A to Z Index  |  FAQs  |  About BLS  |  Contact Us    
Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
MFP MFP Program Links

Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, June 28, 2018                                                    USDL-18-1059

Technical Information:	(202) 691-5606  •  productivity@bls.gov •  www.bls.gov/mfp 
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902 • PressOffice@bls.gov


                     MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS FOR DETAILED INDUSTRIES - 2016


Multifactor productivity -- defined as output per unit of combined inputs -- rose in 37 of the 86 4-digit 
NAICS manufacturing industries in 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This was 
up from 2015, when multifactor productivity increased in 21 manufacturing industries. In 2016, 
multifactor productivity rose in one of the two transportation industries measured (air transportation), 
the same as in 2015.

Of the 12 largest industries, multifactor productivity increased the most in printing and related support 
activities (3.6 percent), as output increased while combined inputs declined. Output growth occurred in 
7 out of the 12 industries. In 5 of these, combined inputs fell or grew at a slower rate than output, 
leading to multifactor productivity growth. However, output fell more than combined inputs in 4 of the 
12 industries, leading to declines in multifactor productivity. In the case of 2 industries (animal 
slaughtering and processing, and motor vehicle parts), increases in output coincided with larger 
increases in combined inputs, causing slight declines in multifactor productivity.

Among all 86 manufacturing industries, 4 industries posted multifactor productivity gains 
greater than 4.0 percent: 

	*  Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys (9.4 percent)
	*  Leather and hide tanning and finishing (7.8 percent)
	*  Alumina and aluminum production (7.3 percent)
	*  Clay products and refractories (4.9 percent)

Multifactor productivity declined by 6.0 percent or more in 5 manufacturing industries in 2016. The 
largest productivity decline occurred in agriculture, construction, and mining machinery (-8.6 percent).

Multifactor productivity moved in opposite directions in the two measured transportation industries: 

	*  Air transportation (0.6 percent)
	*  Line-haul railroads (-0.9 percent)

Multifactor Productivity: Definition and Concepts

Multifactor productivity indexes relate the change in real output to the change in the combined inputs of 
labor, capital, and intermediate purchases (energy, materials, and purchased services) used in producing 
that output. Multifactor productivity is also known as total factor productivity.

A variety of factors that influence economic growth are not specifically accounted for among measured 
inputs, including: technological change, returns to scale, enhancements in managerial and staff skills, 
changes in the organization of production, and other efficiency improvements. Multifactor productivity 
reflects these factors. See the technical note for more information.

Components of Multifactor Productivity Growth: Output and Combined Inputs

In 2016, output increased in 32 manufacturing industries, compared to 46 industries in 2015. Output increased 
by 5.0 percent or more in the following 2 industries in 2016:

	*  Other food products (6.6 percent)
	*  Electric lighting equipment (5.6 percent) 

Combined inputs of capital, labor, and intermediate purchases rose in 28 manufacturing industries in 
2016, compared to 64 industries in 2015. Just under half of the manufacturing industries saw growth in 
hours worked (40 industries), while fewer industries had growth in capital services (35 industries) and 
intermediate purchases (30 industries).

The following industries had the largest increases in combined inputs in 2016:

	*  Agricultural chemicals (6.6 percent)
	*  Footwear (5.6 percent)
	*  Animal slaughtering and processing (5.0 percent)
	*  Petroleum and coal products (4.2 percent) 

In 4 manufacturing industries, multifactor productivity rose more than 3.0 percent despite falling 
output, as combined inputs fell more rapidly. This occurred in: 

	*  Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys (9.4 percent)
	*  Leather and hide tanning and finishing (7.8 percent)
	*  Clay products and refractories (4.9 percent)
	*  Other nonferrous metal production (3.5 percent)

In the air transportation industry, output increased 3.5 percent and combined inputs increased 2.8 
percent in 2016. In line-haul railroads, output fell 4.1 percent and combined inputs decreased 3.2 
percent.

Trends in Multifactor Productivity for Selected Time Periods

Year-to-year movements and long-term trends in industry multifactor productivity may reflect cyclical 
changes in the economy. However, long-term average annual percent changes in multifactor 
productivity are more reliable indicators of historical trends in industry performance.

More industries saw multifactor productivity growth over the long term than the short term. Over the 
long term period from 1987 to 2016, multifactor productivity grew in 53 manufacturing industries, 
compared to only 37 from 2015 to 2016. (See tables 1 and 2.) Over the long term, average annual rates 
of change in multifactor productivity ranged between -2.0 percent and 2.0 percent for nearly all 
manufacturing industries.

In contrast, multifactor productivity declined by 2.0 percent or more in 26 industries in 2016. Only one 
industry (pharmaceuticals and medicines) saw an average annual decline of that magnitude from 1987 to 
2016.

Between 1987 and 2016, the number of manufacturing industries with growth in multifactor productivity 
was highest in 2003 and 2010. These were years of economic growth following recessions. In contrast, 
relatively few manufacturing industries saw multifactor productivity growth in the recession years of 
2001 and 2009.

From 1987 to 2016, multifactor productivity rose in both air transportation and line-haul railroads by an 
average annual rate of 1.3 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively. While both industries posted gains in 
output, productivity grew more in line-haul railroads because its combined inputs showed little change 
over the long term.

Multifactor Productivity as a Source of Labor Productivity Growth

Multifactor productivity measures differ from the BLS labor productivity measures because they 
compare output to the combined inputs of hours worked, capital, and intermediate purchases. Labor 
productivity relates output only to hours worked. Mathematically, an industry’s labor productivity is 
equal to multifactor productivity plus the effects of factor substitution; that is, the combined effects of 
changes in weighted capital services relative to hours worked and weighted intermediate purchases 
relative to hours worked. These factor substitutions are referred to as contribution of capital intensity 
and contribution of intermediate purchases intensity.

Eighty-one out of the 86 manufacturing industries posted gains in labor productivity from 1987 to 2016. 
Among these 81 industries, substitution of intermediate purchases for labor was the leading source of 
labor productivity growth. Growth in the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity 
occurs when firms purchase a greater share of materials instead of using their own labor. Contribution of 
intermediate purchases intensity may also rise when firms substitute contracted labor for payroll labor.

Strong growth in multifactor productivity was the dominant source of labor productivity growth in the 
industries that manufacture computers and electronic products (computer and peripheral equipment, 
semiconductors and electronic components, and communications equipment). Labor productivity growth in the 
measured transportation industries (air transportation and line-haul railroads) was also primarily driven by 
multifactor productivity growth. The remaining manufacturing industries with high average annual growth in 
labor productivity mostly saw greater growth in factor substitution of intermediate purchases for labor.

************************************************************************************************************
*                                            Want to know more?                                            *
*                                                                                                          *
* Access more productivity data using the data dashboard,                                                  *
* at https://www.bls.gov/lpc/lpc_by_industry_dashboard.xlsx                                                *
*      - Detailed data series: indexes of productivity and related measures                                *
*      - Additional years, annual rates of change, and long-term data                                      *
* More information from the BLS productivity program is available at https://www.bls.gov/mfp               *
*      - More detailed capital and intermediate purchases data available upon request                      *
*                                                                                                          *
* Questions?                                                                                               *
*                                                                                                          *
* Additional information can be obtained by calling the BLS productivity program at (202) 691-5606 or by   *
* sending an email to productivity@bls.gov. Information in this release will be made available to sensory  *
* impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.   *
*                                                                                                          *
* Subscribe to news releases                                                                               *
*                                                                                                          *
* Subscribe to productivity news releases on the BLS website at                                            *
* https://subscriptions.bls.gov/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new.                                          *
*                                                                                                          *
************************************************************************************************************






					Technical Note

Multifactor Productivity:  Multifactor productivity measures are derived by dividing an index of real 
industry output by an index of the combined inputs of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases. The 
multifactor productivity indexes do not measure the specific contributions of capital, labor, and 
intermediate inputs. Rather, they reflect the joint influences on economic growth of a number of factors 
that are not specifically accounted for on the input side, including technological change, returns to scale, 
improved skills of the workforce, better management techniques, or other efficiency improvements.

Output:  Manufacturing industry output is measured as annual sectoral output, the total value, in real 
terms, of goods and services produced for sale outside the industry. Industry value of production is 
derived by adjusting industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-industry 
transfers and resales. For most manufacturing industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal 
value of production, but for some industries physical quantities of output are measured. For air 
transportation and line-haul railroads, output is measured by aggregating passenger-miles and freight 
ton-miles with weights based on revenues or operating expenses.
  
Output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using data primarily from the economic 
censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
information on price changes chiefly from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Output measures for air 
transportation and line-haul railroads are constructed using data primarily from the Bureau of 
Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the Surface Transportation Board (STB), both in the U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), together with information from the Association of American 
Railroads (AAR), AMTRAK, and several other sources.  

Combined Inputs:  The index of combined inputs is a Törnqvist index of separate quantity indexes of 
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases (including fuels, electricity, materials, and purchased 
services). The annual growth rates of the various inputs are aggregated using their relative cost shares as 
weights. The labor weight is based on labor compensation, including fringe benefits. The weight for 
intermediate purchases is based on the total cost of materials, fuels, electricity, and purchased services. 
The capital weight is based on total capital cost, which is calculated as the value of sectoral production 
minus the costs of labor compensation and intermediate purchases.

Capital Input:  Capital input reflects the flow of services derived from the stock of physical assets. 
Capital services are estimated by calculating productive capital stocks and are assumed to be 
proportional to changes in these capital stocks for each asset. The capital index is a Törnqvist index of 
separate quantity indexes of equipment, structures, inventories, and land. 

For manufacturing industries, physical capital is comprised of 24 categories of equipment, 10 categories 
of structures, 3 categories of inventories, and land. Measures of total capital services for each industry 
are estimated by aggregating the capital stocks of individual asset types. Estimates of investment by 
asset type for each industry are derived using annual capital expenditures for detailed industries from the 
economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census. Additional annual investment data 
comes from the fixed asset accounts from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Annual investment 
data is supplemented with the 1997 benchmark capital flow table from the BEA as well as the 2008 and 
2012 Annual Capital Expenditures Survey from the Bureau of the Census. Price changes are removed 
from the annual investment data before calculating stocks. Price deflators for each asset category are 
constructed by combining detailed price indexes (mostly BLS Producer Price Indexes) with weights that 
reflect each industry’s use of individual asset commodities.

The capital stocks for the different assets are combined using weights based on estimated annual rental 
prices for each asset type, averaged between two time periods. Each rental price reflects the nominal rate 
of return to all assets within the industry and the rates of economic depreciation and revaluation of the 
specific asset. Rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. 

For air transportation, a weighted index of 44 types of airframes and 34 types of engines is derived from 
quantities and purchase prices from BTS. For assets other than airframes and engines, capital stocks are 
calculated similarly to manufacturing industries. For these assets, a more detailed breakdown of annual 
expenditures on equipment and structures from the BEA is used. Inventories of parts and supplies are 
also included; the current dollar series is deflated with a weighted cost index based on data from Airlines 
for America (A4A) and BTS. Indexes for aircraft and engines, non-aircraft assets, and parts and supplies 
inventories are aggregated using cost share weights to derive an overall measure of capital input.

For line-haul railroads, current dollar investment for 10 categories of equipment and 13 categories of 
structures, obtained from STB and AMTRAK, are deflated with BLS PPIs and deflators based on BEA 
data. The capital stocks for each of the items are calculated similarly to manufacturing industries. 
Inventories of materials and supplies are also included. Estimates of investments in land from STB and 
AMTRAK were deflated with price indexes from BEA.  

Labor Input:  For manufacturing industries, labor hours reflect annual hours worked by all employed 
persons in an industry. Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey and the Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number 
of total and nonsupervisory worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are 
supplemented with CPS self-employed and unpaid family worker data to estimate industry employment. 
Hours worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on average weekly 
hours paid of nonsupervisory workers, CPS data on hours of supervisory, self-employed, and unpaid 
family workers, and ratios of hours-worked to hours-paid based on data from the BLS National 
Compensation Survey (NCS). For some industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or 
further disaggregated using data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), 
the Census Bureau, or other sources. Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of 
workers and then are directly aggregated; no adjustments for labor composition are made. 

For air transportation, annual labor input estimates are based on monthly employment data from DOT 
supplemented by employment and hours from the CES program and hours from the CPS. For line-haul 
railroads, labor input measures are derived primarily from DOT data and supplemented with data from 
AAR. For the railroad industry, the labor input measure includes an adjustment to remove capitalized 
labor hours in order to avoid double-counting because some capitalized labor costs are embedded in the 
railroad investment data.

Intermediate Purchases Input:  The index of intermediate purchases is a Törnqvist index of separate 
quantities of materials, purchased services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each industry. Except for 
electricity consumed by manufacturing industries, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities are 
derived by deflating current dollar values with appropriate price deflators. 

For manufacturing industries, nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity, along with quantities of 
electricity consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Bureau of the Census. To avoid double counting, an adjustment is made to the materials estimates to 
exclude the value of intra-industry commodity transfers. Purchased business services are estimated using 
annual industry data and benchmark input-output tables from BEA.  

Constant dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current dollar industry purchases by 
a weighted price deflator for each industry. Aggregate materials deflators are constructed for each industry 
by combining producer price indexes and import price indexes from BLS for detailed commodities.  The 
deflators are combined using weights based on detailed commodity data from the BEA benchmark input-
output tables. Aggregate price indexes to deflate purchased business services are constructed in a similar 
manner using consumer price indexes (CPIs), PPIs, and deflators developed by BEA. The value of fuels 
consumed by each industry is deflated with a weighted price deflator based on PPIs for individual fuel 
categories; the weights reflect fuel expenditures by industry from the Energy Information 
Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy.

For air transportation, detailed cost of materials, services, fuels, and electricity from the BTS are 
deflated using cost indexes from A4A. For line-haul railroads, intermediate purchases data from STB are 
supplemented with data from other sources including AAR, AMTRAK, EIA, and the Edison Electric 
Institute. The nominal values are deflated with producer price indexes from BLS and implicit price 
deflators calculated from BEA investment data.

Labor Productivity:  Labor productivity describes the relationship between real output and the labor 
hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period in the amount 
of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity measures relate output 
in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not measure the specific 
contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, 
including: changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the 
use of purchased services inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of 
production; the characteristics and effort of the workforce; and managerial skill.

Contributions to Labor Productivity:

	Contribution of Capital Intensity:  Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours 
	worked in the production process. Multiplying the change in capital intensity times capital’s 
	share of combined inputs yields the contribution of capital intensity. 

	Contribution of Intermediate Purchases Intensity: Intermediate purchases intensity is the 
	ratio of intermediate purchases to hours worked in the production process. Multiplying the 
	change in intermediate purchases intensity times intermediate purchases’ share of combined 
	inputs yields the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity.

	When positive, both the contribution of capital intensity and the contribution of intermediate 
	purchases intensity represent sources of labor productivity growth. These statistics represent 
	factor substitution in the production process. In other words, positive change in the contribution 
	of capital intensity indicates that labor productivity growth is being achieved in part through the 
	substitution of capital for labor. Likewise, positive change in the contribution of intermediate 
	purchases intensity indicates that labor productivity growth is being achieved in part through the 
	substitution of intermediate purchases for labor.

	Over a given time period, the average logarithmic growth rate of labor productivity will equal the 
	sum of the average logarithmic growth rates of the contribution of capital intensity, the 
	contribution of intermediate purchases intensity, and multifactor productivity. However, because 
	both output and input data are expressed annually, average annual (as opposed to logarithmic) 
	rates of change are calculated. Therefore, the sum of growth rates of multifactor productivity, the 
	contribution of capital intensity, and the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity may not 
	precisely equal the rate of change of labor productivity.










Table 1. Recent multifactor productivity and related data
Industry 2012 NAICS code 2016
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2015-2016
Multifactor productivity Output Combined
inputs
Hours worked Capital Intermediate
purchases

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

58.9 -0.8 0.6 1.4 -2.2 3.5 1.0

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

60.5 1.0 -0.5 -1.5 3.3 -1.8 -1.8

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

77.0 0.5 4.2 3.7 -4.1 1.2 7.1

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

173.5 -1.4 -1.4 0.0 6.1 -0.3 -1.3

Dairy products

3115

141.6 2.7 2.1 -0.6 -0.7 1.9 -1.4

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

501.2 -0.9 4.0 5.0 4.0 2.5 5.7

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

39.9 0.0 -1.0 -1.1 15.9 -3.2 -3.6

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

328.3 0.5 1.0 0.5 -1.5 0.3 1.3

Other food products

3119

210.5 2.6 6.6 3.9 14.0 2.5 2.9

Beverages

3121

237.2 -2.5 -3.0 -0.5 8.4 1.6 -3.4

Tobacco

3122

13.7 -4.3 -1.7 2.7 -0.1 2.4 4.8

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

29.9 -3.8 -6.2 -2.5 -4.7 -4.0 -2.0

Fabric mills

3132

56.6 -2.4 -2.4 0.0 -8.1 -4.3 2.4

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

33.4 2.4 -3.2 -5.5 -8.6 -4.0 -4.7

Textile furnishings mills

3141

58.9 -0.4 -1.6 -1.2 2.0 -1.7 -1.9

Other textile product mills

3149

75.4 -2.2 0.3 2.5 5.2 -1.8 2.3

Apparel knitting mills

3151

12.6 2.5 -18.4 -20.4 -19.0 -5.6 -22.4

Cut and sew apparel

3152

122.4 2.9 -4.3 -6.9 -11.2 -4.7 -4.8

Accessories and other apparel

3159

13.5 -2.0 -4.3 -2.3 2.5 -4.3 -4.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

5.2 7.8 -3.6 -10.5 -5.8 -3.0 -11.2

Footwear

3162

13.7 -3.0 2.4 5.6 -2.5 -3.5 10.1

Other leather products

3169

13.9 2.0 0.2 -1.8 -3.3 -4.1 -0.9

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

94.3 1.7 4.8 3.1 0.8 1.3 3.9

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

78.2 2.7 3.9 1.2 2.5 1.2 0.8

Other wood products

3219

242.5 1.5 3.3 1.8 4.7 0.3 0.9

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

100.8 0.2 -2.0 -2.2 -5.0 -1.5 -1.9

Converted paper products

3222

270.9 -0.7 0.1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.9

Printing and related support activities

3231

467.2 3.6 1.9 -1.6 -2.1 -3.7 -0.9

Petroleum and coal products

3241

113.7 -2.6 1.4 4.2 0.3 0.9 4.8

Basic chemicals

3251

149.8 3.7 3.3 -0.4 -0.6 1.9 -1.6

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

92.3 2.3 0.6 -1.7 -5.9 2.1 -2.1

Agricultural chemicals

3253

36.0 -3.5 2.8 6.6 -5.6 11.7 5.3

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

286.2 -4.8 -3.4 1.4 0.5 1.6 1.5

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

63.5 0.9 2.0 1.0 -0.9 -0.1 1.9

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

111.3 0.3 1.2 0.9 -3.4 1.0 1.7

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

84.3 -3.2 -3.7 -0.6 -1.2 1.2 -1.0

Plastics products

3261

571.5 3.0 2.7 -0.3 1.3 1.2 -1.4

Rubber products

3262

134.6 -1.0 -3.9 -2.9 -0.3 -0.3 -4.8

Clay products and refractories

3271

46.3 4.9 -0.5 -5.1 -8.4 -1.7 -4.6

Glass and glass products

3272

91.4 0.0 -0.3 -0.3 -3.0 0.0 0.9

Cement and concrete products

3273

194.7 1.2 4.1 2.9 7.4 0.3 2.2

Lime and gypsum products

3274

14.5 -1.0 1.8 2.9 -2.0 2.1 4.7

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

78.1 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.1

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

83.0 9.4 -1.7 -10.1 -6.6 -3.9 -12.1

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

55.7 2.5 -9.1 -11.3 -10.1 -1.8 -12.8

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

58.4 7.3 2.1 -4.8 -0.9 -0.5 -6.4

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

60.6 3.5 -2.4 -5.7 -1.9 -2.7 -7.4

Foundries

3315

118.0 -1.6 -7.5 -6.0 -4.9 -2.0 -8.1

Forging and stamping

3321

98.5 -3.3 -5.6 -2.4 -1.9 0.2 -3.4

Cutlery and handtools

3322

39.5 -6.1 -5.7 0.4 1.3 -1.6 0.9

Architectural and structural metals

3323

376.0 0.4 1.3 1.0 0.2 -0.2 1.5

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

93.2 -3.9 -9.4 -5.7 -10.4 -0.6 -5.3

Hardware

3325

25.4 0.7 1.5 0.8 3.2 -2.0 0.6

Spring and wire products

3326

43.2 0.4 0.0 -0.4 -0.3 -0.1 -0.5

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

368.7 -3.2 -5.6 -2.4 -4.7 0.4 -1.6

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

138.2 -3.3 -4.6 -1.3 0.3 -0.9 -2.3

Other fabricated metal products

3329

270.6 -1.0 -2.9 -2.0 -3.8 -0.4 -1.7

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

207.7 -8.6 -19.4 -11.8 -14.4 -4.3 -12.7

Industrial machinery

3332

114.2 -4.1 -2.6 1.6 2.1 0.7 1.4

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

90.8 -0.4 -1.1 -0.8 2.5 -0.3 -2.4

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

129.9 -2.3 -3.3 -1.1 3.5 -1.8 -2.3

Metalworking machinery

3335

183.6 -1.1 -4.6 -3.6 -2.9 -0.3 -5.2

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

99.1 -4.4 -11.4 -7.3 -3.4 -3.1 -9.7

Other general purpose machinery

3339

262.5 -1.7 -3.5 -1.8 -1.5 -0.3 -2.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

162.8 -2.6 -4.0 -1.5 1.3 -4.5 -1.1

Communications equipment

3342

88.4 -1.6 -4.0 -2.4 -0.8 -4.8 -2.9

Audio and video equipment

3343

21.1 -6.3 -4.5 1.9 10.8 -4.8 0.9

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

371.4 -2.6 -2.9 -0.3 -0.5 -0.1 -0.2

Electronic instruments

3345

398.5 -0.5 -0.7 -0.2 -0.4 -0.1 0.0

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

16.6 -8.0 -8.5 -0.6 5.9 -7.0 -3.6

Electric lighting equipment

3351

48.9 2.7 5.6 2.9 8.8 -0.5 1.8

Household appliances

3352

63.2 3.8 3.8 0.0 6.9 -0.9 -1.3

Electrical equipment

3353

140.8 -0.6 -4.0 -3.4 -5.0 -2.7 -3.0

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

133.6 0.2 -1.1 -1.3 2.8 0.0 -3.3

Motor vehicles

3361

212.1 -0.7 0.9 1.7 9.5 1.2 1.1

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

152.4 -1.3 -1.3 0.0 0.6 3.7 -0.2

Motor vehicle parts

3363

584.7 -0.2 1.6 1.8 3.6 1.7 1.5

Aerospace products and parts

3364

491.5 -6.7 -7.7 -1.1 0.5 1.1 -3.1

Railroad rolling stock

3365

26.4 -3.7 -28.0 -25.3 -7.4 -2.0 -28.8

Ship and boat building

3366

136.3 2.5 -2.8 -5.1 -5.2 1.1 -7.0

Other transportation equipment

3369

34.9 -0.2 -1.4 -1.2 4.3 4.0 -3.5

Household and institutional furniture

3371

261.7 3.1 1.8 -1.3 1.6 -1.3 -2.6

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

110.0 2.4 -0.1 -2.4 -0.2 1.1 -5.1

Other furniture related products

3379

37.8 -0.7 -3.2 -2.5 1.5 0.4 -4.7

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

317.6 1.4 0.7 -0.7 3.4 0.8 -4.0

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

330.2 2.0 -0.2 -2.2 0.7 -1.3 -3.9

Transportation

Air transportation

481

448.1 0.6 3.5 2.8 3.1 2.0 2.9

Line-haul railroads

482111

173.1 -0.9 -4.1 -3.2 -8.9 3.5 -6.3






Table 2. Long run multifactor productivity and related data
Industry 2012 NAICS code Average annual percent change, 1987-2016
Multifactor productivity Output Combined
inputs
Hours worked Capital Intermediate
purchases

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

-0.2 1.9 2.1 -0.1 1.8 2.5

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

0.1 1.1 1.0 -0.7 0.3 1.4

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

0.1 0.5 0.5 -0.8 0.8 0.5

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

0.2 1.0 0.8 -0.2 0.9 0.9

Dairy products

3115

0.0 1.2 1.2 -0.3 1.5 1.3

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

0.5 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.9 1.0

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

0.4 0.6 0.2 -0.6 0.9 0.3

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

-0.8 0.4 1.2 0.1 0.9 1.9

Other food products

3119

0.2 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.3 2.4

Beverages

3121

0.3 1.4 1.0 0.6 0.6 1.4

Tobacco

3122

-0.8 -2.9 -2.1 -4.6 -2.1 -1.9

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

0.7 -1.5 -2.1 -4.6 -2.3 -1.4

Fabric mills

3132

0.3 -2.8 -3.1 -5.5 -2.4 -2.4

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

-0.1 -2.9 -2.9 -4.7 -2.3 -2.5

Textile furnishings mills

3141

-0.5 -2.2 -1.7 -2.7 -1.0 -1.8

Other textile product mills

3149

0.1 -0.4 -0.5 -1.7 0.4 -0.1

Apparel knitting mills

3151

-0.5 -8.0 -7.5 -7.2 -2.7 -8.2

Cut and sew apparel

3152

-1.6 -6.5 -5.0 -6.2 -2.7 -5.8

Accessories and other apparel

3159

-1.9 -6.4 -4.6 -3.7 -2.3 -5.4

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

-0.2 -2.9 -2.7 -3.8 -2.4 -2.7

Footwear

3162

-0.6 -5.0 -4.4 -6.0 -3.3 -3.9

Other leather products

3169

-1.0 -3.7 -2.8 -3.9 -2.1 -3.0

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

0.9 0.3 -0.6 -1.8 -1.1 0.0

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

-0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.8 0.2 0.5

Other wood products

3219

-0.5 -0.3 0.2 -1.1 0.7 0.8

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

0.6 -0.5 -1.0 -3.1 -1.1 -0.4

Converted paper products

3222

-0.2 0.2 0.3 -1.3 0.6 0.7

Printing and related support activities

3231

0.0 -0.6 -0.6 -1.8 0.3 -0.1

Petroleum and coal products

3241

-0.1 1.2 1.3 -1.1 1.1 1.5

Basic chemicals

3251

-0.1 0.8 0.8 -1.5 0.5 1.5

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

0.1 0.4 0.3 -1.7 0.2 0.7

Agricultural chemicals

3253

0.3 0.7 0.4 -1.5 0.4 0.6

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

-2.3 1.5 3.8 1.6 3.6 4.8

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

-0.5 -0.1 0.4 -0.9 0.0 0.9

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

0.2 1.2 1.0 -0.3 1.4 0.9

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

-0.1 0.0 0.1 -1.9 -0.1 0.9

Plastics products

3261

0.4 1.6 1.2 0.0 2.0 1.5

Rubber products

3262

0.5 0.2 -0.3 -1.4 0.0 0.3

Clay products and refractories

3271

0.3 -1.5 -1.9 -2.5 -1.4 -1.5

Glass and glass products

3272

1.1 0.5 -0.6 -1.7 -0.4 0.0

Cement and concrete products

3273

-0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.6

Lime and gypsum products

3274

-0.5 -0.4 0.1 -1.9 0.5 0.5

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

0.7 0.8 0.1 -0.3 -0.2 0.5

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

1.6 1.0 -0.6 -2.6 -2.0 0.5

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

0.1 -0.5 -0.6 -0.7 -1.6 -0.3

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

0.9 0.4 -0.5 -2.0 -0.9 0.0

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

0.6 0.2 -0.4 -1.8 -0.4 -0.1

Foundries

3315

0.4 -0.4 -0.7 -2.0 -0.7 0.3

Forging and stamping

3321

0.5 1.0 0.5 -0.9 1.2 1.2

Cutlery and handtools

3322

-0.2 -1.1 -0.9 -2.3 -0.7 0.0

Architectural and structural metals

3323

-0.3 0.9 1.2 0.3 0.7 1.8

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

0.0 0.2 0.2 -0.3 -0.3 0.6

Hardware

3325

-0.8 -2.3 -1.5 -2.9 -1.1 -1.0

Spring and wire products

3326

0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -2.0 0.2 0.4

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

0.6 2.1 1.5 0.6 1.9 2.2

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

0.8 1.9 1.1 0.0 1.2 1.7

Other fabricated metal products

3329

-0.5 -0.1 0.4 -0.6 0.4 1.0

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

-0.2 1.2 1.4 -0.2 0.5 2.1

Industrial machinery

3332

0.3 0.6 0.3 -0.7 1.0 0.8

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -1.8 -0.4 0.4

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

0.5 0.9 0.4 -0.7 0.7 0.8

Metalworking machinery

3335

0.8 0.3 -0.4 -1.3 0.1 0.3

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

0.0 1.0 1.0 -0.3 0.3 1.8

Other general purpose machinery

3339

0.1 1.2 1.1 -0.6 0.4 2.2

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

12.1 11.4 -0.6 -3.2 0.6 -0.5

Communications equipment

3342

2.6 1.9 -0.7 -3.3 1.7 -0.2

Audio and video equipment

3343

2.1 -1.5 -3.6 -3.5 -1.0 -4.0

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

9.1 10.7 1.5 -1.5 5.7 0.1

Electronic instruments

3345

0.9 1.3 0.4 -1.7 0.7 1.9

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

1.7 -2.1 -3.7 -3.0 -0.7 -4.9

Electric lighting equipment

3351

0.5 -0.3 -0.7 -1.8 -0.1 -0.5

Household appliances

3352

1.6 0.4 -1.2 -2.6 -0.7 -0.8

Electrical equipment

3353

-0.1 -0.6 -0.5 -1.9 -1.0 0.7

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

0.4 0.2 -0.2 -1.3 0.1 0.3

Motor vehicles

3361

0.1 2.1 2.0 -1.0 1.3 2.5

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

-0.4 1.7 2.2 0.5 1.3 2.6

Motor vehicle parts

3363

1.0 2.8 1.8 -0.1 0.3 2.6

Aerospace products and parts

3364

-0.1 0.4 0.5 -1.7 0.5 2.0

Railroad rolling stock

3365

0.3 4.2 3.8 0.5 0.2 5.3

Ship and boat building

3366

0.3 0.7 0.4 -1.1 0.1 1.6

Other transportation equipment

3369

1.1 3.4 2.2 -0.2 2.4 2.8

Household and institutional furniture

3371

0.1 -0.5 -0.6 -1.8 -0.1 -0.1

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

0.1 0.2 0.0 -1.2 0.6 0.6

Other furniture related products

3379

0.7 1.3 0.6 -0.8 -0.2 1.4

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

0.6 3.3 2.7 1.2 3.7 3.1

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

0.4 0.3 -0.1 -1.1 0.6 0.3

Transportation

Air transportation

481

1.3 2.7 1.4 -0.3 3.2 1.9

Line-haul railroads

482111

1.5 1.7 0.1 -1.8 0.5 1.6


Table 3. Multifactor productivity in selected periods
Industry 2012
NAICS
code
Average annual percent change
1987-2016 1987-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2007 2007-2016 2015-2016

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

-0.2 0.9 0.5 -1.0 1.8 -2.2 -0.8

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

0.1 -0.1 0.5 0.6 0.2 -0.5 1.0

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

0.1 0.6 0.8 1.8 0.2 -1.5 0.5

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

0.2 -2.1 1.2 0.8 1.3 -0.8 -1.4

Dairy products

3115

0.0 -1.1 0.3 -0.5 1.1 -0.4 2.7

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

0.5 -0.2 0.9 1.0 1.9 -0.9 -0.9

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

0.4 -1.5 -0.2 0.9 2.7 -0.8 0.0

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

-0.8 -4.0 0.4 -0.6 0.7 -1.6 0.5

Other food products

3119

0.2 0.2 1.0 -0.6 1.6 -0.9 2.6

Beverages

3121

0.3 1.0 1.4 -1.1 1.8 -0.7 -2.5

Tobacco

3122

-0.8 1.6 1.4 0.6 -1.0 -3.5 -4.3

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

0.7 0.6 0.2 1.0 3.6 -1.3 -3.8

Fabric mills

3132

0.3 0.2 1.4 0.8 2.9 -2.6 -2.4

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

-0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.9 0.3 -0.9 2.4

Textile furnishings mills

3141

-0.5 -0.4 1.5 -1.2 0.5 -2.0 -0.4

Other textile product mills

3149

0.1 -0.4 0.2 -0.7 1.7 -0.6 -2.2

Apparel knitting mills

3151

-0.5 0.8 1.9 -2.0 -2.7 0.3 2.5

Cut and sew apparel

3152

-1.6 -1.2 0.7 -0.7 -3.4 -2.1 2.9

Accessories and other apparel

3159

-1.9 0.8 0.5 -6.1 -3.5 -0.6 -2.0

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

-0.2 -4.3 0.5 3.6 -3.8 1.7 7.8

Footwear

3162

-0.6 -1.8 -0.1 -1.0 -0.2 -0.5 -3.0

Other leather products

3169

-1.0 0.6 -3.4 3.0 1.8 -4.5 2.0

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

0.9 1.3 -1.1 0.0 1.7 1.6 1.7

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

-0.1 -1.0 -0.7 -0.2 0.6 0.1 2.7

Other wood products

3219

-0.5 -0.8 -1.2 -0.8 0.4 -0.5 1.5

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

0.6 -1.7 -0.2 1.6 1.7 0.3 0.2

Converted paper products

3222

-0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.4 0.5 -0.7 -0.7

Printing and related support activities

3231

0.0 -0.1 -0.6 -1.2 0.9 0.4 3.6

Petroleum and coal products

3241

-0.1 -1.5 1.6 2.9 -1.6 -1.1 -2.6

Basic chemicals

3251

-0.1 -1.0 -2.9 -0.6 3.2 -0.4 3.7

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

0.1 -1.7 0.6 0.3 1.9 -1.1 2.3

Agricultural chemicals

3253

0.3 1.7 0.8 -0.1 2.9 -2.1 -3.5

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

-2.3 -1.6 -2.7 -2.1 -0.3 -3.8 -4.8

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

-0.5 -2.0 -0.7 -1.0 0.8 -0.6 0.9

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

0.2 -1.2 0.2 -1.5 4.2 -1.3 0.3

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

-0.1 -1.2 0.5 0.8 -0.3 -0.5 -3.2

Plastics products

3261

0.4 -0.6 1.0 0.8 0.8 -0.1 3.0

Rubber products

3262

0.5 0.8 0.9 1.5 0.6 -0.4 -1.0

Clay products and refractories

3271

0.3 0.8 1.1 1.0 -0.5 0.0 4.9

Glass and glass products

3272

1.1 -0.2 1.6 2.0 0.6 1.0 0.0

Cement and concrete products

3273

-0.2 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.0 -1.3 1.2

Lime and gypsum products

3274

-0.5 -2.0 -2.2 1.3 0.3 -0.7 -1.0

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

0.7 -0.7 2.1 -0.6 2.7 -0.3 -0.2

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

1.6 1.1 1.9 1.6 0.6 2.2 9.4

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

0.1 1.3 2.3 -0.1 -0.5 -0.9 2.5

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

0.9 -0.6 -0.6 0.3 1.2 2.2 7.3

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

0.6 -2.6 1.8 2.7 -3.3 2.9 3.5

Foundries

3315

0.4 -0.2 1.6 0.0 1.2 -0.6 -1.6

Forging and stamping

3321

0.5 -0.7 0.5 0.1 3.8 -1.4 -3.3

Cutlery and handtools

3322

-0.2 -1.6 1.0 -0.4 0.5 -0.8 -6.1

Architectural and structural metals

3323

-0.3 -1.2 0.8 -0.7 1.4 -1.6 0.4

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

0.0 0.3 1.7 0.8 0.8 -2.1 -3.9

Hardware

3325

-0.8 -2.3 0.7 -0.1 -0.6 -1.6 0.7

Spring and wire products

3326

0.2 0.0 1.5 0.1 1.7 -1.6 0.4

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

0.6 0.9 3.2 0.2 1.5 -1.4 -3.2

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

0.8 0.9 2.1 -0.7 3.6 -1.2 -3.3

Other fabricated metal products

3329

-0.5 -1.8 0.3 -1.1 1.8 -2.0 -1.0

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

-0.2 2.5 0.0 -1.0 2.0 -2.5 -8.6

Industrial machinery

3332

0.3 0.2 1.5 0.1 1.4 -1.1 -4.1

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

0.2 0.8 -0.2 -1.2 -0.2 1.3 -0.4

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

0.5 -0.2 0.7 0.3 1.7 -0.3 -2.3

Metalworking machinery

3335

0.8 0.1 1.4 -1.0 2.8 0.1 -1.1

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

0.0 -0.7 -0.1 0.5 -0.2 0.1 -4.4

Other general purpose machinery

3339

0.1 0.3 0.0 -0.1 1.9 -1.2 -1.7

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

12.1 7.1 14.9 24.0 19.1 1.2 -2.6

Communications equipment

3342

2.6 3.9 5.2 5.3 3.8 -1.7 -1.6

Audio and video equipment

3343

2.1 3.1 2.5 1.9 3.7 0.5 -6.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

9.1 7.1 18.1 21.9 7.7 -0.2 -2.6

Electronic instruments

3345

0.9 1.8 1.0 -0.4 1.3 1.0 -0.5

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

1.7 0.5 5.5 -3.0 3.7 1.3 -8.0

Electric lighting equipment

3351

0.5 -2.0 0.3 0.4 2.0 0.3 2.7

Household appliances

3352

1.6 -0.2 2.8 0.9 3.5 0.6 3.8

Electrical equipment

3353

-0.1 0.7 2.2 -1.8 1.4 -1.7 -0.6

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

0.4 -1.6 1.2 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.2

Motor vehicles

3361

0.1 0.5 -1.3 0.0 2.8 -1.2 -0.7

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

-0.4 -3.0 2.2 -1.5 0.6 -1.3 -1.3

Motor vehicle parts

3363

1.0 -0.6 2.4 0.9 1.9 0.1 -0.2

Aerospace products and parts

3364

-0.1 -2.2 -1.0 -1.0 2.7 -0.6 -6.7

Railroad rolling stock

3365

0.3 2.1 -1.4 4.9 -1.8 -0.1 -3.7

Ship and boat building

3366

0.3 0.0 -1.5 -0.1 0.3 1.5 2.5

Other transportation equipment

3369

1.1 -2.1 4.3 -0.4 6.0 -2.3 -0.2

Household and institutional furniture

3371

0.1 -0.4 0.7 -0.5 1.1 -0.5 3.1

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

0.1 -2.7 0.3 1.8 1.0 -0.6 2.4

Other furniture related products

3379

0.7 -0.2 0.8 -0.4 2.3 0.5 -0.7

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

0.6 2.3 0.2 1.5 1.2 -0.5 1.4

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

0.4 1.1 0.7 0.4 0.8 -0.3 2.0

Transportation

Air transportation

481

1.3 -0.6 -0.2 -0.1 4.6 1.0 0.6

Line-haul railroads

482111

1.5 4.4 4.3 1.2 1.0 -0.3 -0.9


Table 4. Contributions to labor productivity
Industry 2012
NAICS
code
Average annual percent change, 1987-2016
Labor
productivity
Contribution of
capital intensity
Contribution of
intermediate purchases intensity
Multifactor
productivity

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111

2.0 0.4 1.8 -0.2

Grain and oilseed milling

3112

1.8 0.2 1.5 0.1

Sugar and confectionery products

3113

1.3 0.5 0.7 0.1

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114

1.2 0.4 0.6 0.2

Dairy products

3115

1.5 0.3 1.2 0.0

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116

0.5 0.1 -0.1 0.5

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117

1.1 0.1 0.6 0.4

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118

0.3 0.2 0.9 -0.8

Other food products

3119

0.2 -0.3 0.2 0.2

Beverages

3121

0.8 0.0 0.5 0.3

Tobacco

3122

1.7 2.0 0.6 -0.8

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131

3.3 0.2 2.3 0.7

Fabric mills

3132

2.8 0.5 2.0 0.3

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133

1.8 0.3 1.6 -0.1

Textile furnishings mills

3141

0.5 0.4 0.6 -0.5

Other textile product mills

3149

1.3 0.2 1.0 0.1

Apparel knitting mills

3151

-0.8 0.5 -0.9 -0.5

Cut and sew apparel

3152

-0.3 1.0 0.3 -1.6

Accessories and other apparel

3159

-2.9 0.2 -1.2 -1.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161

1.0 0.1 1.0 -0.2

Footwear

3162

1.0 0.5 1.1 -0.6

Other leather products

3169

0.2 0.8 0.4 -1.0

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211

2.1 -0.1 1.3 0.9

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212

0.8 0.0 0.9 -0.1

Other wood products

3219

0.8 0.1 1.2 -0.5

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221

2.7 0.6 1.5 0.6

Converted paper products

3222

1.4 0.3 1.3 -0.2

Printing and related support activities

3231

1.2 0.4 0.9 0.0

Petroleum and coal products

3241

2.3 0.3 2.2 -0.1

Basic chemicals

3251

2.3 0.5 1.9 -0.1

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252

2.1 0.4 1.6 0.1

Agricultural chemicals

3253

2.2 0.7 1.2 0.3

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254

-0.1 0.9 1.2 -2.3

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255

0.8 0.2 1.1 -0.5

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256

1.5 0.7 0.6 0.2

Other chemical products and preparations

3259

2.0 0.5 1.6 -0.1

Plastics products

3261

1.6 0.4 0.8 0.4

Rubber products

3262

1.7 0.2 1.0 0.5

Clay products and refractories

3271

1.0 0.2 0.5 0.3

Glass and glass products

3272

2.2 0.3 0.8 1.1

Cement and concrete products

3273

0.0 0.0 0.2 -0.2

Lime and gypsum products

3274

1.5 0.6 1.4 -0.5

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279

1.1 0.0 0.4 0.7

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311

3.6 0.0 2.1 1.6

Steel products from purchased steel

3312

0.3 -0.2 0.3 0.1

Alumina and aluminum production

3313

2.4 0.2 1.4 0.9

Other nonferrous metal production

3314

2.0 0.3 1.2 0.6

Foundries

3315

1.7 0.1 1.2 0.4

Forging and stamping

3321

2.0 0.2 1.3 0.5

Cutlery and handtools

3322

1.3 0.4 1.1 -0.2

Architectural and structural metals

3323

0.6 0.0 0.8 -0.3

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324

0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0

Hardware

3325

0.7 0.4 1.1 -0.8

Spring and wire products

3326

1.9 0.3 1.3 0.2

Machine shops and threaded products

3327

1.5 0.2 0.7 0.6

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328

1.8 0.1 0.9 0.8

Other fabricated metal products

3329

0.5 0.2 0.8 -0.5

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331

1.4 0.1 1.5 -0.2

Industrial machinery

3332

1.3 0.2 0.8 0.3

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333

1.7 0.2 1.2 0.2

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334

1.6 0.2 0.9 0.5

Metalworking machinery

3335

1.7 0.1 0.7 0.8

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336

1.3 0.2 1.2 0.0

Other general purpose machinery

3339

1.8 0.1 1.6 0.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341

15.0 0.9 1.7 12.1

Communications equipment

3342

5.3 0.8 1.9 2.6

Audio and video equipment

3343

2.1 0.2 -0.2 2.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344

12.4 2.1 0.8 9.1

Electronic instruments

3345

3.0 0.5 1.5 0.9

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346

1.0 0.5 -1.2 1.7

Electric lighting equipment

3351

1.5 0.4 0.7 0.5

Household appliances

3352

3.0 0.3 1.1 1.6

Electrical equipment

3353

1.4 0.2 1.3 -0.1

Other electrical equipment and components

3359

1.5 0.2 0.9 0.4

Motor vehicles

3361

3.1 0.4 2.6 0.1

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362

1.2 0.1 1.6 -0.4

Motor vehicle parts

3363

2.9 0.0 1.9 1.0

Aerospace products and parts

3364

2.1 0.5 1.7 -0.1

Railroad rolling stock

3365

3.6 0.1 3.2 0.3

Ship and boat building

3366

1.8 0.1 1.4 0.3

Other transportation equipment

3369

3.7 0.5 2.0 1.1

Household and institutional furniture

3371

1.3 0.2 1.0 0.1

Office furniture and fixtures

3372

1.3 0.3 0.9 0.1

Other furniture related products

3379

2.1 0.1 1.3 0.7

Medical equipment and supplies

3391

2.2 0.8 0.7 0.6

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399

1.4 0.3 0.7 0.4

Transportation

Air transportation

481

3.0 0.8 0.9 1.3

Line-haul railroads

482111

3.6 0.7 1.3 1.5

Last Modified Date: June 28, 2018