1,621 1,623 1,585 1,578 1,634 1,609 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

5,703 5,757 5,857 5,927 5,925 5,896 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,346 5,397 5,485 5,574 5,541 5,517 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3

Mining and logging

32 28 22 25 20 25 4.4 3.7 3.1 3.6 2.8 3.5

Construction

357 475 426 467 435 409 4.8 6.3 5.7 6.2 5.7 5.4

Manufacturing

342 312 357 334 311 342 2.7 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.7

Durable goods

191 177 212 192 174 203 2.4 2.2 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.5

Nondurable goods

151 135 145 142 137 138 3.2 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,133 1,112 1,170 1,161 1,220 1,256 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.5

Wholesale trade

148 144 156 133 138 145 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.2 2.3 2.4

Retail trade

738 716 763 772 818 836 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.9 5.2 5.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

247 252 251 256 264 274 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.4

Information

89 96 90 87 86 91 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1

Financial activities

213 217 236 218 217 230 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.6

Finance and insurance

143 135 149 135 142 150 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

69 82 87 83 75 81 3.0 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.2 3.4

Professional and business services

1,168 1,118 1,157 1,151 1,163 1,079 5.5 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.0

Education and health services

737 722 730 723 753 754 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1

Educational services

91 106 107 104 109 97 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.5

Health care and social assistance

646 616 623 619 644 657 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

1,082 1,101 1,078 1,165 1,126 1,103 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.9 6.7 6.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

171 168 187 186 176 173 7.1 6.8 7.6 7.5 7.1 6.9

Accommodation and food services

911 934 891 979 949 930 6.5 6.6 6.2 6.8 6.6 6.5

Other services

193 216 220 243 210 229 3.3 3.7 3.7 4.1 3.5 3.8

Government

357 360 371 352 384 380 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

Federal

37 44 51 43 48 52 1.3 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.8

State and local

320 316 321 309 336 327 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6

State and local education

161 156 160 153 173 158 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5

State and local, excluding education

159 160 160 156 163 169 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

878 921 949 935 949 997 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.6

South

2,401 2,274 2,296 2,358 2,345 2,276 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1

Midwest

1,259 1,237 1,304 1,263 1,187 1,250 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.8

West

1,165 1,325 1,308 1,371 1,444 1,373 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.1 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

5,676 5,580 5,657 5,762 5,703 5,560 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,310 5,211 5,307 5,419 5,382 5,211 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.0

Mining and logging

35 26 29 31 24 21 4.8 3.5 4.0 4.3 3.4 2.9

Construction

381 450 416 432 386 375 5.1 6.0 5.5 5.7 5.1 4.9

Manufacturing

337 333 318 342 331 328 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.6

Durable goods

190 205 184 193 184 194 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4

Nondurable goods

147 128 134 149 147 134 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.1 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,125 1,062 1,198 1,115 1,220 1,239 4.1 3.8 4.3 4.0 4.4 4.5

Wholesale trade

140 136 147 123 137 144 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.4

Retail trade

736 687 816 741 830 824 4.7 4.4 5.2 4.7 5.3 5.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

249 240 235 250 253 272 4.1 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.4

Information

91 92 79 84 75 83 3.2 3.2 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.9

Financial activities

191 200 213 203 217 192 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.2

Finance and insurance

137 127 143 134 141 137 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

54 72 70 69 75 55 2.3 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.3

Professional and business services

1,125 1,079 1,131 1,134 1,151 1,029 5.3 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.3 4.8

Education and health services

740 668 663 690 701 700 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.8

Educational services

111 101 89 97 83 89 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.3

Health care and social assistance

630 567 574 593 617 611 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,092 1,067 1,063 1,146 1,090 1,033 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.8 6.5 6.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

163 170 175 184 172 150 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.4 6.9 6.0

Accommodation and food services

930 896 888 963 918 883 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.7 6.4 6.1

Other services

191 234 197 242 187 210 3.3 4.0 3.3 4.1 3.1 3.5

Government

366 369 350 343 321 349 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5

Federal

32 55 41 45 38 43 1.1 2.0 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.5

State and local

334 314 309 298 283 306 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.5

State and local education

173 160 157 164 149 151 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education

161 154 152 134 134 155 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

790 936 909 887 911 852 2.9 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.0

South

2,417 2,076 2,147 2,249 2,252 2,118 4.4 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.8

Midwest

1,198 1,186 1,235 1,220 1,249 1,271 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8

West

1,271 1,382 1,366 1,406 1,291 1,319 3.6 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.6 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

3,541 3,442 3,528 3,528 3,574 3,497 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,358 3,261 3,341 3,331 3,399 3,307 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5

Mining and logging

20 12 14 13 14 13 2.6 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.8

Construction

194 189 164 170 165 152 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.0

Manufacturing

209 200 201 206 188 193 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5

Durable goods

118 118 107 110 103 116 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4

Nondurable goods

91 82 94 97 84 77 1.9 1.7 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

737 630 802 734 831 802 2.7 2.3 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.9

Wholesale trade

87 61 89 77 86 93 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.6

Retail trade

509 433 577 507 597 555 3.2 2.8 3.7 3.2 3.8 3.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

142 135 135 150 148 154 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.5

Information

48 45 43 41 40 52 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.8

Financial activities

98 131 148 127 145 122 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.4

Finance and insurance

78 88 102 88 89 92 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

20 42 46 40 57 30 0.9 1.8 1.9 1.7 2.4 1.3

Professional and business services

650 632 636 622 684 636 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.2 2.9

Education and health services

497 464 462 500 476 500 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0

Educational services

59 62 53 66 55 64 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.7

Health care and social assistance

439 402 409 434 421 437 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

795 776 736 771 758 718 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

81 84 86 72 79 85 3.3 3.4 3.5 2.9 3.2 3.4

Accommodation and food services

714 692 650 698 679 633 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.9 4.7 4.4

Other services

111 183 134 147 98 120 1.9 3.1 2.3 2.5 1.6 2.0

Government

183 180 188 197 175 190 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8

Federal

15 19 17 23 19 16 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.6

State and local

168 161 171 174 156 174 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9

State and local education

94 85 90 98 83 90 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9

State and local, excluding education

74 76 81 76 73 84 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

431 506 478 462 492 494 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8

South

1,537 1,331 1,429 1,452 1,494 1,393 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5

Midwest

759 768 777 760 797 792 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4

West

814 837 844 854 790 819 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

1,791 1,778 1,769 1,893 1,741 1,755 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,668 1,657 1,672 1,815 1,659 1,660 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3

Mining and logging

13 12 14 17 9 5 1.8 1.7 1.9 2.3 1.2 0.7

Construction

176 244 233 243 194 203 2.4 3.2 3.1 3.2 2.6 2.7

Manufacturing

111 114 95 110 115 114 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

60 73 62 67 64 66 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Nondurable goods

51 41 33 43 51 48 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

325 365 311 323 325 373 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3

Wholesale trade(3)

43 66 46 35 47 45 0.7 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.8

Retail trade

191 211 185 197 193 227 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

92 88 81 90 85 100 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.6

Information

37 40 33 37 24 28 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.0

Financial activities

59 42 44 48 40 49 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6

Finance and insurance

28 18 20 24 31 25 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

32 24 23 24 9 25 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.4 1.0

Professional and business services

401 390 434 454 413 347 1.9 1.8 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.6

Education and health services

193 167 165 150 160 156 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6

Educational services

46 29 31 26 22 22 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6

Health care and social assistance

147 137 134 124 139 134 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

280 247 298 342 295 298 1.7 1.5 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

81 81 84 108 90 63 3.3 3.3 3.4 4.3 3.6 2.5

Accommodation and food services

199 165 214 234 205 235 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.6

Other services

71 36 44 91 84 88 1.2 0.6 0.7 1.5 1.4 1.5

Government

123 121 98 78 82 95 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4

Federal

6 26 12 9 8 14 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5

State and local

118 96 86 69 74 81 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local education

57 46 41 40 41 39 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local, excluding education

61 49 44 29 33 42 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4

REGION(4)

Northeast

284 366 362 347 354 316 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1

South

745 621 587 692 601 599 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1

Midwest

374 340 390 389 382 410 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

West

387 452 430 464 404 430 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

344 360 359 341 388 308 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

284 293 294 272 323 244 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 1 1 1 2 3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4

Construction(3)

11 17 18 19 27 20 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3

Manufacturing

17 20 21 26 28 22 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

13 14 14 16 16 13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

5 5 7 9 12 9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

62 68 85 58 64 65 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

10 9 12 10 5 6 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Retail trade

37 42 54 38 40 41 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

15 17 20 10 19 17 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Information(3)

6 8 3 6 11 3 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.1

Financial activities

34 26 22 27 31 20 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

Finance and insurance

31 21 21 22 22 20 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

2 6 1 5 9 0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.0

Professional and business services

74 57 60 58 54 46 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Education and health services

50 37 36 39 65 44 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2

Educational services

6 9 4 4 7 4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

44 28 31 35 58 41 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

18 44 29 34 37 17 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

1 5 5 3 3 2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

17 39 24 30 34 15 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Other services(3)

9 15 19 4 5 2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0

Government

60 68 65 68 64 64 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

11 11 12 13 12 13 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4

State and local

49 57 52 56 53 52 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

23 28 25 27 25 22 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

26 29 27 29 28 29 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

75 65 69 77 65 43 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

South

135 124 132 104 156 126 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Midwest

65 78 67 71 70 69 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

69 93 91 88 97 70 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

6,788 6,912 6,597 4.4 4.4 4.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

6,115 6,163 5,844 4.6 4.6 4.4

Mining and logging

29 19 25 3.8 2.7 3.5

Construction

277 267 279 3.8 3.6 3.7

Manufacturing

462 408 420 3.5 3.1 3.2

Durable goods

283 256 274 3.4 3.1 3.3

Nondurable goods

178 152 145 3.6 3.1 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,151 1,082 1,073 4.0 3.8 3.8

Wholesale trade

212 184 164 3.5 3.0 2.7

Retail trade

689 615 614 4.3 3.8 3.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

250 283 295 4.0 4.3 4.6

Information

129 152 123 4.4 5.1 4.1

Financial activities

327 460 366 3.6 5.0 4.0

Finance and insurance

248 345 282 3.7 5.1 4.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

79 115 85 3.4 4.8 3.5

Professional and business services

1,350 1,267 1,237 6.1 5.7 5.5

Education and health services

1,180 1,383 1,214 4.7 5.4 4.7

Educational services

105 133 117 2.6 3.4 2.8

Health care and social assistance

1,075 1,250 1,097 5.1 5.7 5.0

Leisure and hospitality

992 861 910 5.9 5.1 5.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

117 149 159 5.1 6.2 6.5

Accommodation and food services

875 712 752 6.0 4.9 5.1

Other services

218 264 197 3.6 4.3 3.2

Government

673 748 753 2.9 3.2 3.2

Federal

130 113 118 4.4 3.8 4.0

State and local

543 636 635 2.6 3.1 3.0

State and local education

186 242 243 1.7 2.2 2.2

State and local, excluding education

357 393 392 3.8 4.1 4.1

REGION(3)

Northeast

1,098 1,196 1,124 3.9 4.2 3.9

South

2,553 2,609 2,470 4.5 4.5 4.3

Midwest

1,585 1,449 1,476 4.7 4.2 4.3

West

1,552 1,658 1,527 4.3 4.5 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

4,709 5,654 4,860 3.2 3.8 3.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,442 5,301 4,571 3.5 4.2 3.6

Mining and logging

28 24 21 3.8 3.4 3.0

Construction

306 398 341 4.3 5.5 4.7

Manufacturing

305 326 305 2.4 2.6 2.4

Durable goods

171 190 184 2.1 2.4 2.3

Nondurable goods

134 136 121 2.8 2.9 2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

869 1,025 985 3.2 3.7 3.6

Wholesale trade

127 143 123 2.2 2.4 2.1

Retail trade

566 639 662 3.7 4.1 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

176 243 201 2.9 3.9 3.3

Information

76 98 77 2.7 3.4 2.7

Financial activities

172 241 190 2.0 2.7 2.2

Finance and insurance

121 165 128 1.9 2.6 2.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

51 76 62 2.3 3.3 2.7

Professional and business services

1,045 1,226 952 5.0 5.8 4.5

Education and health services

624 820 652 2.6 3.4 2.6

Educational services

70 118 72 1.8 3.1 1.8

Health care and social assistance

554 703 580 2.7 3.4 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

871 935 873 5.5 5.8 5.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

115 121 116 5.3 5.4 5.1

Accommodation and food services

756 814 757 5.5 5.9 5.4

Other services

145 210 175 2.5 3.6 3.0

Government

267 353 289 1.2 1.6 1.3

Federal

29 45 43 1.0 1.6 1.5

State and local

238 307 245 1.2 1.6 1.2

State and local education

123 175 121 1.1 1.7 1.1

State and local, excluding education

115 132 125 1.3 1.4 1.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

642 843 745 2.4 3.1 2.7

South

2,113 2,396 1,984 3.9 4.4 3.6

Midwest

989 1,065 988 3.1 3.3 3.0

West

965 1,350 1,143 2.8 3.9 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

4,560 6,149 4,483 3.1 4.1 3.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,329 5,862 4,251 3.4 4.6 3.3

Mining and logging

37 29 20 5.1 4.1 2.9

Construction

313 422 291 4.4 5.8 4.0

Manufacturing

287 330 281 2.2 2.6 2.2

Durable goods

161 192 166 2.0 2.4 2.1

Nondurable goods

125 138 115 2.7 2.9 2.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

924 1,544 1,041 3.4 5.6 3.8

Wholesale trade

121 145 125 2.1 2.5 2.1

Retail trade

613 1,009 697 4.0 6.5 4.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

190 389 219 3.1 6.2 3.6

Information

77 88 71 2.7 3.1 2.5

Financial activities

165 245 167 1.9 2.8 1.9

Finance and insurance

117 158 118 1.8 2.4 1.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

48 87 49 2.1 3.8 2.1

Professional and business services

977 1,259 880 4.7 6.0 4.1

Education and health services

590 744 576 2.5 3.0 2.3

Educational services

62 81 56 1.6 2.2 1.4

Health care and social assistance

528 662 520 2.6 3.2 2.5

Leisure and hospitality

817 1,025 768 5.2 6.4 4.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

82 133 80 3.8 6.0 3.5

Accommodation and food services

735 892 688 5.4 6.4 4.9

Other services

142 176 157 2.5 3.0 2.7

Government

231 287 231 1.0 1.3 1.0

Federal

27 45 39 1.0 1.6 1.4

State and local

203 243 192 1.0 1.2 1.0

State and local education

95 124 81 0.9 1.2 0.7

State and local, excluding education

108 119 111 1.2 1.3 1.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

571 1,027 614 2.1 3.7 2.2

South

2,025 2,422 1,797 3.7 4.4 3.2

Midwest

933 1,337 1,007 2.9 4.1 3.1

West

1,032 1,364 1,064 3.0 3.9 3.0

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

2,891 3,516 2,849 1.9 2.3 1.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,766 3,362 2,718 2.2 2.6 2.1

Mining and logging

18 14 12 2.5 2.1 1.7

Construction

164 153 114 2.3 2.1 1.6

Manufacturing

177 173 162 1.4 1.4 1.3

Durable goods

99 97 98 1.2 1.2 1.2

Nondurable goods

77 76 64 1.6 1.6 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

609 826 676 2.2 3.0 2.5

Wholesale trade

70 91 77 1.2 1.5 1.3

Retail trade

419 606 462 2.7 3.9 3.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

121 129 137 2.0 2.1 2.2

Information

41 44 45 1.4 1.5 1.6

Financial activities

83 142 107 1.0 1.6 1.2

Finance and insurance

63 86 77 1.0 1.3 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

20 57 30 0.9 2.5 1.3

Professional and business services

555 712 538 2.7 3.4 2.5

Education and health services

408 492 419 1.7 2.0 1.7

Educational services

37 54 44 1.0 1.4 1.1

Health care and social assistance

371 438 375 1.8 2.1 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

627 710 559 4.0 4.4 3.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

53 61 57 2.4 2.7 2.5

Accommodation and food services

574 650 503 4.2 4.7 3.6

Other services

83 96 84 1.4 1.6 1.4

Government

125 153 132 0.5 0.7 0.6

Federal

13 18 13 0.5 0.6 0.5

State and local

112 135 119 0.6 0.7 0.6

State and local education

55 69 52 0.5 0.7 0.5

State and local, excluding education

57 66 66 0.6 0.7 0.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

326 500 389 1.2 1.8 1.4

South

1,299 1,498 1,180 2.4 2.7 2.1

Midwest

599 757 624 1.8 2.3 1.9

West

667 761 656 1.9 2.2 1.9

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

1,363 2,189 1,362 0.9 1.5 0.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,299 2,124 1,308 1.0 1.7 1.0

Mining and logging

17 13 6 2.3 1.8 0.8

Construction

138 242 156 2.0 3.3 2.1

Manufacturing

95 123 99 0.7 1.0 0.8

Durable goods

52 73 58 0.6 0.9 0.7

Nondurable goods

43 50 41 0.9 1.1 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

257 636 306 0.9 2.3 1.1

Wholesale trade

43 47 45 0.7 0.8 0.8

Retail trade

159 348 196 1.0 2.2 1.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

54 241 65 0.9 3.9 1.1

Information

31 34 22 1.1 1.2 0.8

Financial activities

50 63 40 0.6 0.7 0.5

Finance and insurance

25 42 21 0.4 0.6 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

25 21 18 1.1 0.9 0.8

Professional and business services

356 476 304 1.7 2.3 1.4

Education and health services

133 186 114 0.6 0.8 0.5

Educational services

21 19 9 0.5 0.5 0.2

Health care and social assistance

112 167 105 0.6 0.8 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

172 277 191 1.1 1.7 1.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

28 69 21 1.3 3.1 0.9

Accommodation and food services

144 208 170 1.1 1.5 1.2

Other services

50 75 71 0.9 1.3 1.2

Government

64 66 54 0.3 0.3 0.2

Federal

4 9 14 0.1 0.3 0.5

State and local

60 56 40 0.3 0.3 0.2

State and local education

29 35 19 0.3 0.3 0.2

State and local, excluding education

30 21 21 0.3 0.2 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

178 458 189 0.7 1.7 0.7

South

602 737 499 1.1 1.3 0.9

Midwest

283 499 328 0.9 1.5 1.0

West

300 496 346 0.9 1.4 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)

Total

305 444 271 0.2 0.3 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

264 376 225 0.2 0.3 0.2

Mining and logging

2 2 2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Construction

11 27 20 0.2 0.4 0.3

Manufacturing

15 34 20 0.1 0.3 0.2

Durable goods

10 22 10 0.1 0.3 0.1

Nondurable goods

5 12 9 0.1 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

58 82 60 0.2 0.3 0.2

Wholesale trade

8 8 3 0.1 0.1 0.0

Retail trade

35 55 39 0.2 0.4 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

15 19 17 0.2 0.3 0.3

Information

6 11 3 0.2 0.4 0.1

Financial activities

31 39 20 0.4 0.5 0.2

Finance and insurance

29 30 19 0.5 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2 9 0 0.1 0.4 0.0

Professional and business services

65 72 38 0.3 0.3 0.2

Education and health services

49 66 43 0.2 0.3 0.2

Educational services

5 8 3 0.1 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance

44 58 41 0.2 0.3 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

18 37 17 0.1 0.2 0.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services

17 34 15 0.1 0.2 0.1

Other services

9 5 2 0.2 0.1 0.0

Government

42 69 46 0.2 0.3 0.2

Federal

10 17 12 0.4 0.6 0.4

State and local

31 52 34 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local education

11 20 10 0.1 0.2 0.1

State and local, excluding education

21 32 24 0.2 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

66 69 36 0.2 0.2 0.1

South

123 187 118 0.2 0.3 0.2

Midwest

51 81 56 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

65 107 62 0.2 0.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: April 07, 2020