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Employment Situation of Veterans News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, March 21, 2019                   	USDL-19-0451

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      EMPLOYMENT SITUATION OF VETERANS -- 2018


The unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces 
at any time since September 2001--a group referred to as Gulf War-era II veterans--declined 
to 3.8 percent in 2018, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The jobless 
rate for all veterans was little changed at 3.5 percent in 2018. In August 2018, 41 
percent of Gulf War-era II veterans had a service-connected disability, compared with 25 
percent of all veterans. 

This information was obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample 
survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides data on employment and unemployment 
in the United States. Data about veterans are collected monthly in the CPS; these monthly 
data are the source of the 2018 annual averages presented in this news release. In August 
2018, a supplement to the CPS collected additional information about veterans on topics such 
as service-connected disability and veterans' current or past Reserve or National Guard 
membership. Information from the supplement is also presented in this news release. The
supplement was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the U.S. Department
of Labor's Veterans' Employment and Training Service. For more information, see the Technical 
Note, which provides definitions of terms used in this news release.

Highlights from the 2018 data:

  --The unemployment rate for female veterans declined to 3.0 percent in 2018, and the 
    rate for male veterans (3.5 percent) changed little over the year. The unemployment 
    rate for male veterans was not statistically different from the rate for female 
    veterans. (See table A.)

  --Among the 326,000 unemployed veterans in 2018, 54 percent were age 25 to 54, 40 
    percent were age 55 and over, and 6 percent were age 18 to 24. (See table 2A.)

  --Veterans with a service-connected disability had an unemployment rate of 5.2 percent 
    in August 2018, higher than the rate for veterans with no disability (3.5 percent). 
    (See table 7.)

  --About 1 in 3 employed veterans with a service-connected disability worked in the 
    public sector in August 2018, compared with about 1 in 5 veterans with no disability. 
    (See table 8.)

  --In 2018, the unemployment rate of veterans varied across the country, ranging from 
    1.4 percent in Iowa to 6.5 percent in the District of Columbia. (See table 6A.) 

The Veteran Population

In 2018, 19.2 million men and women were veterans, accounting for about 8 percent of the civilian 
noninstitutional population age 18 and over. About 10 percent of all veterans were women. In the 
survey, veterans are defined as men and women who have previously served on active duty in the U.S. 
Armed Forces and who were civilians at the time these data were collected. Veterans are more likely 
to be men than are nonveterans, and they also tend to be older. In part, this reflects the 
characteristics of veterans who served during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam era, 
all of whom are now over 60 years old. Veterans who served during these wartime periods accounted 
for 40 percent (7.6 million) of the total veteran population in 2018. Thirty-eight percent of veterans 
(7.2 million) served during Gulf War era I (August 1990 to August 2001) or Gulf War era II 
(September 2001 forward). About a quarter (4.3 million) served outside the designated wartime periods. 
(See tables 1 and 2A.)

Gulf War-era II Veterans

In 2018, there were 4.1 million veterans who had served during Gulf War era II (September 2001 forward). 
Seventeen percent of these veterans were women, compared with 3 percent of veterans from World War II, 
the Korean War, and the Vietnam era. Nearly seventy percent of all Gulf War-era II veterans were between 
the ages of 25 and 44. (See tables 1 and 2A.)

Among Gulf War-era II veterans, the unemployment rate for women declined to 3.5 percent in 2018, while 
the unemployment rate for men (3.9 percent) changed little over the year. The unemployment rate for men 
was not statistically different from the rate for women in 2018. (See table A.)

In 2018, the unemployment rate for male Gulf War-era II veterans, at 3.9 percent, was little different 
than the rate for male nonveterans, at 3.8 percent. The unemployment rate for male Gulf War-era II 
veterans age 25 to 34 declined to 4.1 percent in 2018 from 6.0 percent in 2017. This was little different 
from the rate for nonveterans in the same age group (3.8 percent). Among men age 55 to 64, Gulf War-era 
II veterans had a lower unemployment rate (1.4 percent) than did nonveterans (3.0 percent). (See table 2B.)

Among women, the unemployment rate for Gulf War-era II veterans (3.5 percent) was little different than the 
rate for nonveterans (3.7 percent) in 2018. By age, unemployment rates for female veterans and nonveterans 
were also little different. (See table 2C.)

Employed Gulf War-era II veterans were twice as likely to work in the public sector in 2018 as employed 
nonveterans--26 percent and 13 percent, respectively. Among the employed, 14 percent of Gulf War-era II 
veterans worked for the federal government, compared with 2 percent of nonveterans. (See table 5.) 

In August 2018, 45 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans reported serving in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both 
locations. These veterans had an unemployment rate of 5.7 percent, higher than the rate for Gulf War-era 
II veterans who served elsewhere (3.2 percent). (See table 10.)

Gulf War-era I Veterans

Of the 3.1 million veterans who served during Gulf War era I (August 1990 to August 2001), the proportion 
who were women (16 percent in 2018) was similar to that of Gulf War-era II veterans (17 percent). All Gulf 
War-era I veterans were age 35 and over in 2018, compared with 54 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans. 
(See tables 1 and 2A.)

In 2018, the unemployment rates for male and female Gulf War-era I veterans were little different at 2.9 
percent and 2.1 percent, respectively. The rate for male Gulf War-era I veterans was lower than that of 
their Gulf War-era II counterparts (3.9 percent). Rates for female veterans of Gulf War eras I and II were 
little different. (See tables 2B and 2C.) 

Veterans of Other Service Periods

In 2018, 4.3 million veterans had served on active duty during "other service periods," mainly between the 
Korean War and the Vietnam era and between the Vietnam era and Gulf War era I. All veterans from this period 
of service were 45 years or older at the time of the survey. Sixteen percent of these veterans were age 45 
to 54 in 2018, another 45 percent were age 55 to 64, and another 39 percent were age 65 and over. 
(See table 2A.)

In 2018, about 1 in 10 veterans of other service periods were women. Among veterans of other service 
periods, the unemployment rate for men (3.5 percent) was nearly the same as the rate for women 
(3.6 percent). (See table 1.)

Veterans with a Service-connected Disability

In August 2018, 4.7 million veterans, or 25 percent of the total, had a service-connected disability. 
Veterans with a service-connected disability are assigned a disability rating by the U.S. Department of 
Veterans Affairs or the U.S. Department of Defense. Ratings range from 0 to 100 percent, in increments 
of 10 percentage points, depending on the severity of the condition. (See table 7.)

The unemployment rate for veterans with a service-connected disability was 5.2 percent in August 2018, 
higher than the rate for veterans with no disability (3.5 percent). The labor force participation rate 
for veterans with a service-connected disability (48.0 percent) was little different than the rate for 
veterans with no disability (48.7 percent). 

Among veterans with a service-connected disability, 29 percent reported a disability rating of less than 
30 percent, while another 41 percent had a rating of 60 percent or higher. In August 2018, veterans with 
a service-connected disability rating of less than 30 percent were much more likely to be in the labor 
force than those with a rating of 60 percent or higher (56.3 percent and 40.0 percent, respectively). 
The unemployment rate for veterans with a disability rating of less than 30 percent was 4.2 percent, not 
statistically different than for those with a disability rating of 60 percent or higher (6.1 percent).

Among veterans who served during Gulf War era II, 41 percent (1.7 million) reported a service-connected 
disability in August 2018. Nearly half of these veterans had a service-connected disability of 60 
percent or higher. In August 2018, 73.5 percent of all Gulf War-era II veterans with a service-connected 
disability were in the labor force, lower than the 85.8 percent for veterans from this period with no 
service-connected disability. Among Gulf War-era II veterans, the unemployment rate for those with a 
service-connected disability was 5.3 percent, not statistically different from those with no disability 
(3.3 percent).

In August 2018, 27 percent (843,000) of veterans who served during Gulf War era I reported a 
service-connected disability. Their labor force participation rate (67.9 percent) was lower than 
the rate for veterans who did not have a disability (85.4 percent). The unemployment rate for Gulf 
War-era I veterans with a service-connected disability (4.5 percent) was not statistically different 
than that for Gulf War-era I veterans without a service-connected disability (3.3 percent). 

Among the 1.6 million veterans with a service-connected disability from World War II, the Korean War, 
and the Vietnam era, 12.6 percent were in the labor force in August 2018, lower than the 20.7 percent 
of veterans from these periods who did not have a service-connected disability. The unemployment rate 
of veterans from these wartime periods with a service-connected disability was 1.2 percent, lower than 
their counterparts with no disability (5.1 percent).

Fourteen percent (614,000) of veterans who served during other service periods reported a service-connected 
disability in August 2018. The labor force participation rate of these veterans (40.3 percent) was lower 
than their counterparts without a service-connected disability (48.4 percent). The unemployment rate 
was higher for veterans with a service-connected disability (9.7 percent) than those with no disability 
(2.9 percent). 

Regardless of period of service, many veterans with a service-connected disability worked in the public 
sector. In August 2018, 32 percent of employed veterans with a disability worked in federal, state, or 
local government, compared with 18 percent of veterans with no disability and 13 percent of nonveterans. 
Twenty-two percent of employed veterans with a disability worked for the federal government, compared 
with 8 percent of veterans with no disability and 2 percent of nonveterans. (See table 8.) 

Reserve and National Guard Membership

In August 2018, one-third of Gulf War-era veterans (August 1990 forward) were current or past members 
of the Reserve or National Guard. The labor force participation rate was higher for veterans who were 
current or past members of the Reserve or National Guard (82.9 percent) than for veterans who were never 
members (79.5 percent). Among Gulf War-era veterans, those who were current or past members of the Reserve 
or National Guard had an unemployment rate (3.4 percent) that was not statistically different than those 
who had never been members (4.1 percent). (See table 9.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, 2017-2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status and period of service 2017 2018
Total Men Women Total Men Women

TOTAL VETERANS

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,387 18,387 2,000 19,201 17,335 1,866

Civilian labor force

10,125 8,934 1,191 9,453 8,320 1,133

Participation rate

49.7 48.6 59.6 49.2 48.0 60.7

Employed

9,755 8,613 1,142 9,127 8,027 1,099

Employment-population ratio

47.8 46.8 57.1 47.5 46.3 58.9

Unemployed

370 321 49 326 292 34

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 4.1 3.5 3.5 3.0

Not in labor force

10,262 9,454 808 9,748 9,015 732

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,116 3,400 716 4,149 3,444 704

Civilian labor force

3,318 2,819 498 3,358 2,853 505

Participation rate

80.6 82.9 69.6 80.9 82.8 71.7

Employed

3,169 2,698 471 3,229 2,742 487

Employment-population ratio

77.0 79.4 65.7 77.8 79.6 69.1

Unemployed

149 121 28 129 111 18

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.3 5.5 3.8 3.9 3.5

Not in labor force

798 580 218 791 592 200

NONVETERANS

Civilian noninstitutional population

225,619 100,301 125,318 229,673 102,817 126,857

Civilian labor force

147,957 75,154 72,803 150,489 76,774 73,715

Participation rate

65.6 74.9 58.1 65.5 74.7 58.1

Employed

141,692 71,907 69,785 144,797 73,824 70,972

Employment-population ratio

62.8 71.7 55.7 63.0 71.8 55.9

Unemployed

6,265 3,248 3,018 5,693 2,950 2,743

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.7

Not in labor force

77,662 25,147 52,515 79,184 26,043 53,141

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Gulf War-era II veterans served on active duty anywhere in the world sometime since September 2001. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Effective with data for November 2017, estimates for veterans incorporate population controls derived from an updated Department of Veterans Affairs´┐Ż population model.


Technical Note

   The data in this release were collected through the Current Population Survey
(CPS). The CPS--a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics--obtains information
on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional
population age 16 and over.

   Most of the data in this release are annual averages, compiled from the
results of the monthly survey. In August, a supplement to the CPS collected
additional information about veterans on topics such as service-connected disability,
veterans' Reserve or National Guard status, and veterans who served in Iraq and/or
Afghanistan. The supplement was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Veterans
Affairs and by the U.S. Department of Labor's Veterans' Employment and Training
Service. Questions were asked of persons 17 years of age and older regarding their
prior service in the U.S. Armed Forces. Data are tabulated for persons 18 years of
age and older.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Definitions

   The definitions underlying the data in this release are as follows:

   Veterans are men and women who previously served on active duty in the U.S.
Armed Forces and who were civilians at the time they were surveyed. Members of
the Reserve and National Guard are counted as veterans if they had ever been
called  to active duty. Persons who are on active duty at the time of the survey
are outside the scope of the survey and thus not in the estimates shown here, as
are persons who reside in institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons.

   Nonveterans are men and women who never served on active duty in the U.S.
Armed Forces.

   World War II, Korean War, Vietnam-era, and Gulf War-era veterans are men and
women who served in the U.S. Armed Forces during these periods of service,
regardless of where in the world they served. Veterans who served in more than
one wartime period are classified in the most recent one.

   Veterans of other service periods are men and women who served in the U.S. Armed
Forces at any time other than World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam era, or
the Gulf War era. Although U.S. Armed Forces were engaged in several armed conflicts
during other service periods, these conflicts were more limited in scope and included
a smaller proportion of the Armed Forces than the selected wartime periods. Veterans
who served during one of the selected wartime periods and during another period are
classified in the wartime period.

   Veteran status is obtained from responses to the question, "Did you ever serve
on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces?"

   Period of service identifies when a veteran served in the Armed Forces, but 
not the location of their service. It is obtained from answers to the question 
asked of veterans, "When did you serve on active duty in the  U.S. Armed Forces?"

   The following service periods are identified:

      Gulf War era II -- September 2001-present
      Gulf War era I  -- August 1990-August 2001
      Vietnam era     -- August 1964-April 1975
      Korean War      -- July 1950-January 1955
      World War II    -- December 1941-December 1946
      Other service periods -- All other time periods

   Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service.
Veterans are counted only in one period of service, their most recent wartime period.
Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent
one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are
classified in the wartime period. The period-of-service definitions are modified
occasionally to reflect changes in law, regulations, and program needs of the survey
sponsors.

   Veterans who served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both are individuals who served in
Iraq at any time since March 2003, in Afghanistan at any time since October 2001,
or in both locations. Service in Iraq or Afghanistan is determined by answers to
two questions: "Did you serve in Iraq, off the coast of Iraq, or did you fly missions
over Iraq at any time since March 2003?" and "Did you serve in Afghanistan, or
did you fly missions over Afghanistan, at any time since October 2001?"

   Presence of service-connected disability is determined by answers to the question,
"Has the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) or Department of Defense (DoD) determined
that you have a service-connected disability, that is, a health condition or
impairment caused or made worse by any of your military service?"

   Service-connected disability rating is based on answers to the question, "What
is your current service-connected disability rating?" Answers can range from 0 to
100 percent, in increments of 10 percentage points. Ratings are determined by the
VA or DoD from a rating schedule published in the Code of Federal Regulations,
Title 38, "Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief," Part 4--"Schedule for Rating
Disabilities." The rating schedule is "primarily a guide in the evaluation of 
disability resulting from all types of diseases and injuries encountered as a result
of or incident to military service. The percentage ratings represent as far as can
practicably be determined the average impairment in earning capacity resulting from
such diseases and injuries and their residual conditions in civil occupations." 
Part 4 contains a listing of hundreds of possible disorders and assigns ratings of
0 through 100 percent, with instructions for rating multiple disorders.

   Reserve and National Guard membership refers only to Gulf War-era veterans who are
current or past members of the Reserve or National Guard. Members of the Reserve and
National Guard are counted as veterans if they had ever been called to active duty.
These data do not refer to all persons who may have ever served in the Reserve or 
National Guard. Reserve or National Guard status is obtained from answers to two 
questions. Gulf War-era veterans were asked: "Was any of your active service the 
result of a call-up from the Reserve or National Guard?" If the answer was no, they
were  asked, "Have you ever been a member of the Reserve or National Guard?" A 'yes'
response to either question classified persons as "Current or past member of the 
Reserve or National Guard." A 'no' response to the latter question classified
persons as "Never a member of the Reserve or National Guard."

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that
the sample estimates will differ from the true population values they represent. The
component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.
There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on
a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population
value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur
for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, the
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, the inability or
unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the
collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of national data from the CPS and estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   For a discussion of the reliability of state estimates from the CPS, such as those
in tables 6A and 6B of this release, see https://www.bls.gov/opub/geographic-profile/home.htm.

Comparability of estimates

   Effective with data for November 2017, estimates for veterans incorporate population 
controls derived from an updated Department of Veterans Affairs' population model. 
In accordance with usual practice, BLS did not revise estimates for previous years. 
Information about the updated veteran population model is available from the Department 
of Veterans Affairs at https://www.va.gov/vetdata/docs/Demographics/New_Vetpop_Model/Vetpop16_Overview.pdf.




Table 1. Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, period of service,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL

Total, 18 years and over

248,874 159,942 64.3 153,923 61.8 6,019 3.8 88,932

Veterans

19,201 9,453 49.2 9,127 47.5 326 3.5 9,748

Gulf War era, total

7,238 5,784 79.9 5,588 77.2 197 3.4 1,454

Gulf War era II

4,149 3,358 80.9 3,229 77.8 129 3.8 791

Gulf War era I

3,089 2,427 78.6 2,358 76.3 68 2.8 662

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

7,626 1,594 20.9 1,537 20.2 57 3.6 6,033

Other service periods

4,336 2,075 47.9 2,002 46.2 73 3.5 2,261

Nonveterans

229,673 150,489 65.5 144,797 63.0 5,693 3.8 79,184

Men

Total, 18 years and over

120,152 85,094 70.8 81,852 68.1 3,242 3.8 35,058

Veterans

17,335 8,320 48.0 8,027 46.3 292 3.5 9,015

Gulf War era, total

6,043 4,919 81.4 4,748 78.6 171 3.5 1,124

Gulf War era II

3,444 2,853 82.8 2,742 79.6 111 3.9 592

Gulf War era I

2,599 2,066 79.5 2,005 77.2 61 2.9 533

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

7,366 1,541 20.9 1,485 20.2 56 3.6 5,826

Other service periods

3,925 1,860 47.4 1,795 45.7 65 3.5 2,065

Nonveterans

102,817 76,774 74.7 73,824 71.8 2,950 3.8 26,043

Women

Total, 18 years and over

128,722 74,849 58.1 72,072 56.0 2,777 3.7 53,874

Veterans

1,866 1,133 60.7 1,099 58.9 34 3.0 732

Gulf War era, total

1,194 865 72.4 840 70.3 25 2.9 329

Gulf War era II

704 505 71.7 487 69.1 18 3.5 200

Gulf War era I

490 360 73.5 353 72.0 7 2.1 130

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

260 53 20.3 52 19.9 1 1.7 207

Other service periods

412 215 52.3 208 50.5 8 3.6 196

Nonveterans

126,857 73,715 58.1 70,972 55.9 2,743 3.7 53,141

White

Total, 18 years and over

193,658 124,123 64.1 119,976 62.0 4,146 3.3 69,535

Veterans

15,819 7,580 47.9 7,328 46.3 252 3.3 8,239

Gulf War era, total

5,507 4,457 80.9 4,311 78.3 146 3.3 1,050

Gulf War era II

3,183 2,613 82.1 2,521 79.2 91 3.5 571

Gulf War era I

2,323 1,844 79.4 1,790 77.0 54 3.0 479

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

6,702 1,413 21.1 1,364 20.4 49 3.5 5,288

Other service periods

3,610 1,710 47.4 1,653 45.8 57 3.3 1,901

Nonveterans

177,839 116,543 65.5 112,648 63.3 3,895 3.3 61,296

Black or African American

Total, 18 years and over

31,518 20,215 64.1 18,948 60.1 1,267 6.3 11,303

Veterans

2,433 1,323 54.4 1,266 52.0 57 4.3 1,110

Gulf War era, total

1,215 918 75.6 881 72.5 37 4.0 297

Gulf War era II

658 494 75.2 467 71.1 27 5.5 163

Gulf War era I

557 424 76.1 414 74.3 10 2.4 133

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

644 117 18.2 112 17.4 5 4.6 527

Other service periods

574 287 50.0 273 47.5 14 5.0 287

Nonveterans

29,084 18,892 65.0 17,682 60.8 1,210 6.4 10,192

Asian

Total, 18 years and over

15,412 10,027 65.1 9,729 63.1 298 3.0 5,384

Veterans

361 208 57.5 202 56.0 5 2.6 153

Gulf War era, total

204 153 74.8 148 72.4 5 3.2 52

Gulf War era II

127 100 78.7 96 75.6 4 3.9 27

Gulf War era I

77 52 68.2 51 66.9 1 1.9 24

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

107 29 27.5 29 27.2 0 - 77

Other service periods

50 25 51.2 25 50.6 0 - 24

Nonveterans

15,051 9,820 65.2 9,527 63.3 293 3.0 5,231

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 18 years and over

40,581 27,886 68.7 26,630 65.6 1,256 4.5 12,695

Veterans

1,345 849 63.1 817 60.7 33 3.8 496

Gulf War era, total

776 631 81.3 610 78.6 21 3.3 145

Gulf War era II

539 432 80.1 417 77.4 15 3.4 107

Gulf War era I

237 199 83.9 193 81.3 6 3.1 38

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

338 86 25.5 82 24.3 4 5.0 252

Other service periods

231 132 57.2 125 54.0 7 5.5 99

Nonveterans

39,236 27,037 68.9 25,813 65.8 1,223 4.5 12,199

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2A. Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

TOTAL VETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

19,201 9,453 49.2 9,127 47.5 326 3.5 9,748

18 to 24 years

256 183 71.6 164 64.0 19 10.6 73

25 to 34 years

1,636 1,367 83.6 1,311 80.1 56 4.1 269

35 to 44 years

1,996 1,720 86.2 1,660 83.2 60 3.5 276

45 to 54 years

2,759 2,322 84.2 2,261 82.0 60 2.6 437

55 to 64 years

3,569 2,222 62.3 2,151 60.3 71 3.2 1,347

65 years and over

8,985 1,639 18.2 1,580 17.6 59 3.6 7,346

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

7,238 5,784 79.9 5,588 77.2 197 3.4 1,454

18 to 24 years

256 183 71.6 164 64.0 19 10.6 73

25 to 34 years

1,636 1,367 83.6 1,311 80.1 56 4.1 269

35 to 44 years

1,996 1,720 86.2 1,660 83.2 60 3.5 276

45 to 54 years

2,065 1,750 84.7 1,707 82.6 43 2.4 316

55 to 64 years

945 672 71.1 657 69.5 15 2.3 273

65 years and over

340 92 27.1 89 26.3 3 3.0 248

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

4,149 3,358 80.9 3,229 77.8 129 3.8 791

18 to 24 years

256 183 71.6 164 64.0 19 10.6 73

25 to 34 years

1,636 1,367 83.6 1,311 80.1 56 4.1 269

35 to 44 years

1,196 1,011 84.5 974 81.4 37 3.7 185

45 to 54 years

627 520 82.9 509 81.2 11 2.1 107

55 to 64 years

340 247 72.6 243 71.4 4 1.6 93

65 years and over

94 30 31.8 29 30.6 1 - 64

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

3,089 2,427 78.6 2,358 76.3 68 2.8 662

35 to 44 years

800 709 88.7 686 85.8 23 3.3 91

45 to 54 years

1,438 1,229 85.5 1,198 83.3 32 2.6 209

55 to 64 years

605 426 70.4 414 68.5 11 2.7 179

65 years and over

246 62 25.3 61 24.6 2 2.8 184

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

7,626 1,594 20.9 1,537 20.2 57 3.6 6,033

55 to 64 years

659 288 43.7 280 42.5 8 2.8 371

65 years and over

6,967 1,305 18.7 1,257 18.0 49 3.7 5,662

Other service periods

Total, 45 years and over

4,336 2,075 47.9 2,002 46.2 73 3.5 2,261

45 to 54 years

694 572 82.5 555 79.9 18 3.1 122

55 to 64 years

1,965 1,262 64.2 1,214 61.8 48 3.8 704

65 years and over

1,677 241 14.4 233 13.9 8 3.2 1,436

TOTAL NONVETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

229,673 150,489 65.5 144,797 63.0 5,693 3.8 79,184

18 to 24 years

28,832 18,668 64.8 17,175 59.6 1,493 8.0 10,163

25 to 34 years

42,945 35,407 82.4 34,014 79.2 1,394 3.9 7,538

35 to 44 years

38,574 31,899 82.7 30,957 80.3 943 3.0 6,674

45 to 54 years

38,480 30,989 80.5 30,112 78.3 877 2.8 7,491

55 to 64 years

38,548 25,135 65.2 24,413 63.3 722 2.9 13,413

65 years and over

42,295 8,390 19.8 8,126 19.2 264 3.2 33,905

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2B. Employment status of men 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

VETERANS, MEN

Total, 18 years and over

17,335 8,320 48.0 8,027 46.3 292 3.5 9,015

18 to 24 years

210 155 73.8 137 65.2 18 11.6 55

25 to 34 years

1,314 1,133 86.2 1,086 82.6 47 4.1 181

35 to 44 years

1,626 1,430 88.0 1,378 84.8 52 3.6 196

45 to 54 years

2,359 2,022 85.7 1,968 83.4 54 2.7 337

55 to 64 years

3,161 1,996 63.1 1,932 61.1 64 3.2 1,165

65 years and over

8,664 1,584 18.3 1,526 17.6 58 3.7 7,080

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

6,043 4,919 81.4 4,748 78.6 171 3.5 1,124

18 to 24 years

210 155 73.8 137 65.2 18 11.6 55

25 to 34 years

1,314 1,133 86.2 1,086 82.6 47 4.1 181

35 to 44 years

1,626 1,430 88.0 1,378 84.8 52 3.6 196

45 to 54 years

1,763 1,522 86.4 1,484 84.2 39 2.5 240

55 to 64 years

821 594 72.4 581 70.8 13 2.3 227

65 years and over

309 84 27.2 81 26.3 3 3.3 225

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

3,444 2,853 82.8 2,742 79.6 111 3.9 592

18 to 24 years

210 155 73.8 137 65.2 18 11.6 55

25 to 34 years

1,314 1,133 86.2 1,086 82.6 47 4.1 181

35 to 44 years

988 852 86.3 820 83.0 32 3.7 136

45 to 54 years

549 466 84.9 456 83.1 10 2.1 83

55 to 64 years

299 220 73.7 217 72.7 3 1.4 79

65 years and over

84 26 31.0 25 29.8 1 - 58

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

2,599 2,066 79.5 2,005 77.2 61 2.9 533

35 to 44 years

638 578 90.6 558 87.4 20 3.5 60

45 to 54 years

1,213 1,056 87.0 1,028 84.7 29 2.7 157

55 to 64 years

522 374 71.6 364 69.6 10 2.8 148

65 years and over

225 58 25.7 56 25.0 2 3.0 167

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

7,366 1,541 20.9 1,485 20.2 56 3.6 5,826

55 to 64 years

605 269 44.5 261 43.1 8 3.0 336

65 years and over

6,761 1,272 18.8 1,224 18.1 48 3.8 5,490

Other service periods

Total, 45 years and over

3,925 1,860 47.4 1,795 45.7 65 3.5 2,065

45 to 54 years

596 499 83.7 484 81.2 15 3.0 97

55 to 64 years

1,735 1,132 65.3 1,090 62.8 43 3.8 603

65 years and over

1,594 228 14.3 221 13.8 8 3.3 1,366

NONVETERANS, MEN

Total, 18 years and over

102,817 76,774 74.7 73,824 71.8 2,950 3.8 26,043

18 to 24 years

14,396 9,538 66.3 8,693 60.4 844 8.9 4,858

25 to 34 years

20,890 18,656 89.3 17,940 85.9 716 3.8 2,234

35 to 44 years

18,307 16,693 91.2 16,230 88.7 463 2.8 1,614

45 to 54 years

17,797 15,506 87.1 15,070 84.7 436 2.8 2,291

55 to 64 years

17,105 12,444 72.7 12,069 70.6 375 3.0 4,661

65 years and over

14,321 3,938 27.5 3,822 26.7 116 2.9 10,383

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 2C. Employment status of women 18 years and over by veteran status, age, and period of service, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status, age, and period of service Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Percent of
labor force

VETERANS, WOMEN

Total, 18 years and over

1,866 1,133 60.7 1,099 58.9 34 3.0 732

18 to 24 years

46 28 61.3 27 58.5 1 - 18

25 to 34 years

322 234 72.7 225 69.9 9 4.0 88

35 to 44 years

370 290 78.4 281 76.1 9 3.0 80

45 to 54 years

400 300 75.0 293 73.3 7 2.2 100

55 to 64 years

408 226 55.5 220 53.8 7 3.1 182

65 years and over

321 55 17.2 54 16.8 1 2.2 266

Gulf War era, total

Total, 18 years and over

1,194 865 72.4 840 70.3 25 2.9 329

18 to 24 years

46 28 61.3 27 58.5 1 - 18

25 to 34 years

322 234 72.7 225 69.9 9 4.0 88

35 to 44 years

370 290 78.4 281 76.1 9 3.0 80

45 to 54 years

302 227 75.1 223 73.7 4 1.8 75

55 to 64 years

124 78 62.9 76 61.4 2 2.4 46

65 years and over

31 8 - 8 - 0 - 23

Gulf War era II

Total, 18 years and over

704 505 71.7 487 69.1 18 3.5 200

18 to 24 years

46 28 61.3 27 58.5 1 - 18

25 to 34 years

322 234 72.7 225 69.9 9 4.0 88

35 to 44 years

208 159 76.3 154 73.7 5 3.4 49

45 to 54 years

78 54 69.2 53 67.7 1 2.1 24

55 to 64 years

41 26 64.1 25 62.0 1 - 15

65 years and over

10 4 - 4 - 0 - 6

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

490 360 73.5 353 72.0 7 2.1 130

35 to 44 years

161 131 81.2 128 79.1 3 2.5 30

45 to 54 years

225 173 77.2 170 75.8 3 1.8 51

55 to 64 years

83 52 62.4 51 61.1 1 2.0 31

65 years and over

21 4 - 4 - 0 - 17

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 55 years and over

260 53 20.3 52 19.9 1 1.7 207

55 to 64 years

54 19 35.2 19 35.2 0 - 35

65 years and over

206 34 16.4 33 15.9 1 - 172

Other service periods

Total, 45 years and over

412 215 52.3 208 50.5 8 3.6 196

45 to 54 years

97 73 74.7 70 72.1 2 3.4 25

55 to 64 years

230 130 56.2 124 54.0 5 3.9 101

65 years and over

84 13 15.7 13 15.4 0 - 70

NONVETERANS, WOMEN

Total, 18 years and over

126,857 73,715 58.1 70,972 55.9 2,743 3.7 53,141

18 to 24 years

14,436 9,131 63.3 8,482 58.8 649 7.1 5,305

25 to 34 years

22,054 16,751 76.0 16,073 72.9 678 4.0 5,303

35 to 44 years

20,267 15,207 75.0 14,727 72.7 480 3.2 5,060

45 to 54 years

20,683 15,483 74.9 15,042 72.7 441 2.8 5,200

55 to 64 years

21,443 12,691 59.2 12,344 57.6 347 2.7 8,751

65 years and over

27,974 4,452 15.9 4,304 15.4 148 3.3 23,521

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 3. Employment status of persons 25 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and educational attainment, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Veteran status,
period of service, and educational attainment
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

VETERANS

Total, 25 years and over

18,945 9,270 48.9 8,963 47.3 307 3.3 9,675

Less than a high school diploma

804 175 21.7 166 20.6 9 5.1 629

High school graduates, no college

5,421 2,317 42.8 2,229 41.1 89 3.8 3,103

Some college or associate degree

6,593 3,385 51.3 3,260 49.5 125 3.7 3,208

Bachelor's degree and higher

6,127 3,392 55.4 3,308 54.0 84 2.5 2,734

Gulf War era, total

Total, 25 years and over

6,982 5,601 80.2 5,424 77.7 177 3.2 1,381

Less than a high school diploma

78 47 61.0 45 58.2 2 4.5 30

High school graduates, no college

1,556 1,238 79.5 1,190 76.4 48 3.9 318

Some college or associate degree

2,727 2,117 77.6 2,039 74.8 78 3.7 610

Bachelor's degree and higher

2,621 2,199 83.9 2,150 82.0 49 2.2 422

Gulf War era II

Total, 25 years and over

3,893 3,175 81.5 3,065 78.7 109 3.4 718

Less than a high school diploma

40 26 64.0 24 59.1 2 - 14

High school graduates, no college

824 667 81.0 641 77.8 26 4.0 157

Some college or associate degree

1,538 1,199 77.9 1,148 74.6 51 4.3 339

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,490 1,283 86.1 1,253 84.1 30 2.3 208

Gulf War era I

Total, 25 years and over

3,089 2,427 78.6 2,358 76.3 68 2.8 662

Less than a high school diploma

38 22 57.9 22 57.3 0 - 16

High school graduates, no college

732 571 77.9 549 74.9 22 3.8 162

Some college or associate degree

1,188 918 77.2 891 75.0 27 2.9 271

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,131 916 81.0 897 79.3 19 2.1 214

WWII, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total, 25 years and over

7,626 1,594 20.9 1,537 20.2 57 3.6 6,033

Less than a high school diploma

477 62 12.9 58 12.1 4 6.2 415

High school graduates, no college

2,349 410 17.5 395 16.8 15 3.6 1,939

Some college or associate degree

2,415 531 22.0 510 21.1 21 3.9 1,884

Bachelor's degree and higher

2,386 591 24.8 574 24.1 17 2.9 1,795

Other service periods

Total, 25 years and over

4,336 2,075 47.9 2,002 46.2 73 3.5 2,261

Less than a high school diploma

250 66 26.2 63 25.0 3 4.6 184

High school graduates, no college

1,515 669 44.2 644 42.5 25 3.8 846

Some college or associate degree

1,451 738 50.8 711 49.0 26 3.6 713

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,120 603 53.8 585 52.2 18 3.0 518

NONVETERANS

Total, 25 years and over

200,842 131,821 65.6 127,621 63.5 4,200 3.2 69,021

Less than a high school diploma

21,366 10,029 46.9 9,466 44.3 563 5.6 11,337

High school graduates, no college

57,073 33,634 58.9 32,266 56.5 1,368 4.1 23,438

Some college or associate degree

50,950 34,319 67.4 33,190 65.1 1,130 3.3 16,631

Bachelor's degree and higher

71,453 53,838 75.3 52,700 73.8 1,139 2.1 17,615

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 35,000).


Table 4. Employed persons 18 years and over by occupation, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 2018 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Occupation and sex Veterans Non-
veterans
Total Gulf War era WW II,
Korean
War, and
Vietnam
era
Other
service
periods
Total Gulf War
era II
Gulf War
era I

TOTAL

Total employed (in thousands)

9,127 5,588 3,229 2,358 1,537 2,002 144,797

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

39.1 39.5 37.5 42.3 41.5 36.3 40.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18.6 17.8 16.9 19.1 22.7 17.5 16.7

Professional and related occupations

20.6 21.7 20.6 23.2 18.8 18.7 23.9

Service occupations

14.2 15.4 17.0 13.2 11.7 13.0 17.1

Sales and office occupations

16.5 16.3 16.1 16.4 18.0 16.2 21.7

Sales and related occupations

8.4 7.2 6.8 7.8 11.8 8.9 10.1

Office and administrative support occupations

8.1 9.0 9.3 8.6 6.2 7.2 11.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13.7 13.9 14.5 13.2 11.9 14.6 9.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7

Construction and extraction occupations

6.1 5.5 5.6 5.4 6.5 7.6 5.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

7.2 8.1 8.6 7.3 5.0 6.4 3.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16.4 14.9 14.9 15.0 16.9 20.0 11.7

Production occupations

6.5 6.5 6.8 6.1 4.8 8.0 5.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9.8 8.4 8.1 8.9 12.1 12.0 6.2

MEN

Total employed (in thousands)

8,027 4,748 2,742 2,005 1,485 1,795 73,824

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

37.7 37.8 36.4 39.9 41.1 34.5 36.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18.5 17.6 17.0 18.3 22.7 17.4 17.6

Professional and related occupations

19.2 20.3 19.4 21.5 18.4 17.1 19.3

Service occupations

14.1 15.2 16.7 13.2 11.8 13.0 13.4

Sales and office occupations

15.0 14.1 13.9 14.4 17.5 15.0 15.7

Sales and related occupations

8.4 7.0 6.6 7.6 11.9 9.2 9.7

Office and administrative support occupations

6.5 7.1 7.3 6.8 5.6 5.9 6.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

15.4 16.1 16.7 15.3 12.3 16.2 16.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.0

Construction and extraction occupations

6.9 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.7 8.4 10.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

8.1 9.4 10.0 8.6 5.2 7.1 5.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17.9 16.7 16.4 17.2 17.3 21.3 17.2

Production occupations

7.2 7.3 7.6 6.9 4.9 8.6 7.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

10.7 9.4 8.8 10.2 12.4 12.7 9.7

WOMEN

Total employed (in thousands)

1,099 840 487 353 52 208 70,972

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

49.6 49.0 43.9 56.0 53.1 51.3 44.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19.3 19.2 16.3 23.2 22.5 18.8 15.7

Professional and related occupations

30.3 29.8 27.6 32.8 30.6 32.5 28.7

Service occupations

15.4 16.3 18.7 13.1 9.1 13.4 20.8

Sales and office occupations

28.1 28.3 28.7 27.8 33.2 25.8 27.8

Sales and related occupations

8.2 8.5 8.1 9.1 9.3 6.8 10.4

Office and administrative support occupations

19.9 19.8 20.6 18.7 24.0 19.0 17.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.3 1.4 2.0 0.7 0.2 1.0 1.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

0.7 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.9 0.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.5 0.7 0.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.6 4.9 6.7 2.5 4.5 8.5 5.9

Production occupations

2.0 1.9 2.5 1.1 0.5 2.9 3.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

3.6 3.0 4.2 1.4 4.0 5.6 2.4

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period.


Table 5. Employed persons 18 years and over by industry, class of worker, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 2018 annual averages [Percent distribution]
Industry, class of worker, and sex Veterans Non-
veterans
Total Gulf War era WW II,
Korean
War, and
Vietnam
era
Other
service
periods
Total Gulf War
era II
Gulf War
era I

TOTAL

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

9,127 5,588 3,229 2,358 1,537 2,002 144,797

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.8 0.8 0.6 1.0 5.0 2.1 1.5

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.9 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.8 1.0 1.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

0.9 0.2 0.1 0.2 3.2 1.0 0.5

Nonagricultural industries

98.2 99.2 99.4 99.0 95.0 97.9 98.5

Wage and salary workers(2)

92.2 95.7 96.5 94.7 81.0 90.9 92.7

Private industries

70.4 70.2 70.5 69.8 69.1 72.1 79.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.7 0.8 1.1 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.5

Construction

6.4 6.2 6.6 5.7 6.0 7.4 5.9

Manufacturing

11.7 11.6 10.8 12.6 8.8 14.4 9.7

Wholesale trade

2.6 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.3

Retail trade

8.4 7.6 8.3 6.6 10.7 8.9 10.1

Transportation and utilities

7.3 7.3 6.6 8.4 6.6 7.7 4.2

Information

2.0 2.2 1.6 3.0 1.5 1.5 1.7

Financial activities

4.3 4.3 3.6 5.4 5.1 3.7 6.4

Professional and business services

11.4 12.1 12.8 11.0 11.0 9.8 10.6

Education and health services

8.4 8.5 8.3 8.7 7.2 8.9 15.6

Leisure and hospitality

4.0 4.1 5.0 2.9 4.5 3.2 8.2

Other services

3.3 2.9 3.3 2.5 4.3 3.5 4.3

Government

21.7 25.5 26.0 24.8 11.9 18.8 13.1

Federal

10.0 13.2 14.3 11.6 2.8 6.8 2.0

State

4.7 5.1 4.9 5.2 3.3 5.0 4.6

Local

7.0 7.3 6.8 8.0 5.8 7.0 6.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

6.0 3.5 2.8 4.3 13.9 7.1 5.8

MEN

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

8,027 4,748 2,742 2,005 1,485 1,795 73,824

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.9 0.8 0.6 1.1 5.1 2.2 2.2

Wage and salary workers(2)

1.0 0.6 0.5 0.9 1.8 1.1 1.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

1.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 3.3 1.1 0.6

Nonagricultural industries

98.1 99.2 99.4 98.9 94.9 97.8 97.8

Wage and salary workers(2)

91.8 95.8 96.7 94.6 80.6 90.6 91.2

Private industries

71.2 71.3 71.5 71.0 69.2 72.6 81.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.8

Construction

7.1 7.1 7.7 6.4 6.2 8.0 10.2

Manufacturing

12.7 13.0 12.1 14.2 8.9 15.3 13.2

Wholesale trade

2.7 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.1

Retail trade

8.5 7.6 8.2 6.7 10.8 8.9 9.9

Transportation and utilities

8.0 8.2 7.3 9.5 6.8 8.4 6.2

Information

2.1 2.4 1.8 3.3 1.6 1.6 2.0

Financial activities

4.0 3.8 3.1 4.8 5.0 3.6 5.7

Professional and business services

11.7 12.5 13.3 11.4 11.0 10.1 11.7

Education and health services

6.5 6.4 6.3 6.6 6.6 6.8 6.9

Leisure and hospitality

3.8 3.8 4.7 2.7 4.6 3.1 7.6

Other services

3.4 2.9 3.3 2.4 4.4 3.6 3.8

Government

20.6 24.5 25.2 23.6 11.4 18.1 10.1

Federal

9.3 12.6 13.7 11.0 2.5 6.3 1.8

State

4.3 4.6 4.5 4.7 3.1 4.7 3.4

Local

7.0 7.3 6.9 7.9 5.8 7.0 4.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

6.2 3.4 2.7 4.3 14.1 7.2 6.6

WOMEN

Total employed (in thousands)(1)

1,099 840 487 353 52 208 70,972

As a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.9

Wage and salary workers(2)

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.3

Nonagricultural industries

99.5 99.6 99.5 99.6 99.4 99.1 99.1

Wage and salary workers(2)

94.9 95.6 95.8 95.3 91.2 92.9 94.2

Private industries

65.0 64.2 64.9 63.2 67.2 67.8 77.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.2 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1

Construction

1.4 1.4 1.0 1.9 0.0 2.1 1.3

Manufacturing

4.5 3.9 3.8 3.9 5.6 7.1 6.1

Wholesale trade

1.4 1.3 1.6 0.9 3.4 1.3 1.4

Retail trade

8.0 7.6 8.5 6.5 7.3 9.4 10.3

Transportation and utilities

2.4 2.5 2.8 2.2 1.9 2.1 2.2

Information

1.1 1.3 0.9 1.8 0.5 0.6 1.3

Financial activities

6.7 7.2 6.1 8.9 6.5 4.3 7.2

Professional and business services

9.2 9.6 10.2 8.8 11.0 7.2 9.5

Education and health services

21.8 20.4 19.9 21.0 24.6 26.8 24.7

Leisure and hospitality

5.4 5.8 6.8 4.5 3.1 4.3 8.8

Other services

2.9 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.4 4.9

Government

29.9 31.4 30.8 32.1 24.0 25.2 16.3

Federal

15.4 16.7 17.7 15.4 11.0 11.2 2.1

State

7.6 7.6 7.4 8.0 8.3 7.1 5.8

Local

6.9 7.0 5.8 8.8 4.7 6.8 8.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

4.6 4.0 3.7 4.3 8.2 6.2 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose business are incorporated.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period.


Table 6A. Employment status of veterans 18 years and over by state, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL VETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

19,201 9,453 49.2 9,127 47.5 326 3.5 9,748

Alabama

342 166 48.5 161 47.1 5 2.8 176

Alaska

67 41 60.3 39 58.1 1 3.6 27

Arizona

474 238 50.2 227 47.9 11 4.6 236

Arkansas

209 87 41.7 85 40.5 3 3.0 122

California

1,713 820 47.8 798 46.6 22 2.7 894

Colorado

357 191 53.6 180 50.5 11 5.8 166

Connecticut

164 82 49.9 80 48.8 2 2.0 82

Delaware

76 36 46.8 34 45.4 1 2.9 40

District of Columbia

28 14 49.1 13 45.9 1 6.5 14

Florida

1,405 622 44.3 606 43.1 17 2.7 783

Georgia

697 390 56.0 380 54.4 11 2.8 307

Hawaii

106 52 49.0 50 47.0 2 4.1 54

Idaho

126 57 44.9 55 43.7 2 2.7 69

Illinois

575 275 47.8 266 46.2 9 3.3 300

Indiana

401 216 53.8 209 52.1 7 3.1 185

Iowa

211 113 53.3 111 52.6 2 1.4 99

Kansas

184 100 54.3 95 51.7 5 4.8 84

Kentucky

281 125 44.4 121 43.2 3 2.8 156

Louisiana

277 122 44.2 118 42.6 4 3.6 154

Maine

112 53 47.2 52 46.2 1 2.0 59

Maryland

409 259 63.4 251 61.3 8 3.2 150

Massachusetts

306 154 50.4 149 48.8 5 3.3 152

Michigan

577 274 47.5 263 45.6 11 3.9 303

Minnesota

316 152 48.3 149 47.2 3 2.2 163

Mississippi

185 99 53.4 95 51.3 4 3.9 86

Missouri

422 195 46.2 187 44.4 8 4.0 227

Montana

94 45 48.3 43 46.0 2 4.7 49

Nebraska

122 66 53.8 64 52.4 2 2.6 56

Nevada

244 118 48.6 114 46.9 4 3.6 125

New Hampshire

98 48 48.9 46 47.4 1 3.1 50

New Jersey

289 104 36.0 102 35.3 2 2.0 185

New Mexico

154 70 45.7 67 43.7 3 4.5 83

New York

752 310 41.2 295 39.2 15 5.0 442

North Carolina

707 356 50.3 341 48.2 15 4.2 352

North Dakota

49 28 56.4 27 54.9 1 2.7 21

Ohio

764 361 47.2 344 45.0 17 4.8 403

Oklahoma

278 142 51.2 138 49.4 5 3.4 136

Oregon

296 134 45.2 128 43.1 6 4.8 162

Pennsylvania

787 356 45.2 337 42.9 18 5.1 432

Rhode Island

60 26 44.3 26 43.3 1 2.4 33

South Carolina

391 177 45.3 171 43.8 6 3.3 214

South Dakota

69 40 58.7 39 57.3 1 2.5 28

Tennessee

500 255 51.1 249 49.9 6 2.4 244

Texas

1,582 864 54.6 835 52.8 28 3.3 718

Utah

138 71 51.5 68 49.1 3 4.6 67

Vermont

37 17 45.6 16 44.6 0 2.3 20

Virginia

699 411 58.8 400 57.2 11 2.7 288

Washington

500 256 51.2 245 49.0 11 4.3 244

West Virginia

138 60 43.3 57 41.6 2 3.9 78

Wisconsin

386 182 47.1 176 45.7 5 3.0 204

Wyoming

48 26 52.8 25 50.5 1 4.3 23

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey.


Table 6B. Employment status of nonveterans 18 years and over by state, 2018 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
State Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of
population
Total Percent
of
labor force

TOTAL NONVETERANS

Total, 18 years and over

229,673 150,489 65.5 144,797 63.0 5,693 3.8 79,184

Alabama

3,397 2,026 59.6 1,946 57.3 80 3.9 1,371

Alaska

463 314 67.8 293 63.2 21 6.8 149

Arizona

4,894 3,134 64.0 2,996 61.2 138 4.4 1,760

Arkansas

2,048 1,238 60.4 1,191 58.2 46 3.7 810

California

28,413 18,463 65.0 17,706 62.3 757 4.1 9,950

Colorado

3,991 2,866 71.8 2,782 69.7 84 2.9 1,125

Connecticut

2,633 1,797 68.3 1,725 65.5 73 4.1 836

Delaware

678 446 65.8 430 63.4 17 3.7 232

District of Columbia

536 390 72.8 369 68.7 22 5.5 146

Florida

15,337 9,542 62.2 9,205 60.0 337 3.5 5,795

Georgia

7,139 4,687 65.7 4,509 63.2 178 3.8 2,452

Hawaii

955 624 65.3 609 63.8 15 2.4 331

Idaho

1,158 786 67.9 764 66.0 22 2.8 372

Illinois

9,082 6,098 67.1 5,848 64.4 250 4.1 2,985

Indiana

4,632 3,140 67.8 3,037 65.6 104 3.3 1,491

Iowa

2,169 1,541 71.0 1,503 69.3 38 2.5 628

Kansas

1,971 1,361 69.1 1,317 66.8 44 3.2 610

Kentucky

3,099 1,905 61.5 1,823 58.8 82 4.3 1,194

Louisiana

3,194 1,971 61.7 1,878 58.8 94 4.7 1,222

Maine

960 630 65.6 610 63.5 20 3.2 331

Maryland

4,245 2,931 69.0 2,813 66.3 118 4.0 1,314

Massachusetts

5,139 3,608 70.2 3,488 67.9 120 3.3 1,531

Michigan

7,094 4,539 64.0 4,355 61.4 184 4.1 2,555

Minnesota

3,908 2,837 72.6 2,758 70.6 80 2.8 1,071

Mississippi

2,022 1,173 58.0 1,117 55.2 56 4.8 849

Missouri

4,206 2,823 67.1 2,735 65.0 88 3.1 1,383

Montana

724 473 65.4 457 63.1 17 3.6 251

Nebraska

1,299 941 72.4 916 70.5 25 2.6 358

Nevada

2,077 1,393 67.1 1,331 64.1 62 4.5 684

New Hampshire

975 697 71.5 681 69.9 16 2.4 277

New Jersey

6,618 4,313 65.2 4,133 62.5 179 4.2 2,306

New Mexico

1,418 867 61.1 827 58.3 40 4.6 551

New York

14,690 9,281 63.2 8,906 60.6 375 4.0 5,409

North Carolina

7,196 4,594 63.8 4,426 61.5 168 3.7 2,602

North Dakota

512 364 71.1 354 69.2 10 2.7 148

Ohio

8,115 5,277 65.0 5,048 62.2 229 4.3 2,839

Oklahoma

2,617 1,679 64.2 1,624 62.1 55 3.3 938

Oregon

2,972 1,928 64.9 1,852 62.3 76 4.0 1,044

Pennsylvania

9,110 5,940 65.2 5,695 62.5 245 4.1 3,170

Rhode Island

772 522 67.6 502 65.0 20 3.8 250

South Carolina

3,484 2,113 60.7 2,040 58.6 73 3.5 1,371

South Dakota

573 410 71.7 399 69.6 12 2.8 162

Tennessee

4,683 2,966 63.3 2,862 61.1 103 3.5 1,718

Texas

19,256 12,864 66.8 12,378 64.3 487 3.8 6,392

Utah

2,060 1,441 70.0 1,397 67.8 44 3.0 619

Vermont

462 322 69.7 314 67.9 8 2.6 140

Virginia

5,751 3,922 68.2 3,814 66.3 108 2.8 1,829

Washington

5,240 3,483 66.5 3,334 63.6 149 4.3 1,758

West Virginia

1,270 715 56.3 678 53.4 37 5.2 555

Wisconsin

4,053 2,855 70.4 2,776 68.5 79 2.8 1,198

Wyoming

383 258 67.4 248 64.7 10 4.0 125

NOTE: Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces.


Table 7. Employment status of veterans 18 years and over by presence of service-connected disability, reported disability rating, period of service, and sex, August 2018, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Presence of disability, reported disability rating,
period of service, and sex
Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of population
Total Percent
of labor force

TOTAL
VETERANS

Total

19,151 9,323 48.7 8,949 46.7 374 4.0 9,828

With service-connected disability

4,741 2,275 48.0 2,156 45.5 119 5.2 2,466

Less than 30 percent disability rating

1,386 781 56.3 748 54.0 32 4.2 605

30 to 50 percent disability rating

931 518 55.6 487 52.3 30 5.9 414

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,945 779 40.0 731 37.6 48 6.1 1,166

Disability rating not reported

479 198 41.3 190 39.6 8 4.0 281

Without service-connected disability

13,850 6,738 48.7 6,502 46.9 236 3.5 7,112

Presence of disability not reported

561 311 55.4 292 52.0 19 6.1 250

Gulf War era, total

Total

7,258 5,863 80.8 5,627 77.5 236 4.0 1,395

With service-connected disability

2,553 1,829 71.6 1,736 68.0 92 5.1 724

Less than 30 percent disability rating

653 576 88.1 560 85.7 16 2.8 77

30 to 50 percent disability rating

568 426 75.0 400 70.5 25 6.0 142

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,087 663 61.0 621 57.1 43 6.5 424

Disability rating not reported

245 164 66.9 156 63.7 8 4.9 81

Without service-connected disability

4,433 3,794 85.6 3,670 82.8 125 3.3 639

Presence of disability not reported

272 240 88.1 221 81.2 19 7.9 32

Gulf War era II

Total

4,184 3,393 81.1 3,247 77.6 146 4.3 791

With service-connected disability

1,710 1,257 73.5 1,190 69.6 67 5.3 453

Less than 30 percent disability rating

369 327 88.6 321 87.0 6 1.8 42

30 to 50 percent disability rating

368 303 82.5 281 76.4 22 7.4 64

60 percent or higher disability rating

789 492 62.3 461 58.4 31 6.2 297

Disability rating not reported

185 135 73.1 127 68.8 8 5.9 50

Without service-connected disability

2,300 1,973 85.8 1,908 83.0 64 3.3 328

Presence of disability not reported

174 163 93.7 148 85.1 15 9.2 11

Gulf War era I

Total

3,074 2,470 80.4 2,381 77.5 90 3.6 603

With service-connected disability

843 572 67.9 546 64.8 25 4.5 271

Less than 30 percent disability rating

285 249 87.5 239 83.9 10 4.2 36

30 to 50 percent disability rating

200 122 61.2 119 59.7 3 2.4 78

60 percent or higher disability rating

298 172 57.6 160 53.5 12 7.1 126

Disability rating not reported

60 29 - 29 - - - 31

Without service-connected disability

2,133 1,822 85.4 1,761 82.6 60 3.3 311

Presence of disability not reported

98 77 78.2 73 74.2 4 5.2 21

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

7,573 1,434 18.9 1,370 18.1 63 4.4 6,139

With service-connected disability

1,574 198 12.6 196 12.5 2 1.2 1,376

Less than 30 percent disability rating

498 91 18.3 90 18.1 1 1.2 407

30 to 50 percent disability rating

268 38 14.0 38 14.0 - - 230

60 percent or higher disability rating

659 55 8.3 54 8.1 1 - 604

Disability rating not reported

150 15 9.9 15 9.9 - - 135

Without service-connected disability

5,823 1,203 20.7 1,142 19.6 61 5.1 4,621

Presence of disability not reported

176 32 18.4 32 18.4 0 - 143

Other service periods

Total

4,320 2,027 46.9 1,951 45.2 75 3.7 2,293

With service-connected disability

614 248 40.3 224 36.4 24 9.7 367

Less than 30 percent disability rating

235 114 48.4 98 42.0 15 13.3 121

30 to 50 percent disability rating

96 54 56.7 49 51.3 5 - 42

60 percent or higher disability rating

200 61 30.4 57 28.5 4 - 139

Disability rating not reported

84 19 22.7 19 22.7 - - 65

Without service-connected disability

3,593 1,741 48.4 1,690 47.0 51 2.9 1,853

Presence of disability not reported

112 38 33.9 38 33.9 0 - 74

MEN
VETERANS

Total

17,283 8,182 47.3 7,862 45.5 320 3.9 9,101

With service-connected disability

4,233 1,980 46.8 1,876 44.3 104 5.3 2,254

Less than 30 percent disability rating

1,302 728 55.9 695 53.4 32 4.5 574

30 to 50 percent disability rating

776 406 52.4 381 49.2 25 6.1 370

60 percent or higher disability rating

1,709 653 38.2 615 36.0 39 5.9 1,055

Disability rating not reported

447 192 43.0 184 41.2 8 4.1 255

Without service-connected disability

12,525 5,915 47.2 5,718 45.7 197 3.3 6,610

Presence of disability not reported

525 288 54.8 269 51.2 19 6.6 237

Gulf War era, total

Total

6,059 4,997 82.5 4,800 79.2 196 3.9 1,062

With service-connected disability

2,144 1,558 72.7 1,477 68.9 82 5.2 586

Less than 30 percent disability rating

600 532 88.7 516 86.0 16 3.1 68

30 to 50 percent disability rating

435 320 73.6 300 69.1 20 6.2 115

60 percent or higher disability rating

891 548 61.4 510 57.2 38 6.9 344

Disability rating not reported

218 158 72.5 150 68.9 8 5.0 60

Without service-connected disability

3,662 3,212 87.7 3,117 85.1 96 3.0 450

Presence of disability not reported

252 226 89.6 207 82.1 19 8.4 26

Gulf War era II

Total

3,421 2,844 83.1 2,724 79.6 119 4.2 577

With service-connected disability

1,439 1,086 75.4 1,030 71.5 56 5.2 354

Less than 30 percent disability rating

339 306 90.4 300 88.7 6 1.9 32

30 to 50 percent disability rating

277 232 83.7 215 77.6 17 7.2 45

60 percent or higher disability rating

657 418 63.7 393 59.8 25 6.1 238

Disability rating not reported

167 130 77.6 122 72.9 8 6.1 37

Without service-connected disability

1,816 1,602 88.2 1,553 85.5 48 3.0 214

Presence of disability not reported

165 156 94.3 141 85.3 15 9.6 9

Gulf War era I

Total

2,638 2,153 81.6 2,076 78.7 77 3.6 485

With service-connected disability

705 472 67.0 447 63.4 25 5.4 233

Less than 30 percent disability rating

261 226 86.5 216 82.5 10 4.6 35

30 to 50 percent disability rating

158 88 55.9 85 54.1 3 3.4 69

60 percent or higher disability rating

235 130 55.2 117 50.0 12 9.4 105

Disability rating not reported

51 29 - 29 - - - 23

Without service-connected disability

1,846 1,611 87.2 1,563 84.7 48 3.0 236

Presence of disability not reported

87 70 80.7 66 76.1 4 - 17

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

7,315 1,391 19.0 1,332 18.2 60 4.3 5,924

With service-connected disability

1,547 198 12.8 196 12.7 2 1.2 1,348

Less than 30 percent disability rating

495 91 18.4 90 18.2 1 1.2 404

30 to 50 percent disability rating

261 38 14.4 38 14.4 - - 223

60 percent or higher disability rating

644 55 8.5 54 8.3 1 - 590

Disability rating not reported

146 15 10.1 15 10.1 - - 131

Without service-connected disability

5,599 1,161 20.7 1,103 19.7 57 4.9 4,439

Presence of disability not reported

169 32 19.1 32 19.1 0 - 137

Other service periods

Total

3,909 1,794 45.9 1,730 44.3 64 3.5 2,115

With service-connected disability

542 223 41.2 203 37.4 20 9.0 319

Less than 30 percent disability rating

207 105 50.5 89 43.2 15 14.4 102

30 to 50 percent disability rating

81 49 60.6 44 54.3 5 - 32

60 percent or higher disability rating

173 51 29.4 51 29.4 - - 122

Disability rating not reported

82 19 23.2 19 23.2 - - 63

Without service-connected disability

3,263 1,542 47.2 1,498 45.9 43 2.8 1,722

Presence of disability not reported

104 29 28.3 29 28.3 0 - 74

WOMEN
VETERANS

Total

1,868 1,141 61.1 1,087 58.2 55 4.8 727

With service-connected disability

507 295 58.2 280 55.3 15 5.0 212

Less than 30 percent disability rating

84 53 63.2 53 63.2 - - 31

30 to 50 percent disability rating

155 111 71.7 106 68.0 6 5.1 44

60 percent or higher disability rating

237 125 53.0 116 49.2 9 7.2 111

Disability rating not reported

32 5 - 5 - - - 26

Without service-connected disability

1,325 823 62.1 783 59.1 40 4.8 501

Presence of disability not reported

36 23 - 23 - 0 - 13

Gulf War era, total

Total

1,199 866 72.3 827 69.0 40 4.6 333

With service-connected disability

408 271 66.3 260 63.6 11 4.0 138

Without service-connected disability

771 582 75.5 553 71.8 29 4.9 189

Presence of disability not reported

20 14 - 14 - 0 - 6

Gulf War era II

Total

763 549 71.9 522 68.4 27 4.9 214

With service-connected disability

271 171 63.3 160 59.3 11 6.4 99

Without service-connected disability

484 371 76.6 355 73.3 16 4.3 113

Presence of disability not reported

9 7 - 7 - 0 - 2

Gulf War era I

Total

436 317 72.8 305 69.9 13 4.0 118

With service-connected disability

137 99 72.3 99 72.3 - - 38

Without service-connected disability

286 211 73.6 198 69.2 13 6.0 76

Presence of disability not reported

12 7 - 7 - - - 5

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era

Total

258 42 16.4 39 15.0 3 - 216

With service-connected disability

27 - - - - - - 27

Without service-connected disability

224 42 18.9 39 17.3 3 - 182

Presence of disability not reported

7 0 - 0 - 0 - 7

Other service periods

Total

411 232 56.6 221 53.8 11 4.9 179

With service-connected disability

72 24 - 21 - 4 - 48

Without service-connected disability

330 199 60.3 191 58.0 8 3.9 131

Presence of disability not reported

9 9 - 9 - 0 - 0

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. A service-connected disability is a health condition or impairment caused or made worse by military service. The associated disability rating, which can range from 0 to 100 percent, is determined from a rating schedule published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, "Title 38." More information appears in the Technical Note of this release. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology.


Table 8. Employed persons 18 years and over by veteran status, presence of service-connected disability, period of service, and class of worker, August 2018, not seasonally adjusted
Veteran status, presence of disability, and
period of service
Total
employed
(thousands)
Percent distribution by class of worker
Total Agriculture
and related
industries
Nonagricultural industries
Total Wage and salary workers(1) Self-
employed,
unincor-
porated,
and unpaid
family
workers
Private
sector
Government
Total Federal State
and
local

Veterans, total(2)

8,949 100.0 1.7 98.3 70.4 21.7 11.0 10.7 6.2

With service-connected disability

2,156 100.0 1.2 98.8 61.6 32.0 21.5 10.5 5.2

Without service-connected disability

6,502 100.0 2.0 98.0 73.0 18.4 7.7 10.7 6.6

Gulf War era, total(2)

5,627 100.0 0.5 99.5 71.1 25.4 14.3 11.1 3.0

With service-connected disability

1,736 100.0 0.5 99.5 62.5 34.0 23.5 10.5 2.9

Without service-connected disability

3,670 100.0 0.5 99.5 74.7 21.6 10.3 11.2 3.2

Gulf War era II(2)

3,247 100.0 0.2 99.8 71.3 26.4 14.5 11.8 2.1

With service-connected disability

1,190 100.0 0.3 99.7 65.9 32.1 21.1 11.0 1.7

Without service-connected disability

1,908 100.0 0.1 99.9 74.3 23.1 11.0 12.1 2.6

Gulf War era I(2)

2,381 100.0 0.9 99.1 70.8 24.1 13.9 10.2 4.2

With service-connected disability

546 100.0 1.0 99.0 55.3 38.1 28.8 9.3 5.6

Without service-connected disability

1,761 100.0 1.0 99.0 75.2 19.9 9.6 10.3 3.9

WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era(2)

1,370 100.0 4.3 95.7 67.3 11.8 2.5 9.3 16.7

With service-connected disability

196 100.0 3.8 96.2 60.9 12.6 2.8 9.8 22.7

Without service-connected disability

1,142 100.0 4.5 95.5 68.2 11.8 2.4 9.5 15.4

Other service periods(2)

1,951 100.0 3.5 96.5 70.5 17.9 7.5 10.4 8.1

With service-connected disability

224 100.0 4.6 95.4 54.5 33.2 22.5 10.8 7.7

Without service-connected disability

1,690 100.0 3.4 96.6 72.6 16.1 5.7 10.5 7.9

Nonveterans

144,520 100.0 1.5 98.5 80.0 12.7 1.9 10.8 5.7

(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Includes veterans who did not report presence of disability.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent wartime period. Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified in the most recent one. Veterans who served in both a wartime period and any other service period are classified in the wartime period. A service-connected disability is a health condition or impairment caused or made worse by military service. The associated disability rating, which can range from 0 to 100 percent, is determined from a rating schedule published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, "Title 38." More information appears in the Technical Note of this release. Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology.


Table 9. Employment status of Gulf War era veterans by Reserve or National Guard status, August 2018, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Period of service and
Reserve or National Guard status
Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of population
Total Percent
of labor force

VETERANS

Gulf War era, total

Total

7,258 5,863 80.8 5,627 77.5 236 4.0 1,395

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

2,371 1,965 82.9 1,899 80.1 66 3.4 406

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

4,635 3,687 79.5 3,534 76.2 153 4.1 949

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

251 212 84.2 195 77.5 17 7.9 40

Gulf War era II

Total

4,184 3,393 81.1 3,247 77.6 146 4.3 791

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

1,431 1,177 82.2 1,152 80.5 25 2.1 254

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

2,588 2,063 79.7 1,958 75.7 105 5.1 526

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

165 153 92.9 136 82.7 17 11.0 12

Gulf War era I

Total

3,074 2,470 80.4 2,381 77.5 90 3.6 603

Current or past member of Reserve or National Guard

940 788 83.8 746 79.4 41 5.3 152

Never a member of Reserve or National Guard

2,047 1,624 79.3 1,575 77.0 48 3.0 423

Reserve or National Guard membership not reported

87 59 67.7 59 67.7 0 - 28

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. The Gulf War era began in August 1990 and continues to the present day. It is divided into two periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present) and Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001). Veterans are counted in only one period of service, their most recent period. Data do not include Reserve and National Guard members who have never been called to Active Duty. Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology.


Table 10. Employment status of Gulf War-era II veterans 18 years and over by location of service, August 2018, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Period of service and location Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percent
of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent
of population
Number Rate

Total, Gulf War-era II veterans

4,184 3,393 81.1 3,247 77.6 146 4.3 791

Served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both(1)

1,872 1,496 79.9 1,411 75.4 85 5.7 375

Served in Iraq(2)

1,548 1,234 79.7 1,159 74.9 74 6.0 314

Served in Afghanistan(3)

904 718 79.4 677 74.9 41 5.7 186

Served in both locations(4)

580 455 78.4 425 73.3 30 6.6 125

Served elsewhere

2,312 1,896 82.0 1,835 79.4 61 3.2 416

(1) Refers to veterans who served in Iraq at anytime since March 2003 and veterans who served in Afghanistan at anytime since October 2001. Also includes veterans who served in both countries.
(2) Includes all veterans who served in Iraq at any time since March 2003, whether or not they also served in Afghanistan.
(3) Includes all veterans who served in Afghanistan at any time since October 2001, whether or not they also served in Iraq.
(4) Veterans who served in both Iraq and Afghanistan during the designated dates are also included in the totals of each location above.

NOTE: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Gulf War-era II veterans served anywhere in the world at any time since September 2001. Beginning with data for August 2015, estimates from the veterans supplement reflect a change in the weighting methodology.


Last Modified Date: March 21, 2019