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Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Thursday, August 27, 2020
USDL-20-1619

Technical Information:	(202) 691-5606  •  productivity@bls.gov •  www.bls.gov/mfp 
Media Contact:	(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS FOR DETAILED INDUSTRIES -- 2018


Multifactor productivity--defined as output per unit of combined inputs--rose in 44 of the 86 
manufacturing industries measured in 2018, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This was 
up from 2017, when multifactor productivity increased in 32 manufacturing industries. Multifactor 
productivity rose in both of the transportation industries measured in 2018, just as in 2017.
 
Of the 12 manufacturing industries with employment of over 325,000, multifactor productivity increased the most in medical equipment and supplies (+5.8 
percent), as output increased while combined inputs was unchanged. Output growth occurred in all but 1 
of the 12 industries. In the remaining industry, bakeries and tortilla products, combined inputs was flat, 
leading to a decline in multifactor productivity. In architectural and structural metals, multifactor 
productivity declined due to growth in combined inputs that outpaced growth in output.

Among all 86 manufacturing industries, 5 industries posted multifactor productivity gains greater than 
7.0 percent: 
     • Turbine and power transmission equipment (+11.8 percent)
     • Electric lighting equipment (+9.9 percent)
     • Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery (+9.4 percent)
     • Rubber products (+9.4 percent)
     • Leather and hide tanning and finishing (+7.4 percent)

Multifactor productivity declined by 5.0 percent or more in 5 manufacturing industries in 2018. The 
largest productivity decline occurred in plywood and engineered wood products (-8.3 percent). 

Multifactor productivity increased in the two measured transportation industries: 
     • Air transportation (+3.0 percent)
     • Line-haul railroads (+0.5 percent)

Multifactor Productivity: Definition and Concepts

Changes in multifactor productivity show the relationship between changes in real output and changes in 
the combined inputs of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases (energy, materials, and purchased 
services) used in producing that output. Multifactor productivity is also known as total factor 
productivity.

A variety of factors that influence economic growth are not specifically accounted for among measured 
inputs, including: technological change, returns to scale, enhancements in managerial and staff skills, 
changes in the organization of production, and other efficiency improvements. Multifactor productivity 
reflects these factors. More information is available in the technical note.

Components of Multifactor Productivity Growth: Output and Combined Inputs

In 2018, output increased in 55 of 86 manufacturing industries, compared to 44 industries in 2017. Output increased by 10.0 percent or more in the following 5 industries in 2018:
     • Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery (+19.2 percent)
     • Turbine and power transmission equipment (+18.7 percent) 
     • Electrical equipment (+12.7 percent)
     • Electric lighting equipment (+10.3 percent)
     • Steel products from purchased steel (+10.1 percent)

Combined inputs of capital, labor, and intermediate purchases rose in 52 of 86 manufacturing 
industries in 2018, compared to 57 industries in 2017. Over two-thirds of the manufacturing industries 
saw growth in hours worked (59 industries) while fewer industries had growth in capital services (37 
industries) and intermediate purchases (46 industries).

The following industries had the largest increases in combined inputs in 2018:
     • Steel products from purchased steel (+12.7 percent)
     • Ship and boat building (+9.1 percent)
     • Alumina and aluminum production (+9.1 percent)
     • Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery (+8.9 percent) 
     • Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys (+8.7 percent)

In 3 manufacturing industries, multifactor productivity rose more than 3.0 percent despite falling 
output, as combined inputs fell more rapidly. This occurred in: 
     • Leather and hide tanning and finishing (+7.4 percent)
     • Computer and peripheral equipment (+6.9 percent)
     • Other furniture related products (+3.3 percent)

In the air transportation industry, output increased 5.1 percent and combined inputs increased 2.1 
percent in 2018. In line-haul railroads, output rose 3.1 percent and combined inputs increased 2.6 
percent.

Trends in Multifactor Productivity for Selected Time Periods

Year-to-year movements and long-term trends in industry multifactor productivity may reflect cyclical 
changes in the economy. However, long-term average annual percent changes in multifactor 
productivity are more reliable indicators of historical trends in industry performance.

More industries saw multifactor productivity growth over the long term than the short term. Over the 
long term period from 1987 to 2018, multifactor productivity grew in 62 manufacturing industries, 
compared to only 44 from 2017 to 2018. Average annual rates of change in 
multifactor productivity for nearly all manufacturing industries ranged between -2.0 percent and 2.0 
percent over the long term. 

In contrast, multifactor productivity declined by 2.0 percent or more in 22 industries in 2018. No 
industry saw an average annual decline of that magnitude from 1987 to 2018.

Between 1987 and 2018, the number of manufacturing industries with growth in multifactor productivity 
was highest in 1992, 2003, and 2010. These were years of economic growth following recessions. In 
contrast, relatively few manufacturing industries saw multifactor productivity growth in the recession 
years of 2001 and 2009. 

Table 3 details the average annual percent changes in multifactor productivity by industry for sub 
periods between 1987 and 2018. The sub period from 1990 to 1995 had the greatest number of 
manufacturing industries with multifactor productivity growth.

From 1987 to 2018, multifactor productivity rose in both air transportation and line-haul railroads by an 
average annual rate of 1.2 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively. While both industries posted gains in 
output, productivity grew more in line-haul railroads because its combined inputs showed little change 
over the long term.

Multifactor Productivity as a Source of Labor Productivity Growth

Multifactor productivity measures differ from the BLS labor productivity measures because they 
compare output to the combined inputs of hours worked, capital, and intermediate purchases. Labor 
productivity relates output only to hours worked. Mathematically, an industry’s labor productivity is 
equal to multifactor productivity plus the effects of factor substitution; that is, the combined effects of 
changes in weighted capital services relative to hours worked and weighted intermediate purchases 
relative to hours worked. These factor substitutions are referred to as contribution of capital intensity 
and contribution of intermediate purchases intensity.
 
Eighty out of the 86 manufacturing industries posted gains in labor productivity from 1987 to 2018. 
Among these industries, substitution of intermediate purchases for labor was the leading source of labor 
productivity growth. Growth in the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity occurs 
when firms purchase a greater share of materials instead of using their own labor. Contribution of 
intermediate purchases intensity may also rise when firms substitute contracted labor for payroll labor.
 
Between 2000 and 2007, multifactor productivity growth was the predominant source of labor 
productivity growth in many of the manufacturing industries. In contrast, labor productivity growth was 
driven mostly by contribution of intermediate purchases intensity in the other two sub periods.

Strong growth in multifactor productivity was the dominant source of labor productivity growth in the 
industries that manufacture computers and electronic products (computer and peripheral equipment, 
semiconductors and electronic components). Labor productivity growth in household appliances, motor 
vehicle parts, and audio and video equipment was also primarily driven by multifactor productivity 
growth. The remaining manufacturing industries with high average annual growth in labor productivity 
were mostly fueled by the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity.

Additional Information

Time periods for data covered by this release precede, and are therefore not impacted by, the COVID-19 
pandemic.
Access the productivity data dashboard at www.bls.gov/mfp/mfp_by_industry_dashboard.xlsx for
     • Detailed data series: indexes of multifactor productivity and related measures
     • Additional years, annual rates of change, and long-term data
More information from the BLS productivity program is available at www.bls.gov/mfp.
     • More detailed capital and intermediate purchases data available upon request
Subscribe to productivity news releases on the BLS website at 
https://subscriptions.bls.gov/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new.
Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice 
phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.


 

Technical Note

Multifactor Productivity:  Multifactor productivity measures are derived by dividing an index of real 
industry output by an index of the combined inputs of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases. The 
multifactor productivity indexes do not measure the specific contributions of capital, labor, and 
intermediate inputs. Rather, they reflect the joint influences on economic growth of a number of factors 
that are not specifically accounted for on the input side, including technological change, returns to scale, 
improved skills of the workforce, better management techniques, or other efficiency improvements.

Output:  Manufacturing industry output is measured as annual sectoral output, the total value, in real 
terms, of goods and services produced for sale outside the industry. Industry value of production is 
derived by adjusting industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-industry 
transfers and resales. For most manufacturing industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal 
value of production, but for some industries physical quantities of output are measured. For air 
transportation and line-haul railroads, output is measured by aggregating passenger-miles and freight 
ton-miles with weights based on revenues or operating expenses.
  
Output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using data primarily from the economic 
censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
information on price changes chiefly from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Output measures for air 
transportation and line-haul railroads are constructed using data primarily from the Bureau of 
Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the Surface Transportation Board (STB), both in the U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), together with information from the Association of American 
Railroads (AAR), AMTRAK, and several other sources.
  
Combined Inputs:  The index of combined inputs is a Törnqvist index of separate quantity indexes of 
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases (including fuels, electricity, materials, and purchased 
services). The annual growth rates of the various inputs are aggregated using their relative cost shares as 
weights. The labor weight is based on labor compensation, including fringe benefits. The weight for 
intermediate purchases is based on the total cost of materials, fuels, electricity, and purchased services. 
The capital weight is based on total capital cost, which is calculated as the value of sectoral production 
minus the costs of labor compensation and intermediate purchases.

Capital Input:  Capital input reflects the flow of services derived from the stock of physical assets. 
Capital services are estimated by calculating productive capital stocks and are assumed to be 
proportional to changes in these capital stocks for each asset. The capital index is a Törnqvist index of 
separate quantity indexes of equipment, structures, inventories, and land. 

For manufacturing industries, physical capital is comprised of 24 categories of equipment, 10 categories 
of structures, 3 categories of inventories, and land. Measures of total capital services for each industry 
are estimated by aggregating the capital stocks of individual asset types. Estimates of investment by 
asset type for each industry are derived using annual capital expenditures for detailed industries from the 
economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census. Additional annual investment data 
comes from the fixed asset accounts from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Manufacturing 
capital investment for 2017 and 2018 is based on growth rates from the Annual Capital Expenditures 
Survey from the Bureau of the Census.

Annual investment data is supplemented with the 1997 benchmark capital flow table from the BEA as 
well as the 2008 and 2012 Annual Capital Expenditures Survey from the Bureau of the Census. Price 
changes are removed from the annual investment data before calculating stocks. Price deflators for each 
asset category are constructed by combining detailed price indexes (mostly BLS Producer Price Indexes) 
with weights that reflect each industry’s use of individual asset commodities.

The capital stocks for the different assets are combined using weights based on estimated annual rental 
prices for each asset type, averaged between two time periods. Each rental price reflects the nominal rate 
of return to all assets within the industry and the rates of economic depreciation and revaluation of the 
specific asset. Rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. 

For air transportation, a weighted index combining 23 categories of airframes and 21 categories of 
engines is derived from annual carrier operating inventories reported to BTS. For assets other than 
airframes and engines, capital stocks are calculated similarly to manufacturing industries. For these 
assets, a more detailed breakdown of annual expenditures on equipment and structures from the BEA is 
used. Inventories of parts and supplies are also included; the current dollar series is deflated with a 
weighted cost index based on data from Airlines for America (A4A) and BTS. Indexes for aircraft and 
engines, non-aircraft assets, and parts and supplies inventories are aggregated using cost share weights 
to derive an overall measure of capital input.

For line-haul railroads, current dollar investment for 10 categories of equipment and 13 categories of 
structures, obtained from STB and AMTRAK, are deflated with BLS PPIs and deflators based on BEA 
data. The capital stocks for each of the items are calculated similarly to manufacturing industries. 
Inventories of materials and supplies are also included. Estimates of investments in land from STB and 
AMTRAK were deflated with price indexes from BEA.
  
Labor Input:  For manufacturing industries, labor hours are measured as annual hours worked by all 
employed persons in an industry. Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS 
Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey and the Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the 
number of total and production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments 
are supplemented with CPS data on self-employed and unpaid family workers to estimate industry 
employment. Hours worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on the 
average weekly hours paid of production workers, CPS data on hours of nonproduction, self-employed, 
and unpaid family workers, and ratios of hours worked to hours paid based on data from the National 
Compensation Survey (NCS). For some industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or 
further disaggregated using data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), 
the Census Bureau, or other sources. Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of 
workers and then are directly aggregated; no adjustments for labor composition are made.
 
For air transportation, annual labor input estimates are based on monthly employment data from BTS 
supplemented by employment and hours from the CES program and hours from the CPS. For line-haul 
railroads, labor input measures are derived primarily from STB data and supplemented with data from 
AAR. For the railroad industry, the labor input measure includes an adjustment to remove capitalized 
labor hours in order to avoid double-counting because some capitalized labor costs are embedded in the 
railroad investment data.

Intermediate Purchases Input:  The index of intermediate purchases is a Törnqvist index of separate 
quantities of materials, purchased services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each industry. Except for 
electricity consumed by manufacturing industries, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities are 
derived by deflating current dollar values with appropriate price deflators.
 
For manufacturing industries, nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity, along with quantities of 
electricity consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Bureau of the Census. To avoid double counting, an adjustment is made to the materials estimates to 
exclude the value of intra-industry commodity transfers. Purchased business services are estimated using 
annual industry data and benchmark input-output tables from BEA.  

Constant dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current dollar industry purchases by 
a weighted price deflator for each industry. Aggregate materials deflators are constructed for each industry 
by combining producer price indexes and import price indexes from BLS for detailed commodities.  The 
deflators are combined using weights based on detailed commodity data from the BEA benchmark input-
output tables. Aggregate price indexes to deflate purchased business services are constructed in a similar 
manner using consumer price indexes (CPIs), PPIs, and deflators developed by BEA. The value of fuels 
consumed by each industry is deflated with a weighted price deflator based on PPIs for individual fuel 
categories; the weights reflect fuel expenditures by industry from the Energy Information 
Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy.

For air transportation, detailed cost of materials, services, fuels, and electricity from the BTS are 
deflated using cost indexes from A4A. For line-haul railroads, intermediate purchases data from STB are 
supplemented with data from other sources including AAR and AMTRAK. The nominal values are 
deflated with producer price indexes from BLS and implicit price deflators calculated from BEA 
investment data.

Labor Productivity:  Labor productivity describes the relationship between real output and the labor 
hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period in the amount 
of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity measures relate output 
in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not measure the specific 
contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, 
including: changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the 
use of purchased services inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of 
production; the characteristics and effort of the workforce; and managerial skill.

Contributions to Labor Productivity:

Contribution of Capital Intensity:  Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours 
worked in the production process. Multiplying the change in capital intensity times capital’s 
share of combined inputs yields the contribution of capital intensity. 

Contribution of Intermediate Purchases Intensity: Intermediate purchases intensity is the 
ratio of intermediate purchases to hours worked in the production process. Multiplying the 
change in intermediate purchases intensity times intermediate purchases’ share of combined 
inputs yields the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity.

When positive, both the contribution of capital intensity and the contribution of intermediate 
purchases intensity represent sources of labor productivity growth. These statistics represent 
factor substitution in the production process. In other words, positive change in the contribution 
of capital intensity indicates that labor productivity growth is being achieved in part through the 
substitution of capital for labor. Likewise, positive change in the contribution of intermediate 
purchases intensity indicates that labor productivity growth is being achieved in part through the 
substitution of intermediate purchases for labor.

Over a given time period, the average logarithmic growth rate of labor productivity will equal the 
sum of the average logarithmic growth rates of the contribution of capital intensity, the 
contribution of intermediate purchases intensity, and multifactor productivity. However, because 
both output and input data are expressed annually, average annual (as opposed to logarithmic) 
rates of change are calculated. Therefore, the sum of growth rates of multifactor productivity, the 
contribution of capital intensity, and the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity may not 
precisely equal the rate of change of labor productivity.





Table 1. Recent multifactor productivity and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code 2018
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2017-2018
Multifactor productivity Output Combined
inputs
Hours worked Capital Intermediate
purchases

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

63.5 -3.3 -2.1 1.3 4.0 2.1 0.8

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

60.7 -3.4 -2.2 1.3 -1.1 -2.6 2.4

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

78.6 -0.4 -0.5 -0.1 4.7 -1.7 -0.8

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

175.1 3.4 1.1 -2.3 -0.3 -0.8 -3.5

Dairy products

3115

151.2 1.7 3.6 1.9 5.3 2.2 1.3

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

527.2 4.9 4.6 -0.3 1.7 1.9 -1.3

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

36.7 -4.1 -4.1 0.0 -1.1 1.4 0.0

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

346.9 -1.4 -1.5 0.0 5.0 0.0 -1.9

Other food products

3119

228.1 -1.5 -1.4 0.1 2.6 1.4 -1.1

Beverages

3121

263.7 -1.2 -0.3 0.9 6.2 0.6 -0.2

Tobacco

3122

11.4 -2.1 -5.3 -3.3 -5.5 -2.8 -4.9

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

29.2 -5.8 -7.4 -1.6 10.4 -4.7 -3.5

Fabric mills

3132

55.4 1.1 -0.5 -1.6 0.2 -4.4 -1.5

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

32.0 -1.6 0.7 2.3 10.8 -3.9 0.3

Textile furnishings mills

3141

55.3 -2.6 -6.4 -3.9 -0.8 -2.4 -5.2

Other textile product mills

3149

71.2 1.7 2.3 0.6 -7.9 -2.0 5.7

Apparel knitting mills

3151

11.3 1.8 -5.5 -7.2 1.1 -6.4 -13.2

Cut and sew apparel

3152

103.3 -3.3 -5.3 -2.1 -5.5 -4.4 0.7

Accessories and other apparel

3159

12.8 -3.9 3.3 7.5 1.1 -4.2 11.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

4.7 7.4 -8.7 -14.9 -10.3 -1.5 -17.4

Footwear

3162

12.9 -2.9 -1.7 1.3 -0.5 -3.9 2.5

Other leather products

3169

13.0 0.7 -2.2 -2.8 -4.5 -4.3 -1.2

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

104.0 -1.5 1.9 3.4 8.5 3.1 2.3

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

81.6 -8.3 -5.9 2.7 2.5 2.1 2.9

Other wood products

3219

252.7 1.2 3.3 2.1 1.9 1.2 2.3

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

96.3 -0.5 -2.1 -1.6 2.5 -1.0 -3.0

Converted paper products

3222

272.0 -0.1 1.6 1.8 1.2 1.5 1.9

Printing and related support activities

3231

450.5 4.6 2.6 -1.9 -3.1 -3.2 -0.8

Petroleum and coal products

3241

116.7 -2.6 1.9 4.6 4.8 -2.0 5.5

Basic chemicals

3251

151.5 -0.3 0.2 0.4 0.9 2.0 -0.3

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

95.6 4.0 2.5 -1.5 -1.4 4.4 -3.1

Agricultural chemicals

3253

36.1 -3.8 -2.2 1.6 -1.0 2.2 1.8

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

297.9 -4.9 -10.6 -6.0 3.0 -1.5 -16.1

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

64.4 -0.3 -2.4 -2.1 1.6 0.5 -4.0

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

122.7 1.1 1.9 0.8 6.3 0.7 -0.5

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

84.0 -2.0 -1.4 0.6 -0.8 1.6 0.6

Plastics products

3261

593.5 0.7 0.9 0.1 0.9 0.4 -0.3

Rubber products

3262

139.0 9.4 9.9 0.5 0.9 0.1 0.5

Clay products and refractories

3271

42.4 -0.6 -1.4 -0.8 -4.0 -0.7 1.0

Glass and glass products

3272

88.2 -0.3 2.3 2.6 6.5 0.0 1.7

Cement and concrete products

3273

197.5 0.5 0.1 -0.4 0.5 0.0 -1.0

Lime and gypsum products

3274

16.2 -3.3 -4.4 -1.1 11.1 0.4 -5.3

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

82.0 -1.9 -1.4 0.6 7.9 1.4 -3.0

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

84.2 -4.8 3.5 8.7 7.2 -0.2 11.7

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

58.1 -2.3 10.1 12.7 7.8 2.6 16.3

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

59.1 -5.5 3.1 9.1 7.1 -0.1 11.9

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

60.7 -2.3 2.5 4.9 6.4 -1.6 6.7

Foundries

3315

120.0 -1.1 3.5 4.6 4.9 -1.1 6.8

Forging and stamping

3321

99.9 3.9 7.3 3.3 -0.1 2.1 5.0

Cutlery and handtools

3322

39.2 -1.4 3.3 4.8 11.5 -1.0 4.4

Architectural and structural metals

3323

396.2 -1.0 2.1 3.0 3.6 0.5 3.5

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

92.1 4.0 3.2 -0.8 -1.2 0.5 -0.9

Hardware

3325

25.8 3.9 8.2 4.1 3.1 -1.0 6.1

Spring and wire products

3326

43.8 1.7 2.9 1.2 0.4 0.2 1.9

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

373.1 4.5 8.2 3.5 4.2 2.1 3.5

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

140.3 3.5 5.6 2.1 4.1 1.3 1.3

Other fabricated metal products

3329

282.2 1.6 4.0 2.3 0.5 -0.7 4.5

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

218.4 9.4 19.2 8.9 4.5 -1.7 12.7

Industrial machinery

3332

121.1 2.2 7.7 5.4 0.6 -2.3 10.3

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

94.6 2.5 2.1 -0.4 4.5 -2.6 -1.9

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

134.0 1.2 -1.3 -2.4 -0.3 -0.9 -3.9

Metalworking machinery

3335

184.7 3.1 3.1 0.0 1.9 -1.2 -1.0

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

98.3 11.8 18.7 6.1 0.7 -0.1 9.6

Other general purpose machinery

3339

274.0 2.9 7.5 4.5 3.0 0.7 6.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

156.8 6.9 -4.3 -10.5 -3.3 -2.6 -12.6

Communications equipment

3342

85.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.8 -4.3 -0.2

Audio and video equipment

3343

20.5 1.3 4.9 3.5 1.6 -5.2 5.5

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

370.8 2.0 5.2 3.2 0.8 0.2 4.7

Electronic instruments

3345

411.7 2.6 8.0 5.3 0.0 0.3 10.3

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

13.6 -0.1 -4.3 -4.1 -8.9 -6.3 -1.1

Electric lighting equipment

3351

48.8 9.9 10.3 0.4 -8.4 0.7 4.7

Household appliances

3352

63.8 2.4 0.9 -1.5 -3.2 0.0 -1.8

Electrical equipment

3353

142.1 6.4 12.7 5.9 2.3 -0.8 10.3

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

147.7 -1.6 -1.7 0.0 3.6 0.2 -1.5

Motor vehicles

3361

234.1 -0.1 3.4 3.6 8.1 -2.9 4.3

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

166.8 -3.2 2.3 5.7 7.4 0.8 5.8

Motor vehicle parts

3363

604.6 2.1 3.0 0.9 1.9 -2.1 1.0

Aerospace products and parts

3364

512.0 4.6 5.8 1.1 5.1 1.6 -1.4

Railroad rolling stock

3365

23.1 -6.1 -19.0 -13.8 4.6 -1.1 -20.2

Ship and boat building

3366

141.1 -5.7 2.9 9.1 -0.4 -0.4 20.0

Other transportation equipment

3369

34.9 -0.2 5.8 6.0 -4.9 0.7 11.0

Household and institutional furniture

3371

270.3 4.2 2.9 -1.3 1.2 -1.1 -2.7

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

114.7 4.2 6.6 2.3 1.8 1.8 2.9

Other furniture related products

3379

37.0 3.3 -11.7 -14.5 -10.9 -2.2 -17.6

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

325.2 5.8 5.8 0.0 -0.7 2.0 -0.9

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

333.6 2.5 2.3 -0.3 0.7 -1.4 -0.3

Transportation

Air transportation

481

481.6 3.0 5.1 2.1 -0.4 4.0 3.2

Line-haul railroads

482111

166.2 0.5 3.1 2.6 2.2 1.2 4.7

Table 2. Long run multifactor productivity and related data
Industry 2017 NAICS code Average annual percent change, 1987-2018
Multifactor productivity Output Combined
inputs
Hours worked Capital Intermediate
purchases

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

-0.3 1.7 2.0 0.0 1.9 2.2

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

-0.1 0.9 1.0 -0.6 0.2 1.4

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

0.0 0.6 0.5 -0.5 0.7 0.7

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

0.3 0.9 0.7 0.1 0.8 0.8

Dairy products

3115

0.1 1.3 1.2 0.0 1.6 1.2

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

0.8 1.8 1.0 1.2 1.9 0.8

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

0.2 0.4 0.2 -0.9 0.9 0.3

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

-0.8 0.3 1.1 0.3 0.9 1.6

Other food products

3119

0.2 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.3 2.3

Beverages

3121

0.4 1.2 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.7

Tobacco

3122

-0.5 -2.7 -2.1 -4.8 -2.2 -1.3

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

0.9 -1.6 -2.5 -4.0 -2.4 -2.0

Fabric mills

3132

1.1 -2.6 -3.7 -5.4 -2.6 -3.2

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

0.2 -3.0 -3.1 -4.2 -2.5 -2.9

Textile furnishings mills

3141

-0.5 -2.4 -1.9 -2.6 -0.9 -2.2

Other textile product mills

3149

0.2 -0.7 -0.9 -1.7 0.3 -0.7

Apparel knitting mills

3151

-0.5 -7.3 -6.9 -7.1 -3.0 -7.7

Cut and sew apparel

3152

-1.0 -6.4 -5.5 -6.3 -2.8 -6.3

Accessories and other apparel

3159

-1.6 -5.9 -4.3 -3.6 -2.4 -4.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

0.7 -2.9 -3.5 -3.9 -2.4 -3.7

Footwear

3162

-0.6 -4.9 -4.3 -5.8 -3.4 -3.8

Other leather products

3169

-0.1 -3.6 -3.4 -3.9 -2.1 -3.7

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

0.9 0.4 -0.5 -1.4 -0.9 -0.1

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -0.7 0.3 0.2

Other wood products

3219

-0.3 -0.2 0.2 -0.8 0.6 0.5

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

0.7 -0.6 -1.3 -2.9 -1.1 -0.8

Converted paper products

3222

0.0 0.2 0.2 -1.2 0.6 0.5

Printing and related support activities

3231

0.3 -0.6 -0.9 -1.8 0.2 -0.6

Petroleum and coal products

3241

-0.2 1.2 1.4 -0.9 1.1 1.6

Basic chemicals

3251

-0.1 0.6 0.7 -1.4 0.5 1.3

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

0.4 0.7 0.3 -1.5 0.5 0.6

Agricultural chemicals

3253

0.7 0.6 -0.1 -1.1 0.6 -0.5

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

-1.7 1.1 2.8 1.7 3.5 2.4

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

-0.2 -0.1 0.2 -0.5 0.0 0.4

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

0.3 1.1 0.7 -0.1 1.4 0.3

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

0.2 0.2 0.0 -1.8 0.2 0.5

Plastics products

3261

0.4 1.5 1.1 0.1 1.9 1.3

Rubber products

3262

0.9 0.5 -0.3 -1.2 0.0 0.1

Clay products and refractories

3271

0.3 -1.2 -1.6 -2.5 -1.3 -1.1

Glass and glass products

3272

0.9 0.5 -0.4 -1.5 -0.3 0.1

Cement and concrete products

3273

-0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.5

Lime and gypsum products

3274

-0.5 -0.5 0.0 -1.3 0.5 0.1

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

0.5 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.6

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

1.3 1.0 -0.2 -2.2 -2.0 1.0

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

0.2 0.1 -0.1 -0.4 -1.5 0.3

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

0.8 0.3 -0.5 -1.7 -0.8 -0.1

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -1.6 -0.5 -0.4

Foundries

3315

0.5 -0.3 -0.7 -1.9 -0.8 0.1

Forging and stamping

3321

0.7 1.2 0.5 -1.0 1.2 1.1

Cutlery and handtools

3322

0.2 -1.0 -1.2 -2.1 -0.7 -0.5

Architectural and structural metals

3323

-0.1 1.0 1.1 0.4 0.7 1.6

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

0.3 0.6 0.2 -0.4 -0.3 0.6

Hardware

3325

-0.5 -2.0 -1.5 -2.7 -1.1 -1.0

Spring and wire products

3326

0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.8 0.2 0.1

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

0.8 2.4 1.6 0.7 1.9 2.3

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

1.1 1.9 0.9 0.2 1.1 1.2

Other fabricated metal products

3329

-0.5 0.0 0.4 -0.5 0.3 1.0

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

0.2 1.8 1.6 0.1 0.3 2.5

Industrial machinery

3332

0.8 1.0 0.2 -0.6 0.9 0.7

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

-0.1 -0.3 -0.2 -1.5 -0.6 0.5

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

0.5 0.8 0.2 -0.6 0.6 0.5

Metalworking machinery

3335

1.0 0.7 -0.3 -1.1 -0.1 0.6

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

0.3 1.6 1.2 -0.2 0.3 2.2

Other general purpose machinery

3339

0.3 1.4 1.1 -0.4 0.3 2.2

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

10.7 10.5 -0.2 -3.1 0.2 0.5

Communications equipment

3342

2.0 1.8 -0.3 -3.1 1.0 0.5

Audio and video equipment

3343

2.3 -1.2 -3.5 -3.6 -1.5 -3.6

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

8.7 10.7 1.9 -1.5 4.7 1.7

Electronic instruments

3345

0.7 1.6 0.9 -1.5 0.3 2.9

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

1.3 -3.1 -4.4 -3.5 -1.3 -5.6

Electric lighting equipment

3351

0.8 0.0 -0.8 -1.8 -0.1 -0.6

Household appliances

3352

1.7 0.5 -1.2 -2.5 -0.8 -0.9

Electrical equipment

3353

0.4 0.0 -0.5 -1.8 -1.0 0.5

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

0.4 -0.1 -0.5 -0.9 0.0 -0.3

Motor vehicles

3361

0.3 2.0 1.8 -0.7 1.1 2.2

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

0.0 2.1 2.1 0.7 1.5 2.5

Motor vehicle parts

3363

1.5 2.7 1.2 0.0 0.4 1.8

Aerospace products and parts

3364

0.6 0.7 0.2 -1.4 0.3 1.3

Railroad rolling stock

3365

0.7 3.2 2.5 0.2 0.1 3.7

Ship and boat building

3366

0.5 0.9 0.4 -0.9 0.0 1.4

Other transportation equipment

3369

1.6 3.9 2.2 0.0 2.3 2.9

Household and institutional furniture

3371

0.5 -0.5 -0.9 -1.5 -0.2 -0.8

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

0.4 0.4 0.0 -1.1 0.6 0.4

Other furniture related products

3379

0.4 0.8 0.4 -1.2 -0.3 1.2

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

0.7 3.1 2.4 0.9 3.6 2.7

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

0.6 0.2 -0.5 -1.0 0.4 -0.5

Transportation

Air transportation

481

1.2 2.8 1.5 -0.3 3.6 2.1

Line-haul railroads

482111

1.5 1.8 0.3 -1.6 0.6 1.8


Table 3. Multifactor productivity in selected periods
Industry 2017
NAICS
code
Average annual percent change
1987-2018 1987-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2007 2007-2018 2017-2018

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

-0.3 0.6 0.8 -0.7 1.6 -2.0 -3.3

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

-0.1 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.3 -1.1 -3.4

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

0.0 0.5 1.4 2.1 0.1 -1.7 -0.4

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

0.3 -1.9 1.5 0.7 0.8 -0.2 3.4

Dairy products

3115

0.1 -1.2 0.6 -0.2 1.1 -0.3 1.7

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

0.8 0.0 1.3 0.9 1.7 0.1 4.9

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

0.2 -1.6 0.5 0.9 2.6 -1.3 -4.1

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

-0.8 -3.7 0.9 -0.4 0.2 -1.6 -1.4

Other food products

3119

0.2 0.3 1.4 -0.7 1.3 -0.7 -1.5

Beverages

3121

0.4 1.3 1.9 -1.2 2.0 -0.7 -1.2

Tobacco

3122

-0.5 1.7 2.0 0.2 -1.0 -2.3 -2.1

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

0.9 1.3 0.6 0.7 3.8 -0.8 -5.8

Fabric mills

3132

1.1 0.9 1.9 1.0 3.1 -0.4 1.1

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

0.2 0.5 0.4 1.3 0.5 -0.7 -1.6

Textile furnishings mills

3141

-0.5 -0.1 1.7 -1.1 0.6 -1.9 -2.6

Other textile product mills

3149

0.2 0.1 0.6 -0.6 1.6 -0.5 1.7

Apparel knitting mills

3151

-0.5 0.8 2.3 -2.2 -2.9 0.1 1.8

Cut and sew apparel

3152

-1.0 -1.4 1.1 -0.7 -3.2 -0.5 -3.3

Accessories and other apparel

3159

-1.6 1.1 1.0 -6.6 -3.0 -0.3 -3.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

0.7 -4.3 0.2 4.6 -4.2 3.7 7.4

Footwear

3162

-0.6 -2.1 0.3 -0.2 -0.2 -1.1 -2.9

Other leather products

3169

-0.1 -0.2 -3.1 3.9 0.3 -0.9 0.7

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

0.9 1.5 -0.1 0.0 1.9 1.0 -1.5

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

0.2 -0.7 0.1 -0.1 1.1 0.0 -8.3

Other wood products

3219

-0.3 -0.7 -0.7 -0.8 0.9 -0.6 1.2

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

0.7 -1.3 0.1 1.9 2.0 0.1 -0.5

Converted paper products

3222

0.0 0.6 0.2 -0.4 0.9 -0.7 -0.1

Printing and related support activities

3231

0.3 0.2 -0.1 -1.0 1.0 0.7 4.6

Petroleum and coal products

3241

-0.2 -1.7 2.0 2.8 -1.6 -1.1 -2.6

Basic chemicals

3251

-0.1 -0.6 -2.4 -0.8 3.4 -0.8 -0.3

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

0.4 -1.5 0.9 0.7 2.0 -0.6 4.0

Agricultural chemicals

3253

0.7 1.0 1.3 0.5 2.8 -1.0 -3.8

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

-1.7 -1.5 -1.7 -1.3 0.6 -3.3 -4.9

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

-0.2 -2.0 -0.4 -0.3 1.3 -0.6 -0.3

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

0.3 -1.2 0.6 -0.6 4.5 -1.5 1.1

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

0.2 -1.2 0.8 2.0 -0.1 -0.3 -2.0

Plastics products

3261

0.4 -0.1 1.4 0.8 0.9 -0.3 0.7

Rubber products

3262

0.9 1.2 1.3 1.5 0.7 0.4 9.4

Clay products and refractories

3271

0.3 1.3 1.5 1.1 -0.3 -0.4 -0.6

Glass and glass products

3272

0.9 0.3 2.0 2.1 0.7 0.2 -0.3

Cement and concrete products

3273

-0.2 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.1 -1.4 0.5

Lime and gypsum products

3274

-0.5 -1.6 -1.8 1.1 0.7 -1.1 -3.3

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

0.5 -0.3 2.5 -0.6 2.5 -0.8 -1.9

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

1.3 1.0 2.1 2.2 0.3 1.3 -4.8

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

0.2 1.5 2.7 -0.1 -0.5 -0.6 -2.3

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

0.8 -0.4 -0.1 0.4 1.5 1.2 -5.5

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

0.4 -2.4 2.1 2.9 -3.4 1.7 -2.3

Foundries

3315

0.5 0.0 2.1 0.6 0.8 -0.3 -1.1

Forging and stamping

3321

0.7 -0.3 0.5 -0.4 4.0 -0.5 3.9

Cutlery and handtools

3322

0.2 -1.1 1.0 -0.7 0.6 0.2 -1.4

Architectural and structural metals

3323

-0.1 -0.8 0.8 -1.0 1.4 -0.8 -1.0

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

0.3 0.7 1.7 0.6 0.7 -0.8 4.0

Hardware

3325

-0.5 -1.9 0.7 -0.3 -0.7 -0.7 3.9

Spring and wire products

3326

0.5 0.5 1.5 0.0 1.9 -0.6 1.7

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

0.8 1.5 3.2 0.0 1.6 -0.5 4.5

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

1.1 1.4 2.1 -0.9 3.6 -0.2 3.5

Other fabricated metal products

3329

-0.5 -1.4 0.3 -1.3 1.9 -1.6 1.6

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

0.2 2.7 0.2 -1.1 1.6 -0.9 9.4

Industrial machinery

3332

0.8 0.3 1.8 -0.1 1.4 0.4 2.2

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

-0.1 1.0 -0.1 -1.4 -0.5 0.4 2.5

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

0.5 0.0 0.9 0.3 1.6 -0.1 1.2

Metalworking machinery

3335

1.0 0.3 1.7 -1.4 2.7 0.9 3.1

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

0.3 -0.6 0.2 0.6 -0.2 0.9 11.8

Other general purpose machinery

3339

0.3 0.5 0.3 -0.3 1.9 -0.5 2.9

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

10.7 6.6 14.8 23.5 17.8 0.6 6.9

Communications equipment

3342

2.0 3.3 5.7 5.5 2.9 -1.9 0.1

Audio and video equipment

3343

2.3 3.2 3.0 2.6 2.8 1.4 1.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

8.7 6.7 18.5 21.5 7.4 0.6 2.0

Electronic instruments

3345

0.7 1.8 1.2 -0.3 1.3 0.4 2.6

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

1.3 0.6 6.1 -2.6 2.4 0.4 -0.1

Electric lighting equipment

3351

0.8 -1.3 0.9 0.6 1.3 1.1 9.9

Household appliances

3352

1.7 0.3 3.3 0.9 3.4 0.7 2.4

Electrical equipment

3353

0.4 1.3 2.8 -1.6 1.2 -0.4 6.4

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

0.4 -0.8 2.0 0.9 0.2 -0.1 -1.6

Motor vehicles

3361

0.3 0.4 -0.9 0.3 2.8 -0.9 -0.1

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

0.0 -2.2 2.3 -1.2 0.2 -0.1 -3.2

Motor vehicle parts

3363

1.5 1.1 2.0 1.6 2.1 0.9 2.1

Aerospace products and parts

3364

0.6 -1.5 -0.1 -0.2 2.2 0.8 4.6

Railroad rolling stock

3365

0.7 0.9 0.1 4.8 -1.7 0.6 -6.1

Ship and boat building

3366

0.5 0.3 -0.5 0.5 -0.3 1.4 -5.7

Other transportation equipment

3369

1.6 -2.1 6.1 -0.6 5.7 -0.9 -0.2

Household and institutional furniture

3371

0.5 -0.2 1.3 -0.2 0.9 0.3 4.2

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

0.4 -2.5 0.9 2.1 0.8 0.0 4.2

Other furniture related products

3379

0.4 0.0 1.4 0.3 1.7 -0.6 3.3

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

0.7 2.3 0.4 1.2 1.6 -0.4 5.8

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

0.6 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.3 -0.1 2.5

Transportation

Air transportation

481

1.2 -0.7 -0.1 -0.1 4.5 1.0 3.0

Line-haul railroads

482111

1.5 4.4 4.2 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.5


Table 4. Contributions to labor productivity
Industry 2017
NAICS
code
Average annual percent change, 1987-2018
Labor
productivity
Contribution of
capital intensity
Contribution of
intermediate purchases intensity
Multifactor
productivity

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

1.7 0.4 1.6 -0.3

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

1.5 0.2 1.4 -0.1

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

1.0 0.4 0.6 0.0

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

0.8 0.2 0.4 0.3

Dairy products

3115

1.3 0.2 0.9 0.1

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

0.6 0.1 -0.3 0.8

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

1.3 0.2 0.9 0.2

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

0.0 0.1 0.7 -0.8

Other food products

3119

0.1 -0.3 0.1 0.2

Beverages

3121

0.2 -0.2 0.0 0.4

Tobacco

3122

2.3 2.1 0.7 -0.5

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

2.4 0.1 1.4 0.9

Fabric mills

3132

3.0 0.4 1.4 1.1

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

1.3 0.3 0.9 0.2

Textile furnishings mills

3141

0.2 0.4 0.3 -0.5

Other textile product mills

3149

1.0 0.2 0.6 0.2

Apparel knitting mills

3151

-0.3 0.6 -0.4 -0.5

Cut and sew apparel

3152

-0.1 0.9 -0.1 -1.0

Accessories and other apparel

3159

-2.4 0.1 -0.9 -1.6

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

1.0 0.2 0.2 0.7

Footwear

3162

1.0 0.4 1.2 -0.6

Other leather products

3169

0.3 0.4 0.0 -0.1

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

1.8 -0.1 0.9 0.9

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

0.7 -0.1 0.6 0.2

Other wood products

3219

0.7 0.1 0.9 -0.3

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

2.4 0.5 1.2 0.7

Converted paper products

3222

1.4 0.3 1.1 0.0

Printing and related support activities

3231

1.3 0.4 0.6 0.3

Petroleum and coal products

3241

2.1 0.2 2.1 -0.2

Basic chemicals

3251

2.0 0.4 1.7 -0.1

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

2.2 0.4 1.4 0.4

Agricultural chemicals

3253

1.7 0.6 0.4 0.7

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

-0.6 0.8 0.3 -1.7

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

0.5 0.1 0.6 -0.2

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

1.2 0.6 0.2 0.3

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

2.0 0.5 1.3 0.2

Plastics products

3261

1.4 0.3 0.6 0.4

Rubber products

3262

1.8 0.1 0.8 0.9

Clay products and refractories

3271

1.2 0.3 0.6 0.3

Glass and glass products

3272

1.9 0.3 0.7 0.9

Cement and concrete products

3273

-0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.2

Lime and gypsum products

3274

0.8 0.5 0.8 -0.5

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

0.7 -0.1 0.2 0.5

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

3.4 -0.1 2.1 1.3

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

0.6 -0.2 0.5 0.2

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

2.0 0.1 1.1 0.8

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

1.4 0.2 0.8 0.4

Foundries

3315

1.6 0.1 1.0 0.5

Forging and stamping

3321

2.2 0.2 1.3 0.7

Cutlery and handtools

3322

1.1 0.3 0.7 0.2

Architectural and structural metals

3323

0.6 0.0 0.7 -0.1

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

1.0 0.0 0.7 0.3

Hardware

3325

0.7 0.3 0.9 -0.5

Spring and wire products

3326

1.9 0.3 1.0 0.5

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

1.7 0.2 0.7 0.8

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

1.7 0.1 0.6 1.1

Other fabricated metal products

3329

0.4 0.2 0.7 -0.5

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

1.7 0.1 1.5 0.2

Industrial machinery

3332

1.6 0.1 0.7 0.8

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

1.2 0.2 1.1 -0.1

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

1.4 0.2 0.7 0.5

Metalworking machinery

3335

1.8 0.1 0.8 1.0

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

1.8 0.2 1.3 0.3

Other general purpose machinery

3339

1.8 0.1 1.5 0.3

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

14.0 1.1 1.8 10.7

Communications equipment

3342

5.0 0.7 2.2 2.0

Audio and video equipment

3343

2.4 0.1 0.0 2.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

12.4 1.9 1.5 8.7

Electronic instruments

3345

3.2 0.4 2.0 0.7

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

0.4 0.3 -1.2 1.3

Electric lighting equipment

3351

1.7 0.3 0.6 0.8

Household appliances

3352

3.0 0.3 0.9 1.7

Electrical equipment

3353

1.8 0.2 1.2 0.4

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

0.8 0.1 0.4 0.4

Motor vehicles

3361

2.7 0.3 2.1 0.3

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

1.3 0.0 1.3 0.0

Motor vehicle parts

3363

2.8 0.1 1.2 1.5

Aerospace products and parts

3364

2.2 0.3 1.3 0.6

Railroad rolling stock

3365

2.9 0.1 2.1 0.7

Ship and boat building

3366

1.8 0.1 1.2 0.5

Other transportation equipment

3369

3.9 0.5 1.8 1.6

Household and institutional furniture

3371

1.1 0.1 0.4 0.5

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

1.5 0.4 0.7 0.4

Other furniture related products

3379

2.0 0.1 1.4 0.4

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

2.2 0.8 0.7 0.7

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

1.2 0.3 0.3 0.6

Transportation

Air transportation

481

3.1 0.8 1.0 1.2

Line-haul railroads

482111

3.5 0.6 1.3 1.5

Last Modified Date: August 27, 2020