Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, July 11, 2017	USDL-17-0959

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – MAY 2017

The number of job openings decreased to 5.7 million on the last business day of May, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires increased to 5.5 million and separations 
increased to 5.3 million. Within separations, the quits rate was little changed at 2.2 percent and the 
layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.1 percent. This release includes estimates of the number 
and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by four 
geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of May, the job openings level decreased to 5.7 million (-301,000). The job 
openings rate was 3.7 percent. The number of job openings decreased for total private (-283,000) and 
was little changed for government. Job openings increased in retail trade (+72,000) and educational 
services (+17,000). Job openings decreased in a number of industries with the largest decreases 
occurring in construction (-46,000) and transportation, warehousing, and utilities (-45,000). The number 
of job openings decreased in the Midwest region. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires rose to 5.5 million (+429,000) in May. The hires rate was 3.7 percent. The number 
of hires increased for total private (+423,000) and was little changed for government. Hires increased in 
professional and business services (+121,000), other services (+78,000), and educational services 
(+25,000). The number of hires increased in the South region. (See table 2.)
Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations increased to 5.3 million (+251,000) in May. The total separations rate 
was 3.6 percent. Total separations increased for total private (+245,000) and was little changed for 
government. Total separations increased in retail trade (+73,000) but decreased in federal government
(-8,000). The number of total separations rose in the South region. (See table 3.)

The number of quits increased to 3.2 million (+177,000) in May. The quits rate was 2.2 percent. The 
number of quits rose for total private (+159,000) and for government (+19,000). Quits increased in a 
number of industries with the largest increases occurring in retail trade (+66,000) and transportation, 
warehousing, and utilities (+20,000). The number of quits decreased in arts, entertainment, and 
recreation (-15,000). The number of quits increased in the South region. (See table 4.)

There were 1.7 million layoffs and discharges in May, little changed from April. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent in May. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for 
total private and for government. The layoffs and discharges level increased in professional and business 
services (+77,000). The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all four regions.
(See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in May. Other separations was essentially 
unchanged for total private and for government. Other separations increased in educational services 
(+4,000) but decreased in federal government (-3,000). In all four regions, the number of other 
separations was little changed. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in May, hires totaled 63.2 million and 
separations totaled 60.9 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.4 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for June 2017 are scheduled to be released 
on Tuesday, August 8, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,582 5,967 5,666 5,153 5,043 5,472 5,101 5,008 5,259

Total private

5,044 5,410 5,127 4,781 4,720 5,143 4,762 4,681 4,926

Mining and logging(1)

10 24 12 21 32 37 27 23 27

Construction(1)

187 200 154 314 375 381 330 377 355

Manufacturing

344 365 343 267 314 332 294 317 327

Durable goods(1)

187 207 199 157 164 180 181 162 172

Nondurable goods(1)

157 158 144 111 150 152 113 155 155

Trade, transportation, and utilities

949 967 976 1,018 969 1,046 1,012 948 1,052

Wholesale trade(1)

154 210 192 135 116 130 131 116 126

Retail trade

594 566 638 700 677 718 693 663 736

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

202 190 145 184 176 198 188 168 190

Information(1)

90 109 93 69 58 74 78 74 78

Financial activities

294 388 332 184 185 221 178 184 217

Finance and insurance

238 283 250 123 119 146 118 110 134

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

56 105 82 62 66 75 60 74 82

Professional and business services

1,203 1,093 1,036 1,105 1,006 1,127 1,071 1,001 1,090

Education and health services

1,053 1,111 1,079 655 614 675 604 594 612

Educational services(1)

94 91 108 115 97 122 100 86 97

Health care and social assistance

959 1,020 971 539 518 553 504 508 515

Leisure and hospitality

746 827 817 975 953 960 989 943 949

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

71 66 62 139 151 136 150 133 133

Accommodation and food services

675 761 755 836 802 824 840 810 816

Other services(1)

168 327 285 173 213 291 178 220 219

Government

538 557 539 373 324 329 339 328 333

Federal(1)

101 93 99 47 34 30 29 34 26

State and local

438 464 440 326 290 299 310 293 307

State and local education

145 166 153 166 140 141 152 147 142

State and local, excluding education(1)

292 298 287 160 150 158 158 147 165





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.7 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.6

Total private

4.0 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.2 3.9 3.8 4.0

Mining and logging(1)

1.4 3.3 1.7 3.2 4.5 5.2 4.0 3.3 3.8

Construction(1)

2.7 2.8 2.2 4.7 5.5 5.5 4.9 5.5 5.2

Manufacturing

2.7 2.9 2.7 2.2 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.6

Durable goods(1)

2.4 2.6 2.5 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.2

Nondurable goods(1)

3.3 3.3 3.0 2.4 3.2 3.3 2.4 3.3 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.8

Wholesale trade(1)

2.6 3.4 3.2 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.1

Retail trade

3.6 3.5 3.9 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.5 3.3 2.5 3.3 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.0 3.4

Information(1)

3.2 3.8 3.3 2.5 2.1 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.9

Financial activities

3.4 4.4 3.8 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.6

Finance and insurance

3.7 4.3 3.9 2.0 1.9 2.3 1.9 1.8 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

2.5 4.6 3.6 2.9 3.0 3.4 2.8 3.4 3.8

Professional and business services

5.7 5.0 4.8 5.5 4.9 5.5 5.3 4.9 5.3

Education and health services

4.5 4.6 4.5 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.7

Educational services(1)

2.6 2.4 2.9 3.2 2.7 3.3 2.8 2.4 2.7

Health care and social assistance

4.8 5.0 4.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

4.6 5.0 4.9 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.4 5.9 6.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.1 2.8 2.7 6.3 6.7 6.0 6.8 5.9 5.9

Accommodation and food services

4.8 5.3 5.2 6.3 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.0 6.0

Other services(1)

2.9 5.4 4.7 3.1 3.7 5.1 3.1 3.8 3.8

Government

2.4 2.4 2.4 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal(1)

3.5 3.2 3.4 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9

State and local

2.2 2.3 2.2 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6

State and local education

1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.1 3.2 3.1 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore, the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

5,582 5,625 5,682 5,785 5,967 5,666 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,044 5,133 5,179 5,244 5,410 5,127 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.0

Mining and logging(3)

10 25 20 25 24 12 1.4 3.5 2.9 3.4 3.3 1.7

Construction(3)

187 142 181 161 200 154 2.7 2.0 2.6 2.3 2.8 2.2

Manufacturing

344 361 364 404 365 343 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.2 2.9 2.7

Durable goods(3)

187 206 209 230 207 199 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.5

Nondurable goods(3)

157 155 155 174 158 144 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

949 959 928 948 967 976 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4

Wholesale trade(3)

154 201 175 183 210 192 2.6 3.3 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.2

Retail trade

594 581 579 593 566 638 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

202 177 174 172 190 145 3.5 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.3 2.5

Information(3)

90 73 75 83 109 93 3.2 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.8 3.3

Financial activities

294 388 360 327 388 332 3.4 4.4 4.1 3.7 4.4 3.8

Finance and insurance

238 248 285 260 283 250 3.7 3.8 4.4 4.0 4.3 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

56 140 75 68 105 82 2.5 6.0 3.3 3.0 4.6 3.6

Professional and business services

1,203 1,056 976 1,152 1,093 1,036 5.7 4.9 4.5 5.3 5.0 4.8

Education and health services

1,053 1,158 1,241 1,103 1,111 1,079 4.5 4.8 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.5

Educational services(3)

94 93 126 87 91 108 2.6 2.5 3.4 2.3 2.4 2.9

Health care and social assistance

959 1,065 1,115 1,016 1,020 971 4.8 5.2 5.5 5.0 5.0 4.8

Leisure and hospitality

746 729 784 735 827 817 4.6 4.4 4.7 4.4 5.0 4.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

71 83 92 77 66 62 3.1 3.6 3.9 3.3 2.8 2.7

Accommodation and food services

675 646 693 657 761 755 4.8 4.6 4.9 4.6 5.3 5.2

Other services(3)

168 241 250 306 327 285 2.9 4.0 4.2 5.1 5.4 4.7

Government

538 492 503 541 557 539 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4

Federal(3)

101 82 83 91 93 99 3.5 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.4

State and local

438 410 420 450 464 440 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.2

State and local education

145 161 140 163 166 153 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5

State and local, excluding education(3)

292 249 280 288 298 287 3.1 2.7 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.1

REGION(4)

Northeast

933 998 1,102 1,033 1,103 1,048 3.4 3.6 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.7

South

2,049 2,024 2,060 2,160 2,190 2,062 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.7

Midwest

1,313 1,324 1,285 1,349 1,424 1,301 3.9 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.2 3.8

West

1,287 1,279 1,236 1,243 1,250 1,256 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

5,153 5,424 5,249 5,304 5,043 5,472 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,781 5,067 4,905 4,975 4,720 5,143 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.8 4.2

Mining and logging

21 30 39 30 32 37 3.2 4.4 5.7 4.3 4.5 5.2

Construction

314 387 367 372 375 381 4.7 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5

Manufacturing

267 304 296 325 314 332 2.2 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.7

Durable goods

157 165 154 177 164 180 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.3

Nondurable goods

111 139 142 147 150 152 2.4 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,018 1,023 1,090 1,051 969 1,046 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.8

Wholesale trade

135 140 139 129 116 130 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.2

Retail trade

700 682 757 725 677 718 4.4 4.3 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

184 201 194 197 176 198 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.5

Information

69 80 76 77 58 74 2.5 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.1 2.7

Financial activities

184 220 190 214 185 221 2.2 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.6

Finance and insurance

123 150 122 138 119 146 2.0 2.4 2.0 2.2 1.9 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

62 70 68 76 66 75 2.9 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.4

Professional and business services

1,105 1,128 1,044 1,060 1,006 1,127 5.5 5.5 5.1 5.2 4.9 5.5

Education and health services

655 646 622 679 614 675 2.9 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.9

Educational services

115 79 81 96 97 122 3.2 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.7 3.3

Health care and social assistance

539 567 541 582 518 553 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.7 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

975 1,015 981 967 953 960 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

139 146 151 119 151 136 6.3 6.5 6.7 5.3 6.7 6.0

Accommodation and food services

836 869 831 849 802 824 6.3 6.4 6.1 6.3 5.9 6.0

Other services

173 233 199 200 213 291 3.1 4.1 3.5 3.5 3.7 5.1

Government

373 357 344 329 324 329 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Federal

47 46 35 34 34 30 1.7 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1

State and local

326 312 308 295 290 299 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5

State and local education

166 159 151 143 140 141 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4

State and local, excluding education

160 153 157 152 150 158 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

789 898 864 864 888 962 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.6

South

1,965 2,091 2,105 2,057 1,963 2,155 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.7 4.0

Midwest

1,171 1,162 1,123 1,131 1,083 1,177 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.6

West

1,228 1,273 1,157 1,252 1,110 1,178 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.3 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

5,101 5,247 5,008 5,198 5,008 5,259 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,762 4,908 4,662 4,882 4,681 4,926 3.9 4.0 3.8 4.0 3.8 4.0

Mining and logging

27 32 32 25 23 27 4.0 4.8 4.7 3.6 3.3 3.8

Construction

330 361 339 374 377 355 4.9 5.3 4.9 5.4 5.5 5.2

Manufacturing

294 304 280 318 317 327 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.6

Durable goods

181 163 155 173 162 172 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2

Nondurable goods

113 141 125 146 155 155 2.4 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.3 3.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,012 1,012 1,056 1,063 948 1,052 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.5 3.8

Wholesale trade

131 150 135 132 116 126 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.1

Retail trade

693 670 749 745 663 736 4.4 4.2 4.7 4.7 4.2 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

188 192 171 186 168 190 3.4 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.4

Information

78 87 79 79 74 78 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.9

Financial activities

178 198 182 201 184 217 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.6

Finance and insurance

118 133 127 126 110 134 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

60 65 55 75 74 82 2.8 3.0 2.5 3.4 3.4 3.8

Professional and business services

1,071 1,068 999 1,033 1,001 1,090 5.3 5.2 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.3

Education and health services

604 639 548 635 594 612 2.7 2.8 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.7

Educational services

100 82 59 90 86 97 2.8 2.3 1.6 2.5 2.4 2.7

Health care and social assistance

504 557 488 545 508 515 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

989 987 968 966 943 949 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.1 5.9 6.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

150 135 140 137 133 133 6.8 6.0 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.9

Accommodation and food services

840 852 828 829 810 816 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0

Other services

178 219 179 188 220 219 3.1 3.8 3.1 3.3 3.8 3.8

Government

339 339 347 315 328 333 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.5

Federal

29 38 35 37 34 26 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.9

State and local

310 301 312 278 293 307 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.6

State and local education

152 151 168 130 147 142 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.4

State and local, excluding education

158 149 144 148 147 165 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

769 840 866 816 808 843 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.1

South

1,995 1,991 1,971 2,057 1,992 2,178 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.7 4.1

Midwest

1,161 1,177 1,057 1,162 1,044 1,104 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.2 3.4

West

1,175 1,239 1,114 1,163 1,165 1,133 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

3,005 3,186 3,036 3,138 3,044 3,221 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,841 3,011 2,865 2,962 2,887 3,046 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5

Mining and logging

11 13 17 13 11 14 1.7 2.0 2.5 1.9 1.6 2.0

Construction

118 151 162 164 159 140 1.8 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.0

Manufacturing

143 177 184 183 178 205 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.7

Durable goods

80 96 97 94 94 104 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3

Nondurable goods

63 82 88 89 84 101 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 2.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

611 657 672 678 581 671 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.5

Wholesale trade

67 103 71 76 72 76 1.1 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3

Retail trade

453 469 492 498 420 486 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.7 3.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

91 85 109 105 89 109 1.7 1.5 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.9

Information

38 42 48 43 37 31 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.1

Financial activities

112 123 85 105 111 124 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.5

Finance and insurance

70 80 57 71 71 77 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

42 43 28 34 40 47 2.0 2.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.2

Professional and business services

605 625 569 618 630 630 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.1

Education and health services

405 438 371 426 402 406 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.8

Educational services

50 45 41 48 45 45 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.2

Health care and social assistance

355 394 330 379 357 361 1.9 2.0 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

696 662 660 649 667 707 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

67 70 76 76 77 62 3.0 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.4 2.7

Accommodation and food services

629 593 584 573 590 645 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.7

Other services(3)

102 123 97 83 111 119 1.8 2.1 1.7 1.4 1.9 2.1

Government

165 175 171 176 157 176 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8

Federal

9 15 16 16 14 11 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4

State and local

156 161 155 159 143 164 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8

State and local education

71 75 74 72 75 80 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8

State and local, excluding education

84 86 81 87 67 84 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

391 430 426 419 446 470 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

South

1,205 1,248 1,267 1,308 1,220 1,343 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.5

Midwest

724 719 694 695 639 680 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1

West

685 789 649 715 740 728 2.1 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

1,741 1,659 1,594 1,661 1,605 1,661 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,626 1,555 1,483 1,582 1,500 1,566 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3

Mining and logging(3)

11 16 12 8 9 9 1.7 2.4 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.3

Construction

200 177 155 197 207 202 3.0 2.6 2.3 2.9 3.0 2.9

Manufacturing

130 103 73 112 117 103 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8

Durable goods

90 55 43 67 55 56 1.2 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.7

Nondurable goods

40 48 30 44 63 47 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

312 289 309 303 282 293 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1

Wholesale trade(3)

55 39 49 45 33 42 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.7

Retail trade

174 155 210 195 183 185 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

83 94 50 63 66 66 1.5 1.7 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.2

Information

30 27 23 28 24 34 1.1 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.3

Financial activities

50 50 68 70 45 58 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.7

Finance and insurance

33 30 46 32 19 26 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

17 19 22 38 25 32 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.7 1.2 1.5

Professional and business services

399 383 367 325 315 392 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.9

Education and health services

168 132 127 161 158 171 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7

Educational services

44 31 16 36 37 44 1.2 0.9 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.2

Health care and social assistance

124 102 111 126 121 127 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

253 296 276 278 247 209 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

78 60 61 58 54 68 3.5 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.4 3.0

Accommodation and food services

175 235 215 220 194 141 1.3 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.0

Other services

73 83 73 100 96 95 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.8 1.7 1.7

Government

114 104 111 79 104 95 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4

Federal

11 13 10 11 11 9 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

State and local

103 91 101 69 94 86 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4

State and local education

54 51 63 32 42 36 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.4

State and local, excluding education

50 39 38 36 52 50 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

326 340 374 327 295 305 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1

South

646 573 566 601 646 698 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3

Midwest

354 383 294 368 333 343 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.1

West

415 362 361 365 331 314 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

355 402 378 399 359 377 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

295 342 314 338 293 314 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Mining and logging

4 3 4 4 3 4 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5

Construction(3)

12 32 22 13 11 13 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Manufacturing

21 24 24 23 21 19 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

12 13 16 11 13 11 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Nondurable goods(3)

10 11 8 12 8 8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

88 66 74 82 84 88 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

8 7 14 12 11 8 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

67 46 48 52 60 64 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

13 13 12 18 13 16 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

Information(3)

10 18 8 9 13 13 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5

Financial activities

16 26 29 25 28 34 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4

Finance and insurance

15 23 24 22 20 31 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

1 3 4 3 8 3 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1

Professional and business services

67 61 62 90 57 68 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

32 68 50 48 34 36 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Educational services(3)

7 7 2 7 4 8 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

25 61 47 41 30 28 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

41 29 32 40 29 33 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

5 5 3 3 3 4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

Accommodation and food services(3)

36 24 29 37 26 29 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

3 14 10 5 13 5 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Government

60 60 64 60 66 62 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

9 10 9 10 9 6 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2

State and local

51 49 56 50 57 56 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

26 25 31 25 29 26 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

State and local, excluding education

24 24 24 25 28 31 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

52 70 66 70 67 68 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

South

144 171 139 148 126 137 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

82 75 69 98 72 81 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

West

75 87 104 82 94 91 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

5,591 6,312 5,665 3.7 4.1 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,050 5,761 5,123 4.0 4.5 4.0

Mining and logging

10 24 12 1.5 3.4 1.7

Construction

187 200 154 2.7 2.9 2.2

Manufacturing

344 365 343 2.7 2.9 2.7

Durable goods

187 207 199 2.4 2.6 2.5

Nondurable goods

157 158 144 3.3 3.3 3.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

940 955 969 3.4 3.4 3.4

Wholesale trade

154 210 192 2.6 3.4 3.1

Retail trade

585 555 632 3.6 3.4 3.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

202 190 145 3.5 3.3 2.5

Information

90 109 93 3.2 3.8 3.3

Financial activities

284 439 314 3.3 5.0 3.6

Finance and insurance

228 334 232 3.6 5.1 3.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

56 105 82 2.5 4.6 3.6

Professional and business services

1,214 1,186 1,043 5.7 5.5 4.8

Education and health services

1,032 1,179 1,040 4.4 4.8 4.3

Educational services

94 91 108 2.6 2.3 2.8

Health care and social assistance

938 1,088 931 4.7 5.3 4.6

Leisure and hospitality

781 978 870 4.7 5.8 5.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

88 93 73 3.7 4.0 3.0

Accommodation and food services

692 885 797 4.9 6.1 5.5

Other services

168 327 285 2.9 5.4 4.7

Government

541 551 542 2.3 2.4 2.3

Federal

101 93 99 3.5 3.2 3.4

State and local

441 458 443 2.2 2.2 2.2

State and local education

148 160 156 1.4 1.5 1.4

State and local, excluding education

292 298 287 3.1 3.2 3.1

REGION(3)

Northeast

931 1,154 1,044 3.4 4.1 3.7

South

2,033 2,353 2,035 3.7 4.2 3.7

Midwest

1,341 1,479 1,325 4.0 4.4 3.9

West

1,286 1,326 1,261 3.7 3.8 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

5,692 5,344 6,032 3.9 3.7 4.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,295 5,088 5,680 4.3 4.1 4.6

Mining and logging

21 35 38 3.2 5.1 5.4

Construction

396 510 480 5.9 7.6 6.9

Manufacturing

298 324 373 2.4 2.6 3.0

Durable goods

179 173 208 2.3 2.2 2.7

Nondurable goods

119 151 166 2.6 3.3 3.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,066 919 1,098 3.9 3.4 4.0

Wholesale trade

143 133 138 2.4 2.3 2.3

Retail trade

759 639 784 4.8 4.1 5.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

164 147 176 3.0 2.6 3.2

Information

70 62 75 2.5 2.3 2.8

Financial activities

206 198 251 2.5 2.4 3.0

Finance and insurance

137 117 165 2.2 1.9 2.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

69 81 86 3.2 3.7 3.9

Professional and business services

1,155 1,129 1,181 5.8 5.5 5.7

Education and health services

615 595 642 2.7 2.6 2.8

Educational services

77 62 90 2.1 1.6 2.4

Health care and social assistance

537 533 552 2.8 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,252 1,094 1,209 7.9 6.9 7.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

239 209 221 10.4 9.5 9.4

Accommodation and food services

1,013 884 989 7.5 6.5 7.2

Other services

217 223 334 3.8 3.9 5.8

Government

397 256 352 1.8 1.1 1.6

Federal

62 31 37 2.2 1.1 1.3

State and local

335 225 316 1.7 1.1 1.6

State and local education

104 74 86 1.0 0.7 0.8

State and local, excluding education

231 151 229 2.5 1.7 2.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

875 944 1,064 3.3 3.5 3.9

South

2,100 2,051 2,308 4.0 3.9 4.3

Midwest

1,404 1,202 1,412 4.4 3.7 4.3

West

1,313 1,147 1,249 4.0 3.4 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

5,052 4,822 5,267 3.5 3.3 3.6

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,647 4,591 4,882 3.8 3.7 3.9

Mining and logging

27 23 27 4.0 3.3 3.9

Construction

302 367 333 4.5 5.4 4.8

Manufacturing

287 312 334 2.3 2.5 2.7

Durable goods

176 163 175 2.3 2.1 2.3

Nondurable goods

110 149 159 2.4 3.2 3.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

968 918 1,020 3.6 3.4 3.7

Wholesale trade

126 122 120 2.1 2.1 2.0

Retail trade

680 640 731 4.3 4.1 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

163 156 169 2.9 2.8 3.0

Information

75 73 77 2.7 2.7 2.8

Financial activities

172 194 218 2.1 2.3 2.6

Finance and insurance

115 118 139 1.9 1.9 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

57 76 79 2.7 3.5 3.6

Professional and business services

1,068 1,035 1,093 5.3 5.0 5.3

Education and health services

633 564 648 2.8 2.4 2.8

Educational services

124 62 127 3.5 1.6 3.4

Health care and social assistance

509 502 521 2.7 2.6 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

939 897 912 5.9 5.7 5.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

118 130 106 5.1 5.9 4.5

Accommodation and food services

820 767 806 6.1 5.7 5.8

Other services

176 208 220 3.1 3.6 3.8

Government

405 230 385 1.8 1.0 1.7

Federal

26 33 21 0.9 1.2 0.7

State and local

379 198 364 1.9 1.0 1.8

State and local education

239 81 215 2.2 0.7 2.0

State and local, excluding education

140 117 149 1.5 1.3 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

688 752 771 2.6 2.8 2.8

South

2,021 1,964 2,250 3.8 3.7 4.2

Midwest

1,142 971 1,097 3.6 3.0 3.4

West

1,200 1,135 1,149 3.6 3.4 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

3,027 3,021 3,276 2.1 2.1 2.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,837 2,899 3,070 2.3 2.4 2.5

Mining and logging

12 11 15 1.7 1.6 2.2

Construction

127 169 148 1.9 2.5 2.1

Manufacturing

149 184 221 1.2 1.5 1.8

Durable goods

84 100 112 1.1 1.3 1.4

Nondurable goods

65 84 109 1.4 1.8 2.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

600 590 664 2.2 2.2 2.4

Wholesale trade

65 77 73 1.1 1.3 1.2

Retail trade

455 420 494 2.9 2.7 3.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

80 93 97 1.4 1.7 1.7

Information

36 37 29 1.3 1.3 1.1

Financial activities

114 116 129 1.4 1.4 1.5

Finance and insurance

72 76 82 1.2 1.2 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

42 40 47 2.0 1.9 2.2

Professional and business services

614 639 636 3.1 3.1 3.1

Education and health services

411 393 411 1.8 1.7 1.8

Educational services

55 34 49 1.5 0.9 1.3

Health care and social assistance

356 359 361 1.9 1.9 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

673 649 698 4.3 4.1 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

64 69 59 2.8 3.1 2.5

Accommodation and food services

609 579 639 4.5 4.3 4.6

Other services

102 111 119 1.8 1.9 2.1

Government

189 122 206 0.8 0.5 0.9

Federal

9 15 11 0.3 0.5 0.4

State and local

180 107 195 0.9 0.5 1.0

State and local education

94 45 106 0.9 0.4 1.0

State and local, excluding education

87 62 89 1.0 0.7 1.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

374 428 459 1.4 1.6 1.7

South

1,215 1,236 1,378 2.3 2.3 2.6

Midwest

738 618 695 2.3 1.9 2.1

West

701 740 744 2.1 2.2 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

1,664 1,462 1,594 1.2 1.0 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,519 1,401 1,489 1.2 1.1 1.2

Mining and logging

11 9 9 1.7 1.3 1.3

Construction

163 188 172 2.4 2.8 2.5

Manufacturing

115 105 94 0.9 0.9 0.8

Durable goods

79 49 52 1.0 0.6 0.7

Nondurable goods

36 56 42 0.8 1.2 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

273 243 254 1.0 0.9 0.9

Wholesale trade

55 33 42 0.9 0.6 0.7

Retail trade

148 160 157 0.9 1.0 1.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

69 50 56 1.3 0.9 1.0

Information

29 24 35 1.0 0.9 1.3

Financial activities

42 47 50 0.5 0.6 0.6

Finance and insurance

28 20 21 0.5 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

14 28 29 0.7 1.3 1.3

Professional and business services

399 344 397 2.0 1.7 1.9

Education and health services

191 137 202 0.8 0.6 0.9

Educational services

63 23 69 1.7 0.6 1.9

Health care and social assistance

128 114 133 0.7 0.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

225 220 181 1.4 1.4 1.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

50 58 43 2.2 2.6 1.9

Accommodation and food services

175 162 137 1.3 1.2 1.0

Other services

71 84 96 1.2 1.5 1.7

Government

145 60 106 0.6 0.3 0.5

Federal

7 9 5 0.3 0.3 0.2

State and local

137 51 101 0.7 0.3 0.5

State and local education

106 19 69 1.0 0.2 0.6

State and local, excluding education

32 32 32 0.3 0.4 0.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

270 260 249 1.0 1.0 0.9

South

652 618 725 1.2 1.2 1.4

Midwest

318 283 308 1.0 0.9 0.9

West

423 300 312 1.3 0.9 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)
May
2016
Apr.
2017
May
2017(p)

Total

361 339 397 0.3 0.2 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

290 291 323 0.2 0.2 0.3

Mining and logging

4 2 3 0.6 0.3 0.5

Construction

12 11 13 0.2 0.2 0.2

Manufacturing

22 22 20 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

13 14 12 0.2 0.2 0.1

Nondurable goods

10 8 8 0.2 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

96 85 101 0.4 0.3 0.4

Wholesale trade

6 12 5 0.1 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

76 60 80 0.5 0.4 0.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

13 13 16 0.2 0.2 0.3

Information

10 13 13 0.4 0.5 0.5

Financial activities

17 30 38 0.2 0.4 0.5

Finance and insurance

16 22 36 0.3 0.4 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1 8 3 0.0 0.4 0.1

Professional and business services

54 51 61 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

32 34 36 0.1 0.1 0.2

Educational services

7 4 8 0.2 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance

25 30 28 0.1 0.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

41 29 33 0.3 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

5 3 4 0.2 0.1 0.2

Accommodation and food services

36 26 29 0.3 0.2 0.2

Other services

3 13 5 0.1 0.2 0.1

Government

71 48 74 0.3 0.2 0.3

Federal

10 9 6 0.4 0.3 0.2

State and local

61 39 68 0.3 0.2 0.3

State and local education

40 16 40 0.4 0.2 0.4

State and local, excluding education

21 23 28 0.2 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

45 64 62 0.2 0.2 0.2

South

155 111 148 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

86 70 93 0.3 0.2 0.3

West

76 94 93 0.2 0.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: July 11, 2017