Summer Youth Labor Force News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, August 16, 2018                       USDL-18-1316

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                 EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG YOUTH -- SUMMER 2018


From April to July 2018, the number of employed youth 16 to 24 years old increased by
2.0 million to 20.9 million, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This
year, 55.0 percent of young people were employed in July, little changed from a year
earlier. (The month of July typically is the summertime peak in youth employment.)
The unemployment rate for youth was 9.2 percent in July, also little changed from
July 2017. (Because this analysis focuses on the seasonal changes in youth employment
and unemployment that occur each spring and summer, the data are not seasonally
adjusted.)

Labor Force

The youth labor force--16- to 24-year-olds working or actively looking for work--grows
sharply between April and July each year. During these months, large numbers of high
school and college students search for or take summer jobs, and many graduates enter
the labor market to look for or begin permanent employment. This summer, the youth
labor force grew by 2.6 million, or 12.7 percent, to a total of 23.0 million in July.
(See table 1.)

The labor force participation rate for all youth was 60.6 percent in July, unchanged
from a year earlier. (The labor force participation rate is the proportion of the
civilian noninstitutional population that is working or looking and available for
work.) (See table 2.) The summer labor force participation rate of youth has held
fairly steady since July 2010, after trending downward for the prior two decades. The
summer youth labor force participation rate peaked at 77.5 percent in July 1989.

The July 2018 labor force participation rate for 16- to 24-year-old men, at 61.1
percent, was down 1.2 percentage points over the year. The rate for young women, at
60.0 percent, rose 1.2 percentage points during the same period, reducing the gap in
labor force participation between young men and women. Whites had the highest youth
labor force participation rate in July 2018, at 62.8 percent. The rate was 56.
5 percent for Blacks, 43.3 percent for Asians, and 58.0 percent for Hispanics. Over
the year, the labor force participation rate rose for Hispanics (+1.4 percentage
points) and declined for Asians (-4.1 points). The decline among Asians offset a
similar increase (+4.3 percentage points) between July 2016 and 2017. Labor force
participation rates in July 2018 for Whites and Blacks were essentially unchanged
from a year earlier.
 
Employment

In July 2018, there were 20.9 million employed 16- to 24-year-olds, about the same
number as the summer before. Between April and July 2018, the number of employed
youth rose by 2.0 million, in line with the change between April and July 2017. The
employment-population ratio for youth--the proportion of the 16- to 24-year-old
civilian noninstitutional population with a job--was 55.0 percent in July 2018,
little changed from the prior year. (See tables 1 and 2.)

Employment-population ratios in July 2018 were higher than a year earlier for young
women (54.8 percent), Whites (58.0 percent), and Hispanics (51.7 percent). The ratios
declined for young men (55.2 percent) and Asians (39.7 percent). The ratio for Blacks,
at 47.2 percent in July, was about unchanged from the summer before.

In July 2018, the largest percentage of employed youth worked in the leisure and
hospitality industry (26 percent), which includes food services. An additional 18
percent of employed youth worked in the retail trade industry, and 11 percent worked
in education and health services. (See table 3.)

Unemployment

Unemployment among youth rose by 567,000 from April to July 2018, compared with an
increase of 458,000 for the same period in 2017.

The youth unemployment rate, at 9.2 percent in July 2018, was little changed from
July 2017. This represents the lowest summer youth unemployment rate since July 1966.
The number of unemployed youth was 2.1 million in July 2018, little different from a
year earlier. Of the 2.1 million unemployed 16- to 24-year-olds, 1.5 million were
looking for full-time work in July 2018, also little changed from July 2017. (See
tables 1 and 2.)

In July 2018, the unemployment rates for both young men (9.8 percent) and women
(8.6 percent) were little changed from the summer before. The July 2018 rate for
young Asians (8.4 percent) declined over the year, while the rates for young Whites
(7.6 percent), Blacks (16.5 percent), and Hispanics (10.8 percent) showed little
change over the year. (See table 2.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
a national sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted monthly for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau. The data in this release
relate to the employment status of youth (16- to 24-year-olds) during the months of
April-July. This period was selected as being the most representative time frame in
which to measure the full summertime transition from school to work. July is the peak
summer month of youth employment.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in
the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS
website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component
of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling
error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is
about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample
will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because
of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   More information on the reliability of data from the CPS and estimating standard errors
is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week (which
is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as
paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm;
(c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business. Persons who
were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting
to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for
work to be classified as unemployed. Looking for full-time work refers to 35 hours or more
per week; part-time work refers to fewer than 35 hours per week.

   Civilian labor force. This group comprises all persons classified as employed or
unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population.

   Employment-population ratio. The employment-population ratio is the employed as a
percent of the population.

   Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all persons in the civilian
noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed.

   Industry and class of worker. This information applies to the job held during the
reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job at which they
worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using the 2012 Census
industry classification system. The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the
following categories: Private and government wage and salary workers, unincorporated
self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers.

   Wage and salary workers. Included in this group are persons who receive wages, salary,
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government entity.

   Self-employed workers. Included in this group are those who work for profit or fees
in their own unincorporated business, profession, trade, or farm. Only unincorporated
self-employed are included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons whose
businesses are incorporated are included with private wage and salary workers.

   Unpaid family workers. Included in this group are persons working without pay for
15 hours a week or more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their
household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, April-July 2018 [Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
April May June July April-July changes
Number Percent

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,039 38,023 38,009 37,997 -42 -0.1

Civilian labor force

20,425 20,779 22,640 23,016 2,591 12.7

Participation rate

53.7 54.6 59.6 60.6 6.9 12.8

Employed

18,873 18,984 20,332 20,897 2,024 10.7

Employment-population ratio

49.6 49.9 53.5 55.0 5.4 10.9

Unemployed

1,552 1,795 2,309 2,119 567 36.5

Looking for full-time work

1,028 1,285 1,695 1,458 430 41.8

Looking for part-time work

523 510 614 660 137 26.2

Unemployment rate

7.6 8.6 10.2 9.2 1.6 21.1

Not in labor force

17,614 17,245 15,369 14,981 -2,633 -14.9

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,153 19,144 19,135 19,128 -25 -0.1

Civilian labor force

10,489 10,659 11,639 11,695 1,206 11.5

Participation rate

54.8 55.7 60.8 61.1 6.3 11.5

Employed

9,572 9,613 10,328 10,550 978 10.2

Employment-population ratio

50.0 50.2 54.0 55.2 5.2 10.4

Unemployed

916 1,045 1,312 1,145 229 25.0

Looking for full-time work

631 764 1,008 828 197 31.2

Looking for part-time work

285 281 303 317 32 11.2

Unemployment rate

8.7 9.8 11.3 9.8 1.1 12.6

Not in labor force

8,664 8,485 7,496 7,433 -1,231 -14.2

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,886 18,880 18,874 18,869 -17 -0.1

Civilian labor force

9,936 10,120 11,001 11,321 1,385 13.9

Participation rate

52.6 53.6 58.3 60.0 7.4 14.1

Employed

9,301 9,371 10,004 10,347 1,046 11.2

Employment-population ratio

49.2 49.6 53.0 54.8 5.6 11.4

Unemployed

635 749 997 974 339 53.4

Looking for full-time work

397 520 686 630 233 58.7

Looking for part-time work

238 229 311 344 106 44.5

Unemployment rate

6.4 7.4 9.1 8.6 2.2 34.4

Not in labor force

8,950 8,759 7,873 7,548 -1,402 -15.7

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,910 27,894 27,879 27,866 -44 -0.2

Civilian labor force

15,574 15,876 17,227 17,509 1,935 12.4

Participation rate

55.8 56.9 61.8 62.8 7.0 12.5

Employed

14,535 14,680 15,692 16,174 1,639 11.3

Employment-population ratio

52.1 52.6 56.3 58.0 5.9 11.3

Unemployed

1,039 1,195 1,535 1,335 296 28.5

Looking for full-time work

656 818 1,106 863 207 31.6

Looking for part-time work

383 378 429 471 88 23.0

Unemployment rate

6.7 7.5 8.9 7.6 0.9 13.4

Not in labor force

12,336 12,019 10,652 10,357 -1,979 -16.0

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,688 5,681 5,674 5,668 -20 -0.4

Civilian labor force

2,795 2,866 3,152 3,203 408 14.6

Participation rate

49.1 50.5 55.5 56.5 7.4 15.1

Employed

2,441 2,494 2,651 2,675 234 9.6

Employment-population ratio

42.9 43.9 46.7 47.2 4.3 10.0

Unemployed

354 372 501 528 174 49.2

Looking for full-time work

267 301 406 438 171 64.0

Looking for part-time work

86 71 95 90 4 4.7

Unemployment rate

12.7 13.0 15.9 16.5 3.8 29.9

Not in labor force

2,893 2,815 2,523 2,465 -428 -14.8

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,294 2,264 2,308 2,302 8 0.3

Civilian labor force

895 811 950 997 102 11.4

Participation rate

39.0 35.8 41.1 43.3 4.3 11.0

Employed

845 755 847 913 68 8.0

Employment-population ratio

36.9 33.3 36.7 39.7 2.8 7.6

Unemployed

49 56 102 84 35 71.4

Looking for full-time work

32 42 73 59 27 84.4

Looking for part-time work

17 14 29 25 8 47.1

Unemployment rate

5.5 6.9 10.7 8.4 2.9 52.7

Not in labor force

1,399 1,453 1,358 1,305 -94 -6.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,659 8,668 8,677 8,687 28 0.3

Civilian labor force

4,592 4,676 4,784 5,035 443 9.6

Participation rate

53.0 53.9 55.1 58.0 5.0 9.4

Employed

4,227 4,259 4,302 4,492 265 6.3

Employment-population ratio

48.8 49.1 49.6 51.7 2.9 5.9

Unemployed

365 417 482 543 178 48.8

Looking for full-time work

242 279 359 362 120 49.6

Looking for part-time work

123 137 123 181 58 47.2

Unemployment rate

7.9 8.9 10.1 10.8 2.9 36.7

Not in labor force

4,067 3,992 3,894 3,652 -415 -10.2

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2015-2018 [Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2015
July
2016
July
2017
July
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,589 38,450 38,152 37,997

Civilian labor force

23,162 23,104 23,107 23,016

Participation rate

60.0 60.1 60.6 60.6

Employed

20,333 20,456 20,890 20,897

Employment-population ratio

52.7 53.2 54.8 55.0

Unemployed

2,829 2,648 2,217 2,119

Looking for full-time work

2,134 1,912 1,607 1,458

Looking for part-time work

695 736 610 660

Unemployment rate

12.2 11.5 9.6 9.2

Not in labor force

15,426 15,346 15,045 14,981

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,442 19,380 19,219 19,128

Civilian labor force

12,011 12,094 11,983 11,695

Participation rate

61.8 62.4 62.3 61.1

Employed

10,488 10,638 10,773 10,550

Employment-population ratio

53.9 54.9 56.1 55.2

Unemployed

1,523 1,455 1,210 1,145

Looking for full-time work

1,195 1,169 944 828

Looking for part-time work

328 286 266 317

Unemployment rate

12.7 12.0 10.1 9.8

Not in labor force

7,431 7,287 7,236 7,433

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,147 19,069 18,932 18,869

Civilian labor force

11,151 11,010 11,124 11,321

Participation rate

58.2 57.7 58.8 60.0

Employed

9,846 9,818 10,117 10,347

Employment-population ratio

51.4 51.5 53.4 54.8

Unemployed

1,306 1,193 1,007 974

Looking for full-time work

939 743 663 630

Looking for part-time work

367 450 344 344

Unemployment rate

11.7 10.8 9.1 8.6

Not in labor force

7,996 8,059 7,808 7,548

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,488 28,297 28,038 27,866

Civilian labor force

17,735 17,734 17,423 17,509

Participation rate

62.3 62.7 62.1 62.8

Employed

15,903 15,981 16,031 16,174

Employment-population ratio

55.8 56.5 57.2 58.0

Unemployed

1,832 1,754 1,392 1,335

Looking for full-time work

1,308 1,222 974 863

Looking for part-time work

524 532 418 471

Unemployment rate

10.3 9.9 8.0 7.6

Not in labor force

10,754 10,562 10,615 10,357

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,916 5,850 5,749 5,668

Civilian labor force

3,337 3,149 3,214 3,203

Participation rate

56.4 53.8 55.9 56.5

Employed

2,645 2,499 2,694 2,675

Employment-population ratio

44.7 42.7 46.9 47.2

Unemployed

691 650 520 528

Looking for full-time work

604 533 412 438

Looking for part-time work

87 117 108 90

Unemployment rate

20.7 20.6 16.2 16.5

Not in labor force

2,580 2,701 2,535 2,465

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,148 2,212 2,208 2,302

Civilian labor force

957 954 1,047 997

Participation rate

44.6 43.1 47.4 43.3

Employed

855 859 944 913

Employment-population ratio

39.8 38.8 42.7 39.7

Unemployed

102 95 103 84

Looking for full-time work

68 65 70 59

Looking for part-time work

34 30 33 25

Unemployment rate

10.7 10.0 9.9 8.4

Not in labor force

1,191 1,258 1,162 1,305

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,406 8,497 8,535 8,687

Civilian labor force

4,728 4,776 4,835 5,035

Participation rate

56.2 56.2 56.6 58.0

Employed

4,127 4,235 4,347 4,492

Employment-population ratio

49.1 49.8 50.9 51.7

Unemployed

601 540 488 543

Looking for full-time work

458 385 353 362

Looking for part-time work

143 155 135 181

Unemployment rate

12.7 11.3 10.1 10.8

Not in labor force

3,679 3,721 3,700 3,652

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employed persons 16 to 24 years of age by industry, class of worker, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2017-2018 [Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Industry and class of worker Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018
July
2017
July
2018

Total employed

20,890 20,897 16,031 16,174 2,694 2,675 944 913 4,347 4,492

Agriculture and related industries

336 391 306 360 14 8 3 0 105 103

Nonagricultural industries

20,555 20,506 15,724 15,814 2,680 2,667 940 913 4,242 4,389

Private wage and salary workers(1)

18,794 18,720 14,395 14,468 2,449 2,414 862 833 3,992 4,125

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

32 77 26 75 0 0 0 0 3 23

Construction

1,061 1,000 965 888 44 44 9 13 368 283

Manufacturing

1,361 1,409 1,062 1,124 161 141 72 72 273 306

Durable goods

820 815 683 684 83 66 37 35 140 147

Nondurable goods

540 595 380 439 79 74 35 37 134 159

Wholesale trade

290 304 236 234 28 52 15 13 70 77

Retail trade

3,978 3,682 2,996 2,800 570 574 190 164 907 840

Transportation and utilities

595 577 380 447 157 73 17 16 144 184

Information

305 276 199 212 46 25 31 23 57 49

Financial activities

721 797 556 621 89 99 36 30 115 176

Professional and business services

1,724 1,738 1,328 1,322 217 232 96 108 317 389

Education and health services

2,466 2,383 1,848 1,778 379 404 108 83 442 469

Leisure and hospitality

5,403 5,463 4,107 4,158 680 666 242 270 1,141 1,125

Other services

858 1,014 691 812 78 104 46 41 155 204

Government wage and salary workers

1,491 1,398 1,096 1,064 210 190 72 66 213 176

Federal

194 177 107 100 45 48 20 9 24 18

State

541 465 392 375 67 47 31 30 71 44

Local

756 757 597 589 98 96 20 28 118 114

Self-employed, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

270 388 233 282 21 62 6 14 37 88

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: August 16, 2018