Union Membership (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, January 26, 2017                      USDL-17-0107

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                   UNION MEMBERS -- 2016


The union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of
unions--was 10.7 percent in 2016, down 0.4 percentage point from 2015, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. The number of wage and salary workers belonging to
unions, at 14.6 million in 2016, declined by 240,000 from 2015. In 1983, the first
year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was
20.1 percent, and there were 17.7 million union workers.

The data on union membership are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS),
a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households that obtains information on
employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional population ages
16 and over. For more information, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2016 data:

   --Public-sector workers had a union membership rate (34.4 percent) more than five
     times higher than that of private-sector workers (6.4 percent). (See table 3.)

   --Workers in education, training, and library occupations and in protective service
     occupations had the highest unionization rates (34.6 percent and 34.5 percent,
     respectively). (See table 3.)

   --Men continued to have a slightly higher union membership rate (11.2 percent) than
     women (10.2 percent). (See table 1.)

   --Black workers were more likely to be union members than were White, Asian, or
     Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

   --Median weekly earnings of nonunion workers ($802) were 80 percent of earnings for
     workers who were union members ($1,004). (The comparisons of earnings in this
     release are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be
     important in explaining earnings differences.) (See table 2.)

   --Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership rate
    (23.6 percent), while South Carolina continued to have the lowest (1.6 percent).
    (See table 5.)

Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2016, 7.1 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union, compared with
7.4 million workers in the private sector. The union membership rate for public-sector
workers (34.4 percent) was substantially higher than the rate for private-sector workers
(6.4 percent). Within the public sector, the union membership rate was highest for local
government (40.3 percent), which includes employees in heavily unionized occupations,
such as teachers, police officers, and firefighters. In the private sector, industries
with high unionization rates included utilities (21.5 percent), transportation and
warehousing (18.4 percent), telecommunications (14.6 percent), construction (13.9
percent), and educational services (12.3 percent). Low unionization rates occurred in
finance (1.2 percent), agriculture and related industries (1.3 percent), food services
and drinking places (1.6 percent), and professional and technical services (1.6 percent).
(See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, the highest unionization rates in 2016 were in education,
training, and library occupations (34.6 percent) and in protective service occupations
(34.5 percent). The lowest unionization rates were in farming, fishing, and forestry
occupations (2.2 percent); sales and related occupations (3.1 percent); computer and
mathematical occupations (3.9 percent); and food preparation and serving related
occupations (3.9 percent).

Selected Characteristics of Union Members

In 2016, the union membership rate continued to be slightly higher for men (11.2 percent)
than for women (10.2 percent). (See table 1.) The gap between their rates has narrowed
considerably since 1983 (the earliest year for which comparable data are available), when
rates for men and women were 24.7 percent and 14.6 percent, respectively.

Among major race and ethnicity groups, Black workers continued to have a higher union
membership rate in 2016 (13.0 percent) than workers who were White (10.5 percent), Asian
(9.0 percent), or Hispanic (8.8 percent).

By age, union membership rates continued to be highest among workers ages 45 to 64. In
2016, 13.3 percent of workers ages 45 to 54 and ages 55 to 64 were union members.

The union membership rate was 11.8 percent for full-time workers, more than twice the
rate for part-time workers at 5.7 percent.

Union Representation

In 2016, 16.3 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. This group
includes both union members (14.6 million) and workers who report no union affiliation
but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.7 million). (See table 1.)

Earnings

Among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual weekly earnings
of $1,004 in 2016, while those who were not union members had median weekly earnings
of $802. In addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, this earnings
difference reflects a variety of influences, including variations in the distributions
of union members and nonunion employees by occupation, industry, age, firm size, or
geographic region. (See tables 2 and 4.)

Union Membership by State

In 2016, 27 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below that of
the U.S. average, 10.7 percent, while 23 states had rates above it. All states in the
West South Central division had union membership rates below the national average, and
all states in both the Middle Atlantic and the Pacific divisions had rates above it.
Union membership rates decreased over the year in 31 states and the District of Columbia,
increased in 16 states, and were unchanged in 3 states. (See table 5.) 

Nine states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2016, with South Carolina
having the lowest rate (1.6 percent). The next lowest rates were in North Carolina (3.0
percent), Arkansas (3.9 percent), and Georgia (3.9 percent). New York was the only state
with a union membership rate over 20.0 percent in 2016 at 23.6 percent.

State union membership levels depend on both the employment level and the union
membership rate. The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.6 million)
and New York (1.9 million). Over half of the 14.6 million union members in the U.S.
lived in just 7 states (California, 2.6 million; New York, 1.9 million; Illinois,
0.8 million; Pennsylvania, 0.7 million; and Michigan, New Jersey, and Ohio, 0.6 million
each), though these states accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary
employment nationally.




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households.
The union membership and earnings data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly
sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the
CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at
https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference,
or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 
standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section of this release
preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in state
union membership rates and levels regardless of their statistical significance.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard
errors is available at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Union membership questions 

   Employed wage and salary workers are classified as union members if they answer “yes” to 
the following question: On this job, are you a member of a labor union or of an employee
association similar to a union? If the response is “no” to that question, then the interviewer
asks a second question: On this job, are you covered by a union or employee association
contract? If the response is “yes,” then these persons, along with those who responded “yes”
to being union members, are classified as represented by a union.  If the response is “no”
to both the first and second questions, then they are classified as nonunion.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar
to a union.

   Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who
are union members.
   
   Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union
affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

   Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a
union on their job.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the
case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually
earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest
way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually,
other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a
basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is as perceived
by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed
to define the term as more than half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the
median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into
$50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value is estimated
through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the median lies.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in
kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors.
Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with
incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the enumeration
process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2015 2016
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

133,743 14,795 11.1 16,441 12.3 136,101 14,555 10.7 16,271 12.0

16 to 24 years

18,311 800 4.4 967 5.3 18,556 816 4.4 988 5.3

25 years and over

115,431 13,995 12.1 15,474 13.4 117,545 13,739 11.7 15,283 13.0

25 to 34 years

30,870 2,985 9.7 3,363 10.9 31,750 2,924 9.2 3,296 10.4

35 to 44 years

28,101 3,457 12.3 3,785 13.5 28,515 3,423 12.0 3,782 13.3

45 to 54 years

28,764 3,909 13.6 4,306 15.0 28,807 3,846 13.3 4,269 14.8

55 to 64 years

21,288 3,035 14.3 3,329 15.6 21,778 2,903 13.3 3,209 14.7

65 years and over

6,408 610 9.5 691 10.8 6,696 643 9.6 726 10.8

Men, 16 years and over

69,298 7,963 11.5 8,760 12.6 70,589 7,888 11.2 8,704 12.3

16 to 24 years

9,250 485 5.2 563 6.1 9,412 484 5.1 568 6.0

25 years and over

60,048 7,478 12.5 8,197 13.7 61,177 7,404 12.1 8,136 13.3

25 to 34 years

16,550 1,639 9.9 1,825 11.0 16,930 1,640 9.7 1,833 10.8

35 to 44 years

14,844 1,857 12.5 2,023 13.6 15,102 1,881 12.5 2,051 13.6

45 to 54 years

14,696 2,079 14.1 2,281 15.5 14,775 2,048 13.9 2,253 15.3

55 to 64 years

10,698 1,588 14.8 1,717 16.0 10,957 1,511 13.8 1,633 14.9

65 years and over

3,259 315 9.7 352 10.8 3,412 323 9.5 365 10.7

Women, 16 years and over

64,445 6,833 10.6 7,681 11.9 65,512 6,667 10.2 7,567 11.6

16 to 24 years

9,061 315 3.5 405 4.5 9,143 332 3.6 420 4.6

25 years and over

55,384 6,518 11.8 7,277 13.1 56,368 6,335 11.2 7,147 12.7

25 to 34 years

14,320 1,346 9.4 1,538 10.7 14,820 1,284 8.7 1,463 9.9

35 to 44 years

13,257 1,600 12.1 1,762 13.3 13,412 1,542 11.5 1,731 12.9

45 to 54 years

14,068 1,830 13.0 2,025 14.4 14,032 1,797 12.8 2,016 14.4

55 to 64 years

10,590 1,447 13.7 1,613 15.2 10,820 1,392 12.9 1,576 14.6

65 years and over

3,149 294 9.3 339 10.8 3,283 320 9.8 361 11.0

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

104,991 11,301 10.8 12,627 12.0 106,160 11,120 10.5 12,436 11.7

Men

55,402 6,222 11.2 6,875 12.4 56,007 6,153 11.0 6,769 12.1

Women

49,590 5,079 10.2 5,752 11.6 50,153 4,967 9.9 5,667 11.3

Black or African American, 16 years and over

16,552 2,246 13.6 2,427 14.7 17,014 2,209 13.0 2,475 14.5

Men

7,558 1,097 14.5 1,174 15.5 7,852 1,104 14.1 1,229 15.7

Women

8,995 1,149 12.8 1,253 13.9 9,163 1,105 12.1 1,245 13.6

Asian, 16 years and over

7,883 770 9.8 860 10.9 8,340 752 9.0 839 10.1

Men

4,113 367 8.9 416 10.1 4,368 355 8.1 404 9.3

Women

3,770 403 10.7 444 11.8 3,972 397 10.0 435 10.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

22,351 2,104 9.4 2,365 10.6 23,085 2,032 8.8 2,308 10.0

Men

12,670 1,211 9.6 1,346 10.6 13,125 1,209 9.2 1,348 10.3

Women

9,681 892 9.2 1,019 10.5 9,960 823 8.3 960 9.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

109,080 13,340 12.2 14,768 13.5 111,091 13,119 11.8 14,593 13.1

Part-time workers

24,445 1,431 5.9 1,646 6.7 24,832 1,415 5.7 1,655 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2015-2016 annual averages
Characteristic 2015 2016
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$809 $980 $975 $776 $832 $1,004 $995 $802

16 to 24 years

487 616 605 482 501 600 599 497

25 years and over

860 997 994 831 885 1,022 1,014 858

25 to 34 years

735 886 882 716 751 893 890 734

35 to 44 years

900 1,050 1,048 870 934 1,071 1,059 908

45 to 54 years

923 1,029 1,024 899 955 1,084 1,069 930

55 to 64 years

927 1,020 1,017 904 952 1,072 1,069 930

65 years and over

873 961 963 852 866 984 988 846

Men, 16 years and over

895 1,017 1,014 869 915 1,050 1,042 890

16 to 24 years

510 655 633 505 512 582 581 509

25 years and over

947 1,041 1,038 927 969 1,080 1,074 950

25 to 34 years

770 888 889 756 794 915 915 775

35 to 44 years

983 1,093 1,094 963 1,007 1,123 1,120 990

45 to 54 years

1,040 1,107 1,110 1,023 1,075 1,146 1,140 1,057

55 to 64 years

1,064 1,084 1,082 1,059 1,102 1,136 1,140 1,090

65 years and over

1,003 1,010 998 1,005 992 1,022 1,029 988

Women, 16 years and over

726 928 921 697 749 955 942 723

16 to 24 years

450 567 565 443 486 628 624 481

25 years and over

761 944 940 736 784 972 960 757

25 to 34 years

690 884 876 667 705 865 860 685

35 to 44 years

804 1,002 1,001 764 839 1,015 1,004 804

45 to 54 years

799 958 950 768 836 1,006 988 800

55 to 64 years

784 937 934 759 812 999 992 778

65 years and over

740 894 905 718 749 942 964 723

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

835 1,007 999 803 862 1,050 1,034 827

Men

920 1,051 1,044 895 942 1,111 1,099 915

Women

743 952 944 715 766 989 975 738

Black or African American, 16 years and over

641 800 798 617 678 808 807 646

Men

680 824 821 650 718 818 826 690

Women

615 768 768 595 641 799 790 616

Asian, 16 years and over

993 1,094 1,107 977 1,021 1,020 1,017 1,022

Men

1,129 1,097 1,125 1,130 1,151 1,061 1,076 1,160

Women

877 1,091 1,090 835 902 985 975 892

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

604 862 847 586 624 886 876 608

Men

631 901 887 610 663 908 901 637

Women

566 778 783 541 586 844 829 565

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2015 2016
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

50,939 6,132 12.0 6,983 13.7 52,108 6,064 11.6 6,916 13.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19,636 871 4.4 1,057 5.4 20,289 927 4.6 1,129 5.6

Management occupations

13,213 581 4.4 701 5.3 13,563 605 4.5 736 5.4

Business and financial operations occupations

6,423 290 4.5 356 5.5 6,726 322 4.8 393 5.8

Professional and related occupations

31,302 5,261 16.8 5,926 18.9 31,818 5,138 16.1 5,787 18.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,195 162 3.9 221 5.3 4,301 166 3.9 222 5.2

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,777 190 6.8 219 7.9 2,941 187 6.4 219 7.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,309 109 8.3 139 10.6 1,276 112 8.8 138 10.8

Community and social service occupations

2,517 386 15.3 412 16.4 2,506 372 14.8 408 16.3

Legal occupations

1,475 83 5.6 100 6.8 1,412 79 5.6 95 6.8

Education, training, and library occupations

8,766 3,112 35.5 3,466 39.5 8,765 3,031 34.6 3,344 38.2

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2,120 161 7.6 187 8.8 2,158 141 6.5 162 7.5

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

8,142 1,059 13.0 1,183 14.5 8,459 1,051 12.4 1,199 14.2

Service occupations

23,503 2,492 10.6 2,759 11.7 24,271 2,337 9.6 2,596 10.7

Healthcare support occupations

3,305 279 8.4 314 9.5 3,373 233 6.9 275 8.1

Protective service occupations

3,092 1,123 36.3 1,189 38.5 3,093 1,069 34.5 1,133 36.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,016 329 4.1 381 4.8 8,466 333 3.9 394 4.6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,868 473 9.7 537 11.0 4,897 430 8.8 491 10.0

Personal care and service occupations

4,222 288 6.8 338 8.0 4,441 272 6.1 304 6.8

Sales and office occupations

30,931 2,055 6.6 2,311 7.5 31,051 2,051 6.6 2,314 7.5

Sales and related occupations

13,574 441 3.3 505 3.7 13,671 421 3.1 483 3.5

Office and administrative support occupations

17,357 1,614 9.3 1,806 10.4 17,380 1,631 9.4 1,831 10.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,694 1,751 15.0 1,868 16.0 11,812 1,788 15.1 1,920 16.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

971 18 1.9 25 2.5 988 22 2.2 31 3.2

Construction and extraction occupations

6,193 1,067 17.2 1,133 18.3 6,387 1,177 18.4 1,240 19.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,530 666 14.7 710 15.7 4,438 589 13.3 649 14.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16,676 2,365 14.2 2,521 15.1 16,859 2,315 13.7 2,524 15.0

Production occupations

8,180 1,031 12.6 1,098 13.4 8,150 959 11.8 1,049 12.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,496 1,334 15.7 1,422 16.7 8,708 1,355 15.6 1,475 16.9

INDUSTRY

Private sector

113,152 7,554 6.7 8,411 7.4 115,417 7,435 6.4 8,437 7.3

Agriculture and related industries

1,269 15 1.2 22 1.7 1,315 17 1.3 28 2.1

Nonagricultural industries

111,882 7,539 6.7 8,389 7.5 114,102 7,419 6.5 8,409 7.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

866 47 5.4 57 6.5 765 43 5.6 48 6.3

Construction

7,109 940 13.2 992 14.0 7,488 1,039 13.9 1,095 14.6

Manufacturing

14,547 1,369 9.4 1,462 10.0 14,783 1,295 8.8 1,422 9.6

Durable goods

9,288 874 9.4 933 10.0 9,247 827 8.9 906 9.8

Nondurable goods

5,258 494 9.4 529 10.1 5,536 468 8.4 515 9.3

Wholesale and retail trade

18,798 871 4.6 962 5.1 18,515 780 4.2 887 4.8

Wholesale trade

3,346 126 3.8 139 4.2 3,288 120 3.7 137 4.2

Retail trade

15,452 745 4.8 823 5.3 15,227 660 4.3 750 4.9

Transportation and utilities

5,722 1,106 19.3 1,159 20.3 6,048 1,145 18.9 1,239 20.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,765 901 18.9 946 19.8 5,073 935 18.4 1,014 20.0

Utilities

957 205 21.4 213 22.3 975 210 21.5 225 23.0

Information(3)

2,525 217 8.6 249 9.9 2,473 222 9.0 250 10.1

Publishing, except Internet

495 19 3.9 22 4.4 455 22 4.9 24 5.2

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

314 37 11.7 40 12.8 349 38 11.0 43 12.3

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

561 37 6.7 48 8.5 534 32 5.9 43 8.0

Telecommunications

883 118 13.3 131 14.8 821 119 14.6 129 15.8

Financial activities

8,781 208 2.4 242 2.8 8,963 205 2.3 274 3.1

Finance and insurance

6,550 103 1.6 129 2.0 6,616 91 1.4 138 2.1

Finance

4,126 53 1.3 70 1.7 4,142 49 1.2 81 2.0

Insurance

2,424 51 2.1 59 2.4 2,473 42 1.7 57 2.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,231 105 4.7 113 5.1 2,347 114 4.9 136 5.8

Professional and business services

13,738 348 2.5 458 3.3 14,257 346 2.4 464 3.3

Professional and technical services

8,327 142 1.7 218 2.6 8,728 141 1.6 211 2.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

5,411 206 3.8 240 4.4 5,529 205 3.7 253 4.6

Education and health services

21,572 1,867 8.7 2,132 9.9 22,152 1,808 8.2 2,107 9.5

Educational services

4,551 625 13.7 720 15.8 4,557 561 12.3 652 14.3

Health care and social assistance

17,021 1,242 7.3 1,412 8.3 17,595 1,247 7.1 1,454 8.3

Leisure and hospitality

12,357 389 3.1 449 3.6 12,687 381 3.0 438 3.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,250 144 6.4 158 7.0 2,329 126 5.4 139 6.0

Accommodation and food services

10,107 245 2.4 291 2.9 10,358 255 2.5 299 2.9

Accommodation

1,575 116 7.4 127 8.0 1,506 114 7.6 123 8.2

Food services and drinking places

8,532 129 1.5 165 1.9 8,852 141 1.6 176 2.0

Other services(3)

5,867 177 3.0 227 3.9 5,973 155 2.6 186 3.1

Other services, except private households

5,055 166 3.3 205 4.1 5,258 152 2.9 179 3.4

Public sector

20,591 7,241 35.2 8,031 39.0 20,684 7,120 34.4 7,834 37.9

Federal government

3,591 979 27.3 1,160 32.3 3,674 1,006 27.4 1,144 31.1

State government

6,875 2,079 30.2 2,312 33.6 6,965 2,064 29.6 2,282 32.8

Local government

10,126 4,183 41.3 4,559 45.0 10,045 4,050 40.3 4,409 43.9

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2015-2016 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2015 2016
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,158 $1,152 $1,148 $1,160 $1,188 $1,166 $1,159 $1,197

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,258 1,273 1,291 1,257 1,284 1,263 1,266 1,285

Management occupations

1,351 1,386 1,380 1,349 1,370 1,389 1,408 1,368

Business and financial operations occupations

1,137 1,108 1,132 1,138 1,161 1,146 1,141 1,164

Professional and related occupations

1,112 1,140 1,132 1,103 1,141 1,156 1,146 1,140

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,428 1,388 1,327 1,434 1,443 1,372 1,332 1,458

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,424 1,393 1,399 1,427 1,482 1,424 1,411 1,490

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,206 1,249 1,266 1,187 1,209 1,288 1,278 1,195

Community and social service occupations

889 1,014 1,008 855 919 1,095 1,076 872

Legal occupations

1,391 1,551 1,547 1,373 1,431 1,615 1,621 1,419

Education, training, and library occupations

956 1,095 1,074 860 984 1,130 1,114 887

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,001 1,228 1,212 984 1,040 1,252 1,224 1,028

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,041 1,211 1,194 1,014 1,104 1,191 1,175 1,087

Service occupations

509 753 742 489 523 771 753 505

Healthcare support occupations

498 544 546 495 525 602 602 520

Protective service occupations

796 1,031 1,029 687 809 1,088 1,074 694

Food preparation and serving related occupations

441 515 512 436 465 597 581 459

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

486 648 628 469 510 664 647 498

Personal care and service occupations

498 515 521 496 505 559 546 503

Sales and office occupations

673 810 801 662 698 810 804 686

Sales and related occupations

716 702 710 716 744 717 724 745

Office and administrative support occupations

656 831 821 639 679 826 818 661

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

761 1,070 1,052 711 786 1,127 1,111 735

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

464 - - 460 520 - - 518

Construction and extraction occupations

749 1,082 1,064 695 784 1,153 1,142 719

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

839 1,066 1,051 799 861 1,076 1,069 822

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

656 850 842 622 665 881 876 631

Production occupations

663 824 826 635 668 841 837 641

Transportation and material moving occupations

646 876 859 610 662 913 904 622

INDUSTRY

Private sector

776 917 912 765 801 937 932 789

Agriculture and related industries

522 - - 519 572 - - 571

Nonagricultural industries

781 918 913 769 806 937 933 793

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,162 - 1,170 1,162 1,197 - - 1,190

Construction

784 1,099 1,093 743 822 1,168 1,146 780

Manufacturing

839 876 868 833 857 885 884 852

Durable goods

872 889 881 871 893 907 910 890

Nondurable goods

776 849 841 768 793 839 827 789

Wholesale and retail trade

653 673 671 652 676 701 700 675

Wholesale trade

841 876 863 840 871 921 905 868

Retail trade

610 621 622 609 623 645 645 622

Transportation and utilities

843 1,007 1,003 803 860 1,033 1,023 808

Transportation and warehousing

790 980 977 754 795 972 969 757

Utilities

1,133 1,194 1,188 1,116 1,264 1,408 1,388 1,242

Information(4)

1,102 1,260 1,242 1,077 1,143 1,238 1,257 1,133

Publishing, except Internet

1,098 - - 1,102 1,094 - - 1,102

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

996 - - 935 1,085 - - 1,030

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

980 - - 968 1,017 - - 1,020

Telecommunications

1,162 1,212 1,208 1,148 1,182 1,273 1,306 1,153

Financial activities

964 915 924 964 977 896 916 981

Finance and insurance

1,024 983 1,004 1,024 1,039 818 853 1,047

Finance

1,061 923 1,082 1,060 1,089 - 813 1,101

Insurance

973 988 981 973 977 - 907 980

Real estate and rental and leasing

782 891 893 772 827 977 970 817

Professional and business services

951 874 906 953 992 887 935 995

Professional and technical services

1,256 1,297 1,268 1,255 1,273 1,309 1,277 1,273

Management, administrative, and waste services

$605 $684 $672 $603 $613 $687 $682 $610

Education and health services

787 962 946 768 817 944 937 799

Educational services

918 1,025 1,015 896 936 967 965 931

Health care and social assistance

754 916 904 742 785 929 921 771

Leisure and hospitality

515 606 592 511 528 670 667 522

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

657 672 680 655 678 720 720 673

Accommodation and food services

492 579 558 489 504 642 637 501

Accommodation

546 645 639 532 582 698 703 564

Food services and drinking places

480 492 490 480 491 567 575 490

Other services(4)

684 903 879 677 686 959 869 681

Other services, except private households

710 916 900 703 708 965 893 703

Public sector

944 1,029 1,023 878 967 1,070 1,055 900

Federal government

1,113 1,058 1,064 1,159 1,149 1,093 1,099 1,188

State government

909 988 982 867 931 1,022 1,011 883

Local government

914 1,043 1,033 783 940 1,089 1,071 817

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State 2015 2016
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,863 190 10.2 204 11.0 1,895 153 8.1 170 9.0

Alaska

304 60 19.6 66 21.7 297 55 18.5 59 19.9

Arizona

2,661 138 5.2 163 6.1 2,727 122 4.5 151 5.5

Arkansas

1,155 58 5.1 74 6.4 1,186 47 3.9 59 5.0

California

15,657 2,486 15.9 2,689 17.2 16,001 2,551 15.9 2,796 17.5

Colorado

2,310 194 8.4 215 9.3 2,438 238 9.8 263 10.8

Connecticut

1,587 269 17.0 277 17.4 1,568 275 17.5 288 18.4

Delaware

412 38 9.2 43 10.4 419 48 11.4 56 13.3

District of Columbia

334 35 10.4 40 12.1 343 32 9.5 37 10.7

Florida

7,994 546 6.8 671 8.4 8,113 456 5.6 574 7.1

Georgia

4,016 162 4.0 206 5.1 4,249 165 3.9 210 4.9

Hawaii

583 119 20.4 126 21.7 597 119 19.9 125 20.9

Idaho

679 46 6.8 50 7.3 689 42 6.1 47 6.8

Illinois

5,566 847 15.2 892 16.0 5,587 812 14.5 856 15.3

Indiana

2,828 283 10.0 319 11.3 2,927 304 10.4 335 11.4

Iowa

1,435 138 9.6 174 12.2 1,454 129 8.9 153 10.5

Kansas

1,255 110 8.7 136 10.8 1,274 109 8.6 132 10.3

Kentucky

1,705 187 11.0 207 12.1 1,710 190 11.1 228 13.4

Louisiana

1,847 107 5.8 126 6.8 1,799 76 4.2 88 4.9

Maine

549 64 11.6 75 13.6 567 65 11.4 77 13.5

Maryland

2,757 287 10.4 337 12.2 2,815 310 11.0 347 12.3

Massachusetts

3,103 402 12.9 441 14.2 3,158 381 12.1 407 12.9

Michigan

4,083 621 15.2 672 16.5 4,196 606 14.4 651 15.5

Minnesota

2,565 363 14.2 385 15.0 2,563 365 14.2 388 15.2

Mississippi

1,103 60 5.4 75 6.8 1,108 73 6.6 90 8.1

Missouri

2,615 230 8.8 257 9.8 2,711 262 9.7 290 10.7

Montana

427 52 12.2 59 13.9 418 50 11.9 58 13.9

Nebraska

882 68 7.7 80 9.0 876 64 7.4 74 8.5

Nevada

1,232 177 14.3 203 16.5 1,211 146 12.1 182 15.0

New Hampshire

641 62 9.7 73 11.4 669 63 9.4 74 11.0

New Jersey

3,880 596 15.4 644 16.6 4,007 644 16.1 666 16.6

New Mexico

782 49 6.2 61 7.9 784 49 6.3 64 8.2

New York

8,249 2,038 24.7 2,141 26.0 8,227 1,942 23.6 2,075 25.2

North Carolina

4,089 123 3.0 167 4.1 4,225 129 3.0 174 4.1

North Dakota

352 19 5.4 24 6.8 363 20 5.5 25 7.0

Ohio

4,914 606 12.3 670 13.6 4,970 617 12.4 702 14.1

Oklahoma

1,567 88 5.6 116 7.4 1,482 80 5.4 97 6.6

Oregon

1,586 235 14.8 256 16.2 1,691 228 13.5 267 15.8

Pennsylvania

5,601 747 13.3 804 14.4 5,686 685 12.1 724 12.7

Rhode Island

483 68 14.2 72 14.9 481 74 15.5 81 16.9

South Carolina

1,960 41 2.1 57 2.9 1,981 32 1.6 52 2.6

South Dakota

382 22 5.9 26 6.9 379 20 5.2 26 7.0

Tennessee

2,693 146 5.4 175 6.5 2,746 158 5.7 174 6.4

Texas

11,177 503 4.5 626 5.6 11,457 462 4.0 606 5.3

Utah

1,274 50 3.9 67 5.2 1,318 62 4.7 79 6.0

Vermont

284 36 12.6 42 14.7 290 33 11.5 37 12.9

Virginia

3,736 202 5.4 258 6.9 3,748 160 4.3 226 6.0

Washington

2,977 500 16.8 536 18.0 3,090 539 17.4 577 18.7

West Virginia

665 83 12.4 91 13.7 669 79 11.8 88 13.2

Wisconsin

2,682 223 8.3 253 9.4 2,696 219 8.1 244 9.0

Wyoming

261 19 7.1 22 8.2 248 16 6.3 18 7.3

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 26, 2017