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Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data






Table 2. Long run labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2018
Employment
(thousands)
Average annual percent change, 1987-2018
Labor productivity Unit labor costs Output Hours worked Labor compensation

Utilities

Utilities

22

553.4 2.2 1.4 1.5 -0.7 2.9

Utilities

221

553.4 2.2 1.4 1.5 -0.7 2.9

Power generation and supply

2211

391.4 2.9 0.7 2.1 -0.9 2.7

Natural gas distribution

2212

109.8 1.2 3.1 0.1 -1.1 3.2

Water, sewage and other systems

2213

52.2 -1.7 4.6 0.8 2.5 5.4

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

481.6 3.1 0.9 2.8 -0.3 3.7

Line-haul railroads

482111

166.2 3.5 -0.4 1.8 -1.6 1.4

Truck transportation(1)

484

1,708.3 0.6 1.1 2.0 1.1 3.2

General freight trucking(1)

4841

1,228.6 1.1 1.2 2.4 0.9 3.6

General freight trucking, local(1)

48411

326.7 2.5 0.3 3.7 0.8 4.0

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

901.9 1.3 0.6 2.3 1.0 2.9

Specialized freight trucking(2)

4842

479.7 0.7 2.1 1.9 1.5 4.1

Used household and office goods moving

48421

101.4 -0.6 2.6 -0.1 0.5 2.5

Other specialized trucking, local(2)

48422

237.6 0.3 2.6 1.8 1.6 4.4

Other specialized trucking, long-distance(2)

48423

140.7 1.2 1.7 3.1 2.0 4.9

Postal service

491

608.5 0.4 2.9 -0.6 -1.0 2.3

Postal service

4911

608.5 0.4 2.9 -0.6 -1.0 2.3

Couriers and messengers

492

771.2 -2.0 3.3 0.7 2.7 4.0

Warehousing and storage(1)

493

1,142.6 1.0 0.6 5.4 3.8 6.1

Warehousing and storage(1)

4931

1,142.6 1.0 0.6 5.4 3.8 6.1

General warehousing and storage(1)

49311

1,017.3 2.0 -0.1 6.7 4.0 6.6

Refrigerated warehousing and storage(1)

49312

64.5 -0.3 1.7 2.8 2.9 4.6

Information

Publishing

511

767.8 3.8 1.7 3.5 -0.4 5.2

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

350.1 0.2 4.0 -2.6 -2.8 1.2

Newspaper publishers

51111

152.4 -0.5 3.8 -4.2 -3.8 -0.6

Periodical publishers

51112

95.4 -0.3 4.8 -1.7 -1.5 3.0

Book publishers

51113

64.5 -0.2 4.7 -1.1 -0.9 3.6

Software publishers

5112

417.7 10.4 -5.0 17.1 6.0 11.2

Motion picture and video exhibition

51213

152.2 1.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 4.0

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

275.6 3.0 1.5 2.9 -0.1 4.4

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

221.2 2.2 1.5 1.9 -0.4 3.4

Radio broadcasting

51511

85.2 3.7 1.2 2.4 -1.2 3.7

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

54.4 5.0 2.6 6.3 1.2 9.0

Wired and wireless telecommunications carriers

5173

666.4 6.6 -3.0 5.8 -0.7 2.7

Wired telecommunications carriers

517311

551.7 3.6 -0.5 2.4 -1.2 1.9

Wireless telecommunications carriers

517312

114.7 12.1 -7.0 18.2 5.5 9.9

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

1,381.4 3.0 2.0 2.9 -0.1 5.0

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Passenger car rental

532111

124.5 2.2 1.6 3.1 0.9 4.7

Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing

53212

84.8 2.2 1.1 3.0 0.8 4.1

Video tape and disc rental

532282

10.5 5.1 -0.8 -2.7 -7.5 -3.5

Professional and Technical Services

Accounting and bookkeeping services(3)

5412

1,162.3 2.4 1.4 3.0 1.0 4.4

Accounting and bookkeeping services(3)

54121

1,162.3 2.4 1.4 3.0 1.0 4.4

Offices of certified public accountants(3)

541211

492.8 2.0 2.0 3.1 1.4 5.2

Tax preparation services

541213

135.1 0.7 2.3 2.0 1.3 4.3

Other accounting services(3)

541219

360.6 4.4 -1.4 4.4 0.5 3.0

Architectural services

54131

211.6 1.6 1.7 2.7 1.1 4.4

Engineering services

54133

1,014.7 1.1 2.8 2.7 1.6 5.6

Advertising agencies

54181

229.3 2.2 1.6 2.9 0.7 4.6

Photography studios, portrait

541921

53.6 0.7 1.3 1.3 0.6 2.6

Veterinary services(4)

54194

407.4 -0.9 4.2 1.8 2.7 6.1

Administrative and Waste Services

Employment placement and executive search(5)

56131

303.8 4.7 -0.5 5.8 1.6 5.3

Travel arrangement and reservation services(3)

5615

245.6 6.3 -1.3 4.3 -0.3 2.9

Travel agencies

56151

107.6 6.0 -1.1 4.9 -1.1 3.7

Janitorial services

56172

1,408.6 2.0 1.4 3.7 1.6 5.1

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories(5)

6215

287.9 1.9 0.6 4.9 3.2 5.5

Medical laboratories(5)

621511

205.6 1.9 0.5 4.9 3.3 5.4

Diagnostic imaging centers(5)

621512

82.3 2.0 1.1 4.7 3.0 5.8

Hospitals, except psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals(6)

6221,3

4,886.1 0.5 3.2 2.0 1.5 5.3

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement parks and arcades(7)

7131

215.3 0.4 5.0 -0.1 1.8 4.9

Amusement and theme parks

71311

185.4 0.1 4.0 1.9 1.7 5.9

Gambling industries(3)

7132

126.2 3.0 1.3 2.7 4.6 4.0

Golf courses and country clubs(2)

71391

391.4 -1.0 4.1 0.0 2.9 4.1

Fitness and recreational sports centers(2)

71394

674.0 3.3 -0.3 4.1 2.6 3.8

Bowling centers

71395

70.9 0.8 2.6 -0.9 -1.6 1.7

Accommodation and Food Services

Accommodation and food services

72

14,176.1 0.8 2.7 2.4 1.6 5.1

Accommodation

721

2,060.7 1.9 1.8 2.7 0.8 4.6

Traveler accommodation

7211

1,969.0 1.9 1.8 2.7 0.8 4.6

Hotels and motels, except casino hotels

72111

1,655.3 1.4 2.5 2.2 0.8 4.7

Food services and drinking places

722

12,115.4 0.5 3.0 2.2 1.7 5.3

Special food services

7223

869.7 0.9 1.7 2.3 1.4 4.0

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

408.1 -0.3 3.0 0.0 0.3 3.0

Restaurants and other eating places

72251

10,837.6 0.5 3.2 2.4 1.9 5.6

Full-service restaurants

722511

5,534.5 0.6 3.6 2.3 1.7 5.9

Limited-service eating places

722513,4,5

5,303.1 0.4 2.8 2.4 2.0 5.2

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

1,173.3 1.0 2.3 1.5 0.5 3.8

Reupholstery and furniture repair

81142

19.5 -0.8 3.6 -2.8 -2.0 0.8

Personal care services

8121

1,301.5 2.2 1.7 3.5 1.3 5.3

Hair, nail, and skin care services

81211

1,061.8 2.0 1.8 3.1 1.1 4.9

Funeral homes and funeral services

81221

111.4 -0.4 4.0 -0.4 0.1 3.6

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

310.3 2.2 1.4 1.2 -1.0 2.6

Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners

81231

42.8 2.9 1.9 0.5 -2.3 2.4

Drycleaning and laundry services

81232

134.6 0.8 2.2 -1.2 -2.0 0.9

Linen and uniform supply

81233

132.9 2.5 0.8 3.3 0.8 4.1

Photofinishing

81292

10.0 3.0 1.7 -3.9 -6.7 -2.3

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industries 484, 4841, 48411, 493, 4931, 49311, and 49312, average annual percent changes are for 1992-2018.
(2) For NAICS industries 4842, 48422, 48423, 71391, and 71394, average annual percent changes are for 2002-2018.
(3) For NAICS industries 5412, 54121, 541211, 541219, 5615, and 7132, average annual percent changes are for 1997-2018.
(4) For NAICS industry 54194, average annual percent changes are for 2004-2018.
(5) For NAICS industries 56131, 6215, 621511, and 621512, average annual percent changes are for 1994-2018.
(6) For NAICS industry 6221,3, average annual percent changes are for 1993-2016. Employment is for 2016.
(7) For NAICS industry 7131, average annual percent changes are for 2007-2018.

Table of Contents

Last Modified Date: May 28, 2020