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Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data






Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2020
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 1987-2020
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours worked Labor compensation

Utilities

Utilities

22

542.9 2.0 1.6 1.3 -0.7 2.9

Utilities

221

542.9 2.0 1.6 1.3 -0.7 2.9

Power generation and supply

2211

380.8 2.8 0.8 1.8 -0.9 2.6

Natural gas distribution

2212

109.8 1.0 3.1 0.1 -0.8 3.2

Water, sewage and other systems

2213

52.3 -1.7 4.7 0.6 2.3 5.4

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

455.2 0.4 3.2 -0.1 -0.5 3.1

Line-haul railroads

482111

137.9 3.3 -0.2 1.0 -2.2 0.8

Truck transportation(1)

484

1,695.0 0.9 0.9 2.1 1.2 3.0

General freight trucking(1)

4841

1,227.0 1.4 0.9 2.4 1.1 3.4

General freight trucking, local(1)

48411

335.2 2.8 0.1 3.8 1.0 3.9

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

891.8 1.4 0.5 2.3 0.8 2.8

Specialized freight trucking(2)

4842

468.0 1.1 1.6 1.9 0.7 3.5

Used household and office goods moving

48421

96.2 -0.6 2.7 -0.4 0.2 2.3

Other specialized trucking, local(2)

48422

234.1 0.7 1.9 1.8 1.1 3.8

Other specialized trucking, long-distance(2)

48423

137.7 1.9 1.0 3.2 1.3 4.3

Postal service(3)

491

602.3 0.0 3.1 -0.6 -0.6 2.5

Postal service(3)

4911

602.3 0.0 3.1 -0.6 -0.6 2.5

Couriers and messengers

492

1065.4 -2.6 3.0 1.0 3.7 4.1

Warehousing and storage(1)

493

1,418.2 0.8 1.2 5.6 4.7 6.8

Warehousing and storage(1)

4931

1,418.2 0.8 1.2 5.6 4.7 6.8

General warehousing and storage(1)

49311

1,286.9 1.8 0.5 6.9 5.0 7.4

Refrigerated warehousing and storage(1)

49312

68.3 0.5 1.4 3.3 2.8 4.8

Information

Publishing

511

804.5 4.2 1.4 4.0 -0.2 5.5

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

298.3 0.2 3.9 -2.9 -3.1 0.9

Newspaper publishers

51111

120.3 -0.3 3.8 -4.5 -4.2 -0.9

Periodical publishers

51112

85.0 -0.2 4.5 -2.0 -1.8 2.4

Book publishers

51113

58.6 -0.1 4.5 -1.2 -1.1 3.3

Software publishers

5112

506.2 10.3 -4.9 17.2 6.3 11.4

Motion picture and video exhibition

51213

62.0 -0.1 3.9 -2.5 -2.4 1.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

256.9 3.1 1.3 2.8 -0.3 4.1

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

205.7 2.6 1.0 2.0 -0.6 3.0

Radio broadcasting

51511

75.2 3.9 0.7 2.4 -1.5 3.1

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

51.2 4.8 2.9 5.7 0.8 8.8

Wired and wireless telecommunications carriers

5173

604.2 6.5 -2.7 5.5 -1.0 2.6

Wired telecommunications carriers

517311

500.4 3.7 -0.4 2.2 -1.4 1.8

Wireless telecommunications carriers

517312

103.8 11.8 -6.4 17.1 4.7 9.5

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

1,388.3 2.6 2.4 2.5 -0.1 5.0

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Passenger car rental

532111

94.4 2.1 1.8 1.9 -0.2 3.7

Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing

53212

86.7 2.4 1.0 3.0 0.6 4.1

Video tape and disc rental

532282

5.7 5.3 0.1 -4.5 -9.3 -4.4

Professional and Technical Services

Accounting and bookkeeping services(4)

5412

1,146.5 2.0 1.5 2.6 0.5 4.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services(4)

54121

1,146.5 2.0 1.5 2.6 0.5 4.1

Offices of certified public accountants(4)

541211

502.5 2.0 1.8 3.1 1.1 5.0

Tax preparation services

541213

130.3 0.6 2.5 1.7 1.1 4.2

Other accounting services(4)

541219

350.7 3.4 -0.6 3.3 -0.2 2.6

Architectural services

54131

207.2 1.5 1.6 2.5 1.0 4.2

Engineering services

54133

1,046.0 0.9 2.8 2.6 1.6 5.5

Advertising agencies

54181

212.6 2.3 1.4 2.7 0.4 4.2

Photography studios, portrait

541921

38.8 1.5 0.6 0.9 -0.6 1.5

Veterinary services(5)

54194

425.9 -0.7 3.9 2.1 2.8 6.1

Administrative and Waste Services

Employment placement and executive search(6)

56131

264.6 4.5 -0.1 4.9 0.4 4.7

Travel arrangement and reservation services(4)

5615

188.8 5.5 -1.0 2.5 -2.8 1.5

Travel agencies

56151

80.7 6.5 -1.5 4.3 -2.1 2.7

Janitorial services

56172

1,328.1 2.6 0.8 4.0 1.4 4.9

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories(6)

6215

296.8 2.4 0.2 5.2 2.7 5.4

Medical laboratories(6)

621511

214.3 2.5 -0.1 5.4 2.8 5.4

Diagnostic imaging centers(6)

621512

82.5 2.3 0.8 4.7 2.3 5.5

Hospitals, except psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals(7)

6221,3

5052.2 0.4 3.2 1.8 1.5 5.1

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement parks and arcades(8)

7131

156.1 -1.9 7.9 -5.8 -3.9 1.7

Amusement and theme parks

71311

132.5 -1.2 5.6 -1.0 0.1 4.5

Gambling industries(4)

7132

88.3 2.7 1.6 0.6 -2.1 2.2

Golf courses and country clubs(2)

71391

337.3 -0.9 4.2 -0.8 0.1 3.3

Fitness and recreational sports centers(2)

71394

486.2 3.0 0.3 1.6 -1.4 1.8

Bowling centers

71395

44.9 0.4 3.0 -2.5 -3.0 0.3

Accommodation and Food Services

Accommodation and food services

72

11,588.5 0.7 2.7 1.5 0.8 4.3

Accommodation

721

1,497.7 1.7 2.1 1.3 -0.4 3.4

Traveler accommodation

7211

1,425.6 1.8 2.1 1.3 -0.5 3.4

Hotels and motels, except casino hotels

72111

1,183.2 1.3 2.5 0.7 -0.6 3.2

Food services and drinking places

722

10,090.8 0.5 3.0 1.5 1.0 4.5

Special food services

7223

617.0 0.7 1.9 1.1 0.4 3.0

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

278.5 -0.7 3.6 -1.6 -1.0 1.9

Restaurants and other eating places

72251

9,195.3 0.6 3.1 1.7 1.2 4.9

Full-service restaurants

722511

4,236.6 0.7 3.3 1.4 0.7 4.7

Limited-service eating places

722513,4,5

4,958.7 0.4 2.9 2.0 1.6 5.0

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

1,091.0 1.0 2.1 1.3 0.3 3.4

Reupholstery and furniture repair

81142

19.1 -0.9 3.5 -3.0 -2.0 0.4

Personal care services

8121

1,022.6 2.2 1.5 2.5 0.2 4.0

Hair, nail, and skin care services

81211

836.8 2.0 1.5 2.1 0.1 3.6

Funeral homes and funeral services

81221

104.1 -0.1 3.7 -0.3 -0.2 3.3

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

253.1 2.1 1.4 0.6 -1.5 1.9

Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners

81231

40.5 2.1 2.3 -0.1 -2.2 2.2

Drycleaning and laundry services (except coin-operated)

81232

99.9 0.5 2.2 -2.3 -2.8 -0.1

Linen and uniform supply

81233

112.7 2.5 0.6 2.9 0.3 3.5

Photofinishing

81292

6.9 2.0 1.9 -5.2 -7.0 -3.4

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industries 484, 4841, 48411, 493, 4931, 49311, and 49312, average annual percent changes are for 1992-2020.
(2) For NAICS industries 4842, 48422, 48423, 71391, and 71394, average annual percent changes are for 2002-2020.
(3) For NAICS industries 491 and 4911, average annual percent changes are for the fiscal year ending in September.
(4) For NAICS industries 5412, 54121, 541211, 541219, 5615, and 7132, average annual percent changes are for 1997-2020.
(5) For NAICS industry 54194, average annual percent changes are for 2004-2020.
(6) For NAICS industries 56131, 6215, 621511, and 621512, average annual percent changes are for 1994-2020.
(7) For NAICS industry 6221,3, average annual percent changes are for 1993-2019. Employment is for 2019.
(8) For NAICS industry 7131, average annual percent changes are for 2007-2020.

Last Modified Date: June 30, 2022