Major Work Stoppages (Annual) News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, February 9, 2017                                   USDL-17-0180

Technical information: (202) 691-6199   workstoppagesinfo@bls.gov   http://www.bls.gov/wsp
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902   pressoffice@bls.gov


                                      MAJOR WORK STOPPAGES IN 2016


In 2016, there were 15 major work stoppages involving 99,000 workers, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. (See table 1.) Private industry organizations accounted for over 94 
percent of the 1.54 million total days idle for major work stoppages in effect during 2016. 

This year marks 70 years of work stoppages data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Over the past four decades (1977-1986 to 2007-2016) major work stoppages declined approximately 90 
percent. (See table A and table 1.) The period from 2007 to 2016 was the lowest decade on record, averaging 
approximately 14 major work stoppages per year. The lowest annual number of major work stoppages 
was 5 in 2009. 

In 2016, the information industry had the largest number of workers involved in major work stoppages 
with 38,200. Educational services were the next largest industry with 33,600 followed by health care 
and social assistance with 12,100 workers. These three industries accounted for over 
84 percent of workers idled for major work stoppages. 

In 2016, the largest major work stoppage in terms of number of workers and days idle was between 
Verizon Communications and the Communication Workers of America union involving 36,500 workers. This 
work stoppage accounted for 1,204,500 total days idle. The second largest work stoppage in 2016 in 
days idle was between Allina Health and the Minnesota Nurses Association/National Nurses United union, 
involving 4,800 workers with 153,600 days idle from two different work stoppages that occurred during 
2016. The City of Chicago Public Schools had a 1-day stoppage with the second most number of workers, 
involving 27,000 employees.  

Table A. Total number of major work stoppages by decade, 1947 to 2016
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Years:	1947-1956  1957-1966  1967-1976  1977-1986  1987-1996  1997-2006  2007-2016	
Number:	3,438	   2,500      3,321	 1,446      404	       240	  143
____________________________________________________________________________________________________



						TECHNICAL NOTE

The major work stoppages series dates back to 1947. The term “major work stoppage” includes both 
worker-initiated strikes and employer-initiated lockouts that involve 1,000 workers or more and 
lasting at least one shift. BLS does not distinguish between lockouts and strikes in this 
publication.

Information on work stoppages is obtained from reports from the Federal Mediation and Conciliation 
Service, state labor market information offices, BLS Strike Report from the Office of Employment 
and Unemployment Statistics, and from media sources. One or both parties involved in the work 
stoppage (employer or union) is contacted to verify the duration and number of workers idled by the 
stoppage. 

Days idle are calculated by multiplying the number of workers involved in the strike or lockout by 
the number of days workers are off the job. The number of lost workdays for every major work stoppage 
is based on a 5-day workweek (Monday through Friday), excluding federal holidays.  

Monthly major work stoppages data

The Bureau of Labor Statistics compiles detailed monthly statistics on major work stoppages at 
www.bls.gov/wsp.  

Monthly time series data since 1981 have been published (https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ws) 
for the following series:

   *   Number of work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more beginning in the period
   *   Number of work stoppages involving 1,000 workers or more in effect in the period
   *   Number of workers involved in work stoppages beginning in the period
   *   Number of workers involved in work stoppages in effect in the period
   *   Days of idleness resulting from work stoppages in effect in the period
   *   Days of idleness resulting from work stoppages in effect in the period, as a percent of 
       estimated working time

Detailed historical data

Detailed data for each major work stoppage since 1993 are available at 
www.bls.gov/wsp/monthly_listing.htm. The major work stoppages historical data file includes the 
organization involved, location, beginning and ending work stoppage dates, the number of workers, 
and total days idle.

More information
For more information on Work Stoppages methods and measures, see “Chapter 8. National Compensation 
Measures” of the BLS Handbook of Methods at: www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf. 




     Table 1.  Work stoppages involving 1,000 or more workers, 1947-2016
                                                                                             
                                                                                             
                                            Number of                      Days idle(2)      
                                              work      Numbers of                           
                                            stoppages     workers                            
                    Period                  beginning    involved                 Percent of 
                                               in      (thousands)-    Number      estimated 
                                             period         (1)      (thousands)    working  
                                                                                    time(3)  
                                                                                             
                                                                                             
      2016...............................       15            99         1,543        (4)    
      2015...............................       12            47           740        (4)    
      2014...............................       11            34           200        (4)    
      2013...............................       15            55           290        (4)    
      2012...............................       19           148         1,131        (4)    
                                                                                             
      2011...............................       19           113         1,020        (4)    
      2010...............................       11            45           302        (4)    
      2009...............................        5            13           124        (4)    
      2008...............................       15            72         1,954        .01    
      2007...............................       21           189         1,265        (4)    
                                                                                             
      2006...............................       20            70         2,688        .01    
      2005...............................       22           100         1,736        .01    
      2004...............................       17           171         3,344        .01    
      2003...............................       14           129         4,091        .01    
      2002...............................       19            46           660        (4)    
                                                                                             
      2001...............................       29            99         1,151        (4)    
      2000...............................       39           394        20,419        .06    
      1999...............................       17            73         1,996        .01    
      1998...............................       34           387         5,116        .02    
      1997...............................       29           339         4,497        .01    
                                                                                             
      1996...............................       37           273         4,889        .02    
      1995...............................       31           192         5,771        .02    
      1994...............................       45           322         5,021        .02    
      1993...............................       35           182         3,981        .01    
      1992...............................       35           364         3,989        .01    
                                                                                             
      1991...............................       40           392         4,584        .02    
      1990...............................       44           185         5,926        .02    
      1989...............................       51           452        16,996        .07    
      1988...............................       40           118         4,381        .02    
      1987...............................       46           174         4,481        .02    
                                                                                             
      1986...............................       69           533        11,861        .05    
      1985...............................       54           324         7,079        .03    
      1984...............................       62           376         8,499        .04    
      1983...............................       81           909        17,461        .08    
      1982...............................       96           656         9,061        .04    
                                                                                             
      1981...............................      145           729        16,908        .07    
      1980...............................      187           795        20,844        .09    
      1979...............................      235         1,021        20,409        .09    
      1978...............................      219         1,006        23,774        .11    
      1977...............................      298         1,212        21,258        .10    
                                                                                             
      1976...............................      231         1,519        23,962        .12    
      1975...............................      235           965        17,563        .09    
      1974...............................      424         1,796        31,809        .16    
      1973...............................      317         1,400        16,260        .08    
      1972...............................      250           975        16,764        .09    
                                                                                             
      1971...............................      298         2,516        35,538        .19    
      1970...............................      381         2,468        52,761        .29    
      1969...............................      412         1,576        29,397        .16    
      1968...............................      392         1,855        35,367        .20    
      1967...............................      381         2,192        31,320        .18    
                                                                                             
      1966...............................      321         1,300        16,000        .10    
      1965...............................      268           999        15,140        .10    
      1964...............................      246         1,183        16,220        .11    
      1963...............................      181           512        10,020        .07    
      1962...............................      211           793        11,760        .08    
                                                                                             
      1961...............................      195         1,031        10,140        .07    
      1960...............................      222           896        13,260        .09    
      1959...............................      245         1,381        60,850        .43    
      1958...............................      332         1,587        17,900        .13    
      1957...............................      279           887        10,340        .07    
                                                                                             
      1956...............................      287         1,370        26,840        .20    
      1955...............................      363         2,055        21,180        .16    
      1954...............................      265         1,075        16,630        .13    
      1953...............................      437         1,623        18,130        .14    
      1952...............................      470         2,746        48,820        .38    
                                                                                             
      1951...............................      415         1,462        15,070        .12    
      1950...............................      424         1,698        30,390        .26    
      1949...............................      262         2,537        43,420        .38    
      1948...............................      245         1,435        26,127        .22    
      1947...............................      270         1,629        25,720        (5)    

       1 Number of workers involved includes only those workers who participated in work
     stoppages that began in the calendar year. Workers are counted more than once if they
     are involved in more than one stoppage during the reference period. Numbers are rounded
     to the nearest thousand. 
       2 Days idle includes all stoppages in effect during the reference period. For work
     stoppages that are still ongoing at the end of the calendar year, only those days of
     idleness in the calendar year are counted. 
       3 Percent of estimated working time is calculated using employment estimates from
     the Current Employment Statistics program and number of work days in the month and
     number of days idle from the Work Stoppages program.  
       4 Less than .005. 
       5 Data not available. 




          Table 2. Work stoppages involving 1,000 or more workers beginning in 2016
          _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
                                                            | Industry | Beginning|  Ending  | Number of|   Days   
                       Organizations involved,              |  code(1) |   date   |   date   |workers(2)|  idle(3) 
                         location, and sector               |          |          |          |          |          
          _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and     |          |          |          |          |          
          New York Shipping Association, Inc.               |          |          |          |          |          
            NJ and NY                                       |          |          |          |          |          
            International Longshoremen's Association        |          |          |          |          |          
            (Local Government)..............................|  488310  |  1/29/16 |  1/29/16 |    1,000 |    1,000 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Minneapolis-St. Paul Contract Cleaners Association|          |          |          |          |          
            Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN                        |          |          |          |          |          
            Service Employees International Union, Local 26 |          |          |          |          |          
            (Private Industry)..............................|  561720  |  2/17/16 |  2/18/16 |    4,200 |    4,200 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center      |          |          |          |          |          
            Los Angeles, CA                                 |          |          |          |          |          
            California Nurses Association/National Nurses   |          |          |          |          |          
            United                                          |          |          |          |          |          
            (Private Industry)..............................|  622110  |  3/15/16 |  3/21/16 |    1,200 |    6,000 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          City of Chicago Public School District            |          |          |          |          |          
            Chicago, IL                                     |          |          |          |          |          
            Chicago Teachers Union                          |          |          |          |          |          
            (Local Government)..............................|  611110  |  4/01/16 |  4/01/16 |   27,000 |   27,000 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Verizon Communications Inc.                       |          |          |          |          |          
            East Coast States                               |          |          |          |          |          
            Communications Workers of America and           |          |          |          |          |          
            International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers |          |          |          |          |          
            (Private Industry)..............................|  517110  |  4/13/16 |  5/27/16 |   36,500 |1,204,500 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Detroit Public Schools                            |          |          |          |          |          
            Detroit, MI                                     |          |          |          |          |          
            American Federation of Teachers, Local 231      |          |          |          |          |                
            (Local Govermnent)..............................|  611110  |  5/02/16 |  5/03/16 |    1,500 |    3,000 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          AT&T, Inc.                                        |          |          |          |          |          
            San Diego, CA                                   |          |          |          |          |          
            Communications Workers of America, Local 9509   |          |          |          |          |          
            (Private Industry)..............................|  517110  |  5/19/16 |  5/25/16 |    1,700 |    6,800 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Allina Health                                     |          |          |          |          |          
            Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN                        |          |          |          |          |          
            Minnesota Nurses Association/National Nurses    |          |          |          |          |          
            United                                          |          |          |          |          |          
            (Private Industry)..............................|  622110  |  6/19/16 |  6/26/16 |    4,800 |   24,000
                                                            |          |          |          |          |
          Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center      |          |          |          |          |          
            Los Angeles, CA                                 |          |          |          |          |          
            California Nurses Association/National Nurses   |          |          |          |          |          
            United                                          |          |          |          |          |          
            (Private Industry)..............................|  622110  |  6/23/16 |  6/27/16 |    1,300 |    2,600 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          San Joaquin County                                |          |          |          |          |          
            San Joaquin County, CA                          |          |          |          |          |          
            Service Employees International Union, Local    |          |          |          |          |          
            1021                                            |          |          |          |          |          
            (Local Government)..............................|  921100  |  7/05/16 |  7/07/16 |    2,600 |    7,800 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Painting and Decorating Foundation                |          |          |          |          |          
            St. Louis, MO                                   |          |          |          |          |          
            International Union of Painters and Allied      |          |          |          |          |          
            Trades, District Council 58                     |          |          |          |          |                 
            (Private Industry)..............................|  238320  |  9/01/16 | 10/02/16 |    1,400 |    4,200 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Allina Health                                     |          |          |          |          |          
            Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN                        |          |          |          |          |          
            Minnesota Nurses Association/National Nurses    |          |          |          |          |          
            United                                          |          |          |          |          |          
            (Private Industry)..............................|  622110  |  9/05/16 | 10/13/16 |    4,800 |  129,600 
          						    |          |          |          |          |          
          Contra Costa County				    |	       |          |          |          |
            Contra Costa County, CA                         |          |          |          |          |
            Service Employees International Union, Local    |          |          |          |          |
            1021                                            |          |          |          |          |
            (Local Government)..............................|  921110  |  9/30/16 | 10/07/16 |    1,100 |    6,600
                                                            |          |          |          |          |
          Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education     |          |          |          |          |          
            Statewide PA                                    |          |          |          |          |          
            The Association of Pennsylvania State College   |          |          |          |          |          
            and University Faculties                        |          |          |          |          |
            (State Government)..............................|  611310  | 10/19/16 | 10/21/16 |    5,100 |   15,300 
                                                            |          |          |          |          |          
          Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority|          |          |          |          |          
            Philadelphia, PA                                |          |          |          |          |          
            Transport Workers Union, Local 234              |          |          |          |          |          
            (Local Government)..............................|  485111  | 11/01/16 | 11/07/16 |    5,200 |   26,000 
          _________________________________________________________________________________________________________                                                   

            1 Industry code is from the 2012 NAICS (North American Industry Classification System).
            2 The number of workers involved is rounded to the nearest 100.
            3 Days idle includes all stoppages in effect during the calendar year. For work stoppages beginning in a
            prior year, days idle are counted for current calendar year totals but not listed in this table.

Last Modified Date: February 09, 2017