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Productivity and Costs by Industry: Selected Service-Providing Industries News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, June 30, 2022                                              USDL-22-1352

Technical information: 	(202) 691-5606    productivity@bls.gov   www.bls.gov/lpc 
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    PressOffice@bls.gov


                               PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY
                           SELECTED SERVICE-PROVIDING INDUSTRIES - 2021


Labor productivity rose in 24 of 30 selected service-providing industries in 2021, the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. Increases in both output and hours worked were widespread in 2021. 
Output rose in 27 industries, more than twice the 11 industries that saw increases in 2020. Hours worked 
increased in 18 industries in 2021. This was three times as many as the 6 industries which had growth in 
hours worked in 2020. In 2020, labor productivity increased in 17 of 30 industries as declines in hours 
outpaced declines in output for many industries. 

Change in productivity is approximately equal to the change in output minus the change in hours worked. 
In three of the six industries with the largest change in productivity, hours worked fell while output 
increased, leading to productivity gains. This was the case in travel arrangement and reservation services, 
the industry with the highest productivity growth, as well as two broadcasting industries: radio and 
television broadcasting and cable and other subscription programming. 

Productivity also increased in three industries where hours worked increased at a slower rate than output. 
This was the case in amusement parks and arcades, air transportation, and full-service restaurants. 

Trends in Labor Productivity in 2021

      Labor productivity rose in 24 of 30 industries in 2021.
      There were 4 industries where productivity rose more than 25 percent: travel arrangement and 
       reservation services (136.8 percent), amusement parks and arcades (87.4 percent), air
       transportation (61.8 percent), and full-service restaurants (25.3 percent). In all 4 of those
       industries, output grew more than 44 percent.
      The three industries with the greatest productivity gains in 2021 also saw the largest declines in 
       2020. In each industry productivity fell over 20 percent and output fell by over 40 percent.
      Hours worked increased in 18 of the 30 industries.
      Hours worked rose in each of the five industries which recorded declines in productivity. Two 
       of these industries had double-digit growth in hours worked: warehousing and storage (15.8 
       percent) and couriers and messengers (10.5 percent).  

Unit labor costs decreased in 20 industries in 2021. In 19 of these industries, productivity increased. 
Unit labor costs reflect the total labor costs required to produce a unit of output. Unit labor costs 
increase when hourly compensation growth exceeds productivity growth. Changes in labor productivity 
counter the impact of changes in hourly compensation on unit labor costs facing employers. Hourly 
compensation increased more than productivity in all four industries with both rising productivity and 
unit labor costs.


Trends in Unit Labor Costs in 2021

      The largest declines in unit labor costs were in air transportation (-37.2 percent), amusement 
       parks and arcades (-44.8 percent), and travel arrangement and reservation services (-51.6 
       percent). Productivity rose by more than 60 percent in each of these industries.
      Two industries had double-digit rates of growth in unit labor costs: couriers and messengers 
       (15.8 percent) and medical and diagnostic laboratories (13.7 percent). Both industries also 
       had double-digit gains in output, hours worked, and hourly compensation.
      Hourly compensation rose in 26 of the 30 industries measured. 


2019 to 2021 Trends

Although 27 selected service-providing industries increased output from 2020 to 2021, not all these 
industries saw their output return to their pre-pandemic levels. Eight industries had levels of 
output that were lower in 2021 than in 2019, despite seeing positive output growth from 2020 to 2021. Of 
these eight industries, the two with the steepest average annual declines in output from 2019 to 2021 were 
air transportation (-17.6 percent) and line-haul railroads (-7.5 percent).

The 2019 to 2021 trends in hours worked show a similar result. Of the 18 selected service-providing 
industries that increased hours worked from 2020 to 2021, 7 of these had hours worked that were still 
below their pre-pandemic levels. Of these 7 industries, the 2 with the largest average annual decreases in 
hours worked from 2019 to 2021 were amusement parks and arcades (-14.6 percent) and gambling industries (-7.1 percent).

Long term productivity rose in 44 out of 58 service-providing industries. For most industries 
studied, this period extends from 1987 to 2020, the latest year for which data are available for all 
58 selected service-providing industries published on the BLS website. None of the rates in this 
section incorporate data for 2021.

Trends in Long Term Productivity

      Median long term productivity growth for all 58 industries was approximately 1.5 percent 
       per year.
      Output increased over the long term in 41 industries while hours worked increased in 31 
       industries.
      Productivity increased in 43 of the 58 industries over the business cycle preceding the 
       pandemic: 2007 to 2019. During this period, 40 industries had increases in output and 27 
       experienced growth in hours worked. 


Additional Information

The productivity and costs measures in this release incorporate data from the Census Bureau's Service 
Annual Survey (November 2021). Accordingly, the labor productivity and output series for all industries 
have been revised for 2020 and earlier years.

The following NAICS codes are included in Tables 1 and 3 but not counted in the short-term count of 30 
selected industries because they are duplicate codes or aggregates for which full underlying coverage is 
published:  22, 221, 484, 4841, 4911, 4931, 511, 5111, 515, 5173, 54121, 722, and 72251.

The following NAICS codes are included in Table 2 but not counted in the long-term count of 58 
selected industries because they are duplicate codes or aggregates for which full underlying coverage is 
published:  22, 221, 484, 4841, 4842, 491, 493, 4931, 511, 5111, 515, 5151, 5173, 5412, 54121, 5615, 
6215, 6221,3, 7131, 72, 721, 7211, 722, 72251, 8121, and 8123.

Access productivity data at www.bls.gov/productivity/tables/labor-productivity-detailed-industries.xlsx for

     Additional industries and sectors
     Detailed data series: indexes of productivity and related measures; rates of change; and levels of 
      industry employment, hours worked, nominal value of production, and labor compensation 
     Additional years and long-term data

Subscribe to productivity news releases on the BLS website at 
public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new.

                                       Technical Note

Labor Productivity:  Labor productivity describes the relationship between real output and the 
labor hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period 
in the amount of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity 
measures relate output in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not 
measure the specific contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint effects 
of many influences, including: changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, 
energy, and materials; the use of purchased services inputs, including contract employment 
services; the organization of production; the characteristics and effort of the workforce; 
and managerial skill.

Unit Labor Costs:  Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of 
output. The unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of nominal industry labor 
compensation by an index of real industry output. Unit labor costs also describe the relationship 
between compensation per hour and real output per hour (labor productivity). Increases in hourly 
compensation increase unit labor costs; increases in labor productivity offset compensation 
increases and reduce unit labor costs.

Output:  Real industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the 
various products (in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is 
usually derived by deflating nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for 
some industries it is measured by physical quantities of output. 

Industry output measures are constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and 
annual surveys of the U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
information on price changes from BLS. Other data sources include: the Energy Information 
Administration, U.S. Department of Energy; the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. 
Department of Transportation; the U.S. Postal Service; the Postal Rate Commission; and the 
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Data from the Quarterly Service Survey from the Census 
Bureau are used to construct preliminary output measures for 2021 for some industries. Data from 
both the Census Bureau's Quarterly Service Survey and Monthly Retail Trade Survey are used to 
construct preliminary output measures for 2021 for some industries.

Labor Hours:  Labor hours are measured as annual hours worked by all employed persons in an 
industry. Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey and Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the 
number of total and production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm 
establishments are supplemented with CPS self-employed and unpaid family worker data to 
estimate industry employment. Hours worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS 
employment, CES data on the average weekly hours paid of production workers, CPS data on 
hours of nonproduction, self-employed, and unpaid family workers, and ratios of hours worked to 
hours paid based on data from the National Compensation Survey (NCS). For some industries, 
employment and hours data are supplemented or further disaggregated using data from the BLS 
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Census Bureau, or other sources. 
Additional sources of employment and hours data for certain service industries include the 
Association of American Railroads, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Postal 
Service. Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of workers and then are directly 
aggregated; no adjustments for labor composition are made.

Labor Compensation:  Labor compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a 
measure of the cost to the employer of securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, 
wages, commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in 
kind. Supplemental payments include both legally required expenditures and payments for 
voluntary programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of federal old age and 
survivors' insurance, unemployment compensation, and workers' compensation. Payments for 
voluntary programs include all programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the 
employer portion of private health insurance and pension plans. Industry compensation measures 
are constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Census 
Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. The estimates for 2021 are constructed using data from 
the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). 

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Table 1. Recent labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2021
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2020-2021
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours worked Labor compensation

Utilities

Utilities

22

540.8 2.1 1.1 1.4 -0.7 2.5

Utilities

221

540.8 2.1 1.1 1.4 -0.7 2.5

Power generation and supply

2211

377.7 2.7 -0.3 1.8 -0.9 1.4

Natural gas distribution

2212

109.1 1.0 6.6 -0.3 -1.3 6.3

Water, sewage and other systems

2213

54.0 1.6 -0.3 3.5 1.9 3.2

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

450.1 61.8 -37.2 71.3 5.9 7.6

Line-haul railroads

482111

131.2 3.9 -3.2 2.6 -1.2 -0.7

Truck transportation

484

1,770.5 -0.2 2.5 7.4 7.7 10.1

General freight trucking

4841

1,292.5 -1.1 4.0 7.4 8.6 11.7

General freight trucking, local

48411

363.4 7.1 -7.4 20.0 12.0 11.0

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

929.1 -2.4 6.7 4.7 7.3 11.8

Specialized freight trucking

4842

478.0 2.9 -2.1 8.4 5.3 6.2

Postal service(1)

491

606.0 -3.6 -0.2 -2.3 1.4 -2.5

Postal service(1)

4911

606.0 -3.6 -0.2 -2.3 1.4 -2.5

Couriers and messengers

492

1,228.3 -0.1 15.8 10.4 10.5 27.8

Warehousing and storage

493

1,653.3 -3.1 7.4 12.2 15.8 20.5

Warehousing and storage

4931

1,653.3 -3.1 7.4 12.2 15.8 20.5

Information

Publishing

511

815.0 12.8 1.5 14.4 1.4 16.2

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

271.6 14.5 -10.8 5.3 -8.0 -6.0

Newspaper publishers

51111

113.2 6.9 -5.3 2.4 -4.2 -3.0

Periodical publishers

51112

75.7 13.1 -13.2 3.5 -8.5 -10.2

Software publishers

5112

543.4 9.9 4.3 16.8 6.3 21.8

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

238.8 18.4 -9.5 8.3 -8.5 -2.0

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

192.2 18.0 -8.2 8.3 -8.2 -0.6

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

46.6 20.4 -12.1 8.8 -9.7 -4.3

Wired and wireless telecommunications carriers

5173

587.3 4.3 -2.7 3.4 -0.9 0.6

Wired telecommunications carriers

517311

489.2 0.0 0.4 -0.2 -0.2 0.2

Wireless telecommunications carriers

517312

98.1 13.2 -5.6 7.7 -4.8 1.7

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

1,358.6 11.7 -2.6 9.1 -2.3 6.2

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing

53212

93.0 3.8 0.0 9.3 5.3 9.4

Professional and Technical Services

Accounting and bookkeeping services

5412

1,188.0 6.1 -0.1 9.0 2.7 9.0

Accounting and bookkeeping services

54121

1,188.0 6.1 -0.1 9.0 2.7 9.0

Engineering services

54133

1,070.4 4.6 -3.3 7.8 3.1 4.3

Administrative and Waste Services

Travel arrangement and reservation services

5615

158.7 136.8 -51.6 91.6 -19.1 -7.3

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

6215

325.3 3.7 13.7 15.3 11.2 31.2

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement parks and arcades

7131

164.5 87.4 -44.8 121.7 18.3 22.4

Gambling industries

7132

105.2 8.7 -9.7 37.2 26.2 24.0

Accommodation and Food Services

Food services and drinking places

722

10,847.7 17.0 -6.2 29.3 10.5 21.3

Restaurants and other eating places

72251

9,880.4 14.3 -4.0 27.0 11.1 21.9

Full-service restaurants

722511

4625.3 25.3 -10.4 44.2 15.1 29.2

Limited-service eating places

722513,4,5

5255.1 5.1 1.0 13.3 7.8 14.4

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

1,184.5 -2.8 9.4 4.8 7.8 14.6

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

242.0 5.2 -2.3 3.2 -1.9 0.9

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industries 491 and 4911, average annual percent changes are for the fiscal year ending in September.







Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2020
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 1987-2020
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours worked Labor compensation

Utilities

Utilities

22

542.9 2.0 1.6 1.3 -0.7 2.9

Utilities

221

542.9 2.0 1.6 1.3 -0.7 2.9

Power generation and supply

2211

380.8 2.8 0.8 1.8 -0.9 2.6

Natural gas distribution

2212

109.8 1.0 3.1 0.1 -0.8 3.2

Water, sewage and other systems

2213

52.3 -1.7 4.7 0.6 2.3 5.4

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

455.2 0.4 3.2 -0.1 -0.5 3.1

Line-haul railroads

482111

137.9 3.3 -0.2 1.0 -2.2 0.8

Truck transportation(1)

484

1,695.0 0.9 0.9 2.1 1.2 3.0

General freight trucking(1)

4841

1,227.0 1.4 0.9 2.4 1.1 3.4

General freight trucking, local(1)

48411

335.2 2.8 0.1 3.8 1.0 3.9

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

891.8 1.4 0.5 2.3 0.8 2.8

Specialized freight trucking(2)

4842

468.0 1.1 1.6 1.9 0.7 3.5

Used household and office goods moving

48421

96.2 -0.6 2.7 -0.4 0.2 2.3

Other specialized trucking, local(2)

48422

234.1 0.7 1.9 1.8 1.1 3.8

Other specialized trucking, long-distance(2)

48423

137.7 1.9 1.0 3.2 1.3 4.3

Postal service(3)

491

602.3 0.0 3.1 -0.6 -0.6 2.5

Postal service(3)

4911

602.3 0.0 3.1 -0.6 -0.6 2.5

Couriers and messengers

492

1065.4 -2.6 3.0 1.0 3.7 4.1

Warehousing and storage(1)

493

1,418.2 0.8 1.2 5.6 4.7 6.8

Warehousing and storage(1)

4931

1,418.2 0.8 1.2 5.6 4.7 6.8

General warehousing and storage(1)

49311

1,286.9 1.8 0.5 6.9 5.0 7.4

Refrigerated warehousing and storage(1)

49312

68.3 0.5 1.4 3.3 2.8 4.8

Information

Publishing

511

804.5 4.2 1.4 4.0 -0.2 5.5

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

298.3 0.2 3.9 -2.9 -3.1 0.9

Newspaper publishers

51111

120.3 -0.3 3.8 -4.5 -4.2 -0.9

Periodical publishers

51112

85.0 -0.2 4.5 -2.0 -1.8 2.4

Book publishers

51113

58.6 -0.1 4.5 -1.2 -1.1 3.3

Software publishers

5112

506.2 10.3 -4.9 17.2 6.3 11.4

Motion picture and video exhibition

51213

62.0 -0.1 3.9 -2.5 -2.4 1.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

256.9 3.1 1.3 2.8 -0.3 4.1

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

205.7 2.6 1.0 2.0 -0.6 3.0

Radio broadcasting

51511

75.2 3.9 0.7 2.4 -1.5 3.1

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

51.2 4.8 2.9 5.7 0.8 8.8

Wired and wireless telecommunications carriers

5173

604.2 6.5 -2.7 5.5 -1.0 2.6

Wired telecommunications carriers

517311

500.4 3.7 -0.4 2.2 -1.4 1.8

Wireless telecommunications carriers

517312

103.8 11.8 -6.4 17.1 4.7 9.5

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

1,388.3 2.6 2.4 2.5 -0.1 5.0

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Passenger car rental

532111

94.4 2.1 1.8 1.9 -0.2 3.7

Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing

53212

86.7 2.4 1.0 3.0 0.6 4.1

Video tape and disc rental

532282

5.7 5.3 0.1 -4.5 -9.3 -4.4

Professional and Technical Services

Accounting and bookkeeping services(4)

5412

1,146.5 2.0 1.5 2.6 0.5 4.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services(4)

54121

1,146.5 2.0 1.5 2.6 0.5 4.1

Offices of certified public accountants(4)

541211

502.5 2.0 1.8 3.1 1.1 5.0

Tax preparation services

541213

130.3 0.6 2.5 1.7 1.1 4.2

Other accounting services(4)

541219

350.7 3.4 -0.6 3.3 -0.2 2.6

Architectural services

54131

207.2 1.5 1.6 2.5 1.0 4.2

Engineering services

54133

1,046.0 0.9 2.8 2.6 1.6 5.5

Advertising agencies

54181

212.6 2.3 1.4 2.7 0.4 4.2

Photography studios, portrait

541921

38.8 1.5 0.6 0.9 -0.6 1.5

Veterinary services(5)

54194

425.9 -0.7 3.9 2.1 2.8 6.1

Administrative and Waste Services

Employment placement and executive search(6)

56131

264.6 4.5 -0.1 4.9 0.4 4.7

Travel arrangement and reservation services(4)

5615

188.8 5.5 -1.0 2.5 -2.8 1.5

Travel agencies

56151

80.7 6.5 -1.5 4.3 -2.1 2.7

Janitorial services

56172

1,328.1 2.6 0.8 4.0 1.4 4.9

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories(6)

6215

296.8 2.4 0.2 5.2 2.7 5.4

Medical laboratories(6)

621511

214.3 2.5 -0.1 5.4 2.8 5.4

Diagnostic imaging centers(6)

621512

82.5 2.3 0.8 4.7 2.3 5.5

Hospitals, except psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals(7)

6221,3

5052.2 0.4 3.2 1.8 1.5 5.1

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement parks and arcades(8)

7131

156.1 -1.9 7.9 -5.8 -3.9 1.7

Amusement and theme parks

71311

132.5 -1.2 5.6 -1.0 0.1 4.5

Gambling industries(4)

7132

88.3 2.7 1.6 0.6 -2.1 2.2

Golf courses and country clubs(2)

71391

337.3 -0.9 4.2 -0.8 0.1 3.3

Fitness and recreational sports centers(2)

71394

486.2 3.0 0.3 1.6 -1.4 1.8

Bowling centers

71395

44.9 0.4 3.0 -2.5 -3.0 0.3

Accommodation and Food Services

Accommodation and food services

72

11,588.5 0.7 2.7 1.5 0.8 4.3

Accommodation

721

1,497.7 1.7 2.1 1.3 -0.4 3.4

Traveler accommodation

7211

1,425.6 1.8 2.1 1.3 -0.5 3.4

Hotels and motels, except casino hotels

72111

1,183.2 1.3 2.5 0.7 -0.6 3.2

Food services and drinking places

722

10,090.8 0.5 3.0 1.5 1.0 4.5

Special food services

7223

617.0 0.7 1.9 1.1 0.4 3.0

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

278.5 -0.7 3.6 -1.6 -1.0 1.9

Restaurants and other eating places

72251

9,195.3 0.6 3.1 1.7 1.2 4.9

Full-service restaurants

722511

4,236.6 0.7 3.3 1.4 0.7 4.7

Limited-service eating places

722513,4,5

4,958.7 0.4 2.9 2.0 1.6 5.0

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

1,091.0 1.0 2.1 1.3 0.3 3.4

Reupholstery and furniture repair

81142

19.1 -0.9 3.5 -3.0 -2.0 0.4

Personal care services

8121

1,022.6 2.2 1.5 2.5 0.2 4.0

Hair, nail, and skin care services

81211

836.8 2.0 1.5 2.1 0.1 3.6

Funeral homes and funeral services

81221

104.1 -0.1 3.7 -0.3 -0.2 3.3

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

253.1 2.1 1.4 0.6 -1.5 1.9

Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners

81231

40.5 2.1 2.3 -0.1 -2.2 2.2

Drycleaning and laundry services (except coin-operated)

81232

99.9 0.5 2.2 -2.3 -2.8 -0.1

Linen and uniform supply

81233

112.7 2.5 0.6 2.9 0.3 3.5

Photofinishing

81292

6.9 2.0 1.9 -5.2 -7.0 -3.4

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industries 484, 4841, 48411, 493, 4931, 49311, and 49312, average annual percent changes are for 1992-2020.
(2) For NAICS industries 4842, 48422, 48423, 71391, and 71394, average annual percent changes are for 2002-2020.
(3) For NAICS industries 491 and 4911, average annual percent changes are for the fiscal year ending in September.
(4) For NAICS industries 5412, 54121, 541211, 541219, 5615, and 7132, average annual percent changes are for 1997-2020.
(5) For NAICS industry 54194, average annual percent changes are for 2004-2020.
(6) For NAICS industries 56131, 6215, 621511, and 621512, average annual percent changes are for 1994-2020.
(7) For NAICS industry 6221,3, average annual percent changes are for 1993-2019. Employment is for 2019.
(8) For NAICS industry 7131, average annual percent changes are for 2007-2020.







Table 3. Labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data, 2019-2021
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2021
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 2019-2021
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours worked Labor compensation

Utilities

Utilities

22

540.8 -0.2 3.0 -0.7 -0.6 2.2

Utilities

221

540.8 -0.2 3.0 -0.7 -0.6 2.2

Power generation and supply

2211

377.7 0.5 2.0 -0.4 -0.9 1.6

Natural gas distribution

2212

109.1 -2.4 6.6 -2.4 -0.1 4.0

Water, sewage and other systems

2213

54.0 1.1 1.9 1.8 0.7 3.8

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

450.1 -16.1 14.0 -17.6 -1.8 -6.0

Line-haul railroads

482111

131.2 1.7 0.5 -7.5 -9.0 -7.0

Truck transportation

484

1,770.5 2.1 0.6 3.2 1.0 3.8

General freight trucking

4841

1,292.5 1.9 1.1 3.8 1.9 4.9

General freight trucking, local

48411

363.4 5.9 -4.0 9.6 3.5 5.2

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

929.1 1.2 2.2 2.5 1.3 4.8

Specialized freight trucking

4842

478.0 3.4 -1.3 2.1 -1.3 0.8

Postal service(1)

491

606.0 -1.3 0.2 -0.6 0.7 -0.4

Postal service(1)

4911

606.0 -1.3 0.2 -0.6 0.7 -0.4

Couriers and messengers

492

1,228.3 -6.1 6.6 10.7 17.9 18.0

Warehousing and storage

493

1,653.3 -7.3 13.0 7.2 15.6 21.1

Warehousing and storage

4931

1,653.3 -7.3 13.0 7.2 15.6 21.1

Information

Publishing

511

815.0 7.0 4.0 9.6 2.4 14.0

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

271.6 7.7 -3.3 -1.5 -8.5 -4.8

Newspaper publishers

51111

113.2 5.4 -1.6 -4.7 -9.6 -6.2

Periodical publishers

51112

75.7 3.8 -3.2 -3.6 -7.2 -6.7

Software publishers

5112

543.4 3.4 5.9 12.5 8.8 19.2

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

238.8 15.3 -7.7 4.9 -9.0 -3.1

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

192.2 16.8 -10.5 6.8 -8.6 -4.4

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

46.6 15.7 -3.9 3.3 -10.7 -0.6

Wired and wireless telecommunications carriers

5173

587.3 4.0 -1.8 1.3 -2.7 -0.5

Wired telecommunications carriers

517311

489.2 0.9 0.2 -1.4 -2.2 -1.2

Wireless telecommunications carriers

517312

98.1 9.8 -2.7 4.4 -4.9 1.6

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

1,358.6 3.5 3.7 2.5 -1.0 6.3

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing

53212

93.0 7.6 -0.5 3.5 -3.9 2.9

Professional and Technical Services

Accounting and bookkeeping services

5412

1,188.0 4.6 -0.9 4.9 0.2 3.9

Accounting and bookkeeping services

54121

1,188.0 4.6 -0.9 4.9 0.2 3.9

Engineering services

54133

1,070.4 2.2 0.2 3.3 1.1 3.5

Administrative and Waste Services

Travel arrangement and reservation services

5615

158.7 34.2 -22.1 6.2 -20.9 -17.3

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

6215

325.3 8.1 2.3 12.3 3.9 14.9

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement parks and arcades

7131

164.5 15.6 -6.3 -1.3 -14.6 -7.6

Gambling industries

7132

105.2 10.3 -6.2 2.4 -7.1 -3.9

Accommodation and Food Services

Food services and drinking places

722

10,847.7 8.3 -2.6 2.5 -5.4 -0.2

Restaurants and other eating places

72251

9,880.4 7.7 -1.9 2.9 -4.4 1.0

Full-service restaurants

722511

4625.3 12.4 -5.6 3.3 -8.1 -2.5

Limited-service eating places

722513,4,5

5255.1 3.2 3.0 2.4 -0.8 5.5

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

1,184.5 -3.1 6.7 -1.5 1.7 5.2

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

242.0 6.9 -2.1 -5.3 -11.4 -7.3

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industries 491 and 4911, average annual percent changes are for the fiscal year ending in September.


Last Modified Date: June 30, 2022