Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, June 6, 2017	USDL-17-0768

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – APRIL 2017

The number of job openings increased to a series high of 6.0 million on the last business day of April, 
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires decreased to 5.1 million and 
separations edged down to 5.0 million. Within separations, the quits rate and the layoffs and discharges 
rate were little changed at 2.1 percent and 1.1 percent, respectively. This release includes estimates of 
the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by 
four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of April, the job openings level increased to a series high of 6.0 million 
(+259,000). The job openings rate was 4.0 percent. The number of job openings edged up for total 
private (+220,000) and increased for government (+39,000). Job openings increased in a number of 
industries with the largest increase occurring in accommodation and food services (+118,000). Job 
openings decreased in durable goods manufacturing (-30,000). The number of job openings increased in 
the Midwest and Northeast regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires fell to 5.1 million (-253,000) in April. The hires rate was 3.5 percent. The number 
of hires decreased for total private (-257,000) and was little changed for government. Hires decreased in 
health care and social assistance (-68,000) and real estate and rental and leasing (-23,000). The number 
of hires decreased in the West region. (See table 2.)
Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations edged down to 5.0 million (-225,000) in April. The total separations 
rate was 3.4 percent. Total separations decreased for total private (-239,000) and was little changed for 
government. Total separations increased in state and local government education (+17,000) but 
decreased in retail trade (-100,000). The number of total separations was little changed in all four 
regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits edged down to 3.0 million (-111,000) in April. The quits rate was 2.1 percent. The 
number of quits was little changed for total private and decreased for government (-21,000). Quits 
decreased in retail trade (-72,000); state and local government, excluding education (-20,000); and 
information (-12,000). The number of quits was little changed in all four regions. (See table 4.)

There were 1.6 million layoffs and discharges in April, little changed from March. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent in April. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for 
total private and increased for government (+32,000). The layoffs and discharges level increased in state 
and local government, excluding education (+20,000) and in state and local government education 
(+12,000). Layoffs and discharges decreased in real estate and rental and leasing (-23,000). The number 
of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in April. Other separations edged down for total 
private (-46,000) and was little changed for government. Other separations increased in state and local 
government education (+5,000) but decreased in professional and business services (-32,000). In the 
regions, the number of other separations decreased in the Midwest. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in April, hires totaled 62.9 million and 
separations totaled 60.7 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.2 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for May 2017 are scheduled to be released 
on Tuesday, July 11, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,643 5,785 6,044 5,038 5,304 5,051 4,962 5,198 4,973

Total private

5,119 5,244 5,464 4,684 4,975 4,718 4,598 4,882 4,643

Mining and logging(1)

11 25 22 21 30 31 30 25 24

Construction(1)

184 161 203 335 372 378 339 374 372

Manufacturing

364 404 359 259 325 308 267 318 315

Durable goods(1)

194 230 200 150 177 157 159 173 163

Nondurable goods(1)

169 174 159 108 147 151 108 146 152

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,040 948 950 999 1,051 972 992 1,063 928

Wholesale trade(1)

235 183 196 142 129 118 140 132 115

Retail trade

591 593 577 674 725 675 685 745 645

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

214 172 178 183 197 180 167 186 168

Information(1)

92 83 111 82 77 59 81 79 66

Financial activities

336 327 373 191 214 174 173 201 163

Finance and insurance

240 260 282 122 138 121 103 126 108

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

96 68 91 69 76 53 70 75 55

Professional and business services

986 1,152 1,134 1,095 1,060 1,034 1,031 1,033 1,035

Education and health services

1,070 1,103 1,112 594 679 608 556 635 595

Educational services(1)

107 87 99 101 96 94 83 90 87

Health care and social assistance

963 1,016 1,013 493 582 514 473 545 508

Leisure and hospitality

766 735 847 931 967 938 955 966 927

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

82 77 72 124 119 153 130 137 137

Accommodation and food services

684 657 775 806 849 786 824 829 790

Other services(1)

270 306 352 178 200 216 173 188 220

Government

524 541 580 354 329 333 364 315 331

Federal(1)

82 91 85 34 34 35 44 37 37

State and local

443 450 495 319 295 298 320 278 294

State and local education

147 163 177 155 143 144 164 130 147

State and local, excluding education(1)

296 288 317 164 152 154 156 148 147





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.8 3.8 4.0 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4

Total private

4.0 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.8

Mining and logging(1)

1.6 3.4 3.0 3.0 4.3 4.5 4.4 3.6 3.4

Construction(1)

2.7 2.3 2.9 5.0 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.4

Manufacturing

2.9 3.2 2.8 2.1 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.6 2.5

Durable goods(1)

2.4 2.9 2.5 1.9 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.1

Nondurable goods(1)

3.5 3.6 3.3 2.3 3.2 3.2 2.3 3.1 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.7 3.3 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.4

Wholesale trade(1)

3.9 3.0 3.2 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.2 1.9

Retail trade

3.6 3.6 3.5 4.3 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.7 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.7 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.0

Information(1)

3.2 3.0 3.9 3.0 2.8 2.2 2.9 2.9 2.4

Financial activities

3.9 3.7 4.2 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.1 2.4 1.9

Finance and insurance

3.8 4.0 4.3 2.0 2.2 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.7

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

4.3 3.0 4.0 3.2 3.5 2.4 3.3 3.4 2.5

Professional and business services

4.7 5.3 5.2 5.5 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.0 5.0

Education and health services

4.5 4.6 4.6 2.6 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.6

Educational services(1)

2.9 2.3 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.4

Health care and social assistance

4.8 5.0 5.0 2.6 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

4.7 4.4 5.1 6.0 6.1 5.9 6.1 6.1 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.6 3.3 3.1 5.6 5.3 6.8 5.9 6.1 6.1

Accommodation and food services

4.9 4.6 5.4 6.1 6.3 5.8 6.2 6.1 5.8

Other services(1)

4.5 5.1 5.8 3.1 3.5 3.8 3.0 3.3 3.8

Government

2.3 2.4 2.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5

Federal(1)

2.9 3.1 3.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.3

State and local

2.2 2.3 2.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.5

State and local education

1.4 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.4

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.2 3.1 3.4 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

5,643 5,539 5,625 5,682 5,785 6,044 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 4.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,119 5,065 5,133 5,179 5,244 5,464 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2

Mining and logging(3)

11 17 25 20 25 22 1.6 2.5 3.5 2.9 3.4 3.0

Construction(3)

184 140 142 181 161 203 2.7 2.0 2.0 2.6 2.3 2.9

Manufacturing

364 342 361 364 404 359 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.2 2.8

Durable goods(3)

194 194 206 209 230 200 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.5

Nondurable goods(3)

169 148 155 155 174 159 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,040 1,014 959 928 948 950 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4

Wholesale trade(3)

235 182 201 175 183 196 3.9 3.0 3.3 2.9 3.0 3.2

Retail trade

591 650 581 579 593 577 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

214 182 177 174 172 178 3.7 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1

Information(3)

92 81 73 75 83 111 3.2 2.8 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.9

Financial activities

336 357 388 360 327 373 3.9 4.1 4.4 4.1 3.7 4.2

Finance and insurance

240 272 248 285 260 282 3.8 4.2 3.8 4.4 4.0 4.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

96 85 140 75 68 91 4.3 3.8 6.0 3.3 3.0 4.0

Professional and business services

986 989 1,056 976 1,152 1,134 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.5 5.3 5.2

Education and health services

1,070 1,158 1,158 1,241 1,103 1,112 4.5 4.8 4.8 5.1 4.6 4.6

Educational services(3)

107 93 93 126 87 99 2.9 2.5 2.5 3.4 2.3 2.7

Health care and social assistance

963 1,065 1,065 1,115 1,016 1,013 4.8 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.0 5.0

Leisure and hospitality

766 730 729 784 735 847 4.7 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.4 5.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

82 89 83 92 77 72 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.3 3.1

Accommodation and food services

684 640 646 693 657 775 4.9 4.5 4.6 4.9 4.6 5.4

Other services(3)

270 236 241 250 306 352 4.5 4.0 4.0 4.2 5.1 5.8

Government

524 474 492 503 541 580 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.5

Federal(3)

82 110 82 83 91 85 2.9 3.8 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.0

State and local

443 364 410 420 450 495 2.2 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.5

State and local education

147 143 161 140 163 177 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.7

State and local, excluding education(3)

296 220 249 280 288 317 3.2 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.1 3.4

REGION(4)

Northeast

882 967 998 1,102 1,033 1,150 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.7 4.1

South

2,141 2,008 2,024 2,060 2,160 2,160 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.9

Midwest

1,273 1,253 1,324 1,285 1,349 1,487 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.4

West

1,347 1,312 1,279 1,236 1,243 1,246 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

5,038 5,303 5,424 5,249 5,304 5,051 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,684 4,984 5,067 4,905 4,975 4,718 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.8

Mining and logging

21 22 30 39 30 31 3.0 3.2 4.4 5.7 4.3 4.5

Construction

335 400 387 367 372 378 5.0 5.9 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.5

Manufacturing

259 293 304 296 325 308 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.5

Durable goods

150 171 165 154 177 157 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.0

Nondurable goods

108 122 139 142 147 151 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

999 1,009 1,023 1,090 1,051 972 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.5

Wholesale trade

142 130 140 139 129 118 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.0

Retail trade

674 672 682 757 725 675 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.8 4.6 4.3

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

183 208 201 194 197 180 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.2

Information

82 79 80 76 77 59 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.2

Financial activities

191 190 220 190 214 174 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.1

Finance and insurance

122 126 150 122 138 121 2.0 2.0 2.4 2.0 2.2 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

69 64 70 68 76 53 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.5 2.4

Professional and business services

1,095 1,140 1,128 1,044 1,060 1,034 5.5 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.2 5.0

Education and health services

594 642 646 622 679 608 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.6

Educational services

101 78 79 81 96 94 2.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.6

Health care and social assistance

493 564 567 541 582 514 2.6 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

931 1,031 1,015 981 967 938 6.0 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.1 5.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

124 162 146 151 119 153 5.6 7.2 6.5 6.7 5.3 6.8

Accommodation and food services

806 869 869 831 849 786 6.1 6.4 6.4 6.1 6.3 5.8

Other services

178 178 233 199 200 216 3.1 3.1 4.1 3.5 3.5 3.8

Government

354 319 357 344 329 333 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal

34 45 46 35 34 35 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.2

State and local

319 275 312 308 295 298 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5

State and local education

155 137 159 151 143 144 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education

164 137 153 157 152 154 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

795 849 898 864 864 882 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3

South

1,970 2,074 2,091 2,105 2,057 1,989 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.7

Midwest

1,063 1,176 1,162 1,123 1,131 1,087 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.3

West

1,209 1,205 1,273 1,157 1,252 1,094 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

4,962 5,084 5,247 5,008 5,198 4,973 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,598 4,754 4,908 4,662 4,882 4,643 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.8 4.0 3.8

Mining and logging

30 22 32 32 25 24 4.4 3.3 4.8 4.7 3.6 3.4

Construction

339 369 361 339 374 372 5.1 5.4 5.3 4.9 5.4 5.4

Manufacturing

267 287 304 280 318 315 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.5

Durable goods

159 163 163 155 173 163 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.1

Nondurable goods

108 124 141 125 146 152 2.3 2.7 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

992 958 1,012 1,056 1,063 928 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.4

Wholesale trade

140 142 150 135 132 115 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.2 1.9

Retail trade

685 631 670 749 745 645 4.3 4.0 4.2 4.7 4.7 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

167 185 192 171 186 168 3.0 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.0

Information

81 82 87 79 79 66 2.9 3.0 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.4

Financial activities

173 162 198 182 201 163 2.1 1.9 2.4 2.2 2.4 1.9

Finance and insurance

103 107 133 127 126 108 1.7 1.7 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

70 55 65 55 75 55 3.3 2.5 3.0 2.5 3.4 2.5

Professional and business services

1,031 1,132 1,068 999 1,033 1,035 5.2 5.5 5.2 4.9 5.0 5.0

Education and health services

556 596 639 548 635 595 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.8 2.6

Educational services

83 73 82 59 90 87 2.3 2.0 2.3 1.6 2.5 2.4

Health care and social assistance

473 522 557 488 545 508 2.5 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.8 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

955 974 987 968 966 927 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.1 6.1 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

130 156 135 140 137 137 5.9 7.0 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.1

Accommodation and food services

824 817 852 828 829 790 6.2 6.1 6.3 6.1 6.1 5.8

Other services

173 172 219 179 188 220 3.0 3.0 3.8 3.1 3.3 3.8

Government

364 330 339 347 315 331 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5

Federal

44 41 38 35 37 37 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.3

State and local

320 289 301 312 278 294 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5

State and local education

164 133 151 168 130 147 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.4

State and local, excluding education

156 156 149 144 148 147 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

751 812 840 866 816 783 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.9

South

1,937 1,966 1,991 1,971 2,057 1,994 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.7

Midwest

1,076 1,128 1,177 1,057 1,162 1,069 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.3

West

1,198 1,178 1,239 1,114 1,163 1,128 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

2,902 3,085 3,186 3,036 3,138 3,027 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,728 2,915 3,011 2,865 2,962 2,872 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.3

Mining and logging

13 12 13 17 13 11 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.5 1.9 1.6

Construction

114 134 151 162 164 166 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4

Manufacturing

142 165 177 184 183 176 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4

Durable goods

79 89 96 97 94 94 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Nondurable goods

64 75 82 88 89 82 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

629 623 657 672 678 586 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.1

Wholesale trade

83 94 103 71 76 70 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.2

Retail trade

450 432 469 492 498 426 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

96 97 85 109 105 90 1.7 1.7 1.5 2.0 1.9 1.6

Information

39 49 42 48 43 31 1.4 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.1

Financial activities

96 78 123 85 105 104 1.2 0.9 1.5 1.0 1.2 1.2

Finance and insurance

58 59 80 57 71 68 1.0 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

38 19 43 28 34 36 1.8 0.9 2.0 1.3 1.5 1.7

Professional and business services

565 672 625 569 618 642 2.8 3.3 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.1

Education and health services

375 409 438 371 426 397 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.9 1.7

Educational services

42 41 45 41 48 42 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.2

Health care and social assistance

334 367 394 330 379 355 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.7 2.0 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

649 688 662 660 649 645 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

67 73 70 76 76 80 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.6

Accommodation and food services

582 615 593 584 573 565 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2

Other services(3)

105 86 123 97 83 113 1.9 1.5 2.1 1.7 1.4 2.0

Government

175 170 175 171 176 155 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7

Federal

15 15 15 16 16 16 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

State and local

159 155 161 155 159 139 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7

State and local education

74 70 75 74 72 72 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

State and local, excluding education

85 85 86 81 87 67 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.7

REGION(4)

Northeast

333 440 430 426 419 429 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

South

1,201 1,250 1,248 1,267 1,308 1,237 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3

Midwest

666 664 719 694 695 651 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0

West

702 730 789 649 715 710 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

1,669 1,624 1,659 1,594 1,661 1,590 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,547 1,525 1,555 1,483 1,582 1,479 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

14 6 16 12 8 10 2.1 0.9 2.4 1.7 1.2 1.4

Construction

210 214 177 155 197 195 3.1 3.2 2.6 2.3 2.9 2.8

Manufacturing

97 100 103 73 112 116 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

64 57 55 43 67 56 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.7

Nondurable goods

32 43 48 30 44 60 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.9 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

264 247 289 309 303 261 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0

Wholesale trade(3)

45 36 39 49 45 33 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.6

Retail trade

164 142 155 210 195 162 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

55 69 94 50 63 66 1.0 1.2 1.7 0.9 1.1 1.2

Information

29 23 27 23 28 22 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8

Financial activities

51 61 50 68 70 37 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.4

Finance and insurance

26 29 30 46 32 21 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

24 32 19 22 38 15 1.1 1.5 0.9 1.0 1.7 0.7

Professional and business services

410 401 383 367 325 334 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.6

Education and health services

140 142 132 127 161 162 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

Educational services

38 28 31 16 36 39 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.5 1.0 1.1

Health care and social assistance

102 114 102 111 126 123 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

268 256 296 276 278 243 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

61 81 60 61 58 53 2.7 3.6 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.4

Accommodation and food services

207 175 235 215 220 190 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.4

Other services

63 75 83 73 100 99 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.8 1.7

Government

122 99 104 111 79 111 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

Federal

13 13 13 10 11 11 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local

109 86 91 101 69 100 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

State and local education

61 40 51 63 32 44 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.4

State and local, excluding education

48 46 39 38 36 56 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6

REGION(4)

Northeast

353 310 340 374 327 286 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.1

South

571 566 573 566 601 622 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2

Midwest

324 387 383 294 368 348 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.1

West

420 361 362 361 365 335 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

390 375 402 378 399 357 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

323 314 342 314 338 292 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Mining and logging

3 4 3 4 4 3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.4

Construction(3)

15 20 32 22 13 11 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2

Manufacturing

27 23 24 24 23 23 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

15 17 13 16 11 13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

12 6 11 8 12 10 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

99 88 66 74 82 81 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

12 13 7 14 12 11 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Retail trade

72 57 46 48 52 58 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

16 18 13 12 18 12 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Information(3)

13 10 18 8 9 13 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.5

Financial activities

27 23 26 29 25 22 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

18 20 23 24 22 18 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

8 4 3 4 3 3 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Professional and business services

56 59 61 62 90 58 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3

Education and health services

41 45 68 50 48 35 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services(3)

3 4 7 2 7 5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

38 41 61 47 41 30 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

38 30 29 32 40 39 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

3 3 5 3 3 3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Accommodation and food services(3)

35 27 24 29 37 35 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Other services(3)

4 12 14 10 5 8 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Government

67 62 60 64 60 65 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

15 13 10 9 10 10 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3

State and local

51 49 49 56 50 55 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

28 23 25 31 25 30 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

State and local, excluding education

23 26 24 24 25 25 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

64 62 70 66 70 68 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

South

165 150 171 139 148 136 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Midwest

85 77 75 69 98 71 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

West

76 86 87 104 82 83 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

5,951 5,723 6,371 4.0 3.8 4.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,435 5,198 5,796 4.3 4.1 4.5

Mining and logging

11 25 22 1.6 3.5 3.1

Construction

184 161 203 2.7 2.4 2.9

Manufacturing

364 404 359 2.9 3.2 2.8

Durable goods

194 230 200 2.5 2.9 2.5

Nondurable goods

169 174 159 3.6 3.6 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,050 942 945 3.8 3.4 3.4

Wholesale trade

235 183 196 3.9 3.0 3.2

Retail trade

601 587 571 3.7 3.6 3.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

214 172 178 3.8 3.0 3.1

Information

92 83 111 3.2 3.0 3.9

Financial activities

368 309 414 4.3 3.6 4.7

Finance and insurance

273 241 323 4.3 3.7 4.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

96 68 91 4.3 3.1 4.0

Professional and business services

1,056 1,160 1,230 5.0 5.4 5.6

Education and health services

1,136 1,051 1,164 4.8 4.3 4.8

Educational services

107 87 99 2.8 2.2 2.5

Health care and social assistance

1,029 964 1,065 5.2 4.8 5.2

Leisure and hospitality

903 757 997 5.5 4.7 6.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

119 81 101 5.2 3.8 4.4

Accommodation and food services

784 677 896 5.6 4.8 6.2

Other services

270 306 352 4.6 5.1 5.8

Government

516 525 575 2.2 2.3 2.5

Federal

82 91 85 2.9 3.1 3.0

State and local

435 435 489 2.1 2.1 2.4

State and local education

139 147 172 1.3 1.3 1.6

State and local, excluding education

296 288 317 3.2 3.1 3.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

921 990 1,206 3.3 3.6 4.3

South

2,271 2,183 2,296 4.2 4.0 4.1

Midwest

1,321 1,338 1,546 4.0 4.0 4.5

West

1,439 1,212 1,324 4.2 3.5 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

5,408 5,031 5,357 3.8 3.5 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,124 4,781 5,093 4.2 3.9 4.1

Mining and logging

23 30 35 3.5 4.3 5.1

Construction

453 361 516 6.8 5.5 7.6

Manufacturing

268 313 318 2.2 2.5 2.6

Durable goods

161 176 165 2.1 2.3 2.1

Nondurable goods

107 137 154 2.3 3.0 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,004 1,030 925 3.7 3.8 3.4

Wholesale trade

166 136 134 2.8 2.3 2.3

Retail trade

673 732 640 4.3 4.7 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

165 163 151 3.0 2.9 2.7

Information

89 70 63 3.2 2.5 2.3

Financial activities

207 207 184 2.5 2.5 2.2

Finance and insurance

123 130 120 2.0 2.1 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

84 77 64 4.0 3.6 3.0

Professional and business services

1,227 1,009 1,155 6.1 5.0 5.6

Education and health services

579 598 592 2.6 2.6 2.6

Educational services

65 61 62 1.7 1.6 1.6

Health care and social assistance

515 537 530 2.7 2.8 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,090 982 1,077 7.0 6.4 6.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

170 110 210 7.8 5.3 9.6

Accommodation and food services

920 871 868 6.9 6.5 6.4

Other services

184 181 227 3.2 3.2 4.0

Government

284 250 265 1.3 1.1 1.2

Federal

32 31 31 1.2 1.1 1.1

State and local

252 219 234 1.3 1.1 1.2

State and local education

83 79 76 0.8 0.7 0.7

State and local, excluding education

168 140 158 1.9 1.6 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

859 801 947 3.2 3.0 3.5

South

2,078 1,980 2,064 4.0 3.7 3.9

Midwest

1,223 1,081 1,222 3.8 3.4 3.8

West

1,248 1,168 1,123 3.8 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

4,837 4,575 4,806 3.4 3.2 3.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,581 4,352 4,577 3.8 3.6 3.7

Mining and logging

31 24 23 4.6 3.5 3.3

Construction

312 323 362 4.7 4.9 5.4

Manufacturing

264 298 313 2.1 2.4 2.5

Durable goods

161 161 166 2.1 2.1 2.2

Nondurable goods

103 137 146 2.3 3.0 3.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

973 943 899 3.6 3.5 3.3

Wholesale trade

149 130 120 2.5 2.2 2.0

Retail trade

666 650 624 4.3 4.2 4.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

157 163 154 2.9 2.9 2.8

Information

82 76 66 2.9 2.8 2.4

Financial activities

187 196 173 2.3 2.3 2.1

Finance and insurance

115 130 117 1.9 2.1 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

72 66 56 3.4 3.1 2.6

Professional and business services

1,108 946 1,084 5.5 4.7 5.3

Education and health services

532 578 566 2.3 2.5 2.4

Educational services

59 61 62 1.6 1.6 1.6

Health care and social assistance

473 517 504 2.5 2.7 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

929 806 882 6.0 5.2 5.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

137 102 132 6.3 4.9 6.0

Accommodation and food services

792 704 749 6.0 5.3 5.5

Other services

163 161 209 2.9 2.8 3.6

Government

256 223 229 1.1 1.0 1.0

Federal

40 32 33 1.4 1.1 1.2

State and local

217 191 197 1.1 1.0 1.0

State and local education

88 72 81 0.8 0.7 0.7

State and local, excluding education

129 120 116 1.4 1.3 1.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

710 655 733 2.7 2.4 2.7

South

1,925 1,868 1,983 3.7 3.5 3.7

Midwest

1,024 1,007 995 3.2 3.1 3.1

West

1,179 1,045 1,094 3.6 3.2 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

2,910 2,828 3,016 2.0 2.0 2.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,769 2,691 2,895 2.3 2.2 2.3

Mining and logging

13 11 11 2.0 1.6 1.6

Construction

118 144 177 1.8 2.2 2.6

Manufacturing

151 175 185 1.2 1.4 1.5

Durable goods

86 89 102 1.1 1.2 1.3

Nondurable goods

65 86 83 1.4 1.9 1.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

645 622 595 2.4 2.3 2.2

Wholesale trade

91 75 75 1.6 1.3 1.3

Retail trade

454 447 426 2.9 2.9 2.7

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

100 99 93 1.8 1.8 1.7

Information

39 40 31 1.4 1.5 1.1

Financial activities

101 107 111 1.2 1.3 1.3

Finance and insurance

64 73 75 1.0 1.2 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

38 34 36 1.8 1.6 1.7

Professional and business services

580 567 655 2.9 2.8 3.2

Education and health services

372 392 388 1.6 1.7 1.7

Educational services

33 34 31 0.9 0.9 0.8

Health care and social assistance

339 358 357 1.8 1.9 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

644 550 630 4.2 3.6 4.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

58 55 72 2.7 2.6 3.3

Accommodation and food services

586 495 557 4.4 3.7 4.1

Other services

105 83 113 1.9 1.4 2.0

Government

142 138 121 0.6 0.6 0.5

Federal

14 15 15 0.5 0.5 0.5

State and local

127 123 106 0.6 0.6 0.5

State and local education

45 46 43 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local, excluding education

82 77 63 0.9 0.9 0.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

323 348 413 1.2 1.3 1.5

South

1,228 1,214 1,264 2.3 2.3 2.4

Midwest

655 612 627 2.0 1.9 1.9

West

705 654 711 2.1 2.0 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

1,560 1,386 1,453 1.1 1.0 1.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,493 1,344 1,390 1.2 1.1 1.1

Mining and logging

14 8 10 2.1 1.2 1.4

Construction

180 166 175 2.7 2.5 2.6

Manufacturing

85 101 104 0.7 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

58 62 51 0.8 0.8 0.7

Nondurable goods

26 39 54 0.6 0.8 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

231 251 222 0.9 0.9 0.8

Wholesale trade

45 45 33 0.8 0.8 0.6

Retail trade

146 161 140 0.9 1.0 0.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

41 46 49 0.8 0.8 0.9

Information

30 27 21 1.1 1.0 0.8

Financial activities

57 69 38 0.7 0.8 0.5

Finance and insurance

30 40 22 0.5 0.6 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

26 29 16 1.2 1.3 0.7

Professional and business services

475 293 375 2.4 1.4 1.8

Education and health services

119 138 143 0.5 0.6 0.6

Educational services

23 20 25 0.6 0.5 0.7

Health care and social assistance

96 118 117 0.5 0.6 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

247 216 213 1.6 1.4 1.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

76 45 57 3.5 2.2 2.6

Accommodation and food services

171 171 157 1.3 1.3 1.2

Other services

54 74 88 0.9 1.3 1.5

Government

68 43 63 0.3 0.2 0.3

Federal

11 9 9 0.4 0.3 0.3

State and local

56 34 53 0.3 0.2 0.3

State and local education

28 14 20 0.3 0.1 0.2

State and local, excluding education

28 20 33 0.3 0.2 0.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

326 244 253 1.2 0.9 0.9

South

547 530 600 1.0 1.0 1.1

Midwest

288 304 299 0.9 0.9 0.9

West

399 309 301 1.2 0.9 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017(p)

Total

367 360 336 0.3 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

320 318 291 0.3 0.3 0.2

Mining and logging

3 5 2 0.5 0.7 0.3

Construction

15 13 11 0.2 0.2 0.2

Manufacturing

28 23 23 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

16 11 14 0.2 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

12 12 10 0.3 0.3 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

96 70 82 0.4 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

13 10 12 0.2 0.2 0.2

Retail trade

67 42 58 0.4 0.3 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

16 18 12 0.3 0.3 0.2

Information

13 9 13 0.5 0.3 0.5

Financial activities

29 20 23 0.4 0.2 0.3

Finance and insurance

21 17 20 0.3 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

8 3 3 0.4 0.1 0.1

Professional and business services

53 86 54 0.3 0.4 0.3

Education and health services

41 48 35 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

3 7 5 0.1 0.2 0.1

Health care and social assistance

38 41 30 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

38 40 39 0.2 0.3 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3 3 3 0.1 0.1 0.2

Accommodation and food services

35 37 35 0.3 0.3 0.3

Other services

4 5 8 0.1 0.1 0.1

Government

47 43 46 0.2 0.2 0.2

Federal

14 8 9 0.5 0.3 0.3

State and local

33 34 37 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

14 12 17 0.1 0.1 0.2

State and local, excluding education

19 23 20 0.2 0.3 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

61 63 67 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

150 124 119 0.3 0.2 0.2

Midwest

81 91 69 0.3 0.3 0.2

West

75 82 82 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: June 06, 2017