Employment Situation of Veterans News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, March 22, 2017                      USDL-17-0354

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                           EMPLOYMENT SITUATION OF VETERANS -- 2016


The unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces
at any time since September 2001--a group referred to as Gulf War-era II veterans--
edged down to 5.1 percent in 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
The jobless rate for all veterans also edged down over the year to 4.3 percent.
About 36 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans had a service-connected disability in
August 2016, compared with 22 percent of all veterans.

This information was obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly
sample survey of about 60,000 households that provides data on employment and
unemployment in the United States. Data about veterans are collected monthly in the
CPS; these monthly data are the source of the 2016 annual averages presented in this
news release. In August 2016, a supplement to the CPS collected additional information
about veterans on topics such as service-connected disability and veterans' current or
past Reserve or National Guard membership. Information from the supplement is also
presented in this release. The supplement was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of
Veterans Affairs and by the U.S. Department of Labor's Veterans' Employment and Training
Service. For more information, see the Technical Note, which provides definitions of
terms used in this release.

Highlights from the 2016 data:

   --The unemployment rate for male veterans overall was not statistically different
     from the rate for female veterans in 2016. The unemployment rate for male 
     veterans (4.2 percent) edged down over the year, and the rate for female 
     veterans (5.0 percent) changed little. (See table A.)

   --Among the 453,000 unemployed veterans in 2016, 60 percent were age 45 and over,
     36 percent were age 25 to 44, and 4 percent were age 18 to 24. (See table 2A.)

   --Veterans with a service-connected disability had an unemployment rate of 4.8
     percent in August 2016, about the same as veterans with no disability (4.7
     percent). (See table 7.)

  --Nearly 1 in 3 employed veterans with a service-connected disability worked in
    the public sector in August 2016, compared with about 1 in 5 veterans with no
    disability. (See table 8.)

   --In 2016, the unemployment rate of veterans varied across the country, ranging
     from 1.8 percent in Indiana to 7.6 percent in the District of Columbia. (See
     table 6A.)

The Veteran Population

In 2016, 20.9 million men and women were veterans, accounting for about 9 percent of the
civilian noninstitutional population age 18 and over. About 10 percent of all veterans
were women. In the survey, veterans are defined as men and women who have previously
served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and who were civilians at the time these
data were collected. Veterans are more likely to be men than nonveterans and also tend
to be older. In part, this reflects the characteristics of veterans who served during
World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam era, all of whom are now over 55 years
old. Veterans who served during these wartime periods accounted for 41 percent (8.5
million) of the total veteran population in 2016. Just over one-third of veterans
(7.3 million) served during Gulf War era I (August 1990 to August 2001) or Gulf War 
era II (September 2001 forward). Another quarter (5.2 million) served outside the
designated wartime periods. (See tables 1 and 2A.)

Gulf War-era II Veterans

In 2016, there were 3.9 million veterans who had served during Gulf War era II
(September 2001 forward). Eighteen percent of these veterans were women, compared
with about 4 percent of veterans from World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam
era. Seventy-one percent of all Gulf War-era II veterans were between the ages of 25
and 44. (See tables 1 and 2A.)

Among Gulf War-era II veterans, the unemployment rate for men was not statistically
different from the rate for women in 2016. The unemployment rates for both men (5.0
percent) and women (5.6 percent) were little changed from the prior year. (See
table A.)

The unemployment rate for male Gulf War-era II veterans (5.0 percent) was little
different than the rate for male nonveterans (4.8 percent) in 2016. Among men age 25
to 34, Gulf War-era II veterans had a higher unemployment rate (6.6 percent) than did
nonveterans (4.9 percent). For the other age groups, unemployment rates of male Gulf
War-era II veterans and nonveterans were not statistically different. (See table 2B.)

Among women, the unemployment rate for Gulf War-era II veterans (5.6 percent) was not
statistically different from the rate for nonveterans (4.6 percent) in 2016. By age,
unemployment rates for female Gulf War-era II veterans and nonveterans were not
statistically different. (See table 2C.)

Employed Gulf War-era II veterans were about twice as likely to work in the public
sector in 2016 as employed nonveterans--28 percent and 13 percent, respectively.
Among the employed, 16 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans worked for the federal
government, compared with 2 percent of nonveterans. (See table 5.)

In August 2016, 48 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans reported serving in Iraq,
Afghanistan, or both locations. These veterans had an unemployment rate of 4.8
percent, not statistically different from Gulf War-era II veterans who served
elsewhere (6.0 percent). (See table 10.)

Gulf War-era I Veterans

Of the 3.4 million veterans who served during Gulf War era I (August 1990 to August
2001), 15 percent were women. Nearly all (98 percent) Gulf War-era I veterans were
age 35 and over in 2016, compared with half of Gulf War-era II veterans. (See tables 1
and 2A.)

In 2016, the unemployment rate for male Gulf War-era I veterans was 3.5 percent, lower
than the rate for their Gulf War-era II veteran counterparts (5.0 percent). The
difference in the unemployment rates reflects, at least in part, the older age profile
of veterans who served during Gulf War era I. Younger people--whether veterans or
nonveterans--tend to have higher unemployment rates. Among women, the rates for Gulf
War-era I veterans (4.2 percent) and Gulf War-era II veterans (5.6 percent) were not
statistically different. (See tables 2B and 2C.)

Veterans of Other Service Periods

In 2016, 5.2 million veterans had served on active duty during "other service periods,"
mainly between the Korean War and the Vietnam era and between the Vietnam era and Gulf
War era I. All veterans from this period of service were 40 years or older at the time
of the survey. Twenty-six percent of these veterans were age 45 to 54 in 2016, another
34 percent were age 55 to 64, and another 39 percent were age 65 and over. (See
table 2A.)

In 2016, 1 in 10 veterans of other service periods were women. Among veterans of other
service periods, the unemployment rate for men was 4.1 percent, little different than
the rate for women (4.9 percent). (See table 1.)

Veterans with a Service-connected Disability

In August 2016, about 4.6 million veterans, or 22 percent of the total, had a service-
connected disability. Veterans with a service-connected disability are assigned a
disability rating by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs or the U.S. Department of
Defense. Ratings range from 0 to 100 percent, in increments of 10 percentage points,
depending on the severity of the condition. (See table 7.)

The unemployment rate for veterans with a service-connected disability was 4.8 percent
in August 2016, about the same as veterans with no disability (4.7 percent). The labor
force participation rate for veterans with a service-connected disability (46.4 percent)
was lower than the rate for veterans with no disability (50.7 percent).

Among veterans with a service-connected disability, 30 percent had a disability rating
of less than 30 percent, while another 37 percent had a rating of 60 percent or higher.
In August 2016, veterans with a service-connected disability rating of less than 30
percent were much more likely to be in the labor force than those with a rating of 60
percent or higher (54.7 percent and 29.9 percent, respectively). The unemployment rate
for veterans with a disability rating of less than 30 percent was 4.4 percent, not
statistically different than for those with a disability rating of 60 percent or higher
(3.8 percent).

Among veterans who served during Gulf War era II, 36 percent (1.4 million) had a
service-connected disability. Of these, 76.0 percent were in the labor force in August
2016, lower than the 86.6 percent for veterans from this period with no service-
connected disability. Among Gulf War-era II veterans, the unemployment rate for those
with a service-connected disability was 5.4 percent, little different from those with
no disability (5.7 percent).

In August 2016, about a quarter (901,000) of veterans who served during Gulf War era I
had a service-connected disability. Their labor force participation rate (64.0 percent)
was lower than the rate for veterans from the era who did not have a disability (86.7
percent). The unemployment rate for Gulf War-era I veterans with a service-connected
disability (5.3 percent) was not statistically different than that for Gulf War-era I
veterans without a service-connected disability (4.2 percent).

Among the 1.6 million veterans with a service-connected disability from World War II,
the Korean War, and the Vietnam era, 14.1 percent were in the labor force in August
2016 , lower than the 25.3 percent of veterans from these periods who did not have a
service-connected disability. The unemployment rate of veterans with a disability from
these wartime periods was 3.7 percent, about the same as their counterparts with no
disability (3.8 percent).

About 669,000 or 13 percent of veterans who served during other service periods
reported a service-connected disability in August 2016. The labor force participation
rate for these veterans (37.8 percent) was lower than their counterparts without a 
service-connected disability (50.3 percent), while the unemployment rate was not 
statistically different for veterans with a service-connected disability (2.0 percent) 
and those with no disability (4.8 percent).

Regardless of period of service, many veterans with a service-connected disability
worked in the public sector. In August 2016, 31 percent of employed veterans with a
disability worked in federal, state, or local government, compared with 19 percent of
veterans with no disability and 13 percent of nonveterans. In particular, 20 percent
of employed veterans with a disability worked for the federal government, compared
with 7 percent of veterans with no disability and 2 percent of nonveterans. (See
table 8.)

Reserve and National Guard Membership

In August 2016, about one-third of Gulf War-era veterans (August 1990 to present) were
current or past members of the Reserve or National Guard. Labor force participation
rates were higher for veterans who were current or past members of the Reserve or
National Guard (83.6 percent), compared with veterans who were never members (80.6
percent). Among Gulf War-era veterans, those who were current or past members of the
Reserve or National Guard had an unemployment rate (4.0 percent) that was not
statistically different than those who had never been members (5.6 percent). (See
table 9.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, 2015-2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status and period of service 2015 2016
Total Men Women Total Men Women

TOTAL VETERANS

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,209 19,212 1,997 20,895 18,881 2,014

Civilian labor force

10,757 9,517 1,241 10,581 9,334 1,247

Participation rate

50.7 49.5 62.1 50.6 49.4 61.9

Employed

10,263 9,089 1,174 10,129 8,944 1,184

Employment-population ratio

48.4 47.3 58.8 48.5 47.4 58.8

Unemployed

495 428 67 453 390 63

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.5 5.4 4.3 4.2 5.0

Not in labor force

10,452 9,695 757 10,314 9,547 767

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,594 2,959 635 3,896 3,207 689

Civilian labor force

2,913 2,462 451 3,174 2,666 508

Participation rate

81.0 83.2 71.0 81.5 83.1 73.7

Employed

2,745 2,322 422 3,013 2,533 480

Employment-population ratio

76.4 78.5 66.4 77.3 79.0 69.6

Unemployed

168 140 29 161 133 28

Unemployment rate

5.8 5.7 6.4 5.1 5.0 5.6

Not in labor force

681 497 184 722 541 181

NONVETERANS

Civilian noninstitutional population

220,740 97,380 123,360 223,649 99,107 124,541

Civilian labor force

144,385 73,107 71,278 146,479 74,393 72,086

Participation rate

65.4 75.1 57.8 65.5 75.1 57.9

Employed

136,947 69,243 67,704 139,560 70,799 68,761

Employment-population ratio

62.0 71.1 54.9 62.4 71.4 55.2

Unemployed

7,439 3,864 3,574 6,919 3,594 3,325

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.8 4.6

Not in labor force

76,355 24,273 52,082 77,170 24,714 52,455

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Gulf War-era II veterans served on active duty anywhere in the world sometime since September 2001. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces.


Technical Note

   The data in this release were collected through the Current Population Survey
(CPS). The CPS--a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics--obtains information
on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional
population age 16 and over.

   Most of the data in this release are annual averages for 2016, compiled from the
results of the monthly survey. In August 2016, a supplement to the CPS collected
additional information about veterans on topics such as service-connected disability,
veterans' Reserve or National Guard status, and veterans who served in Iraq and/or
Afghanistan. The supplement was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Veterans
Affairs and by the U.S. Department of Labor's Veterans' Employment and Training
Service. Questions were asked of persons 17 years of age and older regarding their
prior service in the U.S. Armed Forces. Data are tabulated for persons 18 years of
age and older.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Definitions

   The definitions underlying the data in this release are as follows:

   Veterans are men and women who previously served on active duty in the U.S.
Armed Forces and who were civilians at the time they were surveyed. Members of
the Reserve and National Guard are counted as veterans if they had ever been
called  to active duty. Persons who are on active duty at the time of the survey
are outside the scope of the survey and thus not in the estimates shown here, as
are persons who reside in institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons.

   Nonveterans are men and women who never served on active duty in the U.S.
Armed Forces.

   World War II, Korean War, Vietnam-era, and Gulf War-era veterans are men and
women who served in the U.S. Armed Forces during these periods of service,
regardless of where in the world they served. Veterans who served in more than
one wartime period are classified in the most recent one.

   Veterans of other service periods are men and women who served in the U.S. Armed
Forces at any time other than World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam era, or
the Gulf War era. Although U.S. Armed Forces were engaged in several armed conflicts
during other service periods, these conflicts were more limited in scope and included
a smaller proportion of the Armed Forces than the selected wartime periods. Veterans
who served during one of the selected wartime periods and during another period are
classified in the wartime period.

   Veteran status is obtained from responses to the question, "Did you ever serve
on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces?"

   Period of service identifies when a veteran served in the Armed Forces, but 
not the location of their service. It is obtained from answers to the question 
asked of veterans, "When did you serve on active duty in the  U.S. Armed Forces?"

   The following service periods are identified:

      Gulf War era II -- September 2001-present
      Gulf War era I  -- August 1990-August 2001
      Vietnam era     -- August 1964-April 1975
      Korean War      -- July 1950-January 1955
      World War II    -- December 1941-December 1946
      Other service periods -- All other time periods

   Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service.
Veterans are counted only in one period of service, their most recent wartime period.
Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent
one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are
classified in the wartime period. The period-of-service definitions are modified
occasionally to reflect changes in law, regulations, and program needs of the survey
sponsors.

   Veterans who served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both are individuals who served in
Iraq at any time since March 2003, in Afghanistan at any time since October 2001,
or in both locations. Service in Iraq or Afghanistan is determined by answers to
two questions: "Did you serve in Iraq, off the coast of Iraq, or did you fly missions
over Iraq at any time since March 2003?" and "Did you serve in Afghanistan, or
did you fly missions over Afghanistan, at any time since October 2001?"

   Presence of service-connected disability is determined by answers to the question,
"Has the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) or Department of Defense (DoD) determined
that you have a service-connected disability, that is, a health condition or
impairment caused or made worse by any of your military service?"

   Service-connected disability rating is based on answers to the question, "What
is your current service-connected disability rating?" Answers can range from 0 to
100 percent, in increments of 10 percentage points. Ratings are determined by the
VA or DoD from a rating schedule published in the Code of Federal Regulations,
Title 38, "Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief," Part 4--"Schedule for Rating
Disabilities." The rating schedule is "primarily a guide in the evaluation of 
disability resulting from all types of diseases and injuries encountered as a result
of or incident to military service. The percentage ratings represent as far as can
practicably be determined the average impairment in earning capacity resulting from
such diseases and injuries and their residual conditions in civil occupations." 
Part 4 contains a listing of hundreds of possible disorders and assigns ratings of
0 through 100 percent, with instructions for rating multiple disorders.

   Reserve and National Guard membership refers only to Gulf War-era veterans who are
current or past members of the Reserve or National Guard. Members of the Reserve and
National Guard are counted as veterans if they had ever been called to active duty.
These data do not refer to all persons who may have ever served in the Reserve or 
National Guard. Reserve or National Guard status is obtained from answers to two 
questions. Gulf War-era veterans were asked: "Was any of your active service the 
result of a call-up from the Reserve or National Guard?" If the answer was no, they
were  asked, "Have you ever been a member of the Reserve or National Guard?" A 'yes'
response to either question classified persons as "Current or past member of the 
Reserve or National Guard." A 'no' response to the latter question classified
persons as "Never a member of the Reserve or National Guard."

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that
the sample estimates will differ from the true population values they represent. The
component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.
There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on
a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population
value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur
for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, the
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, the inability or
unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the
collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of national data from the CPS and estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   For a discussion of the reliability of state estimates from the CPS, such as those
in tables 6A and 6B of this release, see www.bls.gov/opub/gp/gpapndb.htm.

Comparability of estimates

   Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement shown
in tables 7 through 10 of this release reflect a change in the weighting methodology.
As a result of this change, for August 2015 and later years, the estimates of the
number of veterans with a service-connected disability, veteran Reserve or National
Guard members, and veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan were higher than in
previous years. The supplement data presented in this release are not strictly
comparable with data for years before 2015 due to the change. See the note in the
Employment Situation of Veterans 2015 news release for more information about the
change in weighting methodology (www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/vet_03222016.pdf).




Table 1. Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, period of service,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL

Total, 18 years and over

244,544 157,060 64.2 149,689 61.2 7,371 4.7 87,484

Veterans

20,895 10,581 50.6 10,129 48.5 453 4.3 10,314

Gulf War era, total

7,250 5,869 81.0 5,610 77.4 259 4.4 1,381

Gulf War era II

3,896 3,174 81.5 3,013 77.3 161 5.1 722

Gulf War era I

3,354 2,695 80.4 2,597 77.4 98 3.6 659

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

8,490 2,108 24.8 2,025 23.8 83 3.9 6,382

Other service periods

5,156 2,604 50.5 2,494 48.4 110 4.2 2,551

Nonveterans

223,649 146,479 65.5 139,560 62.4 6,919 4.7 77,170

Men

Total, 18 years and over

117,989 83,727 71.0 79,743 67.6 3,984 4.8 34,262

Veterans

18,881 9,334 49.4 8,944 47.4 390 4.2 9,547

Gulf War era, total

6,052 4,981 82.3 4,766 78.8 215 4.3 1,070

Gulf War era II

3,207 2,666 83.1 2,533 79.0 133 5.0 541

Gulf War era I

2,845 2,315 81.4 2,233 78.5 82 3.5 530

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

8,186 2,033 24.8 1,955 23.9 78 3.9 6,153

Other service periods

4,644 2,320 50.0 2,224 47.9 96 4.1 2,324

Nonveterans

99,107 74,393 75.1 70,799 71.4 3,594 4.8 24,714

Women

Total, 18 years and over

126,555 73,333 57.9 69,946 55.3 3,388 4.6 53,222

Veterans

2,014 1,247 61.9 1,184 58.8 63 5.0 767

Gulf War era, total

1,198 888 74.1 844 70.4 44 5.0 310

Gulf War era II

689 508 73.7 480 69.6 28 5.6 181

Gulf War era I

509 379 74.6 364 71.5 16 4.2 129

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

304 75 24.6 70 23.1 5 6.4 229

Other service periods

512 285 55.6 271 52.9 14 4.9 227

Nonveterans

124,541 72,086 57.9 68,761 55.2 3,325 4.6 52,455

White

Total, 18 years and over

191,576 122,966 64.2 117,894 61.5 5,072 4.1 68,610

Veterans

17,417 8,543 49.1 8,195 47.1 348 4.1 8,874

Gulf War era, total

5,547 4,520 81.5 4,320 77.9 200 4.4 1,027

Gulf War era II

3,009 2,453 81.5 2,325 77.3 128 5.2 556

Gulf War era I

2,538 2,067 81.4 1,994 78.6 72 3.5 472

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

7,512 1,872 24.9 1,804 24.0 68 3.6 5,640

Other service periods

4,358 2,151 49.4 2,071 47.5 80 3.7 2,207

Nonveterans

174,160 114,423 65.7 109,700 63.0 4,724 4.1 59,736

Black or African American

Total, 18 years and over

30,594 19,469 63.6 17,885 58.5 1,584 8.1 11,125

Veterans

2,552 1,488 58.3 1,406 55.1 82 5.5 1,063

Gulf War era, total

1,237 975 78.8 928 75.0 46 4.8 262

Gulf War era II

619 493 79.6 468 75.6 25 5.1 126

Gulf War era I

618 482 78.0 461 74.5 21 4.5 136

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

696 160 23.1 151 21.7 10 6.0 536

Other service periods

619 353 57.1 327 52.9 26 7.4 265

Nonveterans

28,042 17,980 64.1 16,478 58.8 1,502 8.4 10,062

Asian

Total, 18 years and over

14,586 9,423 64.6 9,087 62.3 336 3.6 5,163

Veterans

309 197 63.6 193 62.3 4 2.1 113

Gulf War era, total

166 137 82.6 134 80.7 3 2.3 29

Gulf War era II

96 83 86.5 81 84.9 2 1.8 13

Gulf War era I

70 54 77.3 53 75.0 2 3.0 16

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

92 29 32.1 29 31.2 1 - 62

Other service periods

52 30 58.7 30 58.5 0 - 21

Nonveterans

14,277 9,226 64.6 8,894 62.3 332 3.6 5,051

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 18 years and over

38,536 26,313 68.3 24,844 64.5 1,470 5.6 12,222

Veterans

1,484 940 63.3 894 60.2 46 4.9 545

Gulf War era, total

794 646 81.3 620 78.0 27 4.1 148

Gulf War era II

532 430 80.9 411 77.3 19 4.5 102

Gulf War era I

262 216 82.2 209 79.5 7 3.4 47

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

359 98 27.3 92 25.5 6 6.6 261

Other service periods

331 195 59.1 183 55.2 13 6.6 135

Nonveterans

37,051 25,374 68.5 23,950 64.6 1,424 5.6 11,678

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2A. Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

TOTAL VETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

20,895 10,581 50.6 10,129 48.5 453 4.3 10,314

18 to 24 years

237 182 76.5 165 69.5 17 9.2 56

25 to 34 years

1,742 1,431 82.1 1,340 76.9 90 6.3 311

35 to 44 years

2,284 1,984 86.9 1,910 83.6 74 3.7 299

45 to 54 years

3,269 2,757 84.3 2,662 81.4 95 3.4 512

55 to 64 years

3,806 2,359 62.0 2,257 59.3 102 4.3 1,446

65 years and over

9,557 1,868 19.5 1,794 18.8 74 4.0 7,689

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

7,250 5,869 81.0 5,610 77.4 259 4.4 1,381

18 to 24 years

237 182 76.5 165 69.5 17 9.2 56

25 to 34 years

1,742 1,431 82.1 1,340 76.9 90 6.3 311

35 to 44 years

2,271 1,973 86.9 1,900 83.7 73 3.7 298

45 to 54 years

1,924 1,643 85.4 1,588 82.6 55 3.4 280

55 to 64 years

812 571 70.3 550 67.7 21 3.6 242

65 years and over

263 69 26.3 66 25.2 3 3.9 194

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

3,896 3,174 81.5 3,013 77.3 161 5.1 722

18 to 24 years

237 182 76.5 165 69.5 17 9.2 56

25 to 34 years

1,692 1,390 82.2 1,301 76.9 89 6.4 302

35 to 44 years

1,070 902 84.3 869 81.2 33 3.7 169

45 to 54 years

609 515 84.7 499 82.0 16 3.2 93

55 to 64 years

229 168 73.1 162 70.6 6 3.5 62

65 years and over

59 18 30.7 18 30.6 0 - 41

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

3,354 2,695 80.4 2,597 77.4 98 3.6 659

25 to 34 years

50 41 81.1 40 78.8 1 2.8 10

35 to 44 years

1,201 1,072 89.2 1,031 85.9 40 3.8 129

45 to 54 years

1,315 1,128 85.8 1,089 82.8 39 3.4 187

55 to 64 years

583 403 69.2 388 66.6 15 3.7 180

65 years and over

204 51 25.0 48 23.7 3 5.3 153

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

8,490 2,108 24.8 2,025 23.8 83 3.9 6,382

55 to 64 years

1,227 609 49.7 584 47.6 25 4.2 618

65 years and over

7,263 1,499 20.6 1,441 19.8 58 3.9 5,764

Other service periods

Total, 35 years and over

5,156 2,604 50.5 2,494 48.4 110 4.2 2,551

35 to 44 years

13 11 - 10 - 1 - 2

45 to 54 years

1,346 1,114 82.8 1,074 79.8 40 3.6 232

55 to 64 years

1,767 1,180 66.8 1,124 63.6 56 4.7 587

65 years and over

2,031 300 14.8 286 14.1 14 4.5 1,731

TOTAL NONVETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

223,649 146,479 65.5 139,560 62.4 6,919 4.7 77,170

18 to 24 years

29,204 18,894 64.7 17,080 58.5 1,814 9.6 10,310

25 to 34 years

41,805 34,089 81.5 32,382 77.5 1,707 5.0 7,716

35 to 44 years

37,533 30,835 82.2 29,652 79.0 1,183 3.8 6,697

45 to 54 years

39,127 31,151 79.6 30,057 76.8 1,093 3.5 7,977

55 to 64 years

37,505 24,109 64.3 23,267 62.0 842 3.5 13,396

65 years and over

38,475 7,401 19.2 7,123 18.5 278 3.8 31,074

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2B. Employment status of men 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

VETERANS, MEN

Total, 18 years and over

18,881 9,334 49.4 8,944 47.4 390 4.2 9,547

18 to 24 years

191 151 79.3 138 72.3 13 8.8 40

25 to 34 years

1,424 1,204 84.6 1,126 79.1 78 6.5 219

35 to 44 years

1,880 1,667 88.6 1,608 85.5 59 3.6 214

45 to 54 years

2,803 2,395 85.4 2,318 82.7 77 3.2 409

55 to 64 years

3,360 2,096 62.4 2,006 59.7 90 4.3 1,264

65 years and over

9,224 1,821 19.7 1,749 19.0 72 4.0 7,402

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

6,052 4,981 82.3 4,766 78.8 215 4.3 1,070

18 to 24 years

191 151 79.3 138 72.3 13 8.8 40

25 to 34 years

1,424 1,204 84.6 1,126 79.1 78 6.5 219

35 to 44 years

1,870 1,658 88.6 1,599 85.5 59 3.5 212

45 to 54 years

1,635 1,411 86.3 1,368 83.6 43 3.1 224

55 to 64 years

697 494 70.8 475 68.1 19 3.9 204

65 years and over

235 63 27.0 61 25.8 3 4.3 172

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

3,207 2,666 83.1 2,533 79.0 133 5.0 541

18 to 24 years

191 151 79.3 138 72.3 13 8.8 40

25 to 34 years

1,386 1,174 84.7 1,096 79.1 78 6.6 212

35 to 44 years

865 742 85.7 716 82.7 26 3.5 123

45 to 54 years

517 438 84.7 427 82.6 11 2.5 79

55 to 64 years

197 146 73.9 141 71.5 5 3.2 51

65 years and over

51 15 30.3 15 30.2 0 - 35

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

2,845 2,315 81.4 2,233 78.5 82 3.5 530

25 to 34 years

38 30 80.8 30 79.8 0 - 7

35 to 44 years

1,005 916 91.1 884 87.9 32 3.5 89

45 to 54 years

1,118 973 87.0 940 84.1 32 3.3 145

55 to 64 years

500 348 69.6 334 66.7 14 4.1 152

65 years and over

184 48 26.1 45 24.6 3 5.6 136

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

8,186 2,033 24.8 1,955 23.9 78 3.9 6,153

55 to 64 years

1,136 567 49.9 544 47.9 23 4.0 569

65 years and over

7,050 1,466 20.8 1,410 20.0 56 3.8 5,584

Other service periods

Total, 35 years and over

4,644 2,320 50.0 2,224 47.9 96 4.1 2,324

35 to 44 years

10 9 - 8 - 1 - 1

45 to 54 years

1,168 984 84.2 950 81.3 33 3.4 185

55 to 64 years

1,526 1,035 67.8 987 64.7 48 4.7 491

65 years and over

1,939 292 15.0 278 14.4 13 4.6 1,647

NONVETERANS, MEN

Total, 18 years and over

99,107 74,393 75.1 70,799 71.4 3,594 4.8 24,714

18 to 24 years

14,673 9,770 66.6 8,733 59.5 1,037 10.6 4,902

25 to 34 years

20,147 17,947 89.1 17,059 84.7 888 4.9 2,200

35 to 44 years

17,633 16,019 90.8 15,435 87.5 584 3.6 1,614

45 to 54 years

17,923 15,494 86.4 14,969 83.5 525 3.4 2,429

55 to 64 years

16,510 11,845 71.7 11,404 69.1 441 3.7 4,665

65 years and over

12,222 3,318 27.1 3,199 26.2 119 3.6 8,904

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2C. Employment status of women 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

VETERANS, WOMEN

Total, 18 years and over

2,014 1,247 61.9 1,184 58.8 63 5.0 767

18 to 24 years

47 30 65.3 27 58.2 3 - 16

25 to 34 years

318 227 71.2 214 67.3 12 5.4 92

35 to 44 years

403 318 78.7 303 75.0 15 4.7 86

45 to 54 years

466 363 77.9 344 73.9 18 5.0 103

55 to 64 years

446 263 59.0 251 56.3 12 4.5 183

65 years and over

334 47 14.0 44 13.3 2 4.9 287

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

1,198 888 74.1 844 70.4 44 5.0 310

18 to 24 years

47 30 65.3 27 58.2 3 - 16

25 to 34 years

318 227 71.2 214 67.3 12 5.4 92

35 to 44 years

401 316 78.7 301 75.0 15 4.7 85

45 to 54 years

288 232 80.5 220 76.4 12 5.2 56

55 to 64 years

115 77 67.0 75 65.5 2 2.2 38

65 years and over

28 6 - 6 - 0 - 23

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

689 508 73.7 480 69.6 28 5.6 181

18 to 24 years

47 30 65.3 27 58.2 3 - 16

25 to 34 years

306 216 70.7 205 67.0 11 5.3 90

35 to 44 years

205 160 78.0 153 74.6 7 4.3 45

45 to 54 years

91 77 84.3 72 78.4 5 7.1 14

55 to 64 years

33 22 - 21 - 1 - 10

65 years and over

8 3 - 3 - 0 - 6

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

509 379 74.6 364 71.5 16 4.2 129

25 to 34 years

13 10 - 10 - 1 - 2

35 to 44 years

196 156 79.4 148 75.4 8 5.1 40

45 to 54 years

197 155 78.7 149 75.4 7 4.2 42

55 to 64 years

82 55 66.5 54 65.8 1 1.1 28

65 years and over

20 3 - 3 - 0 - 17

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

304 75 24.6 70 23.1 5 6.4 229

55 to 64 years

91 42 46.3 39 43.3 3 6.5 49

65 years and over

213 33 15.4 31 14.4 2 - 180

Other service periods

Total, 35 years and over

512 285 55.6 271 52.9 14 4.9 227

35 to 44 years

2 2 - 2 - 0 - 0

45 to 54 years

177 130 73.6 124 70.0 6 4.8 47

55 to 64 years

240 144 60.0 137 56.9 8 5.2 96

65 years and over

92 8 8.8 8 8.6 0 - 84

NONVETERANS, WOMEN

Total, 18 years and over

124,541 72,086 57.9 68,761 55.2 3,325 4.6 52,455

18 to 24 years

14,531 9,124 62.8 8,346 57.4 777 8.5 5,407

25 to 34 years

21,658 16,142 74.5 15,323 70.7 819 5.1 5,516

35 to 44 years

19,900 14,816 74.5 14,217 71.4 599 4.0 5,083

45 to 54 years

21,205 15,657 73.8 15,088 71.2 569 3.6 5,548

55 to 64 years

20,995 12,264 58.4 11,863 56.5 401 3.3 8,731

65 years and over

26,253 4,083 15.6 3,924 14.9 159 3.9 22,170

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 3. Employment status of persons 25 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and educational attainment, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status,
period of service, and educational attainment
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

VETERANS

Total, 25 years and over

20,658 10,400 50.3 9,964 48.2 436 4.2 10,258

Less than a high school diploma

983 217 22.1 204 20.8 13 6.0 766

High school graduates, no college

6,025 2,692 44.7 2,568 42.6 123 4.6 3,333

Some college or associate degree

7,268 3,912 53.8 3,732 51.4 180 4.6 3,355

Bachelor's degree and higher

6,382 3,579 56.1 3,459 54.2 120 3.3 2,803

Gulf War era, total

Total, 25 years and over

7,013 5,688 81.1 5,445 77.6 243 4.3 1,325

Less than a high school diploma

87 58 66.9 54 61.9 4 7.5 29

High school graduates, no college

1,585 1,272 80.2 1,206 76.1 66 5.2 313

Some college or associate degree

2,911 2,304 79.1 2,193 75.3 111 4.8 607

Bachelor's degree and higher

2,430 2,054 84.5 1,992 82.0 62 3.0 376

Gulf War era II

Total, 25 years and over

3,659 2,993 81.8 2,848 77.8 145 4.8 666

Less than a high school diploma

41 25 62.6 25 61.3 1 - 15

High school graduates, no college

782 625 80.0 583 74.6 42 6.8 156

Some college or associate degree

1,563 1,217 77.9 1,149 73.5 69 5.6 346

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,274 1,125 88.3 1,092 85.7 33 2.9 149

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

3,354 2,695 80.4 2,597 77.4 98 3.6 659

Less than a high school diploma

46 33 70.7 29 62.4 4 - 14

High school graduates, no college

803 646 80.5 623 77.6 23 3.6 157

Some college or associate degree

1,348 1,087 80.6 1,045 77.5 42 3.9 262

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,156 929 80.4 901 77.9 29 3.1 227

WWII, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 25 years and over

8,490 2,108 24.8 2,025 23.8 83 3.9 6,382

Less than a high school diploma

605 79 13.0 76 12.5 3 4.0 526

High school graduates, no college

2,664 559 21.0 536 20.1 22 4.0 2,105

Some college or associate degree

2,664 702 26.3 673 25.3 29 4.2 1,962

Bachelor's degree and higher

2,557 769 30.1 740 28.9 29 3.7 1,788

Other service periods

Total, 25 years and over

5,156 2,604 50.5 2,494 48.4 110 4.2 2,551

Less than a high school diploma

291 80 27.5 74 25.6 5 6.8 211

High school graduates, no college

1,776 862 48.5 826 46.5 35 4.1 915

Some college or associate degree

1,692 906 53.6 867 51.2 40 4.4 786

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,396 756 54.2 727 52.1 29 3.9 639

NONVETERANS

Total, 25 years and over

194,445 127,585 65.6 122,480 63.0 5,104 4.0 66,860

Less than a high school diploma

22,197 10,331 46.5 9,559 43.1 772 7.5 11,867

High school graduates, no college

55,882 32,886 58.8 31,168 55.8 1,717 5.2 22,996

Some college or associate degree

50,248 34,265 68.2 32,881 65.4 1,384 4.0 15,983

Bachelor's degree and higher

66,118 50,104 75.8 48,872 73.9 1,231 2.5 16,014

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 4. Employed persons 18 years and over by occupation, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 2016 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation and sex Veterans Non-
veterans
Total Gulf War era WW II,
Korean
War, and
Vietnam
era
Other
service
periods
Total Gulf War
era II
Gulf War
era I

TOTAL

Total employed (in thousands)

10,129 5,610 3,013 2,597 2,025 2,494 139,560

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

39.7 39.7 39.3 40.1 40.9 38.8 39.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19.7 18.2 17.9 18.5 23.2 20.3 16.4

Professional and related occupations

20.0 21.5 21.4 21.6 17.7 18.5 23.2

Service occupations

14.0 15.7 17.8 13.4 11.2 12.4 17.6

Sales and office occupations

16.4 16.6 16.2 17.1 17.6 15.1 22.4

Sales and related occupations

8.8 8.4 8.3 8.6 11.7 7.4 10.4

Office and administrative support occupations

7.6 8.2 7.9 8.5 5.9 7.7 12.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13.3 13.6 12.9 14.4 12.0 13.6 8.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.4 0.7

Construction and extraction occupations

5.9 5.6 5.3 5.9 5.9 6.5 5.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

7.0 7.7 7.2 8.2 5.3 6.8 3.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16.6 14.4 13.9 15.0 18.3 20.1 11.4

Production occupations

6.4 6.0 5.7 6.4 5.6 7.9 5.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

10.2 8.4 8.1 8.6 12.7 12.2 5.9

MEN

Total employed (in thousands)

8,944 4,766 2,533 2,233 1,955 2,224 70,799

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

38.3 37.8 37.4 38.3 40.3 37.4 35.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19.8 18.4 18.0 18.9 23.2 19.7 17.3

Professional and related occupations

18.5 19.4 19.5 19.4 17.2 17.7 18.5

Service occupations

13.8 15.7 17.6 13.4 11.2 12.3 14.2

Sales and office occupations

14.9 14.7 14.3 15.2 17.3 13.3 16.2

Sales and related occupations

8.9 8.4 8.0 8.8 11.8 7.3 10.1

Office and administrative support occupations

6.1 6.3 6.3 6.4 5.5 6.0 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14.8 15.7 15.1 16.4 12.4 15.2 16.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.4 1.1

Construction and extraction occupations

6.6 6.5 6.3 6.7 6.1 7.2 9.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

7.8 8.9 8.4 9.4 5.5 7.6 5.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

18.1 16.1 15.6 16.6 18.8 21.8 17.1

Production occupations

7.0 6.7 6.4 7.1 5.7 8.5 7.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

11.1 9.3 9.2 9.5 13.1 13.3 9.5

WOMEN

Total employed (in thousands)

1,184 844 480 364 70 271 68,761

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

50.4 49.9 49.0 51.1 58.0 50.0 43.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19.2 16.9 17.3 16.4 24.1 24.9 15.6

Professional and related occupations

31.2 33.0 31.7 34.7 33.9 25.1 28.0

Service occupations

15.1 16.1 18.6 12.8 10.5 13.1 21.2

Sales and office occupations

27.7 27.4 26.3 28.8 25.0 29.7 28.8

Sales and related occupations

8.5 8.6 9.6 7.3 8.2 8.2 10.7

Office and administrative support occupations

19.3 18.8 16.7 21.6 16.8 21.5 18.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.5 1.6 1.4 2.0 1.8 1.0 0.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.0 0.3

Construction and extraction occupations

0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.7 0.9 0.7 1.1 0.9 0.1 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.3 5.0 4.8 5.3 4.8 6.3 5.6

Production occupations

2.2 2.0 2.2 1.7 2.8 2.7 3.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

3.1 3.0 2.6 3.6 2.0 3.5 2.1

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period.


Table 5. Employed persons 18 years and over by industry, class of worker, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 2016 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Industry, class of worker, and sex Veterans Non-
veterans
Total Gulf War era WW II,
Korean
War, and
Vietnam
era
Other
service
periods
Total Gulf War
era II
Gulf War
era I

TOTAL

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

10,129 5,610 3,013 2,597 2,025 2,494 139,560

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.8 0.5 0.6 0.5 4.9 1.9 1.6

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.7 0.4 0.5 0.3 1.5 0.7 1.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

1.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 3.3 1.3 0.5

Nonagricultural industries

98.2 99.5 99.4 99.5 95.1 98.1 98.4

Wage and salary workers(2)

91.9 96.0 96.2 95.7 81.2 91.4 92.6

Private industries

70.1 69.9 68.0 72.2 67.4 72.5 79.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.9 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.5

Construction

5.8 5.4 4.8 6.1 5.5 7.0 5.5

Manufacturing

12.7 12.3 10.7 14.2 10.5 15.3 9.8

Wholesale trade

2.6 2.4 2.1 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.3

Retail trade

8.2 7.8 8.7 6.6 9.3 8.2 10.4

Transportation and utilities

7.4 7.2 6.5 8.1 6.8 8.4 4.0

Information

1.8 2.0 1.7 2.3 1.3 1.7 1.7

Financial activities

4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.6 4.2 6.4

Professional and business services

10.8 11.5 11.8 11.1 9.9 9.9 10.5

Education and health services

8.2 8.6 8.3 8.9 7.8 7.5 15.5

Leisure and hospitality

3.4 3.6 4.4 2.6 3.7 2.7 8.5

Other services

3.5 3.2 2.9 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.2

Government

21.8 26.1 28.2 23.6 13.8 18.8 13.3

Federal

10.0 13.2 15.7 10.4 4.3 7.3 2.0

State

4.9 5.3 5.3 5.3 3.6 4.9 4.7

Local

7.0 7.5 7.3 7.9 5.9 6.6 6.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

6.3 3.5 3.2 3.8 13.9 6.6 5.8

MEN

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

8,944 4,766 2,533 2,233 1,955 2,224 70,799

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.9 0.6 0.6 0.5 5.0 2.2 2.3

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.8 0.4 0.5 0.3 1.6 0.8 1.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

1.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 3.4 1.4 0.7

Nonagricultural industries

98.1 99.4 99.4 99.5 95.0 97.8 97.7

Wage and salary workers(2)

91.4 95.9 96.1 95.6 80.9 91.0 91.0

Private industries

70.6 70.6 68.7 72.9 67.5 73.4 80.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.8

Construction

6.4 6.2 5.6 6.9 5.7 7.5 9.7

Manufacturing

13.7 13.7 12.2 15.4 10.7 16.3 13.3

Wholesale trade

2.7 2.5 2.2 2.9 2.6 3.1 3.1

Retail trade

8.1 7.6 8.7 6.4 9.3 8.3 10.3

Transportation and utilities

8.0 7.9 7.2 8.8 7.0 9.1 5.9

Information

1.9 2.2 2.0 2.4 1.3 1.7 2.0

Financial activities

4.7 4.6 4.5 4.6 5.7 4.0 5.6

Professional and business services

11.2 12.1 12.3 11.8 10.0 10.3 11.6

Education and health services

6.3 6.2 5.8 6.6 7.1 5.9 6.7

Leisure and hospitality

3.2 3.3 4.1 2.5 3.7 2.6 8.0

Other services

3.4 3.2 2.9 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8

Government

20.7 25.2 27.4 22.7 13.5 17.5 10.1

Federal

9.2 12.7 15.2 10.0 3.9 6.5 1.8

State

4.5 5.0 5.2 4.7 3.6 4.5 3.4

Local

7.0 7.5 7.1 8.0 6.0 6.6 4.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

6.7 3.6 3.3 3.9 14.0 6.8 6.7

WOMEN

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

1,184 844 480 364 70 271 68,761

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

0.4 0.4 0.5 0.2 1.6 0.2 0.9

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.3

Nonagricultural industries

99.6 99.6 99.5 99.8 98.4 99.8 99.1

Wage and salary workers(2)

95.7 96.7 96.8 96.5 87.9 94.5 94.2

Private industries

65.7 65.8 64.5 67.7 65.6 65.1 77.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.2 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.1

Construction

1.4 0.9 0.7 1.2 0.0 3.3 1.1

Manufacturing

5.1 4.7 3.2 6.7 3.9 6.7 6.2

Wholesale trade

1.6 1.7 1.5 2.0 4.5 0.7 1.5

Retail trade

8.5 8.7 9.1 8.0 10.2 7.7 10.5

Transportation and utilities

3.0 3.1 2.5 3.9 2.0 3.0 2.0

Information

1.0 0.9 0.5 1.3 0.2 1.6 1.4

Financial activities

6.6 7.0 7.2 6.7 3.6 6.0 7.2

Professional and business services

7.9 8.1 8.8 7.2 9.5 6.6 9.4

Education and health services

22.1 22.3 21.6 23.2 27.0 20.3 24.6

Leisure and hospitality

4.7 5.1 6.2 3.5 3.8 3.7 9.0

Other services

3.6 3.3 3.0 3.6 0.9 5.1 4.7

Government

30.0 30.9 32.4 28.8 22.3 29.4 16.5

Federal

15.6 16.1 18.5 13.1 14.5 14.0 2.1

State

7.2 7.1 5.9 8.7 3.9 8.3 6.0

Local

7.3 7.6 8.1 7.0 3.9 7.1 8.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

3.8 2.9 2.6 3.3 10.5 4.9 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose business are incorporated.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period.


Table 6A. Employment status of veterans 18 years and over by state, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL VETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

20,895 10,581 50.6 10,129 48.5 453 4.3 10,314

Alabama

401 207 51.5 197 49.0 10 4.9 194

Alaska

72 44 61.7 43 60.0 1 2.7 27

Arizona

511 232 45.4 223 43.6 9 3.9 279

Arkansas

235 106 45.0 102 43.6 3 3.1 129

California

1,839 935 50.8 885 48.1 50 5.4 904

Colorado

390 196 50.3 189 48.4 8 3.9 194

Connecticut

204 104 50.8 99 48.6 5 4.4 101

Delaware

75 35 46.6 34 44.7 1 4.1 40

District of Columbia

32 18 56.9 17 52.6 1 7.6 14

Florida

1,652 792 47.9 758 45.9 33 4.2 860

Georgia

723 396 54.7 382 52.8 14 3.5 327

Hawaii

110 57 52.4 56 51.3 1 2.2 52

Idaho

120 58 48.5 56 46.8 2 3.6 62

Illinois

665 332 49.9 310 46.6 22 6.7 333

Indiana

467 251 53.6 246 52.6 5 1.8 217

Iowa

228 119 52.3 114 50.1 5 4.2 109

Kansas

175 87 50.0 83 47.4 5 5.2 88

Kentucky

278 125 44.9 120 43.1 5 3.9 153

Louisiana

321 162 50.5 154 48.0 8 5.0 159

Maine

127 65 51.3 63 49.7 2 3.1 62

Maryland

457 280 61.3 269 59.0 11 3.8 177

Massachusetts

372 166 44.6 158 42.6 8 4.6 206

Michigan

558 244 43.7 236 42.3 8 3.2 314

Minnesota

351 166 47.2 156 44.4 10 5.8 186

Mississippi

207 99 47.6 94 45.4 5 4.6 108

Missouri

455 235 51.5 227 49.9 7 3.2 221

Montana

105 52 49.6 50 47.5 2 4.4 53

Nebraska

128 66 52.1 64 50.0 3 4.1 61

Nevada

243 130 53.5 125 51.3 5 4.0 113

New Hampshire

115 63 55.3 62 54.1 1 2.1 51

New Jersey

369 166 44.9 158 42.7 8 4.9 204

New Mexico

172 84 48.7 81 47.0 3 3.6 88

New York

798 355 44.4 335 41.9 20 5.6 443

North Carolina

729 397 54.5 379 52.0 18 4.5 332

North Dakota

52 30 57.6 29 55.4 1 3.9 22

Ohio

823 404 49.0 387 47.0 17 4.2 419

Oklahoma

316 164 52.0 157 49.7 7 4.5 152

Oregon

323 151 46.8 142 43.8 9 6.3 172

Pennsylvania

876 421 48.1 400 45.6 22 5.2 454

Rhode Island

66 28 42.0 27 40.5 1 3.7 38

South Carolina

403 201 49.8 191 47.3 10 5.0 202

South Dakota

77 45 58.3 44 56.8 1 2.6 32

Tennessee

506 246 48.7 238 46.9 9 3.6 260

Texas

1,698 964 56.7 929 54.7 35 3.6 735

Utah

158 89 56.6 87 55.3 2 2.3 69

Vermont

46 23 50.8 23 49.7 1 2.2 23

Virginia

782 476 60.8 460 58.8 16 3.4 306

Washington

513 232 45.2 223 43.5 9 3.8 281

West Virginia

153 65 42.9 62 40.8 3 4.8 87

Wisconsin

369 191 51.8 182 49.2 10 5.0 178

Wyoming

51 28 54.8 27 52.1 1 5.1 23

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey.


Table 6B. Employment status of nonveterans 18 years and over by state, 2016 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL NONVETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

223,649 146,479 65.5 139,560 62.4 6,919 4.7 77,170

Alabama

3,301 1,952 59.1 1,835 55.6 116 6.0 1,349

Alaska

455 312 68.5 291 63.9 21 6.8 143

Arizona

4,655 2,961 63.6 2,811 60.4 150 5.1 1,694

Arkansas

1,998 1,230 61.6 1,183 59.2 47 3.8 768

California

27,874 18,051 64.8 17,103 61.4 948 5.3 9,823

Colorado

3,813 2,676 70.2 2,592 68.0 84 3.1 1,137

Connecticut

2,548 1,762 69.1 1,673 65.6 89 5.1 786

Delaware

660 434 65.8 416 63.0 18 4.2 226

District of Columbia

518 374 72.3 352 68.1 22 5.9 143

Florida

14,427 8,901 61.7 8,479 58.8 422 4.7 5,527

Georgia

6,910 4,508 65.2 4,268 61.8 240 5.3 2,402

Hawaii

960 630 65.6 611 63.6 19 3.1 330

Idaho

1,099 738 67.2 710 64.6 28 3.8 361

Illinois

9,007 6,131 68.1 5,792 64.3 339 5.5 2,876

Indiana

4,521 3,050 67.5 2,915 64.5 135 4.4 1,471

Iowa

2,148 1,563 72.8 1,503 70.0 60 3.8 585

Kansas

1,944 1,369 70.4 1,313 67.6 56 4.1 575

Kentucky

3,056 1,849 60.5 1,759 57.5 90 4.9 1,208

Louisiana

3,152 1,952 61.9 1,832 58.1 120 6.2 1,199

Maine

939 618 65.8 595 63.4 23 3.8 321

Maryland

4,134 2,883 69.7 2,766 66.9 117 4.1 1,251

Massachusetts

4,985 3,370 67.6 3,249 65.2 121 3.6 1,615

Michigan

7,069 4,517 63.9 4,303 60.9 214 4.7 2,552

Minnesota

3,789 2,734 72.2 2,634 69.5 100 3.7 1,055

Mississippi

1,991 1,174 58.9 1,107 55.6 66 5.7 818

Missouri

4,150 2,854 68.8 2,733 65.9 121 4.2 1,296

Montana

694 462 66.6 444 63.9 19 4.0 232

Nebraska

1,271 923 72.6 894 70.3 30 3.2 348

Nevada

1,981 1,274 64.3 1,201 60.6 73 5.7 708

New Hampshire

937 674 71.9 656 70.1 18 2.6 263

New Jersey

6,493 4,312 66.4 4,104 63.2 208 4.8 2,181

New Mexico

1,382 843 61.0 785 56.8 58 6.8 539

New York

14,526 9,117 62.8 8,693 59.8 424 4.6 5,409

North Carolina

6,909 4,429 64.1 4,214 61.0 215 4.9 2,480

North Dakota

528 394 74.7 381 72.3 13 3.2 134

Ohio

8,013 5,223 65.2 4,979 62.1 244 4.7 2,790

Oklahoma

2,593 1,655 63.8 1,572 60.6 83 5.0 938

Oregon

2,841 1,888 66.5 1,801 63.4 87 4.6 953

Pennsylvania

9,043 5,969 66.0 5,649 62.5 320 5.4 3,073

Rhode Island

765 513 67.1 487 63.6 27 5.2 251

South Carolina

3,358 2,094 62.4 1,996 59.4 98 4.7 1,264

South Dakota

557 399 71.7 389 69.8 11 2.6 158

Tennessee

4,567 2,872 62.9 2,740 60.0 132 4.6 1,695

Texas

18,429 12,233 66.4 11,688 63.4 544 4.5 6,196

Utah

1,934 1,376 71.1 1,327 68.6 49 3.5 558

Vermont

451 315 69.9 305 67.7 10 3.2 136

Virginia

5,585 3,727 66.7 3,580 64.1 147 4.0 1,858

Washington

4,987 3,348 67.1 3,175 63.7 174 5.2 1,639

West Virginia

1,281 716 55.9 674 52.6 43 5.9 565

Wisconsin

4,033 2,858 70.9 2,744 68.0 114 4.0 1,175

Wyoming

386 270 70.1 256 66.4 14 5.2 115

NOTE: Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces.


Table 7. Employment status of veterans 18 years and over by presence of service-connected disability, reported disability rating, period of service, and sex, August 2016, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Presence of disability, reported disability rating,
period of service, and sex
Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of population
Total Percent
of labor force

TOTAL
VETERANS

Total

20,857 10,375 49.7 9,897 47.5 477 4.6 10,482

With service-connected disability

4,564 2,119 46.4 2,018 44.2 101 4.8 2,445

Less than 30 percent disability rating

1,370 750 54.7 717 52.4 33 4.4 620

30 to 50 percent disability rating

1,082 666 61.5 631 58.3 35 5.2 417

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,707 509 29.9 490 28.7 19 3.8 1,197

Disability rating not reported

406 195 48.0 180 44.4 14 7.3 211

Without service-connected disability

15,579 7,897 50.7 7,529 48.3 368 4.7 7,682

Presence of disability not reported

714 358 50.2 350 49.0 9 2.4 355

Gulf War era, total

Total

7,277 5,929 81.5 5,632 77.4 297 5.0 1,348

With service-connected disability

2,303 1,641 71.3 1,554 67.5 88 5.3 661

Less than 30 percent disability rating

621 527 84.9 500 80.4 27 5.2 94

30 to 50 percent disability rating

621 512 82.5 486 78.2 26 5.2 109

60 percent or higher disability rating

853 456 53.5 437 51.2 19 4.3 397

Disability rating not reported

208 146 70.3 132 63.4 14 9.8 62

Without service-connected disability

4,690 4,064 86.7 3,864 82.4 201 4.9 626

Presence of disability not reported

284 223 78.5 215 75.5 9 3.9 61

Gulf War era II

Total

3,860 3,188 82.6 3,015 78.1 173 5.4 672

With service-connected disability

1,402 1,065 76.0 1,008 71.9 57 5.4 337

Less than 30 percent disability rating

310 272 87.6 261 84.1 11 4.0 38

30 to 50 percent disability rating

417 361 86.6 349 83.5 13 3.5 56

60 percent or higher disability rating

570 361 63.4 342 60.0 19 5.4 208

Disability rating not reported

105 71 67.6 56 53.9 14 - 34

Without service-connected disability

2,280 1,974 86.6 1,861 81.6 112 5.7 306

Presence of disability not reported

178 149 83.7 145 81.7 4 2.4 29

Gulf War era I

Total

3,417 2,741 80.2 2,617 76.6 124 4.5 676

With service-connected disability

901 576 64.0 546 60.6 30 5.3 324

Less than 30 percent disability rating

311 255 82.1 239 76.8 16 6.5 56

30 to 50 percent disability rating

203 151 74.0 137 67.2 14 9.2 53

60 percent or higher disability rating

283 95 33.5 95 33.5 - - 188

Disability rating not reported

103 75 73.0 75 73.0 - - 28

Without service-connected disability

2,410 2,091 86.7 2,002 83.1 88 4.2 319

Presence of disability not reported

106 75 70.0 69 65.1 5 6.9 32

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

8,439 1,942 23.0 1,870 22.2 72 3.7 6,497

With service-connected disability

1,593 225 14.1 217 13.6 8 3.7 1,368

Less than 30 percent disability rating

529 114 21.5 113 21.4 0 0.2 416

30 to 50 percent disability rating

305 69 22.5 60 19.8 8 - 236

60 percent or higher disability rating

631 21 3.3 21 3.3 - - 610

Disability rating not reported

127 22 17.1 22 17.1 - - 106

Without service-connected disability

6,579 1,666 25.3 1,602 24.3 64 3.8 4,913

Presence of disability not reported

268 51 19.2 51 19.2 0 - 216

Other service periods

Total

5,141 2,504 48.7 2,396 46.6 108 4.3 2,637

With service-connected disability

669 253 37.8 248 37.1 5 2.0 416

Less than 30 percent disability rating

219 109 49.8 104 47.6 5 4.5 110

30 to 50 percent disability rating

156 85 54.3 85 54.3 - - 72

60 percent or higher disability rating

223 32 14.4 32 14.4 - - 191

Disability rating not reported

70 27 - 27 - - - 44

Without service-connected disability

4,310 2,167 50.3 2,064 47.9 103 4.8 2,143

Presence of disability not reported

162 84 51.7 84 51.7 0 0.0 78

MEN
VETERANS

Total

18,842 9,129 48.4 8,749 46.4 380 4.2 9,713

With service-connected disability

4,063 1,862 45.8 1,793 44.1 70 3.8 2,200

Less than 30 percent disability rating

1,213 663 54.7 630 52.0 33 4.9 550

30 to 50 percent disability rating

978 599 61.2 577 59.0 21 3.5 379

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,506 432 28.7 424 28.2 8 1.8 1,074

Disability rating not reported

366 168 46.1 160 43.9 8 4.8 197

Without service-connected disability

14,161 6,974 49.2 6,668 47.1 306 4.4 7,187

Presence of disability not reported

618 292 47.3 289 46.7 4 1.2 326

Gulf War era, total

Total

6,075 5,029 82.8 4,807 79.1 221 4.4 1,046

With service-connected disability

1,934 1,402 72.5 1,342 69.4 61 4.3 531

Less than 30 percent disability rating

512 446 87.1 418 81.8 27 6.2 66

30 to 50 percent disability rating

537 454 84.6 437 81.4 17 3.8 83

60 percent or higher disability rating

713 383 53.7 375 52.6 8 2.1 330

Disability rating not reported

173 120 69.5 112 64.9 8 6.7 53

Without service-connected disability

3,921 3,450 88.0 3,293 84.0 157 4.6 471

Presence of disability not reported

221 176 79.8 173 78.2 4 2.0 45

Gulf War era II

Total

3,198 2,692 84.2 2,565 80.2 127 4.7 506

With service-connected disability

1,175 916 77.9 885 75.3 30 3.3 260

Less than 30 percent disability rating

246 227 92.3 216 87.9 11 4.8 19

30 to 50 percent disability rating

362 325 89.9 322 89.0 3 1.1 37

60 percent or higher disability rating

483 306 63.3 298 61.7 8 2.6 177

Disability rating not reported

85 58 68.1 50 58.6 8 - 27

Without service-connected disability

1,885 1,657 87.9 1,565 83.0 93 5.6 227

Presence of disability not reported

138 119 86.0 115 83.5 4 3.0 19

Gulf War era I

Total

2,877 2,337 81.2 2,242 77.9 95 4.1 540

With service-connected disability

758 487 64.2 456 60.2 30 6.2 271

Less than 30 percent disability rating

265 218 82.3 202 76.1 16 7.5 47

30 to 50 percent disability rating

175 129 73.6 115 65.7 14 10.7 46

60 percent or higher disability rating

230 77 33.5 77 33.5 - - 153

Disability rating not reported

88 62 71.0 62 71.0 - - 26

Without service-connected disability

2,036 1,793 88.0 1,728 84.9 65 3.6 243

Presence of disability not reported

83 57 69.4 57 69.4 0 - 25

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

8,137 1,857 22.8 1,790 22.0 67 3.6 6,280

With service-connected disability

1,551 212 13.7 208 13.4 4 2.0 1,339

Less than 30 percent disability rating

517 109 21.2 109 21.1 0 0.2 407

30 to 50 percent disability rating

293 60 20.4 56 19.0 4 - 233

60 percent or higher disability rating

614 21 3.4 21 3.4 - - 593

Disability rating not reported

127 22 17.1 22 17.1 - - 106

Without service-connected disability

6,329 1,602 25.3 1,540 24.3 63 3.9 4,727

Presence of disability not reported

257 43 16.8 43 16.8 0 - 214

Other service periods

Total

4,630 2,243 48.4 2,152 46.5 91 4.1 2,387

With service-connected disability

578 248 42.9 243 42.1 5 2.0 330

Less than 30 percent disability rating

185 108 58.5 103 55.8 5 4.6 77

30 to 50 percent disability rating

148 85 57.3 85 57.3 - - 63

60 percent or higher disability rating

180 29 16.0 29 16.0 - - 151

Disability rating not reported

66 27 - 27 - - - 39

Without service-connected disability

3,911 1,922 49.1 1,835 46.9 86 4.5 1,990

Presence of disability not reported

140 73 52.1 73 52.1 0 - 67

WOMEN
VETERANS

Total

2,015 1,246 61.8 1,149 57.0 97 7.8 769

With service-connected disability

501 257 51.2 226 45.1 31 12.1 244

Less than 30 percent disability rating

157 87 55.3 87 55.3 - - 70

30 to 50 percent disability rating

104 67 64.2 54 51.4 13 - 37

60 percent or higher disability rating

200 77 38.5 66 32.8 11 14.9 123

Disability rating not reported

40 26 - 20 - 6 - 14

Without service-connected disability

1,418 923 65.1 862 60.8 61 6.6 495

Presence of disability not reported

96 66 69.0 61 63.6 5 - 30

Gulf War era, total

Total

1,202 900 74.9 825 68.6 75 8.4 302

With service-connected disability

369 239 64.8 212 57.5 27 11.3 130

Without service-connected disability

769 614 79.8 571 74.2 43 7.1 155

Presence of disability not reported

64 47 - 42 - 5 - 16

Gulf War era II

Total

662 496 74.9 450 67.9 47 9.4 166

With service-connected disability

227 150 66.1 123 54.2 27 18.0 77

Without service-connected disability

395 316 80.0 297 75.0 20 6.2 79

Presence of disability not reported

40 30 - 30 - 0 - 10

Gulf War era I

Total

540 404 74.9 375 69.5 29 7.2 136

With service-connected disability

142 89 62.7 89 62.7 - - 53

Without service-connected disability

374 298 79.7 274 73.3 24 8.0 76

Presence of disability not reported

24 17 - 12 - 5 - 7

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

302 85 28.1 80 26.3 5 6.3 217

With service-connected disability

41 13 - 9 - 4 - 28

Without service-connected disability

250 63 25.4 62 24.9 1 - 186

Presence of disability not reported

11 8 - 8 - - - 2

Other service periods

Total

511 261 51.0 244 47.7 17 6.4 250

With service-connected disability

91 5 5.2 5 5.2 - - 86

Without service-connected disability

399 245 61.5 229 57.3 17 6.8 153

Presence of disability not reported

21 11 - 11 - - - 11

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. A service-connected disability is a health condition or impairment caused or made worse by military service. The associated disability rating, which can range from 0 to 100 percent, is determined from a rating schedule published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, "Title 38." More information appears in the Technical Note of this release. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 8. Employed persons 18 years and over by veteran status, presence of service-connected disability, period of service, and class of worker, August 2016, not seasonally adjusted
Veteran status, presence of disability, and
period of service
Total
employed
(thousands)
Percent distribution by class of worker
Total Agriculture
and related
industries
Nonagricultural industries
Total Wage and salary workers(1) Self-
employed,
unincor-
porated,
and unpaid
family
workers
Private
sector
Government
Total Federal State
and
local

Veterans, total(2)

9,897 100.0 1.5 98.5 70.8 21.3 9.5 11.8 6.3

With service-connected disability

2,018 100.0 1.4 98.6 63.1 30.9 20.0 10.9 4.6

Without service-connected disability

7,529 100.0 1.6 98.4 72.8 18.7 6.7 12.1 6.9

Gulf War era, total(2)

5,632 100.0 0.2 99.8 71.2 25.3 12.4 12.9 3.4

With service-connected disability

1,554 100.0 0.0 100.0 64.6 32.2 21.9 10.3 3.2

Without service-connected disability

3,864 100.0 0.3 99.7 73.9 22.4 8.3 14.1 3.4

Gulf War era II(2)

3,015 100.0 0.1 99.9 69.2 27.5 13.9 13.7 3.1

With service-connected disability

1,008 100.0 0.0 100.0 64.6 32.7 20.8 11.9 2.7

Without service-connected disability

1,861 100.0 0.2 99.8 71.7 24.8 9.9 15.0 3.2

Gulf War era I(2)

2,617 100.0 0.2 99.8 73.4 22.7 10.6 12.1 3.6

With service-connected disability

546 100.0 - 100.0 64.6 31.4 24.1 7.3 4.0

Without service-connected disability

2,002 100.0 0.3 99.7 75.9 20.1 6.9 13.2 3.6

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era(2)

1,870 100.0 5.0 95.0 66.9 12.8 4.3 8.5 15.3

With service-connected disability

217 100.0 10.9 89.1 56.8 19.9 9.4 10.5 12.4

Without service-connected disability

1,602 100.0 4.4 95.6 67.9 11.6 3.7 7.9 16.1

Other service periods(2)

2,396 100.0 1.9 98.1 73.1 18.7 7.0 11.7 6.3

With service-connected disability

248 100.0 1.9 98.1 59.4 32.1 16.8 15.3 6.5

Without service-connected disability

2,064 100.0 1.8 98.2 74.7 17.5 5.9 11.5 6.1

Nonveterans

139,822 100.0 1.8 98.1 79.5 12.9 1.9 10.9 5.7

(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Includes veterans who did not report presence of disability.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. A service-connected disability is a health condition or impairment caused or made worse by military service. The associated disability rating, which can range from 0 to 100 percent, is determined from a rating schedule published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, "Title 38." More information appears in the Technical Note of this release.


Table 9. Employment status of Gulf War era veterans by Reserve or National Guard status, August 2016, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Period of service and
Reserve or National Guard status
Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of population
Total Percent
of labor force

VETERANS

Gulf War era, total

Total

7,277 5,929 81.5 5,632 77.4 297 5.0 1,348

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

2,482 2,075 83.6 1,992 80.3 83 4.0 407

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

4,530 3,651 80.6 3,445 76.0 206 5.6 879

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

265 204 76.9 195 73.6 9 4.2 61

Gulf War era II

Total

3,860 3,188 82.6 3,015 78.1 173 5.4 672

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

1,409 1,231 87.4 1,174 83.3 57 4.6 178

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

2,290 1,831 79.9 1,718 75.0 113 6.2 459

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

160 126 78.5 122 76.3 4 2.8 35

Gulf War era I

Total

3,417 2,741 80.2 2,617 76.6 124 4.5 676

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

1,073 843 78.6 818 76.2 26 3.0 229

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

2,239 1,819 81.3 1,726 77.1 93 5.1 420

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

105 78 74.4 73 69.5 5 6.6 27

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. The Gulf War era began in August 1990 and continues to the present day. It is divided into two periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present) and Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent period. Data do not include Reserve and National Guard members who have never been called to Active Duty.


Table 10. Employment status of Gulf War-era II veterans 18 years and over by location of service, August 2016, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Period of service and location Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of population
Number Rate

Total, Gulf War-era II veterans

3,860 3,188 82.6 3,015 78.1 173 5.4 672

Served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both(1)

1,846 1,531 83.0 1,458 79.0 73 4.8 314

Served in Iraq(2)

1,481 1,243 83.9 1,194 80.6 49 3.9 238

Served in Afghanistan(3)

974 774 79.5 738 75.8 36 4.7 200

Served in both locations(4)

609 486 79.7 474 77.8 12 2.4 124

Served elsewhere

2,014 1,656 82.2 1,557 77.3 100 6.0 358

(1) Refers to veterans who served in Iraq at anytime since March 2003 and veterans who served in Afghanistan at anytime since October 2001. Also includes veterans who served in both countries.
(2) Includes all veterans who served in Iraq at any time since March 2003, whether or not they also served in Afghanistan.
(3) Includes all veterans who served in Afghanistan at any time since October 2001, whether or not they also served in Iraq.
(4) Veterans who served in both Iraq and Afghanistan during the designated dates are also included in the totals of each location above.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Gulf War-era II veterans served anywhere in the world at any time since September 2001.


Last Modified Date: March 22, 2017