Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, March 16, 2017	USDL-17-0320

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – JANUARY 2017

The number of job openings was little changed at 5.6 million on the last business day of January, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were also little 
changed at 5.4 million and 5.3 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was little changed 
at 2.2 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.1 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions. The release also includes 2016 annual estimates for hires and 
separations. The annual number of hires at 62.7 million in 2016 was essentially the same as in 2015. The 
annual number of quits at 36.1 million increased in 2016 while the annual number of layoffs and 
discharges at 19.9 million declined.

Job Openings

On the last business day of January, there were 5.6 million job openings, little changed from December. 
The job openings rate was 3.7 percent in January. The number of job openings was little changed for 
total private and for government. Job openings increased in professional and business services 
(+136,000) and real estate and rental and leasing (+67,000) but decreased in federal government 
(-37,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was essentially unchanged at 5.4 million in January. The hires rate was 3.7 percent. 
The number of hires was little changed for total private and for government. Hires increased in other 
services (+54,000) and finance and insurance (+41,000). The number of hires was little changed in all 
four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 5.3 million total separations in January, little changed from December. The total 
separations rate in January was 3.6 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total 
private and for government. Total separations increased in finance and insurance (+39,000). The number 
of total separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits edged up to 3.2 million in January. The quits rate was 2.2 percent. Over the month, 
the number of quits edged up for total private (+129,000) and was little changed for government. Quits 
increased in other services (+33,000), finance and insurance (+31,000), and real estate and rental and 
leasing (+24,000). The number of quits increased in the Midwest (+92,000) and West (+92,000) regions. 
(See table 4.)

There were 1.6 million layoffs and discharges in January, unchanged from December. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent in January. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for 
total private and for government. The layoffs and discharges level increased in accommodation and food 
services (+69,000), transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+27,000), and mining and logging 
(+7,000). Layoffs and discharges were little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

In January, the number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and 
government. Other separations increased in health care and social assistance (+29,000) and nondurable 
goods manufacturing (+5,000) but decreased in federal government (-3,000). Other separations 
increased in the South region (+37,000) and was little changed in the other regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in January, hires totaled 63.1 million and 
separations totaled 60.7 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.4 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

Annual Levels and Rates

This release contains the 2016 annual levels and rates for hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and 
discharges, and other separations. Note that annual figures for job openings are not calculated because 
job openings are measured on a stock, or point-in-time, basis rather than on a flow basis over a specified 
time period. The annual figures and additional tables are published with the release of January data each 
year. (See the Technical Note for additional information on these measures.)

Calculating annual levels and rates allows additional comparisons across years. In 2016, the annual level 
of hires was 62.7 million (43.5 percent of employment), essentially the same as in 2015. Quits rose for 
the seventh consecutive year reaching 36.1 million in 2016 (25.0 percent of employment). The layoffs 
and discharges annual level declined in 2016 to 19.9 million (13.8 percent of employment) after edging 
up the past 2 years. The annual level for other separations declined in 2016 to 4.4 million (3.1 percent of 
employment); the decline is the first since 2009. The annual level for total separations (the sum of quits, 
layoffs and discharges, and other separations) rose in 2016 for the sixth consecutive year, reaching 60.4 
million (41.9 percent of employment). (See tables 13 through 22.)
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for February 2017 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, April 11, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
           Category              | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan.
                                 | 2016 | 2016 | 2017p| 2016 | 2016 | 2017p| 2016 | 2016 | 2017p
---------------------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      LEVELS BY INDUSTRY         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
        (in thousands)           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total............................|5,713 |5,539 |5,626 |5,117 |5,303 |5,440 |5,033 |5,084 |5,258
 Total private...................|5,214 |5,065 |5,173 |4,760 |4,984 |5,104 |4,693 |4,754 |4,924
  Mining and logging(1)..........|   13 |   17 |   16 |   24 |   22 |   28 |   47 |   22 |   28
  Construction(1)................|  158 |  140 |  147 |  292 |  400 |  378 |  274 |  369 |  358
  Manufacturing..................|  348 |  342 |  364 |  279 |  293 |  294 |  261 |  287 |  301
   Durable goods(1)..............|  190 |  194 |  207 |  168 |  171 |  168 |  154 |  163 |  168
   Nondurable goods(1)...........|  159 |  148 |  157 |  111 |  122 |  126 |  107 |  124 |  132
  Trade, transportation,         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities.................|1,015 |1,014 |  967 |1,050 |1,009 |1,023 |1,055 |  958 |1,004
   Wholesale trade(1)............|  198 |  182 |  173 |  134 |  130 |  135 |  139 |  142 |  141
   Retail trade..................|  633 |  650 |  612 |  747 |  672 |  683 |  723 |  631 |  670
   Transportation, warehousing,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and utilities(1).............|  183 |  182 |  182 |  169 |  208 |  205 |  193 |  185 |  194
  Information(1).................|   97 |   81 |   86 |   82 |   79 |   82 |   83 |   82 |   83
  Financial activities...........|  340 |  357 |  393 |  213 |  190 |  236 |  196 |  162 |  211
   Finance and insurance.........|  275 |  272 |  242 |  147 |  126 |  167 |  132 |  107 |  146
   Real estate and               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    rental and leasing(1)........|   65 |   85 |  152 |   66 |   64 |   70 |   64 |   55 |   65
  Professional and business      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|1,136 |  989 |1,125 |1,123 |1,140 |1,144 |1,111 |1,132 |1,091
  Education and health           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|1,169 |1,158 |1,135 |  590 |  642 |  653 |  584 |  596 |  639
   Educational services(1).......|  106 |   93 |   84 |   82 |   78 |   76 |   99 |   73 |   84
   Health care and social        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance...................|1,063 |1,065 |1,052 |  507 |  564 |  577 |  485 |  522 |  555
  Leisure and hospitality........|  734 |  730 |  708 |  934 |1,031 |1,035 |  905 |  974 |  995
   Arts, entertainment, and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation...................|   73 |   89 |   83 |  151 |  162 |  151 |  148 |  156 |  137
   Accommodation and food        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.....................|  661 |  640 |  625 |  783 |  869 |  883 |  757 |  817 |  858
  Other services(1)..............|  203 |  236 |  232 |  175 |  178 |  232 |  176 |  172 |  215
 Government......................|  499 |  474 |  452 |  358 |  319 |  336 |  340 |  330 |  334
  Federal(1).....................|   86 |  110 |   73 |   40 |   45 |   45 |   40 |   41 |   37
  State and local................|  413 |  364 |  380 |  318 |  275 |  291 |  300 |  289 |  297
   State and local education.....|  155 |  143 |  149 |  172 |  137 |  144 |  161 |  133 |  149
   State and local, excluding    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    education(1).................|  258 |  220 |  231 |  145 |  137 |  147 |  139 |  156 |  148
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     RATES BY INDUSTRY           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
         (percent)               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                                 |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total............................|  3.8 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.5 |  3.6
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private...................|  4.1 |  4.0 |  4.0 |  3.9 |  4.1 |  4.1 |  3.9 |  3.9 |  4.0
  Mining and logging(1)..........|  1.8 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  3.3 |  3.2 |  4.1 |  6.5 |  3.3 |  4.2
  Construction(1)................|  2.3 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  4.4 |  5.9 |  5.6 |  4.1 |  5.4 |  5.3
  Manufacturing..................|  2.7 |  2.7 |  2.9 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.1 |  2.3 |  2.4
   Durable goods(1)..............|  2.4 |  2.5 |  2.6 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  2.2
   Nondurable goods(1)...........|  3.3 |  3.1 |  3.3 |  2.4 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  2.3 |  2.7 |  2.9
  Trade, transportation,         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities.................|  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.4 |  3.9 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.9 |  3.5 |  3.7
   Wholesale trade(1)............|  3.3 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.4
   Retail trade..................|  3.9 |  3.9 |  3.7 |  4.8 |  4.2 |  4.3 |  4.6 |  4.0 |  4.2
   Transportation, warehousing,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and utilities(1).............|  3.2 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.3 |  3.5
  Information(1).................|  3.4 |  2.8 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  3.0
  Financial activities...........|  4.0 |  4.1 |  4.5 |  2.6 |  2.3 |  2.8 |  2.4 |  1.9 |  2.5
   Finance and insurance.........|  4.3 |  4.2 |  3.7 |  2.4 |  2.0 |  2.7 |  2.2 |  1.7 |  2.3
   Real estate and rental        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and leasing(1)...............|  3.0 |  3.8 |  6.5 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.2 |  3.0 |  2.5 |  3.0
  Professional and business      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|  5.4 |  4.6 |  5.2 |  5.6 |  5.6 |  5.6 |  5.6 |  5.5 |  5.3
  Education and health           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|  5.0 |  4.8 |  4.7 |  2.6 |  2.8 |  2.9 |  2.6 |  2.6 |  2.8
   Educational services(1).......|  2.9 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.2 |  2.1 |  2.8 |  2.0 |  2.3
   Health care and social        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance...................|  5.3 |  5.2 |  5.2 |  2.7 |  2.9 |  3.0 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  2.9
   Leisure and hospitality.......|  4.5 |  4.4 |  4.3 |  6.0 |  6.5 |  6.6 |  5.9 |  6.2 |  6.3
    Arts, entertainment, and     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     recreation..................|  3.2 |  3.8 |  3.5 |  6.9 |  7.2 |  6.7 |  6.7 |  7.0 |  6.1
    Accommodation and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services....................|  4.8 |  4.5 |  4.4 |  5.9 |  6.4 |  6.5 |  5.7 |  6.1 |  6.3
   Other services(1).............|  3.5 |  4.0 |  3.9 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  4.0 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.8
 Government......................|  2.2 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5
  Federal(1).....................|  3.0 |  3.8 |  2.5 |  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.3
  State and local................|  2.1 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5
   State and local education.....|  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.7 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.3 |  1.4
   State and local, excluding    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    education(1).................|  2.8 |  2.4 |  2.5 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.7 |  1.6
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  (1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore,
the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
  (p) Preliminary
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current 
Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


                         Revisions to Job Openings and Labor Turnover Data

In accordance with annual practice, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data have 
been revised to reflect annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics (CES), or establishment 
survey, employment estimates. The JOLTS employment levels (not published) are ratio adjusted to the 
CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are applied to all JOLTS data elements. The result is 
the revision of 21 months of not seasonally adjusted data. Additionally, new seasonal factors have been 
developed based on the full revised JOLTS series and have been applied to the data from January 2012 
forward.

Tables B through G below present revised total nonfarm data for January through December 2016. The 
December 2016 revisions also reflect the routine incorporation of additional sample receipts into the 
final December estimates. Tables presenting revisions to total nonfarm data for January 2012 through 
December 2015 will be available later today on the JOLTS website. The website also contains all 
revised seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data. The revision tables and data can be 
accessed through the JOLTS homepage at www.bls.gov/jlt/.


Table B. Revisions in job openings data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    5,604   |  5,713  |    109     |     3.8    |  3.8    |    0.0
February..|    5,608   |  5,566  |    -42     |     3.8    |  3.7    |    -.1
March.....|    5,670   |  5,852  |    182     |     3.8    |  3.9    |     .1
April.....|    5,845   |  5,643  |   -202     |     3.9    |  3.8    |    -.1
May.......|    5,514   |  5,582  |     68     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
June......|    5,643   |  5,535  |   -108     |     3.8    |  3.7    |    -.1
July......|    5,831   |  5,973  |    142     |     3.9    |  4.0    |     .1
August....|    5,453   |  5,491  |     38     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
September.|    5,631   |  5,666  |     35     |     3.7    |  3.8    |     .1
October...|    5,451   |  5,587  |    136     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
November..|    5,505   |  5,631  |    126     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
December..|    5,501   |  5,539  |     38     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table C. Revisions in hires data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    5,125   |  5,117  |     -8     |     3.6    |  3.6    |    0.0
February..|    5,510   |  5,447  |    -63     |     3.8    |  3.8    |     .0
March.....|    5,290   |  5,297  |      7     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
April.....|    5,085   |  5,038  |    -47     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
May.......|    5,047   |  5,153  |    106     |     3.5    |  3.6    |     .1
June......|    5,172   |  5,176  |      4     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
July......|    5,258   |  5,328  |     70     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
August....|    5,268   |  5,288  |     20     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
September.|    5,121   |  5,179  |     58     |     3.5    |  3.6    |     .1
October...|    5,160   |  5,200  |     40     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
November..|    5,212   |  5,263  |     51     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
December..|    5,252   |  5,303  |     51     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table D. Revisions in total separations data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    4,977   |  5,033  |     56     |     3.5    |  3.5    |    0.0
February..|    5,159   |  5,183  |     24     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
March.....|    5,096   |  5,040  |    -56     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
April.....|    5,015   |  4,962  |    -53     |     3.5    |  3.4    |    -.1
May.......|    4,978   |  5,101  |    123     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
June......|    4,964   |  4,940  |    -24     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
July......|    4,991   |  5,001  |     10     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
August....|    5,052   |  5,059  |      7     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
September.|    4,936   |  4,942  |      6     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
October...|    4,966   |  5,041  |     75     |     3.4    |  3.5    |     .1
November..|    5,018   |  5,075  |     57     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
December..|    4,968   |  5,084  |    116     |     3.4    |  3.5    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table E. Revisions in quits data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    2,851   |  2,894  |     43     |     2.0    |  2.0    |    0.0
February..|    2,955   |  2,984  |     29     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
March.....|    2,948   |  2,932  |    -16     |     2.1    |  2.0    |    -.1
April.....|    2,909   |  2,902  |     -7     |     2.0    |  2.0    |     .0
May.......|    2,942   |  3,005  |     63     |     2.0    |  2.1    |     .1
June......|    2,979   |  2,980  |      1     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
July......|    2,977   |  3,031  |     54     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
August....|    3,009   |  3,048  |     39     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
September.|    3,052   |  3,076  |     24     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
October...|    3,023   |  3,078  |     55     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
November..|    3,077   |  3,080  |      3     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
December..|    2,979   |  3,085  |    106     |     2.0    |  2.1    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table F. Revisions in layoffs and discharges data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    1,704   |  1,724  |     20     |     1.2    |  1.2    |    0.0
February..|    1,808   |  1,834  |     26     |     1.3    |  1.3    |     .0
March.....|    1,768   |  1,726  |    -42     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
April.....|    1,708   |  1,669  |    -39     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
May.......|    1,701   |  1,741  |     40     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
June......|    1,622   |  1,609  |    -13     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
July......|    1,639   |  1,609  |    -30     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
August....|    1,692   |  1,660  |    -32     |     1.2    |  1.1    |    -.1
September.|    1,513   |  1,516  |      3     |     1.0    |  1.0    |     .0
October...|    1,569   |  1,593  |     24     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
November..|    1,619   |  1,660  |     41     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
December..|    1,635   |  1,624  |    -11     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table G. Revisions in other separations data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |---------------------------------- |----------------------------------
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|      422   |    415  |     -7     |     0.3    |  0.3    |    0.0
February..|      397   |    365  |    -32     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
March.....|      380   |    382  |      2     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
April.....|      398   |    390  |     -8     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
May.......|      334   |    355  |     21     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
June......|      363   |    351  |    -12     |      .3    |   .2    |    -.1
July......|      375   |    362  |    -13     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
August....|      351   |    350  |     -1     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
September.|      370   |    351  |    -19     |      .3    |   .2    |    -.1
October...|      373   |    370  |     -3     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
November..|      322   |    334  |     12     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
December..|      355   |    375  |     20     |      .2    |   .3    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

5,713 5,666 5,587 5,631 5,539 5,626 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,214 5,133 5,103 5,056 5,065 5,173 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

Mining and logging(3)

13 18 12 16 17 16 1.8 2.6 1.7 2.4 2.5 2.3

Construction(3)

158 237 196 178 140 147 2.3 3.4 2.8 2.6 2.0 2.1

Manufacturing

348 326 314 319 342 364 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.9

Durable goods(3)

190 197 199 186 194 207 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.6

Nondurable goods(3)

159 129 115 133 148 157 3.3 2.7 2.4 2.8 3.1 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,015 1,005 1,021 1,017 1,014 967 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4

Wholesale trade(3)

198 169 185 203 182 173 3.3 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.0 2.8

Retail trade

633 633 650 636 650 612 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

183 202 186 178 182 182 3.2 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1

Information(3)

97 87 74 73 81 86 3.4 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.0

Financial activities

340 339 317 324 357 393 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.7 4.1 4.5

Finance and insurance

275 260 242 263 272 242 4.3 4.1 3.8 4.1 4.2 3.7

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

65 79 75 61 85 152 3.0 3.5 3.4 2.7 3.8 6.5

Professional and business services

1,136 1,125 1,083 1,047 989 1,125 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.6 5.2

Education and health services

1,169 1,086 1,161 1,135 1,158 1,135 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.7

Educational services(3)

106 108 107 86 93 84 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.3 2.5 2.3

Health care and social assistance

1,063 978 1,054 1,048 1,065 1,052 5.3 4.9 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2

Leisure and hospitality

734 724 731 756 730 708 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

73 75 96 96 89 83 3.2 3.2 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.5

Accommodation and food services

661 650 636 660 640 625 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.4

Other services(3)

203 185 194 192 236 232 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.2 4.0 3.9

Government

499 533 484 575 474 452 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.1 2.0

Federal(3)

86 102 74 82 110 73 3.0 3.5 2.6 2.8 3.8 2.5

State and local

413 432 410 494 364 380 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.5 1.8 1.9

State and local education

155 144 126 150 143 149 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education(3)

258 288 284 344 220 231 2.8 3.1 3.0 3.6 2.4 2.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

915 1,018 983 942 967 998 3.3 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6

South

2,140 2,071 1,978 2,079 2,008 2,036 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.7

Midwest

1,286 1,248 1,278 1,263 1,253 1,321 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.9

West

1,372 1,330 1,349 1,347 1,312 1,271 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

5,117 5,179 5,200 5,263 5,303 5,440 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,760 4,811 4,870 4,912 4,984 5,104 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1

Mining and logging

24 29 28 30 22 28 3.3 4.4 4.3 4.5 3.2 4.1

Construction

292 317 343 337 400 378 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.0 5.9 5.6

Manufacturing

279 277 279 284 293 294 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4

Durable goods

168 162 161 169 171 168 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2

Nondurable goods

111 114 118 115 122 126 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,050 1,099 1,083 1,016 1,009 1,023 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.7

Wholesale trade

134 139 128 135 130 135 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3

Retail trade

747 758 740 666 672 683 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

169 202 214 215 208 205 3.1 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7

Information

82 79 72 71 79 82 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.0

Financial activities

213 177 170 175 190 236 2.6 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.8

Finance and insurance

147 117 104 114 126 167 2.4 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

66 60 66 61 64 70 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.2

Professional and business services

1,123 1,112 1,092 1,082 1,140 1,144 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.6 5.6

Education and health services

590 616 638 652 642 653 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9

Educational services

82 90 75 81 78 76 2.4 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.1

Health care and social assistance

507 526 563 571 564 577 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

934 921 986 1,056 1,031 1,035 6.0 5.9 6.3 6.7 6.5 6.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

151 118 159 151 162 151 6.9 5.3 7.1 6.7 7.2 6.7

Accommodation and food services

783 802 827 904 869 883 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.7 6.4 6.5

Other services

175 185 180 210 178 232 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.7 3.1 4.0

Government

358 368 330 351 319 336 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5

Federal

40 41 41 40 45 45 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6

State and local

318 327 289 311 275 291 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5

State and local education

172 162 118 142 137 144 1.7 1.6 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.4

State and local, excluding education

145 165 171 169 137 147 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

800 841 876 835 849 898 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.3

South

1,833 2,021 2,066 2,021 2,074 2,073 3.5 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9

Midwest

1,224 1,145 1,140 1,192 1,176 1,169 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6

West

1,261 1,171 1,118 1,214 1,205 1,300 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

5,033 4,942 5,041 5,075 5,084 5,258 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,693 4,599 4,699 4,720 4,754 4,924 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0

Mining and logging

47 26 30 25 22 28 6.5 4.0 4.5 3.7 3.3 4.2

Construction

274 293 322 323 369 358 4.1 4.4 4.8 4.8 5.4 5.3

Manufacturing

261 278 282 286 287 301 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4

Durable goods

154 165 159 165 163 168 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2

Nondurable goods

107 113 123 121 124 132 2.3 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,055 1,038 1,049 1,018 958 1,004 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.7

Wholesale trade

139 113 122 129 142 141 2.4 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.4

Retail trade

723 722 732 698 631 670 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.0 4.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

193 203 196 191 185 194 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.5

Information

83 82 76 73 82 83 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.6 3.0 3.0

Financial activities

196 166 161 160 162 211 2.4 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.5

Finance and insurance

132 110 99 120 107 146 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.7 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

64 55 62 40 55 65 3.0 2.6 2.9 1.9 2.5 3.0

Professional and business services

1,111 1,035 1,051 1,069 1,132 1,091 5.6 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.3

Education and health services

584 558 592 610 596 639 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8

Educational services

99 65 73 72 73 84 2.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3

Health care and social assistance

485 493 520 539 522 555 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

905 935 966 986 974 995 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

148 149 155 144 156 137 6.7 6.7 6.9 6.4 7.0 6.1

Accommodation and food services

757 786 811 842 817 858 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.3

Other services

176 187 170 170 172 215 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.8

Government

340 343 342 355 330 334 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5

Federal

40 38 35 43 41 37 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.3

State and local

300 306 307 313 289 297 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5

State and local education

161 142 136 155 133 149 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.4

State and local, excluding education

139 163 170 158 156 148 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

809 788 796 848 812 828 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.1

South

1,909 1,912 1,951 1,947 1,966 1,971 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

Midwest

1,100 1,067 1,141 1,113 1,128 1,192 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.7

West

1,215 1,175 1,153 1,166 1,178 1,267 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

2,894 3,076 3,078 3,080 3,085 3,220 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,727 2,902 2,912 2,909 2,915 3,044 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5

Mining and logging

21 14 12 13 12 12 2.9 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.8

Construction

80 122 127 150 134 159 1.2 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.3

Manufacturing

144 150 165 164 165 176 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4

Durable goods

79 84 88 93 89 97 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3

Nondurable goods

64 66 76 71 75 79 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

644 661 681 655 623 651 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4

Wholesale trade

83 68 73 87 94 97 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.7

Retail trade

459 470 493 460 432 470 2.9 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

102 123 114 108 97 84 1.9 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5

Information

40 49 42 35 49 46 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.8 1.6

Financial activities

107 87 91 85 78 133 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.6

Finance and insurance

77 60 65 66 59 90 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

30 27 27 19 19 43 1.4 1.3 1.2 0.9 0.9 2.0

Professional and business services

590 631 617 635 672 657 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.2

Education and health services

350 402 396 395 409 434 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9

Educational services

58 42 43 44 41 47 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.3

Health care and social assistance

292 360 353 351 367 387 1.5 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

635 680 668 693 688 659 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

59 75 69 77 73 67 2.7 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.0

Accommodation and food services

576 605 600 616 615 592 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.4

Other services(3)

116 106 112 83 86 119 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.5 1.5 2.1

Government

167 174 167 171 170 176 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8

Federal

13 14 12 17 15 14 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5

State and local

154 160 155 154 155 162 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local education

81 76 75 80 70 75 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7

State and local, excluding education

73 84 80 73 85 87 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.0

REGION(4)

Northeast

399 422 434 475 440 433 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6

South

1,175 1,234 1,229 1,207 1,250 1,210 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3

Midwest

630 675 692 695 664 756 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.3

West

690 746 723 703 730 822 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

1,724 1,516 1,593 1,660 1,624 1,625 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,608 1,407 1,482 1,539 1,525 1,526 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

23 8 11 8 6 13 3.1 1.2 1.7 1.2 0.9 1.9

Construction

184 153 180 153 214 172 2.8 2.3 2.7 2.3 3.2 2.5

Manufacturing

95 101 94 99 100 99 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

61 61 56 57 57 58 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

33 40 38 42 43 42 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

307 292 268 293 247 283 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.0

Wholesale trade(3)

47 32 35 32 36 36 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

189 201 167 188 142 151 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

71 59 66 73 69 96 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.7

Information

27 22 20 27 23 22 1.0 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.8

Financial activities

55 54 54 53 61 51 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6

Finance and insurance

31 30 22 32 29 33 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

23 24 32 21 32 19 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.0 1.5 0.9

Professional and business services

463 353 377 384 401 367 2.3 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.8

Education and health services

171 118 162 183 142 128 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6

Educational services

36 17 26 26 28 30 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8

Health care and social assistance

135 101 136 157 114 98 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

233 231 268 259 256 308 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6 2.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

87 70 84 66 81 64 3.9 3.2 3.7 2.9 3.6 2.8

Accommodation and food services

146 160 184 194 175 244 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.8

Other services

52 75 47 79 75 82 0.9 1.3 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.4

Government

116 109 111 121 99 100 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4

Federal

15 12 11 13 13 14 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

101 97 100 108 86 86 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4

State and local education

56 44 39 50 40 49 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5

State and local, excluding education

44 53 61 57 46 37 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

REGION(4)

Northeast

335 299 299 307 310 328 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2

South

589 541 576 608 566 573 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1

Midwest

394 329 362 355 387 364 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1

West

406 347 357 390 361 360 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

415 351 370 334 375 413 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

358 291 305 272 314 354 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Mining and logging

3 5 6 4 4 3 0.4 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.5

Construction(3)

11 18 15 19 20 27 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4

Manufacturing

23 27 23 23 23 25 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

14 20 15 16 17 14 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

9 7 8 8 6 11 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

104 85 100 69 88 71 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

9 13 13 9 13 8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

75 51 71 49 57 49 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

20 21 15 10 18 14 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

Information(3)

16 11 14 11 10 15 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5

Financial activities

35 25 16 23 23 27 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

24 21 12 22 20 23 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

11 4 3 1 4 3 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

58 50 56 50 59 67 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

63 38 34 32 45 77 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3

Educational services(3)

5 6 3 2 4 7 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

58 32 31 30 41 70 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

38 24 30 34 30 28 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

2 3 2 2 3 5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

Accommodation and food services(3)

35 21 28 33 27 22 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

7 6 11 7 12 15 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3

Government

57 60 64 63 62 59 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

12 12 13 12 13 10 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3

State and local

45 48 52 51 49 50 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

23 22 23 24 23 25 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

21 26 29 27 26 25 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

75 68 63 66 62 67 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

South

145 138 147 132 150 187 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4

Midwest

77 63 87 63 77 73 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

118 82 73 73 86 85 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.
NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

5,679 5,116 5,582 3.9 3.4 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,203 4,658 5,152 4.2 3.6 4.1

Mining and logging

13 17 16 1.8 2.5 2.3

Construction

158 140 147 2.5 2.1 2.2

Manufacturing

348 342 364 2.8 2.7 2.9

Durable goods

190 194 207 2.4 2.5 2.6

Nondurable goods

159 148 157 3.4 3.1 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

938 927 886 3.4 3.2 3.2

Wholesale trade

198 182 173 3.3 3.0 2.9

Retail trade

556 563 532 3.4 3.3 3.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

183 182 182 3.2 3.0 3.2

Information

97 81 86 3.4 2.8 3.0

Financial activities

366 349 416 4.3 4.0 4.7

Finance and insurance

301 264 264 4.7 4.1 4.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

65 85 152 3.0 3.8 6.6

Professional and business services

1,167 880 1,152 5.6 4.1 5.4

Education and health services

1,253 1,116 1,219 5.3 4.6 5.1

Educational services

106 93 84 3.0 2.5 2.4

Health care and social assistance

1,147 1,023 1,136 5.8 5.0 5.6

Leisure and hospitality

660 569 633 4.3 3.6 4.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

70 62 80 3.5 2.9 3.9

Accommodation and food services

590 507 553 4.4 3.7 4.1

Other services

203 236 232 3.5 4.0 3.9

Government

476 458 430 2.1 2.0 1.9

Federal

86 110 73 3.0 3.7 2.5

State and local

390 348 357 2.0 1.7 1.8

State and local education

132 127 127 1.3 1.2 1.2

State and local, excluding education

258 220 231 2.8 2.4 2.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

895 935 976 3.3 3.3 3.6

South

2,172 1,873 2,057 4.1 3.4 3.8

Midwest

1,232 1,150 1,270 3.8 3.4 3.8

West

1,381 1,158 1,279 4.1 3.4 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

4,922 3,905 5,236 3.5 2.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,603 3,711 4,942 3.9 3.0 4.1

Mining and logging

29 15 34 4.0 2.2 5.1

Construction

267 231 344 4.3 3.5 5.4

Manufacturing

295 196 310 2.4 1.6 2.5

Durable goods

183 116 183 2.4 1.5 2.4

Nondurable goods

112 80 127 2.5 1.7 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

886 816 869 3.3 2.9 3.2

Wholesale trade

148 95 148 2.5 1.6 2.5

Retail trade

579 506 527 3.7 3.1 3.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

159 215 193 2.9 3.7 3.5

Information

96 63 98 3.5 2.3 3.6

Financial activities

236 141 264 2.9 1.7 3.2

Finance and insurance

165 94 189 2.7 1.5 3.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

71 46 75 3.4 2.1 3.5

Professional and business services

1,229 929 1,255 6.3 4.5 6.3

Education and health services

617 465 682 2.8 2.0 3.0

Educational services

78 37 71 2.3 1.0 2.1

Health care and social assistance

539 428 611 2.9 2.2 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

778 741 860 5.3 4.8 5.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

114 112 114 5.8 5.4 5.7

Accommodation and food services

664 629 746 5.2 4.7 5.7

Other services

170 115 228 3.0 2.0 4.0

Government

319 194 294 1.4 0.9 1.3

Federal

37 37 41 1.3 1.3 1.5

State and local

282 157 253 1.5 0.8 1.3

State and local education

163 69 134 1.6 0.6 1.3

State and local, excluding education

119 88 119 1.3 1.0 1.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

727 658 825 2.8 2.4 3.1

South

1,889 1,508 2,117 3.7 2.8 4.1

Midwest

1,127 861 1,079 3.6 2.6 3.4

West

1,179 879 1,216 3.7 2.6 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

5,539 4,851 5,780 3.9 3.3 4.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,216 4,562 5,461 4.4 3.7 4.5

Mining and logging

47 19 29 6.5 2.9 4.4

Construction

318 432 395 5.1 6.5 6.2

Manufacturing

261 248 301 2.1 2.0 2.5

Durable goods

161 137 176 2.1 1.8 2.3

Nondurable goods

100 111 125 2.2 2.4 2.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,403 965 1,360 5.2 3.4 5.0

Wholesale trade

150 115 151 2.6 2.0 2.6

Retail trade

955 644 857 6.1 3.9 5.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

298 206 352 5.4 3.5 6.3

Information

105 74 103 3.9 2.7 3.8

Financial activities

234 153 248 2.9 1.8 3.0

Finance and insurance

157 102 173 2.6 1.6 2.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

77 51 75 3.7 2.3 3.5

Professional and business services

1,215 1,150 1,194 6.2 5.6 5.9

Education and health services

599 512 661 2.7 2.2 2.9

Educational services

88 54 76 2.6 1.5 2.2

Health care and social assistance

511 458 585 2.7 2.4 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

862 845 959 5.8 5.5 6.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

116 130 107 6.0 6.3 5.4

Accommodation and food services

746 715 851 5.8 5.4 6.5

Other services

172 163 211 3.1 2.9 3.7

Government

322 289 319 1.5 1.3 1.4

Federal

69 40 64 2.5 1.4 2.3

State and local

253 248 255 1.3 1.3 1.3

State and local education

126 103 118 1.2 1.0 1.1

State and local, excluding education

127 145 137 1.4 1.6 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

926 820 953 3.6 3.0 3.6

South

2,076 1,795 2,149 4.0 3.4 4.1

Midwest

1,229 1,125 1,320 3.9 3.5 4.1

West

1,308 1,111 1,358 4.1 3.3 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

2,890 2,614 3,220 2.0 1.8 2.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,747 2,483 3,068 2.3 2.0 2.5

Mining and logging

20 10 11 2.7 1.5 1.6

Construction

71 104 142 1.1 1.6 2.2

Manufacturing

133 121 166 1.1 1.0 1.4

Durable goods

77 64 95 1.0 0.8 1.2

Nondurable goods

57 57 71 1.2 1.2 1.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

686 560 695 2.5 2.0 2.6

Wholesale trade

90 67 106 1.5 1.1 1.8

Retail trade

498 393 509 3.2 2.4 3.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

98 99 80 1.8 1.7 1.4

Information

47 43 53 1.7 1.5 2.0

Financial activities

111 66 139 1.4 0.8 1.7

Finance and insurance

81 47 95 1.3 0.8 1.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

30 19 43 1.4 0.9 2.0

Professional and business services

600 594 672 3.1 2.9 3.4

Education and health services

365 336 456 1.6 1.5 2.0

Educational services

54 28 44 1.6 0.8 1.3

Health care and social assistance

311 308 412 1.7 1.6 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

598 565 615 4.1 3.7 4.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

46 52 51 2.3 2.5 2.6

Accommodation and food services

552 513 564 4.3 3.8 4.3

Other services

116 86 119 2.1 1.5 2.1

Government

143 131 152 0.7 0.6 0.7

Federal

13 13 14 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

130 118 137 0.7 0.6 0.7

State and local education

65 47 61 0.6 0.4 0.6

State and local, excluding education

65 70 76 0.7 0.8 0.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

418 381 451 1.6 1.4 1.7

South

1,182 1,040 1,217 2.3 2.0 2.3

Midwest

601 559 725 1.9 1.7 2.3

West

689 635 827 2.1 1.9 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

2,141 1,850 2,065 1.5 1.3 1.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,029 1,756 1,964 1.7 1.4 1.6

Mining and logging

23 6 13 3.2 0.9 1.9

Construction

236 308 226 3.8 4.6 3.5

Manufacturing

101 104 105 0.8 0.8 0.9

Durable goods

66 56 62 0.9 0.7 0.8

Nondurable goods

34 49 43 0.8 1.1 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

580 324 575 2.2 1.2 2.1

Wholesale trade

47 36 36 0.8 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

353 200 281 2.3 1.2 1.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

180 89 258 3.3 1.5 4.6

Information

42 21 35 1.5 0.8 1.3

Financial activities

78 61 73 1.0 0.7 0.9

Finance and insurance

42 33 44 0.7 0.5 0.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

36 28 29 1.7 1.3 1.4

Professional and business services

523 484 416 2.7 2.4 2.1

Education and health services

171 132 128 0.8 0.6 0.6

Educational services

29 22 25 0.9 0.6 0.7

Health care and social assistance

142 109 103 0.8 0.6 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

227 251 316 1.5 1.6 2.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

68 76 51 3.5 3.7 2.6

Accommodation and food services

158 175 265 1.2 1.3 2.0

Other services

49 65 77 0.9 1.2 1.4

Government

112 94 100 0.5 0.4 0.5

Federal

35 13 34 1.3 0.5 1.2

State and local

78 81 67 0.4 0.4 0.3

State and local education

42 40 37 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local, excluding education

36 41 30 0.4 0.5 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

413 384 416 1.6 1.4 1.6

South

721 591 715 1.4 1.1 1.4

Midwest

519 491 495 1.7 1.5 1.6

West

489 385 439 1.5 1.2 1.3

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)
Jan.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017(p)

Total

507 387 496 0.4 0.3 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

440 323 428 0.4 0.3 0.4

Mining and logging

4 4 5 0.6 0.5 0.8

Construction

11 20 27 0.2 0.3 0.4

Manufacturing

27 23 30 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

18 17 19 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods

9 6 11 0.2 0.1 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

137 81 90 0.5 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

13 12 10 0.2 0.2 0.2

Retail trade

104 51 67 0.7 0.3 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

20 18 14 0.4 0.3 0.2

Information

16 10 15 0.6 0.4 0.5

Financial activities

45 26 37 0.6 0.3 0.4

Finance and insurance

34 22 34 0.6 0.4 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

11 4 3 0.5 0.2 0.1

Professional and business services

92 72 105 0.5 0.3 0.5

Education and health services

63 45 77 0.3 0.2 0.3

Educational services

5 4 7 0.1 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance

58 41 70 0.3 0.2 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

38 30 28 0.3 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2 3 5 0.1 0.1 0.3

Accommodation and food services

35 27 22 0.3 0.2 0.2

Other services

7 12 15 0.1 0.2 0.3

Government

67 64 67 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

21 14 16 0.8 0.5 0.6

State and local

46 50 51 0.2 0.3 0.3

State and local education

19 16 20 0.2 0.1 0.2

State and local, excluding education

27 34 31 0.3 0.4 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

95 56 85 0.4 0.2 0.3

South

173 164 218 0.3 0.3 0.4

Midwest

110 76 100 0.3 0.2 0.3

West

130 91 92 0.4 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.
NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 13. Annual hires levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

52,332 54,320 58,657 62,050 62,719

INDUSTRY

Total private

48,898 50,882 55,001 57,909 58,385

Mining and logging

376 355 398 299 299

Construction

3,996 3,867 3,755 3,931 3,953

Manufacturing

2,986 2,893 3,129 3,214 3,314

Durable goods

1,795 1,743 1,830 1,876 1,934

Nondurable goods

1,187 1,152 1,299 1,334 1,381

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,478 11,151 12,811 13,012 12,667

Wholesale trade

1,575 1,427 1,744 1,662 1,686

Retail trade

6,996 7,802 8,853 9,026 8,660

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

1,910 1,919 2,211 2,328 2,320

Information

750 845 894 952 919

Financial activities

2,196 2,415 2,318 2,366 2,316

Finance and insurance

1,420 1,584 1,510 1,586 1,519

Real estate and rental and leasing

778 830 805 779 795

Professional and business services

10,610 11,047 12,058 12,590 13,209

Education and health services

6,188 6,429 6,876 7,434 7,599

Educational services

881 902 989 1,062 1,093

Health care and social assistance

5,306 5,525 5,885 6,373 6,505

Leisure and hospitality

9,101 9,632 10,530 11,624 11,912

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,549 1,569 1,769 1,811 1,833

Accommodation and food services

7,551 8,062 8,761 9,813 10,078

Other services

2,219 2,249 2,238 2,488 2,201

Government

3,435 3,439 3,658 4,139 4,335

Federal

372 370 389 487 496

State and local

3,061 3,067 3,267 3,650 3,840

State and local education

1,527 1,571 1,555 1,813 1,888

State and local, excluding education

1,536 1,498 1,711 1,838 1,951

REGION(2)

Northeast

8,402 8,511 8,874 9,752 10,034

South

20,649 21,603 23,233 24,334 24,127

Midwest

11,713 11,886 13,094 13,847 14,115

West

11,566 12,318 13,453 14,116 14,446

Footnotes
(1) The annual hires level is the total number of hires during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 14. Annual hires rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

39.0 39.8 42.2 43.7 43.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

43.6 44.4 47.0 48.3 47.8

Mining and logging

44.3 41.1 44.7 36.8 44.2

Construction

70.8 66.0 61.0 60.8 58.9

Manufacturing

25.0 24.1 25.7 26.0 26.8

Durable goods

24.0 23.1 23.8 24.2 25.1

Nondurable goods

26.6 25.8 28.8 29.2 29.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

41.1 43.1 48.6 48.4 46.5

Wholesale trade

27.8 24.9 30.0 28.4 28.7

Retail trade

47.1 51.7 57.6 57.8 54.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

38.4 38.0 42.4 42.9 41.8

Information

28.0 31.2 32.8 34.6 33.1

Financial activities

28.2 30.6 29.1 29.1 28.0

Finance and insurance

24.4 26.9 25.5 26.3 24.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

39.8 41.5 39.3 37.3 37.1

Professional and business services

59.2 59.7 63.3 64.1 65.6

Education and health services

29.8 30.5 32.1 33.7 33.6

Educational services

26.4 26.9 28.9 30.6 30.7

Health care and social assistance

30.4 31.2 32.7 34.3 34.1

Leisure and hospitality

66.1 67.6 71.7 76.7 76.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

78.7 77.3 84.1 83.6 82.0

Accommodation and food services

64.0 66.0 69.6 75.5 75.3

Other services

40.9 41.0 40.2 44.3 38.7

Government

15.7 15.7 16.7 18.8 19.5

Federal

13.2 13.4 14.2 17.7 17.7

State and local

16.0 16.1 17.1 18.9 19.8

State and local education

15.0 15.4 15.2 17.6 18.3

State and local, excluding education

17.2 16.8 19.1 20.4 21.4

REGION(2)

Northeast

33.3 33.4 34.4 37.2 37.7

South

42.4 43.6 46.0 47.1 45.9

Midwest

38.6 38.7 42.1 43.8 44.0

West

38.7 40.1 42.6 43.6 43.8

Footnotes
(1) The annual hires rate is the number of hires during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 15. Annual total separations levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

50,131 51,932 55,587 59,275 60,419

INDUSTRY

Total private

46,624 48,421 52,056 55,331 56,305

Mining and logging

359 337 362 451 377

Construction

3,884 3,641 3,432 3,587 3,841

Manufacturing

2,805 2,774 2,921 3,147 3,341

Durable goods

1,653 1,650 1,669 1,879 1,975

Nondurable goods

1,155 1,122 1,253 1,271 1,366

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,068 10,568 12,193 12,599 12,276

Wholesale trade

1,480 1,367 1,668 1,650 1,642

Retail trade

6,836 7,389 8,551 8,829 8,440

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

1,752 1,811 1,972 2,121 2,193

Information

759 801 882 928 919

Financial activities

2,103 2,332 2,202 2,218 2,130

Finance and insurance

1,360 1,546 1,458 1,479 1,398

Real estate and rental and leasing

742 788 745 740 730

Professional and business services

10,012 10,502 11,433 12,084 12,695

Education and health services

5,805 6,166 6,354 6,791 7,064

Educational services

867 862 892 983 1,033

Health care and social assistance

4,938 5,304 5,462 5,807 6,031

Leisure and hospitality

8,643 9,130 10,096 11,098 11,526

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,466 1,493 1,708 1,717 1,767

Accommodation and food services

7,175 7,637 8,387 9,383 9,759

Other services

2,183 2,163 2,181 2,432 2,132

Government

3,508 3,512 3,531 3,943 4,114

Federal

397 439 381 452 455

State and local

3,111 3,070 3,148 3,489 3,656

State and local education

1,546 1,572 1,489 1,721 1,788

State and local, excluding education

1,566 1,500 1,662 1,768 1,869

REGION(2)

Northeast

8,289 8,471 8,733 9,317 9,621

South

19,727 20,347 21,931 23,409 23,335

Midwest

11,340 11,157 12,244 12,918 13,446

West

10,779 11,957 12,679 13,630 14,014

Footnotes
(1) The annual total separations level is the total number of total separations during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 16. Annual total separations rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

37.4 38.1 40.0 41.8 41.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

41.5 42.3 44.5 46.2 46.1

Mining and logging

42.3 39.0 40.6 55.5 55.7

Construction

68.8 62.2 55.8 55.5 57.2

Manufacturing

23.5 23.1 24.0 25.5 27.1

Durable goods

22.1 21.9 21.7 24.2 25.6

Nondurable goods

25.9 25.1 27.8 27.8 29.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

39.5 40.9 46.2 46.9 45.1

Wholesale trade

26.1 23.8 28.7 28.2 28.0

Retail trade

46.1 49.0 55.7 56.6 53.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

35.3 35.9 37.8 39.1 39.5

Information

28.4 29.6 32.4 33.7 33.1

Financial activities

27.0 29.6 27.6 27.3 25.7

Finance and insurance

23.3 26.3 24.6 24.5 22.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

38.0 39.4 36.4 35.4 34.1

Professional and business services

55.8 56.7 60.0 61.5 63.0

Education and health services

28.0 29.2 29.6 30.8 31.2

Educational services

26.0 25.7 26.1 28.3 29.0

Health care and social assistance

28.3 29.9 30.3 31.3 31.6

Leisure and hospitality

62.8 64.1 68.7 73.2 73.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

74.5 73.5 81.2 79.3 79.1

Accommodation and food services

60.8 62.5 66.6 72.2 72.9

Other services

40.2 39.4 39.2 43.3 37.5

Government

16.0 16.1 16.1 17.9 18.5

Federal

14.1 15.9 13.9 16.4 16.3

State and local

16.3 16.1 16.4 18.1 18.8

State and local education

15.2 15.5 14.6 16.8 17.3

State and local, excluding education

17.5 16.8 18.6 19.6 20.5

REGION(2)

Northeast

32.8 33.3 33.9 35.6 36.1

South

40.5 41.1 43.4 45.3 44.4

Midwest

37.4 36.4 39.4 40.9 41.9

West

36.1 38.9 40.2 42.1 42.5

Footnotes
(1) The annual total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 17. Annual quits levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

25,142 27,715 30,582 33,718 36,091

INDUSTRY

Total private

23,594 26,137 28,895 31,837 34,051

Mining and logging

195 171 183 177 160

Construction

984 1,190 1,310 1,365 1,469

Manufacturing

1,291 1,317 1,448 1,637 1,799

Durable goods

718 746 800 936 1,000

Nondurable goods

573 572 646 698 801

Trade, transportation, and utilities

5,614 6,044 7,018 7,533 7,758

Wholesale trade

691 713 906 933 1,012

Retail trade

4,051 4,456 5,148 5,481 5,568

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

874 876 963 1,119 1,181

Information

439 427 486 505 483

Financial activities

1,096 1,183 1,156 1,209 1,192

Finance and insurance

709 794 748 819 797

Real estate and rental and leasing

387 388 410 391 396

Professional and business services

4,393 5,277 5,618 6,283 7,234

Education and health services

3,310 3,656 3,852 4,507 4,680

Educational services

402 396 449 530 567

Health care and social assistance

2,907 3,261 3,403 3,976 4,113

Leisure and hospitality

5,190 5,706 6,553 7,276 7,993

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

517 575 624 657 826

Accommodation and food services

4,675 5,132 5,929 6,617 7,168

Other services

1,079 1,170 1,272 1,350 1,280

Government

1,548 1,576 1,687 1,882 2,038

Federal

131 134 122 150 161

State and local

1,417 1,439 1,563 1,729 1,877

State and local education

770 747 754 867 912

State and local, excluding education

647 695 812 863 965

REGION(2)

Northeast

3,675 3,867 4,165 4,749 5,011

South

10,596 11,530 12,755 13,988 14,501

Midwest

5,653 6,229 6,821 7,421 8,072

West

5,219 6,090 6,839 7,561 8,512

Footnotes
(1) The annual quits level is the total number of quits during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 18. Annual quits rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

18.7 20.3 22.0 23.8 25.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

21.0 22.8 24.7 26.6 27.9

Mining and logging

23.0 19.8 20.5 21.8 23.6

Construction

17.4 20.3 21.3 21.1 21.9

Manufacturing

10.8 11.0 11.9 13.3 14.6

Durable goods

9.6 9.9 10.4 12.1 13.0

Nondurable goods

12.9 12.8 14.3 15.3 17.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.0 23.4 26.6 28.0 28.5

Wholesale trade

12.2 12.4 15.6 15.9 17.2

Retail trade

27.3 29.6 33.5 35.1 35.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

17.6 17.3 18.5 20.6 21.3

Information

16.4 15.8 17.8 18.4 17.4

Financial activities

14.1 15.0 14.5 14.9 14.4

Finance and insurance

12.2 13.5 12.6 13.6 13.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

19.8 19.4 20.0 18.7 18.5

Professional and business services

24.5 28.5 29.5 32.0 35.9

Education and health services

15.9 17.3 18.0 20.5 20.7

Educational services

12.0 11.8 13.1 15.3 15.9

Health care and social assistance

16.7 18.4 18.9 21.4 21.6

Leisure and hospitality

37.7 40.0 44.6 48.0 51.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

26.3 28.3 29.7 30.3 37.0

Accommodation and food services

39.6 42.0 47.1 50.9 53.5

Other services

19.9 21.3 22.8 24.0 22.5

Government

7.1 7.2 7.7 8.5 9.2

Federal

4.6 4.8 4.5 5.4 5.8

State and local

7.4 7.5 8.2 9.0 9.7

State and local education

7.6 7.3 7.4 8.4 8.8

State and local, excluding education

7.2 7.8 9.1 9.6 10.6

REGION(2)

Northeast

14.6 15.2 16.2 18.1 18.8

South

21.7 23.3 25.2 27.1 27.6

Midwest

18.6 20.3 21.9 23.5 25.2

West

17.5 19.8 21.7 23.4 25.8

Footnotes
(1) The annual quits rate is the number of quits during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 19. Annual layoffs and discharges levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

20,942 19,888 20,398 20,954 19,911

INDUSTRY

Total private

19,747 18,733 19,328 19,658 18,585

Mining and logging

138 139 140 242 170

Construction

2,791 2,324 1,979 2,073 2,188

Manufacturing

1,259 1,183 1,174 1,232 1,254

Durable goods

771 740 692 767 792

Nondurable goods

486 444 482 464 459

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3,543 3,550 3,900 3,836 3,418

Wholesale trade

658 525 621 585 487

Retail trade

2,208 2,312 2,468 2,437 2,105

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

674 713 810 815 824

Information

260 303 307 304 304

Financial activities

628 720 672 699 650

Finance and insurance

345 404 402 416 369

Real estate and rental and leasing

285 317 271 285 281

Professional and business services

5,030 4,675 5,177 5,073 4,780

Education and health services

1,992 1,940 2,003 1,734 1,915

Educational services

400 405 384 382 400

Health care and social assistance

1,592 1,533 1,621 1,352 1,514

Leisure and hospitality

3,111 3,032 3,202 3,506 3,142

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

929 879 1,051 1,015 909

Accommodation and food services

2,182 2,151 2,149 2,492 2,231

Other services

994 867 770 956 766

Government

1,196 1,154 1,069 1,297 1,326

Federal

139 149 129 163 153

State and local

1,056 1,007 941 1,134 1,173

State and local education

474 504 456 558 576

State and local, excluding education

582 503 485 578 597

REGION(2)

Northeast

3,798 3,769 3,723 3,659 3,851

South

7,687 7,224 7,364 7,618 7,086

Midwest

4,739 4,037 4,461 4,617 4,472

West

4,722 4,860 4,850 5,061 4,504

Footnotes
(1) The annual layoffs and discharges level is the total number of layoffs and discharges during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 20. Annual layoffs and discharges rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

15.6 14.6 14.7 14.8 13.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

17.6 16.4 16.5 16.4 15.2

Mining and logging

16.3 16.1 15.7 29.8 25.1

Construction

49.4 39.7 32.2 32.1 32.6

Manufacturing

10.6 9.8 9.6 10.0 10.2

Durable goods

10.3 9.8 9.0 9.9 10.3

Nondurable goods

10.9 9.9 10.7 10.1 9.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

13.9 13.7 14.8 14.3 12.6

Wholesale trade

11.6 9.2 10.7 10.0 8.3

Retail trade

14.9 15.3 16.1 15.6 13.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

13.6 14.1 15.5 15.0 14.9

Information

9.7 11.2 11.3 11.1 11.0

Financial activities

8.1 9.1 8.4 8.6 7.8

Finance and insurance

5.9 6.9 6.8 6.9 6.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

14.6 15.9 13.2 13.6 13.1

Professional and business services

28.1 25.2 27.2 25.8 23.7

Education and health services

9.6 9.2 9.3 7.9 8.5

Educational services

12.0 12.1 11.2 11.0 11.2

Health care and social assistance

9.1 8.6 9.0 7.3 7.9

Leisure and hospitality

22.6 21.3 21.8 23.1 20.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

47.2 43.3 50.0 46.9 40.7

Accommodation and food services

18.5 17.6 17.1 19.2 16.7

Other services

18.3 15.8 13.8 17.0 13.5

Government

5.5 5.3 4.9 5.9 6.0

Federal

4.9 5.4 4.7 5.9 5.5

State and local

5.5 5.3 4.9 5.9 6.0

State and local education

4.7 5.0 4.5 5.4 5.6

State and local, excluding education

6.5 5.6 5.4 6.4 6.6

REGION(2)

Northeast

15.0 14.8 14.5 14.0 14.5

South

15.8 14.6 14.6 14.7 13.5

Midwest

15.6 13.2 14.3 14.6 13.9

West

15.8 15.8 15.4 15.6 13.7

Footnotes
(1) The annual layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 21. Annual other separations levels by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [in thousands]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

4,047 4,327 4,605 4,603 4,418

INDUSTRY

Total private

3,283 3,549 3,834 3,835 3,670

Mining and logging

20 27 37 35 48

Construction

111 128 143 151 184

Manufacturing

256 274 301 277 289

Durable goods

162 166 175 175 182

Nondurable goods

96 106 126 104 107

Trade, transportation, and utilities

913 975 1,275 1,228 1,099

Wholesale trade

130 131 138 128 144

Retail trade

575 621 936 908 768

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

207 223 199 189 186

Information

62 76 89 120 132

Financial activities

378 430 370 309 287

Finance and insurance

308 345 307 244 237

Real estate and rental and leasing

71 83 65 62 52

Professional and business services

593 548 638 730 681

Education and health services

502 571 499 548 468

Educational services

63 60 61 69 66

Health care and social assistance

439 509 439 477 401

Leisure and hospitality

343 394 347 319 393

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

27 37 36 44 35

Accommodation and food services

316 354 309 273 358

Other services

109 127 139 124 88

Government

762 780 771 766 748

Federal

127 155 129 143 140

State and local

636 624 643 625 607

State and local education

299 322 278 297 298

State and local, excluding education

337 303 363 333 311

REGION(2)

Northeast

817 832 839 910 762

South

1,445 1,597 1,813 1,805 1,752

Midwest

945 892 961 882 904

West

841 1,009 991 1,007 1,002

Footnotes
(1) The annual other separations level is the total number of other separations during the entire year.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Table 22. Annual other separations rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1) [percent]
Industry and region 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Total

3.0 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

2.9 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.0

Mining and logging

2.4 3.1 4.2 4.3 7.1

Construction

2.0 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.7

Manufacturing

2.1 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.3

Durable goods

2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4

Nondurable goods

2.2 2.4 2.8 2.3 2.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.6 3.8 4.8 4.6 4.0

Wholesale trade

2.3 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.5

Retail trade

3.9 4.1 6.1 5.8 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

4.2 4.4 3.8 3.5 3.4

Information

2.3 2.8 3.3 4.4 4.8

Financial activities

4.9 5.5 4.6 3.8 3.5

Finance and insurance

5.3 5.9 5.2 4.0 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

3.6 4.2 3.2 3.0 2.4

Professional and business services

3.3 3.0 3.3 3.7 3.4

Education and health services

2.4 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.1

Educational services

1.9 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.9

Health care and social assistance

2.5 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

2.5 2.8 2.4 2.1 2.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1.4 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.6

Accommodation and food services

2.7 2.9 2.5 2.1 2.7

Other services

2.0 2.3 2.5 2.2 1.5

Government

3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4

Federal

4.5 5.6 4.7 5.2 5.0

State and local

3.3 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.1

State and local education

2.9 3.2 2.7 2.9 2.9

State and local, excluding education

3.8 3.4 4.1 3.7 3.4

REGION(2)

Northeast

3.2 3.3 3.3 3.5 2.9

South

3.0 3.2 3.6 3.5 3.3

Midwest

3.1 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.8

West

2.8 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0

Footnotes
(1) The annual other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire year as a percent of annual average employment.
(2) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates.


Last Modified Date: March 16, 2017