Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST), Friday, January 26, 2018                                  USDL-18-0114

Technical Information:  (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm
Media Contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS – SECOND QUARTER 2017

From March 2017 to June 2017, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector 
establishments were 7.6 million, an increase of 276,000 jobs gained over the quarter, the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from closing and contracting private-
sector establishments were 7.1 million, an increase of 454,000 jobs lost from the previous quarter. The 
difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net 
employment gain of 476,000 jobs in the private sector during the second quarter of 2017. (See tables A 
and 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment 
that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics 
track these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter 
to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.) The BED data series include 
gross job gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, 
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by 
employer size class.

Gross Job Gains

In the second quarter of 2017, gross job gains represented 6.2 percent of private-sector employment. 
Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and 
the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 
6.2 million in the second quarter of 2017, an increase of 227,000 compared to the previous quarter. 
Opening establishments accounted for 1.4 million of the jobs gained in the second quarter of 2017, an 
increase of 49,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Gross Job Losses

In the second quarter of 2017, gross job losses represented 5.8 percent of private-sector employment. 
Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of 
jobs at closing establishments. Contracting establishments lost 5.9 million jobs in the second quarter of 
2017, an increase of 358,000 jobs from the prior quarter. In the second quarter of 2017, closing 
establishments lost 1.2 million jobs, an increase of 96,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables A, 
1, 2, and 3.)

Establishment Births and Deaths

In the second quarter of 2017, the number of establishment births (a subset of the openings data, see the 
Technical Note for more information) decreased by 1,000, to a total of 239,000 establishments. These 
new establishments accounted for 846,000 jobs, an increase of 46,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are available through the third quarter of 
2016, when 749,000 jobs were lost at 215,000 establishments, an increase of 25,000 jobs from the 
second quarter of 2016. (See Technical Note and table 8.)

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 10 of 13 industries in the second quarter of 2017. The 
service-providing industries experienced a net job increase of 359,000 jobs in the second quarter of 
2017. Within service-providing industries, professional and business services had the largest over-the-
quarter net job increase, with a gain of 106,000 jobs. The net job increase in professional and business 
services was the result of 1.4 million gross job gains and 1.3 million gross job losses. The information 
industry had the largest net job decrease over the quarter, with a loss of 34,000 jobs. The goods-
producing industries experienced a net job increase of 117,000 jobs in the second quarter of 2017. Of the 
goods-producing industries, manufacturing added 59,000 jobs, construction added 46,000 jobs, and 
natural resources and mining added 12,000 jobs. (See table 3.)

 Table A. Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          |                  3 months ended                 
                 Category                 |    June |   Sept. |    Dec. |    Mar. |    June
                                          |    2016 |    2016 |    2016 |    2017 |    2017
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          |              Levels (in thousands)              
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |   7,453 |   7,689 |   7,455 |   7,328 |   7,604
        At expanding establishments...... |   6,083 |   6,232 |   6,040 |   6,019 |   6,246
        At opening establishments........ |   1,370 |   1,457 |   1,415 |   1,309 |   1,358
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |   7,157 |   7,008 |   7,065 |   6,674 |   7,128
        At contracting establishments.... |   5,847 |   5,760 |   5,760 |   5,521 |   5,879
        At closing establishments........ |   1,310 |   1,248 |   1,305 |   1,153 |   1,249
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |     296 |     681 |     390 |     654 |     476
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
                                          |                 Rates (percent)                 
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |     6.2 |     6.4 |     6.2 |     6.0 |     6.2
        At expanding establishments...... |     5.1 |     5.2 |     5.0 |     4.9 |     5.1
        At opening establishments........ |     1.1 |     1.2 |     1.2 |     1.1 |     1.1
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |     6.0 |     5.8 |     5.9 |     5.4 |     5.8
        At contracting establishments.... |     4.9 |     4.8 |     4.8 |     4.5 |     4.8
        At closing establishments........ |     1.1 |     1.0 |     1.1 |     0.9 |     1.0
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |     0.2 |     0.6 |     0.3 |     0.6 |     0.4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross 
    job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.

Firm Size

In the second quarter of 2017, firms with 1-49 employees had a net employment gain of 143,000. Firms 
with 50-249 employees had a net employment gain of 153,000. Firms with 250 or more employees had a 
net employment gain of 215,000. Of the 2.2 million net jobs created over the last four quarters, firms 
with 1-49 employees contributed 34.1 percent of net job growth, while firms with 50-249 employees 
contributed 22.0 percent, and firms with 250 or more employees contributed 43.8 percent. (See tables 4 
and 5.)

States
	
Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 36 states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands, 
in the second quarter of 2017. Alaska had the highest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment 
at 11.0 percent, above the national rate of 6.2 percent. Arkansas, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico had the lowest 
rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 5.2 percent. Alaska had the highest rate of gross 
job losses as a percent of employment at 9.9 percent, above the national rate of 5.8 percent. The Virgin 
Islands had the lowest rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.7 percent. (See tables 6 
and 7.)

For More Information

Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. 
This information includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by firm 
size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked questions 
on firm size data. Additional information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found 
in the Technical Note of this release or can be obtained by emailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.

_____________
The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2017 are scheduled to be released on 
Wednesday, April 25, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).






Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative 
program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are 
compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most 
employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of 
workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce 
Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to 
render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and 
the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and losses. The QCEW is also the employment 
benchmark for the Current Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics 
(OES), and Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input to 
the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.

In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a 
longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net 
employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained 
at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment measures for any given 
quarter. Each of these measures—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), Business 
Employment Dynamics (BED), and Current Employment Statistics (CES)—makes use of the 
quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; however, each measure has a somewhat 
different universe coverage, estimation procedure, and publication product.

Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat different measures of 
employment change over time. It is important to understand program differences and the intended 
uses of the program products. (See table.) Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program websites shown in the table.

Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey:
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  634,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.9   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million establish- |  submitted by 7.9    |
           |  ments              |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor establishments  |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and salary
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--other employment, 
           |                     |                      |  including railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -—Usually the 3rd 
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   Friday after the end 
           |   ter               |                      |   of the week including 
           |                     |                      |   the 12th of the month
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and to ann-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ually realign sample-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  based estimates to pop-
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  ulation counts (bench-
           |                     |  losses              |  marking)
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         |
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data with greater   |
           |                     |  industry detail and |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal federal
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|
           |                     |   of firm            |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Coverage

Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment Compensation for 
Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly contribution reports submitted to the 
SWAs by employers. In addition to the quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate 
multiple establishments within a state complete a questionnaire, called the “Multiple Worksite 
Report,” which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. These reports 
are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. UI and UCFE coverage is broad 
and basically comparable from state to state. 

Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious organizations, most 
agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the Armed Forces, elected officials in most 
states, most employees of railroads, some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and 
employees of certain small nonprofit organizations.

Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from longitudinal histories of 7.9 
million private sector employer reports out of 9.9 million total reports of employment and wages 
submitted by states to BLS in the first quarter of 2017. Gross job gains and gross job losses data in 
this release do not report estimates for government employees or private households (NAICS 
814110) and do not include establishments with zero employment in both previous and current 
quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. 
The table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establishments excluded from 
the national gross job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2017.

                         Number of active establishments included in                       
                   Business Employment Dynamics data at the national level                 

 Total establishments QCEW program.................................................... 9.9

   Excluded: Public sector............................................................ 0.3
           Private households......................................................... 0.2
           Zero employment............................................................ 1.5

 Total establishments included in Business
 Employment Dynamics data............................................................. 7.9

Unit of analysis

Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by industry and firms are used in the 
tabulation of the BED size class statistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that 
produces goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in one or 
predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either corporate or otherwise, and may 
consist of several establishments. Firm-level data are compiled based on an aggregation of 
establishments under common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification 
numbers. The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of corporations as the 
economic decision makers are used for the measurement of the BED data elements by size class.

Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains and gross job losses by size 
class are lower than total gross job gains and gross job losses by industry, as some establishment 
gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process. However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are similar for seasonally 
adjusted data.

Concepts and methodology

The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employment at the 
establishment or firm level. These changes come about in one of four ways. A net increase in 
employment can come from either opening units or expanding units. A net decrease in 
employment can come from either closing units or contracting units. Gross job gains include the 
sum of all jobs added at either opening or expanding units. Gross job losses include the sum of all 
jobs lost in either closing or contracting units. The net change in employment is the difference 
between gross job gains and gross job losses.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the 
current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the 
current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and 
current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with 
no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and 
current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Births. These are units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current 
quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or units with positive third month employment in the 
current quarter and zero employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

Deaths. These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in the third month of 
four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with positive employment. Deaths are a subset 
of closings not including temporary shutdowns of seasonal businesses. A unit that closes during the 
quarter may be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent closing 
or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three quarters for the publication of 
death statistics.

All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous quarter to the third 
month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and firms change their employment levels. 
Units with no change in employment count towards estimates of total employment, but not for 
levels of gross job gains and gross job losses.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average 
of employment in the current and previous quarters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The 
rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For 
instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net 
growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments that appear in the 
longitudinal database for the first time with positive employment in the third month of a quarter, or 
showed four consecutive quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month. Similarly, deaths are defined as 
establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal database or an establishment that had 
positive employment in the third month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of 
showing zero employment in the third month. Although the data for establishment births and 
deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and closings, the concepts are not 
mutually exclusive. An establishment that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an 
opening as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing. Since 
openings include seasonal and other re-openings and closings include temporary shutdowns, the 
not seasonally adjusted values for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and 
closings. However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary 
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from 
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally adjusted value of the former 
is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW records are linked across 
two quarters. The linkage process matches establishments' unique SWA identification numbers 
(SWA-ID). Between 95 and 97 percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to 
quarter are matched by SWA-ID. The rest are linked in one of three ways. The first method uses 
predecessor and successor information, identified by the states, which relates records with different 
SWA-IDs across quarters. Predecessor and successor relations can come about for a variety of 
reasons, including a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. If a 
match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is used. This match attempts to 
identify two establishments with different SWA-IDs as continuous. The match is based upon 
comparisons such as the same name, address, and phone number. Third, an analyst examines 
unmatched records individually and makes a possible match.

In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with employers and update, if 
necessary, the industry, location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3-year 
cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification process are 
introduced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year. Changes resulting from improved 
employer reporting also are introduced in the first quarter.

Sizing methodology

The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size class data series. Dynamic 
sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or loss during a quarter to each respective size class 
in which the change occurred. For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be allocated to the first size 
class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates any systematic effects 
which may be caused by the transitory and reverting changes in firms’ sizes over time. 
Additionally, it allocates each job gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change in employment at the 
establishment level from the third month of a quarter in the previous year to the third month of the 
same quarter in the current year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March 
changes once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual data based on over-
the-year changes for other quarters of the year are available upon request. The definitions and 
methodology in measuring annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor relations that may come 
about due to changes in ownership and corporate restructuring over the entire year. At the 
establishment level, some of the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation 
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains and gross job losses are not 
equal to annual gross job gains and gross job losses. The net change in employment over the year, 
however, is equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated job flows undergo sharp 
fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes in the weather, reduced or expanded 
production, harvests, major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of such 
seasonal variation can be very large.

Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their influence can 
be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from quarter to quarter. These adjustments make 
nonseasonal developments, such as declines in economic activity, easier to recognize. For 
example, the large number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine if the level of economic 
activity has risen or declined. However, because the effect of students finishing school in previous 
years is known, the statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable change. 
The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in economic 
activity.

The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units are 
independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated based on the difference between 
gross job gains and gross job losses. Similarly, for industry data, the establishment counts data 
series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number of opening and 
closing establishments. Additionally establishment and employment levels are independently 
seasonally adjusted to calculate the seasonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is 
run using X-13 ARIMA-SEATS. Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, which is not separately 
published.

The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series will differ from 
the net employment change estimated from the seasonally adjusted total private employment series 
from the CES program. The intended use of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market 
changes that underlie the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested 
particularly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying this change 
should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment changes.

Reliability of the data

Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on administrative rather than 
sample data, there are no issues related to sampling error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists. 
Nonsampling errors can occur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected 
employment data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses when 
providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distributed randomly throughout the 
dataset.

Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the linkage process. This can 
result in overstating openings and closings while understating expansions and contractions. The 
BLS continues to refine methods for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these 
complications.

The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on corrections in QCEW records, 
updates on predecessors and successors information, and seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter data. These revisions 
cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.

Additional statistics and other information

Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information. The QCEW program 
provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed 
industry. News releases on quarterly county employment and wages and the annual bulletin also 
are available upon request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover 
(Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages), telephone (202) 691-6567; (www.bls.gov/cew/); 
(e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).

The Current Employment Statistics (CES) program produces monthly estimates of employment, its 
net change, hours, and earnings by detailed industry. These estimates are part of the Employment 
Situation report put out monthly by BLS.

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides monthly measures of 
job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. 
Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; TDD message referral phone number: 1 (800) 877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2007  March                584      7,815       6,331         1,484       7,231       5,894           1,337
      June                 132      7,647       6,205         1,442       7,515       6,084           1,431
      September           -209      7,376       5,870         1,506       7,585       6,190           1,395
      December             268      7,687       6,181         1,506       7,419       6,040           1,379

2008  March               -199      7,320       5,860         1,460       7,519       6,111           1,408
      June                -593      7,281       5,833         1,448       7,874       6,363           1,511
      September           -913      6,944       5,535         1,409       7,857       6,436           1,421
      December          -1,838      6,738       5,345         1,393       8,576       7,056           1,520

2009  March             -2,680      5,918       4,675         1,243       8,598       7,142           1,456
      June              -1,667      6,425       5,080         1,345       8,092       6,674           1,418
      September           -849      6,399       5,139         1,260       7,248       5,854           1,394
      December            -264      6,665       5,308         1,357       6,929       5,605           1,324

2010  March               -247      6,325       5,108         1,217       6,572       5,324           1,248
      June                 698      6,995       5,674         1,321       6,297       5,090           1,207
      September            237      6,741       5,438         1,303       6,504       5,231           1,273
      December             566      7,052       5,639         1,413       6,486       5,219           1,267

2011  March                334      6,540       5,322         1,218       6,206       5,025           1,181
      June                 582      6,966       5,625         1,341       6,384       5,115           1,269
      September            841      7,205       5,810         1,395       6,364       5,172           1,192
      December             335      6,865       5,503         1,362       6,530       5,273           1,257

2012  March                948      7,080       5,746         1,334       6,132       5,005           1,127
      June                 616      7,051       5,724         1,327       6,435       5,266           1,169
      September            252      6,881       5,571         1,310       6,629       5,430           1,199
      December             695      7,110       5,753         1,357       6,415       5,225           1,190

2013  March                560      6,933       5,701         1,232       6,373       5,194           1,179
      June                 674      7,155       5,834         1,321       6,481       5,275           1,206
      September            476      7,048       5,708         1,340       6,572       5,425           1,147
      December             717      7,267       5,936         1,331       6,550       5,346           1,204

2014  March                433      6,947       5,680         1,267       6,514       5,365           1,149
      June                 884      7,459       6,118         1,341       6,575       5,355           1,220
      September            522      7,226       5,900         1,326       6,704       5,516           1,188
      December           1,084      7,642       6,268         1,374       6,558       5,323           1,235

2015  March                226      7,032       5,722         1,310       6,806       5,606           1,200
      June                 833      7,589       6,245         1,344       6,756       5,563           1,193
      September            414      7,324       5,964         1,360       6,910       5,695           1,215
      December           1,010      7,851       6,387         1,464       6,841       5,573           1,268

2016  March                256      7,139       5,855         1,284       6,883       5,685           1,198
      June                 296      7,453       6,083         1,370       7,157       5,847           1,310
      September            681      7,689       6,232         1,457       7,008       5,760           1,248
      December             390      7,455       6,040         1,415       7,065       5,760           1,305

2017  March                654      7,328       6,019         1,309       6,674       5,521           1,153
      June                 476      7,604       6,246         1,358       7,128       5,879           1,249

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.






Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2007  March                 .5       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.4          5.2            1.2
      June                  .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September            -.2       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.9       6.1         4.9           1.2         7.0          5.7            1.3
      December            -1.7       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.7          6.3            1.4

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.7           1.3         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.8       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.3       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3

2010  March                -.2       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .3       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.7            1.2
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .4       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .8       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .5       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.7          4.6            1.1
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .4       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .7       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .4       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .9       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.7          4.6            1.1

2015  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0
      June                  .7       6.4         5.3           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      September             .4       6.2         5.0           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .8       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2016  March                 .3       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .2       6.2         5.1           1.1         6.0          4.9            1.1
      September             .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .3       6.2         5.0           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1

2017  March                 .6       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.4          4.5             .9
      June                  .4       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage of the previous and current 
    quarter employment levels.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.






Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept.  Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2016    2016    2016    2017    2017   2016   2016   2016   2017   2017
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,453   7,689   7,455   7,328   7,604    6.2    6.4    6.2    6.0    6.2
 At expanding establishments      6,083   6,232   6,040   6,019   6,246    5.1    5.2    5.0    4.9    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,370   1,457   1,415   1,309   1,358    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.1
Gross job losses                  7,157   7,008   7,065   6,674   7,128    6.0    5.8    5.9    5.4    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,847   5,760   5,760   5,521   5,879    4.9    4.8    4.8    4.5    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,310   1,248   1,305   1,153   1,249    1.1    1.0    1.1     .9    1.0
Net employment change               296     681     390     654     476     .2     .6     .3     .6     .4

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,335   1,313   1,319   1,394   1,394    6.4    6.3    6.3    6.6    6.6
 At expanding establishments      1,149   1,107   1,126   1,206   1,207    5.5    5.3    5.4    5.7    5.7
 At opening establishments          186     206     193     188     187     .9    1.0     .9     .9     .9
Gross job losses                  1,381   1,308   1,297   1,191   1,277    6.6    6.3    6.2    5.7    6.0
 At contracting establishments    1,172   1,113   1,101   1,009   1,081    5.6    5.4    5.3    4.8    5.1
 At closing establishments          209     195     196     182     196    1.0     .9     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change               -46       5      22     203     117    -.2     .0     .1     .9     .6

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     262     248     252     287     270   13.9   13.4   13.6   15.3   14.3
 At expanding establishments        230     216     220     253     238   12.2   11.7   11.9   13.5   12.6
 At opening establishments           32      32      32      34      32    1.7    1.7    1.7    1.8    1.7
Gross job losses                    296     257     269     232     258   15.7   13.9   14.6   12.4   13.7
 At contracting establishments      262     225     238     199     221   13.9   12.2   12.9   10.6   11.7
 At closing establishments           34      32      31      33      37    1.8    1.7    1.7    1.8    2.0
Net employment change               -34      -9     -17      55      12   -1.8    -.5   -1.0    2.9     .6

Construction

Gross job gains                     660     665     654     707     680    9.8   10.0    9.7   10.3    9.8
 At expanding establishments        544     532     533     584     562    8.1    8.0    7.9    8.5    8.1
 At opening establishments          116     133     121     123     118    1.7    2.0    1.8    1.8    1.7
Gross job losses                    651     622     635     582     634    9.8    9.3    9.5    8.5    9.1
 At contracting establishments      525     507     515     474     521    7.9    7.6    7.7    6.9    7.5
 At closing establishments          126     115     120     108     113    1.9    1.7    1.8    1.6    1.6
Net employment change                 9      43      19     125      46     .0     .7     .2    1.8     .7

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     413     400     413     400     444    3.3    3.2    3.3    3.3    3.6
 At expanding establishments        375     359     373     369     407    3.0    2.9    3.0    3.0    3.3
 At opening establishments           38      41      40      31      37     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    434     429     393     377     385    3.5    3.5    3.2    3.0    3.1
 At contracting establishments      385     381     348     336     339    3.1    3.1    2.8    2.7    2.7
 At closing establishments           49      48      45      41      46     .4     .4     .4     .3     .4
Net employment change               -21     -29      20      23      59    -.2    -.3     .1     .3     .5

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   6,118   6,376   6,136   5,934   6,210    6.2    6.4    6.1    5.9    6.2
 At expanding establishments      4,934   5,125   4,914   4,813   5,039    5.0    5.1    4.9    4.8    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,184   1,251   1,222   1,121   1,171    1.2    1.3    1.2    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,776   5,700   5,768   5,483   5,851    5.8    5.8    5.8    5.5    5.8
 At contracting establishments    4,675   4,647   4,659   4,512   4,798    4.7    4.7    4.7    4.5    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,101   1,053   1,109     971   1,053    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               342     676     368     451     359     .4     .6     .3     .4     .4

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     274     277     272     263     282    4.7    4.8    4.6    4.4    4.8
 At expanding establishments        226     226     225     220     236    3.9    3.9    3.8    3.7    4.0
 At opening establishments           48      51      47      43      46     .8     .9     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    272     262     256     249     246    4.6    4.5    4.3    4.2    4.2
 At contracting establishments      213     209     201     196     194    3.6    3.6    3.4    3.3    3.3
 At closing establishments           59      53      55      53      52    1.0     .9     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change                 2      15      16      14      36     .1     .3     .3     .2     .6

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     934     957     895     927     920    5.9    6.0    5.6    5.9    5.8
 At expanding establishments        804     817     777     805     797    5.1    5.1    4.9    5.1    5.0
 At opening establishments          130     140     118     122     123     .8     .9     .7     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    912     960     923     881     924    5.7    6.1    5.9    5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments      801     836     803     775     799    5.0    5.3    5.1    4.9    5.0
 At closing establishments          111     124     120     106     125     .7     .8     .8     .7     .8
Net employment change                22      -3     -28      46      -4     .2    -.1    -.3     .3     .0

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     249     290     383     245     266    5.3    6.0    7.8    5.0    5.4
 At expanding establishments        213     250     339     215     231    4.5    5.2    6.9    4.4    4.7
 At opening establishments           36      40      44      30      35     .8     .8     .9     .6     .7
Gross job losses                    249     229     232     323     253    5.3    4.8    4.8    6.6    5.2
 At contracting establishments      211     190     194     290     216    4.5    4.0    4.0    5.9    4.4
 At closing establishments           38      39      38      33      37     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8
Net employment change                 0      61     151     -78      13     .0    1.2    3.0   -1.6     .2

Utilities

Gross job gains                      13      11      12      11      12    2.4    2.0    2.2    2.0    2.2
 At expanding establishments         11      10      10      10      11    2.0    1.8    1.8    1.8    2.0
 At opening establishments            2       1       2       1       1     .4     .2     .4     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     13      14      13      10      13    2.4    2.6    2.4    1.8    2.4
 At contracting establishments       11      12      11       9      12    2.0    2.2    2.0    1.6    2.2
 At closing establishments            2       2       2       1       1     .4     .4     .4     .2     .2
Net employment change                 0      -3      -1       1      -1     .0    -.6    -.2     .2    -.2

Information

Gross job gains                     157     153     142     142     157    5.6    5.4    5.1    5.1    5.6
 At expanding establishments        131     124     115     120     132    4.7    4.4    4.1    4.3    4.7
 At opening establishments           26      29      27      22      25     .9    1.0    1.0     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    141     152     150     139     191    5.0    5.4    5.3    4.9    6.8
 At contracting establishments      109     126     121     116     166    3.9    4.5    4.3    4.1    5.9
 At closing establishments           32      26      29      23      25    1.1     .9    1.0     .8     .9
Net employment change                16       1      -8       3     -34     .6     .0    -.2     .2   -1.2

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     388     391     382     353     390    4.8    4.9    4.8    4.4    4.8
 At expanding establishments        313     311     298     289     315    3.9    3.9    3.7    3.6    3.9
 At opening establishments           75      80      84      64      75     .9    1.0    1.1     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    354     350     356     336     343    4.4    4.4    4.4    4.2    4.2
 At contracting establishments      272     276     274     262     267    3.4    3.5    3.4    3.3    3.3
 At closing establishments           82      74      82      74      76    1.0     .9    1.0     .9     .9
Net employment change                34      41      26      17      47     .4     .5     .4     .2     .6

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,431   1,474   1,395   1,285   1,437    7.2    7.4    7.0    6.3    7.0
 At expanding establishments      1,173   1,199   1,121   1,058   1,185    5.9    6.0    5.6    5.2    5.8
 At opening establishments          258     275     274     227     252    1.3    1.4    1.4    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  1,354   1,282   1,359   1,265   1,331    6.7    6.4    6.7    6.3    6.6
 At contracting establishments    1,065   1,022   1,075   1,026   1,074    5.3    5.1    5.3    5.1    5.3
 At closing establishments          289     260     284     239     257    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.2    1.3
Net employment change                77     192      36      20     106     .5    1.0     .3     .0     .4

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     966   1,044     966     948     983    4.5    4.8    4.4    4.3    4.5
 At expanding establishments        781     872     774     786     812    3.6    4.0    3.5    3.6    3.7
 At opening establishments          185     172     192     162     171     .9     .8     .9     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    885     824     905     813     901    4.1    3.8    4.1    3.7    4.1
 At contracting establishments      702     656     709     656     729    3.3    3.0    3.2    3.0    3.3
 At closing establishments          183     168     196     157     172     .8     .8     .9     .7     .8
Net employment change                81     220      61     135      82     .4    1.0     .3     .6     .4

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,313   1,350   1,308   1,321   1,333    8.4    8.7    8.4    8.4    8.4
 At expanding establishments      1,030   1,056   1,016   1,054   1,054    6.6    6.8    6.5    6.7    6.6
 At opening establishments          283     294     292     267     279    1.8    1.9    1.9    1.7    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,278   1,304   1,240   1,149   1,324    8.2    8.4    8.0    7.2    8.3
 At contracting establishments    1,061   1,086   1,027     955   1,106    6.8    7.0    6.6    6.0    6.9
 At closing establishments          217     218     213     194     218    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.2    1.4
Net employment change                35      46      68     172       9     .2     .3     .4    1.2     .1

Other services

Gross job gains                     303     309     281     286     306    7.4    7.6    6.8    6.9    7.4
 At expanding establishments        237     241     219     228     243    5.8    5.9    5.3    5.5    5.9
 At opening establishments           66      68      62      58      63    1.6    1.7    1.5    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                    283     286     293     272     281    6.9    7.0    7.1    6.6    6.8
 At contracting establishments      220     222     231     212     220    5.4    5.4    5.6    5.1    5.3
 At closing establishments           63      64      62      60      61    1.5    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                20      23     -12      14      25     .5     .6    -.3     .3     .6

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately






Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2007  March            478      6,333    5,855         173       3,445    3,272         98        1,158    1,060         207        1,730    1,523
      June             163      6,239    6,076         -33       3,330    3,363         99        1,171    1,072          97        1,738    1,641
      September       -215      5,920    6,135        -116       3,263    3,379        -34        1,079    1,113         -65        1,578    1,643
      December         270      6,251    5,981          10       3,317    3,307         56        1,139    1,083         204        1,795    1,591

2008  March           -274      5,831    6,105        -152       3,235    3,387        -11        1,079    1,090        -111        1,517    1,628
      June            -548      5,850    6,398        -287       3,174    3,461        -44        1,090    1,134        -217        1,586    1,803
      September       -956      5,532    6,488        -343       3,051    3,394       -140        1,020    1,160        -473        1,461    1,934
      December      -1,886      5,338    7,224        -689       2,910    3,599       -375          947    1,322        -822        1,481    2,303

2009  March         -2,638      4,617    7,255        -983       2,721    3,704       -616          810    1,426      -1,039        1,086    2,125
      June          -1,763      5,169    6,932        -474       2,946    3,420       -281          950    1,231      -1,008        1,273    2,281
      September       -906      5,164    6,070        -372       2,826    3,198       -110          932    1,042        -424        1,406    1,830
      December        -317      5,403    5,720        -159       2,940    3,099        -45          962    1,007        -113        1,501    1,614

2010  March           -234      5,115    5,349        -195       2,863    3,058         -2          914      916         -37        1,338    1,375
      June             664      5,805    5,141         235       3,093    2,858        204        1,071      867         225        1,641    1,416
      September        226      5,525    5,299          26       2,946    2,920         87          998      911         113        1,581    1,468
      December         502      5,781    5,279          92       3,051    2,959         92        1,034      942         318        1,696    1,378

2011  March            340      5,375    5,035          99       2,983    2,884        122          971      849         119        1,421    1,302
      June             537      5,746    5,209         190       3,073    2,883        169        1,063      894         178        1,610    1,432
      September        852      5,974    5,122         272       3,137    2,865        171        1,066      895         409        1,771    1,362
      December         297      5,585    5,288          45       2,970    2,925         44          981      937         208        1,634    1,426

2012  March            972      5,904    4,932         388       3,173    2,785        220        1,054      834         364        1,677    1,313
      June             612      5,828    5,216         174       3,039    2,865        158        1,074      916         280        1,715    1,435
      September        226      5,581    5,355          55       2,963    2,908         54        1,006      952         117        1,612    1,495
      December         637      5,779    5,142         180       3,025    2,845         94        1,014      920         363        1,740    1,377

2013  March            588      5,743    5,155         221       3,078    2,857        155        1,027      872         212        1,638    1,426
      June             649      5,912    5,263         221       3,084    2,863        137        1,074      937         291        1,754    1,463
      September        439      5,748    5,309         208       3,054    2,846         62        1,017      955         169        1,677    1,508
      December         651      5,894    5,243         131       3,026    2,895        108        1,036      928         412        1,832    1,420

2014  March            459      5,662    5,203         248       3,077    2,829        153        1,034      881          58        1,551    1,493
      June             888      6,142    5,254         299       3,179    2,880        216        1,123      907         373        1,840    1,467
      September        502      5,845    5,343         168       3,051    2,883        102        1,058      956         232        1,736    1,504
      December         987      6,166    5,179         225       3,111    2,886        157        1,087      930         605        1,968    1,363

2015  March            237      5,664    5,427         181       3,102    2,921         79        1,022      943         -23        1,540    1,563
      June             834      6,256    5,422         316       3,197    2,881        189        1,135      946         329        1,924    1,595
      September        381      5,884    5,503         113       3,038    2,925         59        1,038      979         209        1,808    1,599
      December         895      6,270    5,375         250       3,183    2,933        101        1,078      977         544        2,009    1,465

2016  March            273      5,743    5,470         220       3,124    2,904         60        1,015      955          -7        1,604    1,611
      June             300      6,051    5,751          64       3,125    3,061        116        1,109      993         120        1,817    1,697
      September        665      6,229    5,564         147       3,135    2,988         80        1,080    1,000         438        2,014    1,576
      December         326      5,920    5,594          88       3,076    2,988         52        1,033      981         186        1,811    1,625

2017  March            686      5,952    5,266         369       3,206    2,837        197        1,077      880         120        1,669    1,549
      June             511      6,193    5,682         143       3,135    2,992        153        1,133      980         215        1,925    1,710


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment, as some 
    establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.






Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept.  Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2016    2016    2016    2017    2017   2016   2016   2016   2017   2017
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   6,051   6,229   5,920   5,952   6,193    5.1    5.2    4.9    4.9    5.0
 At expanding firms               5,149   5,271   4,976   5,026   5,302    4.3    4.4    4.1    4.1    4.3
 At opening firms                   902     958     944     926     891     .8     .8     .8     .8     .7

Gross job losses                  5,751   5,564   5,594   5,266   5,682    4.8    4.6    4.6    4.4    4.7
 At contracting firms             4,837   4,713   4,734   4,442   4,847    4.0    3.9    3.9    3.7    4.0
 At closing firms                   914     851     860     824     835     .8     .7     .7     .7     .7

Net employment change               300     665     326     686     511     .3     .6     .3     .5     .3


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,125   3,135   3,076   3,206   3,135    9.3    9.3    9.1    9.4    9.2
 At expanding firms               2,264   2,219   2,171   2,316   2,288    6.7    6.6    6.4    6.8    6.7
 At opening firms                   861     916     905     890     847    2.6    2.7    2.7    2.6    2.5

Gross job losses                  3,061   2,988   2,988   2,837   2,992    9.1    8.8    8.8    8.3    8.8
 At contracting firms             2,189   2,171   2,163   2,042   2,187    6.5    6.4    6.4    6.0    6.4
 At closing firms                   872     817     825     795     805    2.6    2.4    2.4    2.3    2.4

Net employment change                64     147      88     369     143     .2     .5     .3    1.1     .4


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,109   1,080   1,033   1,077   1,133    5.1    5.0    4.8    4.9    5.2
 At expanding firms               1,072   1,042     997   1,046   1,095    4.9    4.8    4.6    4.8    5.0
 At opening firms                    37      38      36      31      38     .2     .2     .2     .1     .2

Gross job losses                    993   1,000     981     880     980    4.6    4.6    4.5    4.0    4.4
 At contracting firms               960     970     951     854     954    4.4    4.5    4.4    3.9    4.3
 At closing firms                    33      30      30      26      26     .2     .1     .1     .1     .1

Net employment change               116      80      52     197     153     .5     .4     .3     .9     .8


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,817   2,014   1,811   1,669   1,925    2.8    3.1    2.8    2.5    2.9
 At expanding firms               1,813   2,010   1,808   1,664   1,919    2.8    3.1    2.8    2.5    2.9
 At opening firms                     4       4       3       5       6     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,697   1,576   1,625   1,549   1,710    2.6    2.4    2.5    2.4    2.6
 At contracting firms             1,688   1,572   1,620   1,546   1,706    2.6    2.4    2.5    2.4    2.6
 At closing firms                     9       4       5       3       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               120     438     186     120     215     .2     .7     .3     .1     .3


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower than total gross job gains and gross job 
    losses by establishment, as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the 
    aggregation process.






Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        June       Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June       June         Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June 
                        2016       2016       2016        2017      2017       2016         2016       2016        2017      2017

United States(1)...  7,453,000  7,689,000  7,455,000   7,328,000  7,604,000  7,157,000   7,008,000   7,065,000  6,674,000  7,128,000

Alabama.....            90,760     96,889     91,681      95,018     87,409     91,306      90,051      90,287     81,340     88,801
Alaska.....             26,205     22,603     24,029      23,211     27,146     28,231      27,693      24,699     24,169     24,590
Arizona.....           139,046    164,484    138,291     136,971    145,129    138,270     120,568     126,313    126,704    134,184
Arkansas.....           54,032     61,522     58,062      56,151     52,890     57,902      54,893      53,892     50,773     56,758
California.....        981,914    990,473    980,183     962,840  1,008,489    933,875     880,241     910,192    872,313    963,220
Colorado.....          149,843    153,653    143,107     147,416    154,090    138,773     134,971     140,926    133,241    138,475
Connecticut.....        77,561     74,841     72,719      79,177     82,321     76,530      76,198      75,033     73,288     73,239
Delaware.....           25,377     23,909     23,338      24,976     25,141     25,216      24,652      23,351     22,313     26,277
District of Columbia    29,953     31,846     28,788      29,705     29,308     29,503      29,467      28,695     24,377     28,802
Florida.....           464,716    539,960    487,710     445,222    487,806    428,968     427,925     445,725    409,290    450,987

Georgia.....           248,515    243,716    239,884     230,965    229,623    229,940     213,118     211,569    212,760    225,490
Hawaii.....             28,651     31,080     26,673      27,379     27,647     30,358      25,354      26,775     25,523     28,656
Idaho.....              41,251     45,011     42,845      45,963     43,250     40,329      41,174      38,897     37,152     39,124
Illinois.....          302,719    294,960    309,191     298,256    295,556    301,468     291,637     290,285    276,590    283,177
Indiana.....           138,247    149,878    142,574     149,579    148,779    136,065     133,516     137,206    131,859    143,482
Iowa.....               74,136     79,033     73,955      78,764     73,448     81,142      75,042      76,993     71,324     73,959
Kansas.....             63,815     69,905     67,413      66,295     61,932     69,868      63,576      64,801     63,041     74,435
Kentucky.....           97,533    107,152     95,679      90,878     95,401     93,542      98,989      90,662     85,832     94,425
Louisiana.....          96,125    107,420     94,259     102,536     98,856    110,705     103,707     103,469     93,274    104,081
Maine.....              38,785     33,988     37,196      36,582     39,612     34,616      37,257      35,905     32,852     39,786

Maryland.....          135,312    139,923    140,769     131,540    137,552    130,754     127,394     131,349    126,358    133,284
Massachusetts.....     182,828    174,563    171,192     168,627    190,672    159,124     167,415     165,880    156,939    161,748
Michigan.....          217,902    208,459    204,720     211,095    214,607    196,003     202,265     200,138    184,414    198,700
Minnesota.....         143,583    148,763    140,520     142,651    140,705    133,901     133,973     138,963    117,302    129,066
Mississippi.....        50,515     56,026     56,611      51,514     52,591     58,142      49,476      50,218     52,216     53,075
Missouri.....          133,732    132,102    134,067     138,174    133,946    127,768     125,330     133,207    116,324    132,611
Montana.....            29,559     28,377     29,076      30,348     29,692     31,986      28,603      27,842     26,801     29,106
Nebraska.....           45,783     51,489     46,158      48,350     45,258     47,712      47,315      49,989     42,036     48,966
Nevada.....             72,895     77,042     71,548      75,922     73,628     65,362      63,229      64,782     59,528     69,752
New Hampshire.....      36,640     36,134     35,405      32,723     37,609     33,071      35,328      33,335     32,020     34,154

New Jersey.....        217,390    212,548    217,599     191,080    231,222    191,614     200,091     200,514    198,940    187,345
New Mexico.....         40,215     43,313     41,275      40,142     42,206     42,367      38,844      40,739     39,132     39,683
New York.....          482,639    490,500    472,712     482,960    512,229    452,880     458,750     461,337    446,567    452,251
North Carolina.....    223,089    221,742    225,601     222,190    228,495    207,520     208,519     205,302    199,056    214,667
North Dakota.....       23,256     27,990     23,021      26,128     23,242     30,933      24,632      26,535     22,998     23,826
Ohio.....              261,010    263,761    260,009     260,122    266,532    263,358     261,433     249,754    236,913    248,853
Oklahoma.....           72,166     79,254     81,574      78,427     82,854     84,369      75,254      78,496     81,448     74,136
Oregon.....            105,151    106,360    103,156     108,577    103,951    102,770      99,322      96,506     89,507     94,764
Pennsylvania.....      268,296    285,638    274,781     268,559    281,457    273,456     258,739     260,840    254,346    263,822
Rhode Island.....       25,378     23,258     23,989      26,217     27,377     25,729      24,390      23,904     24,785     24,775

South Carolina.....    102,914    104,404    108,676     100,891    102,376     94,867      93,113      90,148     92,823     99,787
South Dakota.....       21,921     22,238     21,044      22,209     21,870     21,593      21,398      21,233     20,656     21,953
Tennessee.....         141,910    147,480    144,675     128,481    136,278    132,811     130,083     126,150    123,277    129,537
Texas.....             569,649    617,457    588,802     580,416    588,070    545,548     541,252     538,726    519,376    539,188
Utah.....               79,060     86,460     79,259      91,646     81,427     74,471      77,794      75,963     72,367     74,004
Vermont.....            18,779     18,354     17,998      16,827     20,084     18,235      18,795      17,636     17,258     17,430
Virginia.....          197,646    192,072    194,325     186,996    196,028    188,255     189,545     180,449    172,727    183,875
Washington.....        192,404    177,681    191,782     185,519    193,086    158,624     175,845     179,259    152,983    167,385
West Virginia.....      31,573     35,225     34,777      34,065     35,135     37,617      34,886      33,887     34,690     35,391
Wisconsin.....         138,276    133,986    134,052     143,931    139,680    139,248     134,840     131,290    116,833    136,434

Wyoming.....            15,960     17,147     17,940      17,837     17,344     21,748      17,942      17,692     16,484     18,378
Puerto Rico.....        37,755     39,088     38,952      34,349     34,820     37,274      38,609      36,267     38,301     35,043
Virgin Islands.....      1,792      1,722      1,644       1,463      1,707      1,586       1,856       1,665      1,497      1,285

(1) The sum of the states will not necessarily add to the U.S. total because of the independent seasonal adjustment of each state.
NOTE: Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.






Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        June    Sept.    Dec.     Mar.    June        June     Sept.     Dec.    Mar.     June 
                        2016    2016     2016     2017    2017        2016     2016      2016    2017     2017

United States1.....      6.2     6.4      6.2      6.0     6.2         6.0      5.8       5.9      5.4     5.8

Alabama.....             5.8     6.2      5.8      6.1     5.5         5.9      5.8       5.8      5.2     5.6
Alaska.....             10.4     9.1      9.8      9.4    11.0        11.2     11.2      10.0      9.8     9.9
Arizona.....             6.2     7.2      6.0      5.8     6.2         6.0      5.2       5.5      5.4     5.7
Arkansas.....            5.4     6.2      5.9      5.6     5.2         5.9      5.6       5.4      5.0     5.6
California.....          6.9     6.9      6.9      6.7     6.9         6.6      6.2       6.3      6.0     6.6
Colorado.....            7.0     7.1      6.6      6.8     7.1         6.5      6.2       6.5      6.2     6.3
Connecticut.....         5.4     5.2      5.1      5.5     5.7         5.4      5.4       5.2      5.1     5.1
Delaware.....            6.8     6.3      6.2      6.6     6.6         6.7      6.6       6.2      5.9     7.0
District of Columbia..   5.9     6.2      5.6      5.7     5.7         5.8      5.8       5.6      4.7     5.6
Florida.....             6.5     7.4      6.7      6.1     6.6         5.9      5.8       6.1      5.5     6.1

Georgia.....             6.9     6.7      6.6      6.3     6.2         6.4      5.9       5.8      5.8     6.1
Hawaii.....              5.4     6.0      5.0      5.1     5.2         5.8      4.8       5.0      4.8     5.4
Idaho.....               7.2     7.9      7.5      7.9     7.3         7.0      7.3       6.7      6.3     6.6
Illinois.....            6.0     5.7      6.1      5.8     5.7         5.9      5.7       5.6      5.4     5.5
Indiana.....             5.4     5.8      5.4      5.7     5.7         5.2      5.1       5.2      5.1     5.5
Iowa.....                5.7     6.1      5.7      6.1     5.6         6.2      5.8       5.9      5.5     5.7
Kansas.....              5.7     6.2      5.9      5.8     5.5         6.3      5.6       5.7      5.6     6.6
Kentucky.....            6.2     6.8      6.1      5.7     6.1         6.0      6.3       5.8      5.4     5.9
Louisiana.....           6.0     6.8      5.9      6.4     6.2         6.9      6.5       6.5      5.9     6.5
Maine.....               7.7     6.7      7.4      7.2     7.7         6.8      7.4       7.1      6.4     7.7

Maryland.....            6.4     6.6      6.6      6.1     6.4         6.2      5.9       6.2      5.9     6.2
Massachusetts.....       6.0     5.7      5.6      5.5     6.1         5.2      5.4       5.4      5.1     5.2
Michigan.....            5.9     5.7      5.5      5.6     5.7         5.4      5.5       5.4      5.0     5.3
Minnesota.....           5.9     6.1      5.7      5.8     5.7         5.5      5.5       5.7      4.7     5.3
Mississippi.....         5.7     6.3      6.3      5.7     5.9         6.5      5.5       5.6      5.9     6.0
Missouri.....            5.7     5.7      5.7      5.9     5.6         5.4      5.4       5.6      4.9     5.6
Montana.....             7.9     7.6      7.8      8.1     7.9         8.6      7.7       7.5      7.1     7.7
Nebraska.....            5.7     6.4      5.7      5.9     5.6         5.9      5.9       6.2      5.2     6.1
Nevada.....              6.5     6.8      6.2      6.6     6.3         5.8      5.5       5.6      5.2     6.0
New Hampshire.....       6.5     6.4      6.3      5.7     6.6         5.9      6.3       5.9      5.6     5.9

New Jersey.....          6.4     6.3      6.4      5.5     6.7         5.7      5.9       5.9      5.8     5.5
New Mexico.....          6.4     7.0      6.6      6.4     6.7         6.7      6.2       6.5      6.2     6.3
New York.....            6.3     6.3      6.1      6.2     6.5         5.8      5.9       5.9      5.7     5.7
North Carolina.....      6.3     6.3      6.3      6.2     6.3         5.8      5.9       5.7      5.5     5.9
North Dakota.....        6.8     8.2      6.7      7.6     6.8         8.9      7.1       7.7      6.7     6.9
Ohio.....                5.6     5.7      5.7      5.7     5.8         5.7      5.7       5.4      5.1     5.4
Oklahoma.....            5.8     6.3      6.5      6.3     6.6         6.8      6.0       6.3      6.5     5.9
Oregon.....              6.8     6.9      6.6      6.9     6.5         6.6      6.4       6.3      5.7     5.9
Pennsylvania.....        5.3     5.6      5.4      5.2     5.5         5.4      5.1       5.1      5.0     5.2
Rhode Island.....        6.1     5.6      5.7      6.3     6.5         6.2      5.9       5.8      5.9     5.9

South Carolina.....      6.3     6.3      6.5      6.0     6.1         5.8      5.6       5.4      5.6     6.0
South Dakota.....        6.4     6.4      6.0      6.4     6.3         6.2      6.2       6.1      5.9     6.3
Tennessee.....           5.8     5.9      5.8      5.1     5.4         5.4      5.2       5.1      4.9     5.1
Texas.....               5.8     6.2      5.9      5.8     5.8         5.5      5.5       5.4      5.2     5.4
Utah.....                6.7     7.4      6.8      7.7     6.8         6.4      6.7       6.4      6.1     6.2
Vermont.....             7.4     7.2      7.0      6.6     7.9         7.2      7.4       7.0      6.8     6.8
Virginia.....            6.5     6.2      6.2      6.0     6.2         6.1      6.1       5.9      5.6     5.9
Washington.....          7.3     6.7      7.1      6.8     7.1         6.0      6.6       6.7      5.6     6.1
West Virginia.....       5.8     6.5      6.4      6.3     6.4         6.9      6.4       6.2      6.4     6.5
Wisconsin.....           5.7     5.5      5.5      5.9     5.6         5.7      5.6       5.3      4.8     5.5

Wyoming.....             7.7     8.5      8.8      8.8     8.5        10.6      8.8       8.7      8.1     9.0
Puerto Rico.....         5.6     5.8      5.8      5.1     5.2         5.5      5.7       5.4      5.7     5.2
Virgin Islands.....      6.5     6.2      6.0      5.3     6.2         5.7      6.8       6.0      5.5     4.7

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.






Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2007  March               232      3.2       205     2.8          918        .8      787        .7
      June                225      3.1       215     3.0          898        .8      859        .8
      September           233      3.2       216     3.0          952        .8      845        .7
      December            228      3.1       218     3.0          922        .8      836        .7
  
2008  March               226      3.1       224     3.1          919        .8      832        .7
      June                221      3.0       238     3.3          876        .8      913        .8
      September           216      3.0       233     3.2          849        .8      881        .8
      December            211      2.9       253     3.5          819        .7      951        .9
  
2009  March               197      2.7       247     3.4          738        .7      869        .8
      June                201      2.8       238     3.3          767        .7      837        .8
      September           192      2.7       227     3.2          725        .7      793        .7
      December            202      2.8       218     3.1          728        .7      749        .7
  
2010  March               193      2.7       211     3.0          706        .7      687        .7
      June                193      2.7       202     2.9          730        .7      665        .6
      September           207      2.9       204     2.9          754        .7      701        .7
      December            216      3.0       201     2.8          805        .8      700        .7
  
2011  March               204      2.9       200     2.8          715        .7      632        .6
      June                210      2.9       205     2.9          767        .7      689        .6
      September           206      2.9       196     2.7          794        .7      675        .6
      December            214      3.0       198     2.8          800        .7      700        .6
  
2012  March               236      3.3       188     2.6          787        .7      614        .6
      June                217      3.0       194     2.7          799        .7      673        .6
      September           210      2.9       196     2.7          804        .7      692        .6
      December            218      3.0       183     2.5          809        .7      673        .6
  
2013  March               205      2.8       192     2.6          748        .7      646        .6
      June                222      3.0       215     2.9          791        .7      696        .6
      September           219      2.9       195     2.6          823        .7      678        .6
      December            216      2.9       187     2.5          804        .7      670        .6
  
2014  March               221      2.9       189     2.5          782        .7      633        .6
      June                220      2.9       205     2.7          806        .7      718        .6
      September           224      3.0       200     2.6          828        .7      706        .6
      December            223      2.9       197     2.6          837        .7      708        .6
  
2015  March               234      3.1       206     2.7          814        .7      691        .6
      June                234      3.1       212     2.8          839        .7      732        .6
      September           242      3.1       207     2.7          880        .7      704        .6
      December            246      3.2       208     2.7          894        .8      732        .6
  
2016  March               236      3.0       202     2.6          787        .7      660        .6
      June                242      3.1       214     2.7          838        .7      724        .6
      September           240      3.1       215     2.7          872        .7      749        .6
      December            239      3.0       N/A     N/A          868        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2017  March               240      3.0       N/A     N/A          800        .7      N/A       N/A
      June                239      3.0       N/A     N/A          846        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters by definition. See the 
    Technical Note for more information.
(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage of the average of the previous and current 
    quarter employment levels or total number of establishments.






Last Modified Date: January 26, 2018