Union Membership (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 19, 2018	       	         USDL-18-0080

Technical information: (202) 691-6378 * cpsinfo@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact: 	       (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


				UNION MEMBERS -- 2017


The union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were
members of unions--was unchanged at 10.7 percent in 2017, the U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics reported today. The number of wage and salary workers
belonging to unions, at 14.8 million in 2017, edged up by 262,000 from 2016.
In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the
union membership rate was 20.1 percent and there were 17.7 million union
workers.

The data on union membership are collected as part of the Current Population
Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
that obtains information on employment and unemployment among the nation's
civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over. For more information,
see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2017 data:

  --The union membership rate of public-sector workers (34.4 percent)
    continued to be more than five times higher than that of private-
    sector workers (6.5 percent). (See table 3.)

  --Workers in protective service occupations and in education, training,
    and library occupations had the highest unionization rates (34.7
    percent and 33.5 percent, respectively). (See table 3.)

  --Men continued to have a higher union membership rate (11.4 percent)
    than women (10.0 percent). (See table 1.)

  --Black workers remained more likely to be union members than White,
    Asian, or Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

  --Nonunion workers had median weekly earnings that were 80 percent of
    earnings for workers who were union members ($829 versus $1,041). (The
    comparisons of earnings in this release are on a broad level and do not
    control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings
    differences.) (See table 2.)

  --Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership
    rate (23.8 percent), while South Carolina continued to have the lowest
    (2.6 percent). (See table 5.)

Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2017, 7.2 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union, compared
with 7.6 million workers in the private sector. Although the union membership
rate for private-sector workers edged up by 0.1 percentage point in 2017, their
unionization rate continued to be substantially lower than that for public-sector
workers (6.5 percent versus 34.4 percent). Within the public sector, the union
membership rate was highest in local government (40.1 percent), which employs many
workers in heavily unionized occupations, such as teachers, police officers, and
firefighters. Private-sector industries with high unionization rates included utilities
(23.0 percent), transportation and warehousing (17.3 percent), telecommunications
(16.1 percent), and construction (14.0 percent). Low unionization rates occurred in
finance (1.1 percent), food services and drinking places (1.4 percent), and
professional and technical services (1.7 percent). (See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, the highest unionization rates in 2017 were in protective
service occupations (34.7 percent) and in education, training, and library occupations
(33.5 percent). The rate for workers in education, training, and library occupations
continued to decline in 2017. Unionization rates were lowest in sales and related
occupations (3.2 percent); farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (3.4 percent);
food preparation and serving related occupations (3.8 percent); and in computer and 
mathematical occupations (3.9 percent). 

Selected Characteristics of Union Members

In 2017, the union membership rate continued to be higher for men (11.4 percent) than
for women (10.0 percent); over the year, the rate for men edged up, and the rate for
women edged down. (See table 1.) However, the gap between their rates has narrowed
considerably since 1983 (the earliest year for which comparable data are available),
when rates for men and women were 24.7 percent and 14.6 percent, respectively.

Among major race and ethnicity groups, Black workers continued to have a higher union
membership rate in 2017 (12.6 percent) than workers who were White (10.6 percent),
Asian (8.9 percent), or Hispanic (9.3 percent).

By age, union membership rates continued to be highest among workers ages 45 to 64.
In 2017, 13.2 percent of workers ages 45 to 54 and 13.5 percent of those ages 55 to
64 were union members. 

In 2017, the union membership rate for full-time workers was about twice the rate
for part-time workers (11.8 percent versus 5.7 percent).

Union Representation

In 2017, 16.4 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. This
group includes both union members (14.8 million) and workers who report no union
affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.6 million). (See
table 1.)

Earnings

Among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual weekly
earnings of $1,041 in 2017, while those who were not union members had median
weekly earnings of $829. In addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement,
this earnings difference reflects a variety of influences, including variations in
the distributions of union members and nonunion employees by occupation, industry,
age, firm size, or geographic region. (See tables 2 and 4.)

Union Membership by State

In 2017, 27 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below
that of the U.S. average, 10.7 percent, while 22 states had rates above it and 1
state had the same rate. All states in both the East South Central and West South
Central divisions had union membership rates below the national average, while
all states in the New England, Middle Atlantic, and Pacific divisions had rates
above it. Union membership rates increased over the year in 25 states and the
District, decreased in 21 states, and were unchanged in 4 states. (See table 5.)

Nine states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2017, with South
Carolina having the lowest rate (2.6 percent). The next lowest rates were in
North Carolina (3.4 percent) and Utah (3.9 percent). Two states had union membership
rates over 20.0 percent in 2017: New York (23.8 percent) and Hawaii (21.3 percent). 

The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.5 million) and New York
(2.0 million). Over half of the 14.8 million union members in the U.S. lived in just
seven states (California, 2.5 million; New York, 2.0 million; Illinois, 0.8 million;
Michigan and Pennsylvania, 0.7 million each; and New Jersey and Ohio, 0.6 million
each), though these states accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary
employment nationally.




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households.
The union membership and earnings data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly
sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the
CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference,
or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 
standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section of this release
preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in state
union membership rates and levels regardless of their statistical significance.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard
errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Union membership questions 

   Employed wage and salary workers are classified as union members if they answer “yes” to 
the following question: On this job, are you a member of a labor union or of an employee
association similar to a union? If the response is “no” to that question, then the interviewer
asks a second question: On this job, are you covered by a union or employee association
contract? If the response is “yes,” then these persons, along with those who responded “yes”
to being union members, are classified as represented by a union.  If the response is “no”
to both the first and second questions, then they are classified as nonunion.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar
to a union.

   Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who
are union members.
   
   Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union
affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

   Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a
union on their job.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the
case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually
earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest
way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually,
other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a
basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is as perceived
by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed
to define the term as more than half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the
median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into
$50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value is estimated
through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the median lies.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in
kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors.
Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with
incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the enumeration
process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2016-17 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2016 2017
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

136,101 14,555 10.7 16,271 12.0 137,890 14,817 10.7 16,444 11.9

16 to 24 years

18,556 816 4.4 988 5.3 18,757 877 4.7 1,014 5.4

25 years and over

117,545 13,739 11.7 15,283 13.0 119,133 13,940 11.7 15,430 13.0

25 to 34 years

31,750 2,924 9.2 3,296 10.4 32,407 3,061 9.4 3,426 10.6

35 to 44 years

28,515 3,423 12.0 3,782 13.3 28,729 3,421 11.9 3,806 13.2

45 to 54 years

28,807 3,846 13.3 4,269 14.8 28,655 3,771 13.2 4,145 14.5

55 to 64 years

21,778 2,903 13.3 3,209 14.7 22,382 3,032 13.5 3,329 14.9

65 years and over

6,696 643 9.6 726 10.8 6,960 655 9.4 723 10.4

Men, 16 years and over

70,589 7,888 11.2 8,704 12.3 71,469 8,166 11.4 8,930 12.5

16 to 24 years

9,412 484 5.1 568 6.0 9,486 529 5.6 609 6.4

25 years and over

61,177 7,404 12.1 8,136 13.3 61,983 7,637 12.3 8,321 13.4

25 to 34 years

16,930 1,640 9.7 1,833 10.8 17,199 1,755 10.2 1,940 11.3

35 to 44 years

15,102 1,881 12.5 2,051 13.6 15,220 1,900 12.5 2,088 13.7

45 to 54 years

14,775 2,048 13.9 2,253 15.3 14,693 2,040 13.9 2,189 14.9

55 to 64 years

10,957 1,511 13.8 1,633 14.9 11,318 1,617 14.3 1,745 15.4

65 years and over

3,412 323 9.5 365 10.7 3,554 324 9.1 359 10.1

Women, 16 years and over

65,512 6,667 10.2 7,567 11.6 66,421 6,651 10.0 7,514 11.3

16 to 24 years

9,143 332 3.6 420 4.6 9,271 348 3.8 405 4.4

25 years and over

56,368 6,335 11.2 7,147 12.7 57,150 6,303 11.0 7,109 12.4

25 to 34 years

14,820 1,284 8.7 1,463 9.9 15,208 1,306 8.6 1,486 9.8

35 to 44 years

13,412 1,542 11.5 1,731 12.9 13,509 1,521 11.3 1,718 12.7

45 to 54 years

14,032 1,797 12.8 2,016 14.4 13,962 1,731 12.4 1,956 14.0

55 to 64 years

10,820 1,392 12.9 1,576 14.6 11,065 1,415 12.8 1,584 14.3

65 years and over

3,283 320 9.8 361 11.0 3,406 330 9.7 364 10.7

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

106,160 11,120 10.5 12,436 11.7 107,121 11,358 10.6 12,589 11.8

Men

56,007 6,153 11.0 6,769 12.1 56,545 6,432 11.4 7,025 12.4

Women

50,153 4,967 9.9 5,667 11.3 50,576 4,926 9.7 5,564 11.0

Black or African American, 16 years and over

17,014 2,209 13.0 2,475 14.5 17,498 2,210 12.6 2,459 14.1

Men

7,852 1,104 14.1 1,229 15.7 8,042 1,101 13.7 1,205 15.0

Women

9,163 1,105 12.1 1,245 13.6 9,456 1,109 11.7 1,254 13.3

Asian, 16 years and over

8,340 752 9.0 839 10.1 8,561 763 8.9 843 9.8

Men

4,368 355 8.1 404 9.3 4,457 365 8.2 402 9.0

Women

3,972 397 10.0 435 10.9 4,105 398 9.7 441 10.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

23,085 2,032 8.8 2,308 10.0 23,656 2,201 9.3 2,476 10.5

Men

13,125 1,209 9.2 1,348 10.3 13,342 1,261 9.5 1,410 10.6

Women

9,960 823 8.3 960 9.6 10,315 940 9.1 1,067 10.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

111,091 13,119 11.8 14,593 13.1 113,272 13,396 11.8 14,812 13.1

Part-time workers

24,832 1,415 5.7 1,655 6.7 24,433 1,403 5.7 1,611 6.6

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2016-17 annual averages
Characteristic 2016 2017
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$832 $1,004 $995 $802 $860 $1,041 $1,028 $829

16 to 24 years

501 600 599 497 519 663 652 514

25 years and over

885 1,022 1,014 858 907 1,065 1,054 883

25 to 34 years

751 893 890 734 773 921 909 756

35 to 44 years

934 1,071 1,059 908 964 1,122 1,111 935

45 to 54 years

955 1,084 1,069 930 977 1,113 1,103 953

55 to 64 years

952 1,072 1,069 930 974 1,112 1,106 947

65 years and over

866 984 988 846 909 1,058 1,054 888

Men, 16 years and over

915 1,050 1,042 890 941 1,102 1,094 914

16 to 24 years

512 582 581 509 547 701 683 533

25 years and over

969 1,080 1,074 950 996 1,128 1,124 976

25 to 34 years

794 915 915 775 821 964 953 803

35 to 44 years

1,007 1,123 1,120 990 1,062 1,195 1,183 1,038

45 to 54 years

1,075 1,146 1,140 1,057 1,103 1,184 1,180 1,080

55 to 64 years

1,102 1,136 1,140 1,090 1,098 1,160 1,166 1,073

65 years and over

992 1,022 1,029 988 1,016 1,140 1,132 1,004

Women, 16 years and over

749 955 942 723 770 970 954 746

16 to 24 years

486 628 624 481 499 606 600 496

25 years and over

784 972 960 757 810 988 974 784

25 to 34 years

705 865 860 685 724 864 854 705

35 to 44 years

839 1,015 1,004 804 860 1,037 1,026 831

45 to 54 years

836 1,006 988 800 855 1,018 1,002 827

55 to 64 years

812 999 992 778 856 1,025 1,011 831

65 years and over

749 942 964 723 782 991 986 751

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

862 1,050 1,034 827 890 1,089 1,076 860

Men

942 1,111 1,099 915 971 1,141 1,135 942

Women

766 989 975 738 795 1,014 997 766

Black or African American, 16 years and over

678 808 807 646 682 823 813 659

Men

718 818 826 690 710 869 856 687

Women

641 799 790 616 657 784 773 636

Asian, 16 years and over

1,021 1,020 1,017 1,022 1,043 1,112 1,126 1,034

Men

1,151 1,061 1,076 1,160 1,207 1,169 1,176 1,212

Women

902 985 975 892 903 1,007 1,023 887

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

624 886 876 608 655 897 880 629

Men

663 908 901 637 690 952 929 669

Women

586 844 829 565 603 810 801 583

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2016-17 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2016 2017
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

52,108 6,064 11.6 6,916 13.3 53,442 6,155 11.5 6,972 13.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,289 927 4.6 1,129 5.6 20,617 902 4.4 1,097 5.3

Management occupations

13,563 605 4.5 736 5.4 13,894 596 4.3 727 5.2

Business and financial operations occupations

6,726 322 4.8 393 5.8 6,723 307 4.6 370 5.5

Professional and related occupations

31,818 5,138 16.1 5,787 18.2 32,824 5,253 16.0 5,876 17.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,301 166 3.9 222 5.2 4,544 178 3.9 225 4.9

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,941 187 6.4 219 7.4 3,053 220 7.2 250 8.2

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,276 112 8.8 138 10.8 1,360 138 10.2 154 11.3

Community and social service occupations

2,506 372 14.8 408 16.3 2,555 392 15.3 426 16.7

Legal occupations

1,412 79 5.6 95 6.8 1,500 119 7.9 134 8.9

Education, training, and library occupations

8,765 3,031 34.6 3,344 38.2 8,949 2,996 33.5 3,327 37.2

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2,158 141 6.5 162 7.5 2,314 157 6.8 173 7.5

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,459 1,051 12.4 1,199 14.2 8,548 1,054 12.3 1,186 13.9

Service occupations

24,271 2,337 9.6 2,596 10.7 24,207 2,392 9.9 2,623 10.8

Healthcare support occupations

3,373 233 6.9 275 8.1 3,412 286 8.4 314 9.2

Protective service occupations

3,093 1,069 34.5 1,133 36.6 3,119 1,082 34.7 1,152 37.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,466 333 3.9 394 4.6 8,220 314 3.8 359 4.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,897 430 8.8 491 10.0 4,864 441 9.1 492 10.1

Personal care and service occupations

4,441 272 6.1 304 6.8 4,592 268 5.8 305 6.6

Sales and office occupations

31,051 2,051 6.6 2,314 7.5 31,018 1,944 6.3 2,207 7.1

Sales and related occupations

13,671 421 3.1 483 3.5 13,682 432 3.2 513 3.7

Office and administrative support occupations

17,380 1,631 9.4 1,831 10.5 17,337 1,511 8.7 1,694 9.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,812 1,788 15.1 1,920 16.3 12,238 2,015 16.5 2,129 17.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

988 22 2.2 31 3.2 1,090 37 3.4 42 3.8

Construction and extraction occupations

6,387 1,177 18.4 1,240 19.4 6,529 1,262 19.3 1,318 20.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,438 589 13.3 649 14.6 4,619 716 15.5 770 16.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16,859 2,315 13.7 2,524 15.0 16,985 2,311 13.6 2,514 14.8

Production occupations

8,150 959 11.8 1,049 12.9 8,143 1,006 12.4 1,092 13.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,708 1,355 15.6 1,475 16.9 8,842 1,304 14.8 1,422 16.1

INDUSTRY

Private sector

115,417 7,435 6.4 8,437 7.3 116,935 7,601 6.5 8,494 7.3

Agriculture and related industries

1,315 17 1.3 28 2.1 1,337 28 2.1 30 2.3

Nonagricultural industries

114,102 7,419 6.5 8,409 7.4 115,598 7,573 6.6 8,463 7.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

765 43 5.6 48 6.3 735 32 4.4 35 4.8

Construction

7,488 1,039 13.9 1,095 14.6 7,844 1,102 14.0 1,156 14.7

Manufacturing

14,783 1,295 8.8 1,422 9.6 14,670 1,328 9.1 1,461 10.0

Durable goods

9,247 827 8.9 906 9.8 9,194 836 9.1 913 9.9

Nondurable goods

5,536 468 8.4 515 9.3 5,477 492 9.0 548 10.0

Wholesale and retail trade

18,515 780 4.2 887 4.8 18,778 839 4.5 940 5.0

Wholesale trade

3,288 120 3.7 137 4.2 3,291 147 4.5 160 4.9

Retail trade

15,227 660 4.3 750 4.9 15,487 692 4.5 780 5.0

Transportation and utilities

6,048 1,145 18.9 1,239 20.5 6,232 1,139 18.3 1,225 19.7

Transportation and warehousing

5,073 935 18.4 1,014 20.0 5,205 903 17.3 978 18.8

Utilities

975 210 21.5 225 23.0 1,028 237 23.0 247 24.1

Information(3)

2,473 222 9.0 250 10.1 2,464 242 9.8 264 10.7

Publishing, except Internet

455 22 4.9 24 5.2 458 17 3.6 19 4.1

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

349 38 11.0 43 12.3 379 43 11.4 45 11.8

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

534 32 5.9 43 8.0 544 42 7.8 47 8.7

Telecommunications

821 119 14.6 129 15.8 814 131 16.1 138 17.0

Financial activities

8,963 205 2.3 274 3.1 9,067 217 2.4 278 3.1

Finance and insurance

6,616 91 1.4 138 2.1 6,720 101 1.5 142 2.1

Finance

4,142 49 1.2 81 2.0 4,156 46 1.1 67 1.6

Insurance

2,473 42 1.7 57 2.3 2,563 55 2.1 76 2.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,347 114 4.9 136 5.8 2,348 117 5.0 135 5.8

Professional and business services

14,257 346 2.4 464 3.3 14,739 335 2.3 407 2.8

Professional and technical services

8,728 141 1.6 211 2.4 9,328 162 1.7 210 2.2

Management, administrative, and waste services

5,529 205 3.7 253 4.6 5,412 173 3.2 198 3.7

Education and health services

22,152 1,808 8.2 2,107 9.5 22,324 1,798 8.1 2,077 9.3

Educational services

4,557 561 12.3 652 14.3 4,600 526 11.4 621 13.5

Health care and social assistance

17,595 1,247 7.1 1,454 8.3 17,724 1,272 7.2 1,456 8.2

Leisure and hospitality

12,687 381 3.0 438 3.5 12,748 374 2.9 428 3.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,329 126 5.4 139 6.0 2,424 144 5.9 157 6.5

Accommodation and food services

10,358 255 2.5 299 2.9 10,324 230 2.2 271 2.6

Accommodation

1,506 114 7.6 123 8.2 1,454 106 7.3 114 7.8

Food services and drinking places

8,852 141 1.6 176 2.0 8,870 124 1.4 158 1.8

Other services(3)

5,973 155 2.6 186 3.1 5,994 167 2.8 192 3.2

Other services, except private households

5,258 152 2.9 179 3.4 5,390 164 3.0 186 3.5

Public sector

20,684 7,120 34.4 7,834 37.9 20,956 7,216 34.4 7,951 37.9

Federal government

3,674 1,006 27.4 1,144 31.1 3,652 972 26.6 1,131 31.0

State government

6,965 2,064 29.6 2,282 32.8 7,103 2,153 30.3 2,371 33.4

Local government

10,045 4,050 40.3 4,409 43.9 10,201 4,091 40.1 4,449 43.6

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2016-17 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2016 2017
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,188 $1,166 $1,159 $1,197 $1,224 $1,215 $1,206 $1,227

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,284 1,263 1,266 1,285 1,327 1,276 1,276 1,329

Management occupations

1,370 1,389 1,408 1,368 1,392 1,349 1,361 1,395

Business and financial operations occupations

1,161 1,146 1,141 1,164 1,174 1,188 1,163 1,174

Professional and related occupations

1,141 1,156 1,146 1,140 1,160 1,199 1,187 1,154

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,443 1,372 1,332 1,458 1,465 1,375 1,371 1,473

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,482 1,424 1,411 1,490 1,478 1,479 1,473 1,479

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,209 1,288 1,278 1,195 1,286 1,297 1,338 1,276

Community and social service occupations

919 1,095 1,076 872 900 1,035 1,035 866

Legal occupations

1,431 1,615 1,621 1,419 1,443 1,550 1,577 1,428

Education, training, and library occupations

984 1,130 1,114 887 1,002 1,157 1,144 900

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,040 1,252 1,224 1,028 1,066 1,354 1,334 1,041

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1,104 1,191 1,175 1,087 1,124 1,244 1,239 1,103

Service occupations

523 771 753 505 544 792 774 518

Healthcare support occupations

525 602 602 520 542 577 573 539

Protective service occupations

809 1,088 1,074 694 852 1,163 1,146 713

Food preparation and serving related occupations

465 597 581 459 484 594 583 479

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

510 664 647 498 522 638 629 511

Personal care and service occupations

505 559 546 503 520 624 609 516

Sales and office occupations

698 810 804 686 718 829 814 710

Sales and related occupations

744 717 724 745 763 806 813 761

Office and administrative support occupations

679 826 818 661 701 834 815 688

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

786 1,127 1,111 735 801 1,146 1,132 750

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

520 - - 518 539 - - 533

Construction and extraction occupations

784 1,153 1,142 719 796 1,136 1,124 734

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

861 1,076 1,069 822 878 1,187 1,176 822

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

665 881 876 631 692 922 902 662

Production occupations

668 841 837 641 701 895 878 678

Transportation and material moving occupations

662 913 904 622 681 949 926 640

INDUSTRY

Private sector

801 937 932 789 829 984 971 816

Agriculture and related industries

572 - - 571 599 - - 599

Nonagricultural industries

806 937 933 793 833 986 974 820

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,197 - - 1,190 1,257 - - 1,263

Construction

822 1,168 1,146 780 840 1,163 1,155 797

Manufacturing

857 885 884 852 884 943 927 878

Durable goods

893 907 910 890 910 968 955 904

Nondurable goods

793 839 827 789 837 892 871 830

Wholesale and retail trade

676 701 700 675 705 758 753 702

Wholesale trade

871 921 905 868 903 979 986 899

Retail trade

623 645 645 622 656 721 714 653

Transportation and utilities

860 1,033 1,023 808 888 1,147 1,121 828

Transportation and warehousing

795 972 969 757 815 1,053 1,016 781

Utilities

1,264 1,408 1,388 1,242 1,325 1,432 1,432 1,254

Information(4)

1,143 1,238 1,257 1,133 1,154 1,344 1,330 1,142

Publishing, except Internet

1,094 - - 1,102 1,171 - - 1,167

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

1,085 - - 1,030 1,189 - - 1,134

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

1,017 - - 1,020 973 - - 959

Telecommunications

1,182 1,273 1,306 1,153 1,197 1,195 1,201 1,195

Financial activities

977 896 916 981 1,009 943 945 1,012

Finance and insurance

1,039 818 853 1,047 1,076 980 964 1,081

Finance

1,089 - 813 1,101 1,125 - 1,010 1,126

Insurance

977 - 907 980 1,027 - 931 1,032

Real estate and rental and leasing

827 977 970 817 839 918 931 833

Professional and business services

992 887 935 995 1,037 1,005 1,016 1,038

Professional and technical services

1,273 1,309 1,277 1,273 1,347 1,231 1,252 1,349

Management, administrative, and waste services

$613 $687 $682 $610 $629 $873 $842 $622

Education and health services

817 944 937 799 843 978 964 831

Educational services

936 967 965 931 957 1,026 1,018 942

Health care and social assistance

785 929 921 771 810 928 914 800

Leisure and hospitality

528 670 667 522 547 676 669 538

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

678 720 720 673 716 750 766 710

Accommodation and food services

504 642 637 501 513 636 620 510

Accommodation

582 698 703 564 598 685 678 588

Food services and drinking places

491 567 575 490 501 586 564 500

Other services(4)

686 959 869 681 705 913 874 699

Other services, except private households

708 965 893 703 722 924 890 717

Public sector

967 1,070 1,055 900 986 1,104 1,096 917

Federal government

1,149 1,093 1,099 1,188 1,176 1,138 1,146 1,213

State government

931 1,022 1,011 883 955 1,061 1,050 907

Local government

940 1,089 1,071 817 949 1,121 1,106 832

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2016-17 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State 2016 2017
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,895 153 8.1 170 9.0 1,869 138 7.4 152 8.1

Alaska

297 55 18.5 59 19.9 304 55 18.1 59 19.4

Arizona

2,727 122 4.5 151 5.5 2,805 111 4.0 145 5.2

Arkansas

1,186 47 3.9 59 5.0 1,209 62 5.1 74 6.1

California

16,001 2,551 15.9 2,796 17.5 16,064 2,491 15.5 2,708 16.9

Colorado

2,438 238 9.8 263 10.8 2,494 238 9.6 273 11.0

Connecticut

1,568 275 17.5 288 18.4 1,645 278 16.9 295 17.9

Delaware

419 48 11.4 56 13.3 425 45 10.7 48 11.2

District of Columbia

343 32 9.5 37 10.7 347 34 9.8 40 11.5

Florida

8,113 456 5.6 574 7.1 8,573 480 5.6 570 6.6

Georgia

4,249 165 3.9 210 4.9 4,342 173 4.0 217 5.0

Hawaii

597 119 19.9 125 20.9 605 129 21.3 139 22.9

Idaho

689 42 6.1 47 6.8 723 35 4.8 42 5.8

Illinois

5,587 812 14.5 856 15.3 5,516 827 15.0 872 15.8

Indiana

2,927 304 10.4 335 11.4 2,987 266 8.9 289 9.7

Iowa

1,454 129 8.9 153 10.5 1,475 104 7.0 127 8.6

Kansas

1,274 109 8.6 132 10.3 1,296 101 7.8 131 10.1

Kentucky

1,710 190 11.1 228 13.4 1,810 174 9.6 232 12.8

Louisiana

1,799 76 4.2 88 4.9 1,780 78 4.4 96 5.4

Maine

567 65 11.4 77 13.5 576 66 11.4 81 14.0

Maryland

2,815 310 11.0 347 12.3 2,772 299 10.8 326 11.8

Massachusetts

3,158 381 12.1 407 12.9 3,231 401 12.4 431 13.3

Michigan

4,196 606 14.4 651 15.5 4,230 658 15.6 711 16.8

Minnesota

2,563 365 14.2 388 15.2 2,693 411 15.2 428 15.9

Mississippi

1,108 73 6.6 90 8.1 1,106 59 5.3 77 7.0

Missouri

2,711 262 9.7 290 10.7 2,613 226 8.7 265 10.1

Montana

418 50 11.9 58 13.9 419 50 11.9 57 13.6

Nebraska

876 64 7.4 74 8.5 858 70 8.2 78 9.1

Nevada

1,211 146 12.1 182 15.0 1,290 164 12.7 189 14.6

New Hampshire

669 63 9.4 74 11.0 642 72 11.3 83 13.0

New Jersey

4,007 644 16.1 666 16.6 3,898 630 16.2 665 17.1

New Mexico

784 49 6.3 64 8.2 769 52 6.7 63 8.3

New York

8,227 1,942 23.6 2,075 25.2 8,472 2,017 23.8 2,148 25.3

North Carolina

4,225 129 3.0 174 4.1 4,305 145 3.4 171 4.0

North Dakota

363 20 5.5 25 7.0 356 18 5.1 24 6.8

Ohio

4,970 617 12.4 702 14.1 5,062 635 12.5 688 13.6

Oklahoma

1,482 80 5.4 97 6.6 1,536 84 5.5 108 7.1

Oregon

1,691 228 13.5 267 15.8 1,763 262 14.9 277 15.7

Pennsylvania

5,686 685 12.1 724 12.7 5,543 665 12.0 723 13.0

Rhode Island

481 74 15.5 81 16.9 486 78 16.1 84 17.2

South Carolina

1,981 32 1.6 52 2.6 1,986 52 2.6 78 3.9

South Dakota

379 20 5.2 26 7.0 380 20 5.4 25 6.7

Tennessee

2,746 158 5.7 174 6.4 2,728 155 5.7 176 6.4

Texas

11,457 462 4.0 606 5.3 11,626 543 4.7 669 5.8

Utah

1,318 62 4.7 79 6.0 1,375 54 3.9 74 5.4

Vermont

290 33 11.5 37 12.9 288 32 11.0 35 12.1

Virginia

3,748 160 4.3 226 6.0 3,801 176 4.6 222 5.8

Washington

3,090 539 17.4 577 18.7 3,112 584 18.8 630 20.2

West Virginia

669 79 11.8 88 13.2 683 75 11.0 82 11.9

Wisconsin

2,696 219 8.1 244 9.0 2,778 230 8.3 250 9.0

Wyoming

248 16 6.3 18 7.3 243 15 6.0 16 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 19, 2018