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Economic News Release
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Employer Costs for Employee Compensation News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Friday, March 17, 2023			               USDL-23-0488

Technical information:	(202) 691-6199  *  ncsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/eci
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  pressoffice@bls.gov


                       EMPLOYER COSTS FOR EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION - December 2022
                       
Total employer compensation costs for civilian workers averaged $42.48 per hour worked in
December 2022, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries cost 
employers $29.32 and accounted for 69.0 percent of total costs, while benefits cost $13.17 and 
accounted for the remaining 31.0 percent. (See table 1.)

Total employer compensation costs for state and local government averaged $57.60 per hour worked. 
Wages and salaries averaged $35.69 per hour worked and represented 62.0 percent of total 
compensation costs, while benefit costs averaged $21.91 and accounted for the remaining 38.0 
percent. (See tables 1 and 3.)

Total employer compensation costs for private industry workers averaged $40.23 per hour worked. 
Wage and salary costs averaged $28.37 and accounted for 70.5 percent of employer costs, while 
benefit costs were $11.86 and accounted for 29.5 percent. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Retirement and savings costs for private industry workers averaged $1.36 per hour worked in 
December 2022 and accounted for 3.4 percent of total compensation costs. Retirement and savings 
costs for state and local government workers averaged $7.48 per hour worked in December 2022 and 
accounted for 13.0 percent of total compensation costs. Defined benefit costs averaged $0.41 per 
hour worked for private industry workers and $6.98 per hour worked for state and local government 
workers. Defined contribution costs averaged $0.95 per hour worked for private industry workers and 
$0.51 per hour worked for state and local government workers. (See table 1.)

Private industry retirement and savings costs

Among private industry supersectors, the leisure and hospitality industry had the lowest employer 
retirement and savings costs at $0.18 per hour worked. Among the benefit components within the 
leisure and hospitality industry, legally required benefits accounted for 9.5 percent of total 
compensation and had the highest employer costs at $1.74 per hour worked. (See table 4.)

Retirement and savings costs for union workers averaged $4.62 per hour worked and accounted for 
8.5 percent of total compensation costs. Retirement and savings costs for nonunion workers 
averaged $1.07 per hour worked and accounted for 2.7 percent of total compensation costs. Defined 
benefit costs averaged $2.98 per hour worked for union workers and $0.18 per hour worked for 
nonunion workers. Defined contribution costs averaged $1.64 per hour worked for union workers and 
$0.89 per hour worked for nonunion workers. (See table 5 and www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm.)

Retirement and savings costs for workers in establishments with 1-49 workers averaged $0.71 per 
hour worked and accounted for 2.2 percent of total compensation. Retirement and savings costs for 
workers in establishments with 500 workers or more averaged $2.84 per hour worked and accounted for 
4.9 percent of total compensation. (See table 6.)

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for March 2023 is scheduled to be released on
Friday, June 16, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


                                          
                                          TECHNICAL NOTE
                                          
Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC), a product of the National Compensation Survey,
provides the average employer cost for wages and salaries as well as benefits per hour worked. 
The ECEC covers the civilian economy, which includes data from both private industry and state 
and local government. Federal government workers are excluded. Additionally, the self-employed,
private household workers, and the agricultural sector are excluded from private industry.

Total benefit costs consist of five major categories and include 18 benefit costs:
* Paid leave - vacation, holiday, sick, and personal leave; 
* Supplemental pay - overtime and premium, shift differentials, and nonproduction bonuses; 
* Insurance - life, health, short-term and long-term disability; 
* Retirement and savings - defined benefit and defined contribution; and 
* Legally required benefits - Social Security [refers to Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability
  Insurance (OASDI) program], Medicare, federal and state unemployment insurance, and workersí
  compensation.

All workers are included in the benefit cost estimates including those that do not have plan access
or do not participate. Costs are also affected by other factors such as cost sharing between
employers and employees, plan features, and plan generosity. For the latest information on the
percentage of workers with access to and participating in employer-sponsored benefit plans,
including health care and retirement and savings plans, see www.bls.gov/ebs.

The National Compensation Measures provides additional details on the sample design, calculation
methodology, and resources explaining changes over time, see www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 28,100 
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 7,000 private industry establishments
and approximately 7,600 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and
local government establishments that provided data at the initial interview. Beginning December 
2021, an additional (fourth) private industry sample is used in estimation to mitigate the impact
of decreasing response rates.

Measures of reliability
Relative standard errors (RSEs) provide users a tool to ascertain the quality of an estimate to
ensure that it is within an acceptable range for their intended purpose. RSEs are available at
www.bls.gov/web/ecec/ecec-rse.htm and the database query tool at www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm.

Comparisons
Compensation cost levels in state and local government should not be directly compared with levels
in private industry. Differences between these sectors stem from factors such as variation in work
activities and occupational structures.

Classification systems
The National Compensation Survey publishes estimates of compensation costs and trends as well as
benefit coverage by ownership, industry group, occupational group, and geographic areas, see
www.bls.gov/eci/factsheets/national-compensation-survey-classification-systems-mapping-files.htm.

Additional information
Additional and historical ECEC estimates are available in the ECEC database query tool at 
www.bls.gov/eci/data.htm and in xlsx format at www.bls.gov/eci/tables.htm. The 2023 ECEC 
release schedule is available at www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. Subscribe to receive 
the BLS Economic News Release email at public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. 

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access 
telecommunications relay services.



Table 1. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation by ownership [Dec. 2022]
Compensation component Civilian workers(1) Private industry
workers
State and local
government workers
Cost ($) Percent of
compensation
Cost ($) Percent of
compensation
Cost ($) Percent of
compensation

Total compensation(2)

42.48 100.0 40.23 100.0 57.60 100.0

Wages and salaries

29.32 69.0 28.37 70.5 35.69 62.0

Total benefits

13.17 31.0 11.86 29.5 21.91 38.0

Paid leave

3.17 7.5 3.01 7.5 4.23 7.3

Vacation

1.55 3.6 1.54 3.8 1.58 2.7

Holiday

0.94 2.2 0.89 2.2 1.21 2.1

Sick

0.50 1.2 0.41 1.0 1.09 1.9

Personal

0.19 0.4 0.16 0.4 0.34 0.6

Supplemental pay

1.37 3.2 1.49 3.7 0.56 1.0

Overtime and premium(3)

0.37 0.9 0.39 1.0 0.25 0.4

Shift differentials

0.07 0.2 0.07 0.2 0.05 0.1

Nonproduction bonuses

0.93 2.2 1.03 2.6 0.26 0.5

Insurance

3.45 8.1 3.00 7.4 6.52 11.3

Life

0.05 0.1 0.04 0.1 0.08 0.1

Health

3.28 7.7 2.82 7.0 6.36 11.0

Short-term disability

0.08 0.2 0.09 0.2 0.03 0.1

Long-term disability

0.05 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.05 0.1

Retirement and savings

2.16 5.1 1.36 3.4 7.48 13.0

Defined benefit

1.26 3.0 0.41 1.0 6.98 12.1

Defined contribution

0.89 2.1 0.95 2.4 0.51 0.9

Legally Required benefits

3.02 7.1 3.01 7.5 3.12 5.4

Social Security and Medicare

2.39 5.6 2.39 5.9 2.45 4.3

Social Security(4)

1.91 4.5 1.91 4.8 1.87 3.2

Medicare

0.49 1.1 0.47 1.2 0.59 1.0

Federal unemployment insurance

0.03 0.1 0.03 0.1 (5)- (6)-

State unemployment insurance

0.14 0.3 0.15 0.4 0.07 0.1

Workers' compensation

0.46 1.1 0.45 1.1 0.59 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) Includes premium pay for work (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) in addition to the regular work schedule.
(4) Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
(5) Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
(6) Less than .05 percent.


Table 2. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for civilian workers by occupational and industry group [Dec. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Civilian workers(2)

42.48 100.0 29.32 69.0 13.17 31.0 3.17 7.5 1.37 3.2 3.45 8.1 2.16 5.1 3.02 7.1

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

67.86 100.0 46.20 68.1 21.65 31.9 5.97 8.8 2.23 3.3 5.28 7.8 3.98 5.9 4.20 6.2

Management, business and financial

79.20 100.0 53.93 68.1 25.27 31.9 7.78 9.8 3.54 4.5 5.48 6.9 3.69 4.7 4.77 6.0

Professional and related

62.65 100.0 42.66 68.1 19.99 31.9 5.14 8.2 1.63 2.6 5.18 8.3 4.11 6.6 3.93 6.3

Teachers(3)

68.47 100.0 46.21 67.5 22.25 32.5 3.63 5.3 0.29 0.4 6.51 9.5 8.30 12.1 3.53 5.2

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

66.94 100.0 44.09 65.9 22.85 34.1 3.16 4.7 0.26 0.4 7.05 10.5 9.20 13.7 3.18 4.8

Registered nurses

66.46 100.0 43.80 65.9 22.66 34.1 6.75 10.2 2.55 3.8 5.59 8.4 3.24 4.9 4.53 6.8

Sales and office

31.58 100.0 22.48 71.2 9.09 28.8 2.15 6.8 0.86 2.7 2.70 8.5 1.08 3.4 2.31 7.3

Sales and related

30.30 100.0 23.12 76.3 7.17 23.7 1.76 5.8 0.89 2.9 1.56 5.1 0.66 2.2 2.31 7.6

Office and administrative support

32.52 100.0 22.01 67.7 10.51 32.3 2.44 7.5 0.84 2.6 3.53 10.9 1.39 4.3 2.31 7.1

Service

23.05 100.0 16.86 73.1 6.19 26.9 1.18 5.1 0.49 2.1 1.56 6.8 1.00 4.3 1.95 8.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

42.77 100.0 28.69 67.1 14.07 32.9 2.43 5.7 1.58 3.7 3.66 8.6 2.69 6.3 3.71 8.7

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

42.93 100.0 28.74 66.9 14.20 33.1 1.89 4.4 1.62 3.8 3.65 8.5 3.07 7.2 3.97 9.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

42.58 100.0 28.65 67.3 13.93 32.7 3.02 7.1 1.55 3.6 3.67 8.6 2.26 5.3 3.43 8.1

Production, transportation, and material moving

33.17 100.0 22.34 67.3 10.83 32.7 2.05 6.2 1.40 4.2 3.31 10.0 1.30 3.9 2.78 8.4

Production

32.59 100.0 21.66 66.5 10.93 33.5 2.04 6.3 1.82 5.6 3.49 10.7 0.95 2.9 2.62 8.0

Transportation and material moving

33.51 100.0 22.74 67.9 10.77 32.1 2.05 6.1 1.14 3.4 3.21 9.6 1.51 4.5 2.87 8.6

Industry group

Education and health services

48.44 100.0 32.96 68.0 15.48 32.0 3.78 7.8 0.79 1.6 4.37 9.0 3.47 7.2 3.07 6.3

Educational services

59.39 100.0 39.16 65.9 20.23 34.1 3.79 6.4 0.32 0.5 6.12 10.3 6.84 11.5 3.16 5.3

Elementary and secondary schools

58.10 100.0 37.74 65.0 20.36 35.0 3.02 5.2 0.26 0.4 6.47 11.1 7.70 13.3 2.90 5.0

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

67.13 100.0 44.36 66.1 22.77 33.9 5.94 8.8 0.43 0.6 6.35 9.5 6.28 9.4 3.77 5.6

Health care and social assistance

42.22 100.0 29.44 69.7 12.78 30.3 3.78 8.9 1.05 2.5 3.38 8.0 1.56 3.7 3.02 7.2

Hospitals

58.85 100.0 38.84 66.0 20.01 34.0 5.74 9.8 2.13 3.6 5.38 9.1 2.95 5.0 3.82 6.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.


Table 3. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for state and local government workers by occupational and industry group [Dec. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

State and local government workers

57.60 100.0 35.69 62.0 21.91 38.0 4.23 7.3 0.56 1.0 6.52 11.3 7.48 13.0 3.12 5.4

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

68.57 100.0 43.87 64.0 24.70 36.0 4.68 6.8 0.44 0.6 7.11 10.4 9.00 13.1 3.48 5.1

Professional and related

66.63 100.0 42.90 64.4 23.72 35.6 4.15 6.2 0.42 0.6 7.09 10.6 8.71 13.1 3.36 5.0

Teachers(2)

75.23 100.0 49.61 65.9 25.62 34.1 3.59 4.8 0.30 0.4 7.63 10.1 10.57 14.1 3.53 4.7

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

74.90 100.0 48.65 65.0 26.25 35.0 3.27 4.4 0.28 0.4 8.13 10.8 11.23 15.0 3.34 4.5

Sales and office

40.05 100.0 23.00 57.4 17.05 42.6 3.48 8.7 0.35 0.9 6.19 15.4 4.66 11.6 2.37 5.9

Office and administrative support

40.23 100.0 23.05 57.3 17.18 42.7 3.50 8.7 0.35 0.9 6.26 15.6 4.70 11.7 2.37 5.9

Service

43.14 100.0 24.81 57.5 18.33 42.5 3.61 8.4 0.93 2.1 5.16 12.0 5.97 13.8 2.65 6.1

Industry group

Education and health services

60.01 100.0 38.40 64.0 21.61 36.0 3.82 6.4 0.39 0.7 6.67 11.1 7.70 12.8 3.03 5.1

Educational services

61.39 100.0 39.48 64.3 21.91 35.7 3.63 5.9 0.29 0.5 6.78 11.0 8.20 13.4 3.02 4.9

Elementary and secondary schools

59.71 100.0 38.38 64.3 21.33 35.7 3.01 5.0 0.26 0.4 6.81 11.4 8.36 14.0 2.87 4.8

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

66.74 100.0 42.95 64.4 23.79 35.6 5.58 8.4 0.35 0.5 6.66 10.0 7.72 11.6 3.48 5.2

Health care and social assistance

51.74 100.0 31.92 61.7 19.82 38.3 4.97 9.6 1.03 2.0 6.03 11.6 4.68 9.1 3.11 6.0

Hospitals

54.48 100.0 34.30 63.0 20.19 37.0 5.17 9.5 1.20 2.2 6.01 11.0 4.55 8.3 3.25 6.0

Public administration

55.88 100.0 32.32 57.8 23.56 42.2 5.17 9.3 0.85 1.5 6.48 11.6 7.70 13.8 3.36 6.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.


Table 4. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by occupational and industry group [Dec. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Private industry workers

40.23 100.0 28.37 70.5 11.86 29.5 3.01 7.5 1.49 3.7 3.00 7.4 1.36 3.4 3.01 7.5

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related occupations

67.64 100.0 46.91 69.3 20.74 30.7 6.36 9.4 2.77 4.1 4.72 7.0 2.47 3.6 4.41 6.5

Management, business, and financial occupations

79.04 100.0 54.40 68.8 24.64 31.2 7.77 9.8 3.89 4.9 5.28 6.7 2.88 3.6 4.83 6.1

Professional and related occupations

61.02 100.0 42.55 69.7 18.46 30.3 5.55 9.1 2.13 3.5 4.40 7.2 2.22 3.6 4.17 6.8

Sales and office occupations

30.82 100.0 22.44 72.8 8.39 27.2 2.03 6.6 0.91 2.9 2.38 7.7 0.76 2.5 2.30 7.5

Sales and related occupations

30.27 100.0 23.13 76.4 7.14 23.6 1.75 5.8 0.90 3.0 1.55 5.1 0.64 2.1 2.31 7.6

Office and administrative support occupations

31.29 100.0 21.84 69.8 9.44 30.2 2.27 7.3 0.91 2.9 3.10 9.9 0.87 2.8 2.30 7.3

Service occupations

20.21 100.0 15.73 77.8 4.48 22.2 0.84 4.1 0.43 2.1 1.06 5.2 0.30 1.5 1.86 9.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

42.25 100.0 28.66 67.8 13.59 32.2 2.28 5.4 1.64 3.9 3.44 8.1 2.47 5.9 3.76 8.9

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

42.47 100.0 28.75 67.7 13.72 32.3 1.70 4.0 1.69 4.0 3.41 8.0 2.89 6.8 4.03 9.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

42.02 100.0 28.57 68.0 13.45 32.0 2.91 6.9 1.58 3.8 3.48 8.3 2.02 4.8 3.46 8.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

32.77 100.0 22.21 67.8 10.56 32.2 2.01 6.1 1.41 4.3 3.22 9.8 1.16 3.5 2.77 8.4

Production occupations

32.30 100.0 21.53 66.7 10.77 33.3 2.00 6.2 1.83 5.7 3.44 10.7 0.87 2.7 2.62 8.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

33.07 100.0 22.64 68.5 10.43 31.5 2.01 6.1 1.15 3.5 3.07 9.3 1.34 4.0 2.86 8.6

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(2)

43.07 100.0 29.14 67.7 13.93 32.3 2.76 6.4 2.07 4.8 3.76 8.7 1.86 4.3 3.47 8.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

71.24 100.0 48.82 68.5 22.42 31.5 6.36 8.9 3.20 4.5 5.02 7.0 3.10 4.4 4.73 6.6

Management, business, and financial occupations

74.69 100.0 52.17 69.8 22.53 30.2 6.64 8.9 3.16 4.2 4.89 6.5 2.90 3.9 4.94 6.6

Professional and related occupations

67.34 100.0 45.04 66.9 22.30 33.1 6.05 9.0 3.25 4.8 5.17 7.7 3.33 5.0 4.50 6.7

Sales and office occupations

36.80 100.0 26.48 71.9 10.32 28.1 2.33 6.3 1.25 3.4 3.04 8.3 0.88 2.4 2.82 7.7

Office and administrative support occupations

33.20 100.0 23.66 71.3 9.54 28.7 2.07 6.2 1.12 3.4 3.00 9.0 0.77 2.3 2.58 7.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

42.58 100.0 28.76 67.5 13.82 32.5 1.88 4.4 1.86 4.4 3.43 8.1 2.66 6.3 3.99 9.4

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing and forestry occupations

42.39 100.0 28.68 67.7 13.71 32.3 1.63 3.8 1.75 4.1 3.34 7.9 2.90 6.8 4.08 9.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

43.23 100.0 29.03 67.2 14.19 32.8 2.72 6.3 2.24 5.2 3.72 8.6 1.84 4.3 3.67 8.5

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

33.77 100.0 22.20 65.7 11.57 34.3 2.09 6.2 1.99 5.9 3.74 11.1 1.00 3.0 2.75 8.1

Production occupations

33.82 100.0 22.12 65.4 11.70 34.6 2.15 6.3 2.05 6.1 3.86 11.4 0.95 2.8 2.70 8.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

33.55 100.0 22.50 67.1 11.04 32.9 1.84 5.5 1.77 5.3 3.28 9.8 1.20 3.6 2.96 8.8

Construction industry

43.58 100.0 30.51 70.0 13.07 30.0 2.03 4.6 1.63 3.7 3.19 7.3 2.24 5.1 3.99 9.2

Manufacturing industry

42.78 100.0 28.38 66.3 14.40 33.7 3.22 7.5 2.29 5.3 4.10 9.6 1.64 3.8 3.16 7.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

73.73 100.0 49.82 67.6 23.91 32.4 6.89 9.3 3.43 4.6 5.40 7.3 3.47 4.7 4.74 6.4

Management, business, and financial occupations

78.95 100.0 54.29 68.8 24.66 31.2 7.51 9.5 3.44 4.4 5.40 6.8 3.34 4.2 4.98 6.3

Professional and related occupations

69.28 100.0 46.01 66.4 23.27 33.6 6.36 9.2 3.42 4.9 5.39 7.8 3.57 5.2 4.53 6.5

Sales and office occupations

36.63 100.0 25.58 69.8 11.04 30.2 2.60 7.1 1.51 4.1 3.26 8.9 1.03 2.8 2.64 7.2

Office and administrative support occupations

33.44 100.0 23.11 69.1 10.33 30.9 2.31 6.9 1.32 4.0 3.37 10.1 0.92 2.8 2.41 7.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

47.14 100.0 29.40 62.4 17.74 37.6 3.19 6.8 2.81 6.0 4.83 10.2 3.21 6.8 3.70 7.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

46.32 100.0 30.01 64.8 16.30 35.2 3.34 7.2 2.74 5.9 4.64 10.0 1.92 4.2 3.65 7.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

33.13 100.0 21.66 65.4 11.47 34.6 2.12 6.4 1.99 6.0 3.77 11.4 0.93 2.8 2.66 8.0

Production occupations

33.42 100.0 21.79 65.2 11.63 34.8 2.16 6.5 2.04 6.1 3.86 11.5 0.91 2.7 2.66 8.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

31.60 100.0 20.97 66.4 10.62 33.6 1.92 6.1 1.71 5.4 3.31 10.5 1.02 3.2 2.67 8.5

Aircraft manufacturing industry

82.16 100.0 50.40 61.3 31.76 38.7 7.79 9.5 5.53 6.7 8.00 9.7 5.28 6.4 5.16 6.3

Service-providing industries(3)

39.67 100.0 28.22 71.1 11.46 28.9 3.06 7.7 1.37 3.5 2.85 7.2 1.26 3.2 2.92 7.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

67.25 100.0 46.70 69.4 20.55 30.6 6.36 9.5 2.73 4.1 4.69 7.0 2.39 3.6 4.38 6.5

Management, business, and financial occupations

79.76 100.0 54.77 68.7 24.99 31.3 7.95 10.0 4.01 5.0 5.34 6.7 2.87 3.6 4.82 6.0

Professional and related occupations

60.52 100.0 42.36 70.0 18.16 30.0 5.51 9.1 2.04 3.4 4.34 7.2 2.14 3.5 4.14 6.8

Sales and office occupations

30.38 100.0 22.13 72.9 8.24 27.1 2.01 6.6 0.88 2.9 2.34 7.7 0.76 2.5 2.26 7.4

Sales and related occupations

29.64 100.0 22.68 76.5 6.96 23.5 1.70 5.7 0.87 2.9 1.50 5.1 0.62 2.1 2.26 7.6

Office and administrative support occupations

31.06 100.0 21.63 69.6 9.43 30.4 2.29 7.4 0.89 2.9 3.11 10.0 0.88 2.8 2.26 7.3

Service occupations

20.18 100.0 15.72 77.9 4.46 22.1 0.83 4.1 0.43 2.1 1.05 5.2 0.29 1.5 1.85 9.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

41.78 100.0 28.53 68.3 13.25 31.7 2.86 6.8 1.31 3.1 3.46 8.3 2.20 5.3 3.43 8.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

41.55 100.0 28.39 68.3 13.15 31.7 2.98 7.2 1.32 3.2 3.39 8.2 2.09 5.0 3.37 8.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

32.21 100.0 22.22 69.0 9.99 31.0 1.96 6.1 1.09 3.4 2.92 9.1 1.25 3.9 2.77 8.6

Production occupations

27.61 100.0 19.72 71.4 7.89 28.6 1.57 5.7 1.14 4.1 2.18 7.9 0.64 2.3 2.36 8.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

33.01 100.0 22.66 68.6 10.35 31.4 2.03 6.1 1.08 3.3 3.04 9.2 1.36 4.1 2.85 8.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

34.17 100.0 24.35 71.3 9.82 28.7 2.25 6.6 1.07 3.1 2.55 7.5 1.25 3.6 2.70 7.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

65.94 100.0 47.27 71.7 18.67 28.3 5.88 8.9 2.26 3.4 3.89 5.9 2.31 3.5 4.32 6.5

Management, business, and financial occupations

75.95 100.0 54.12 71.3 21.82 28.7 7.04 9.3 2.93 3.9 4.40 5.8 2.68 3.5 4.76 6.3

Professional and related occupations

52.67 100.0 38.19 72.5 14.48 27.5 4.35 8.3 1.37 2.6 3.22 6.1 1.81 3.4 3.73 7.1

Sales and office occupations

26.41 100.0 20.00 75.7 6.41 24.3 1.45 5.5 0.71 2.7 1.55 5.9 0.60 2.3 2.09 7.9

Sales and related occupations

25.03 100.0 19.47 77.8 5.56 22.2 1.25 5.0 0.69 2.7 1.14 4.5 0.48 1.9 2.01 8.0

Office and administrative support occupations

31.38 100.0 21.93 69.9 9.45 30.1 2.17 6.9 0.81 2.6 3.05 9.7 1.05 3.3 2.37 7.6

Service occupations

21.89 100.0 16.25 74.2 5.64 25.8 1.07 4.9 0.62 2.8 1.39 6.4 0.64 2.9 1.92 8.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

45.97 100.0 30.71 66.8 15.26 33.2 3.33 7.2 1.64 3.6 3.89 8.5 2.70 5.9 3.70 8.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

46.37 100.0 31.08 67.0 15.29 33.0 3.39 7.3 1.68 3.6 3.86 8.3 2.64 5.7 3.71 8.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

35.17 100.0 23.83 67.8 11.34 32.2 2.26 6.4 1.17 3.3 3.34 9.5 1.60 4.5 2.97 8.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

35.32 100.0 23.95 67.8 11.38 32.2 2.27 6.4 1.15 3.2 3.35 9.5 1.63 4.6 2.99 8.5

Wholesale trade industry

46.35 100.0 33.03 71.2 13.33 28.8 3.60 7.8 1.79 3.9 3.09 6.7 1.45 3.1 3.39 7.3

Sales and office occupations

47.80 100.0 34.87 73.0 12.93 27.0 3.60 7.5 1.52 3.2 2.99 6.2 1.49 3.1 3.33 7.0

Office and administrative support occupations

32.52 100.0 22.97 70.6 9.55 29.4 2.38 7.3 1.14 3.5 2.84 8.7 0.79 2.4 2.40 7.4

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

30.37 100.0 20.95 69.0 9.42 31.0 1.87 6.2 1.35 4.4 2.65 8.7 0.86 2.8 2.69 8.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

30.28 100.0 20.91 69.1 9.36 30.9 1.84 6.1 1.30 4.3 2.60 8.6 0.92 3.1 2.69 8.9

Retail trade industry

23.98 100.0 18.39 76.7 5.59 23.3 1.22 5.1 0.62 2.6 1.33 5.6 0.41 1.7 2.00 8.3

Sales and office occupations

20.94 100.0 16.51 78.8 4.43 21.2 0.89 4.2 0.53 2.5 0.97 4.6 0.28 1.3 1.77 8.5

Sales and related occupations

20.47 100.0 16.23 79.3 4.24 20.7 0.82 4.0 0.53 2.6 0.88 4.3 0.26 1.3 1.75 8.5

Office and administrative support occupations

25.77 100.0 19.39 75.2 6.38 24.8 1.58 6.1 0.53 2.0 1.85 7.2 0.40 1.5 2.03 7.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

22.81 100.0 16.66 73.0 6.15 27.0 1.18 5.2 0.57 2.5 1.85 8.1 0.56 2.4 1.99 8.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

22.54 100.0 16.51 73.3 6.03 26.7 1.16 5.1 0.55 2.4 1.81 8.0 0.54 2.4 1.97 8.7

Transportation and warehousing industry

43.75 100.0 28.89 66.0 14.85 34.0 3.07 7.0 1.37 3.1 4.46 10.2 2.42 5.5 3.53 8.1

Utilities industry

75.65 100.0 46.45 61.4 29.20 38.6 6.83 9.0 2.60 3.4 7.18 9.5 7.47 9.9 5.12 6.8

Information industry

68.31 100.0 44.63 65.3 23.68 34.7 6.78 9.9 3.19 4.7 6.09 8.9 3.37 4.9 4.26 6.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

86.85 100.0 57.56 66.3 29.30 33.7 9.22 10.6 4.47 5.1 7.03 8.1 3.35 3.9 5.24 6.0

Professional and related occupations

82.09 100.0 54.14 65.9 27.95 34.1 8.60 10.5 4.03 4.9 6.94 8.5 3.30 4.0 5.08 6.2

Sales and office occupations

44.58 100.0 29.11 65.3 15.47 34.7 3.79 8.5 1.68 3.8 4.95 11.1 2.14 4.8 2.91 6.5

Financial activities industry

56.23 100.0 37.31 66.4 18.92 33.6 5.07 9.0 3.54 6.3 4.79 8.5 2.02 3.6 3.49 6.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

83.20 100.0 54.27 65.2 28.93 34.8 8.16 9.8 6.27 7.5 6.31 7.6 3.32 4.0 4.87 5.8

Management, business, and financial occupations

83.88 100.0 54.79 65.3 29.09 34.7 8.19 9.8 6.63 7.9 6.23 7.4 3.22 3.8 4.82 5.8

Professional and related occupations

80.82 100.0 52.43 64.9 28.40 35.1 8.06 10.0 5.04 6.2 6.59 8.2 3.69 4.6 5.01 6.2

Sales and office occupations

39.68 100.0 26.85 67.7 12.83 32.3 3.19 8.1 1.86 4.7 3.97 10.0 1.26 3.2 2.54 6.4

Sales and related occupations

51.45 100.0 36.60 71.1 14.85 28.9 4.06 7.9 2.66 5.2 3.39 6.6 1.64 3.2 3.09 6.0

Office and administrative support occupations

34.76 100.0 22.77 65.5 11.98 34.5 2.83 8.2 1.52 4.4 4.21 12.1 1.11 3.2 2.31 6.6

Finance and insurance industry

63.47 100.0 41.56 65.5 21.91 34.5 5.89 9.3 4.37 6.9 5.41 8.5 2.47 3.9 3.76 5.9

Credit intermediation and related activities industry

57.03 100.0 37.46 65.7 19.57 34.3 5.46 9.6 3.50 6.1 5.08 8.9 2.09 3.7 3.44 6.0

Insurance carriers and related activities industry

56.80 100.0 37.07 65.3 19.73 34.7 5.14 9.0 3.30 5.8 5.30 9.3 2.39 4.2 3.59 6.3

Real estate and rental and leasing industry

35.25 100.0 25.02 71.0 10.23 29.0 2.70 7.6 1.12 3.2 3.00 8.5 0.71 2.0 2.71 7.7

Professional and business services industry

49.66 100.0 35.41 71.3 14.25 28.7 4.00 8.1 2.11 4.2 3.33 6.7 1.29 2.6 3.53 7.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

74.08 100.0 51.82 69.9 22.27 30.1 6.86 9.3 3.54 4.8 4.78 6.5 2.22 3.0 4.86 6.6

Management, business, and financial occupations

84.64 100.0 58.46 69.1 26.19 30.9 8.48 10.0 4.43 5.2 5.45 6.4 2.67 3.2 5.15 6.1

Professional and related occupations

66.78 100.0 47.22 70.7 19.56 29.3 5.74 8.6 2.92 4.4 4.32 6.5 1.91 2.9 4.66 7.0

Sales and office occupations

33.21 100.0 24.53 73.9 8.68 26.1 2.17 6.5 0.88 2.6 2.55 7.7 0.61 1.8 2.47 7.4

Office and administrative support occupations

30.34 100.0 21.91 72.2 8.43 27.8 2.08 6.9 0.93 3.1 2.62 8.6 0.55 1.8 2.25 7.4

Service occupations

23.51 100.0 18.09 76.9 5.42 23.1 1.04 4.4 0.71 3.0 1.40 6.0 0.16 0.7 2.10 9.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

26.16 100.0 19.28 73.7 6.88 26.3 1.20 4.6 1.09 4.1 1.92 7.3 0.33 1.3 2.34 8.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

27.08 100.0 19.89 73.5 7.19 26.5 1.17 4.3 1.10 4.0 2.11 7.8 0.35 1.3 2.46 9.1

Professional, scientific, and technical services industry

65.33 100.0 45.95 70.3 19.38 29.7 5.87 9.0 3.00 4.6 4.34 6.6 1.86 2.8 4.31 6.6

Administrative and waste services industry

29.79 100.0 22.48 75.4 7.32 24.6 1.53 5.1 0.84 2.8 1.92 6.4 0.46 1.5 2.57 8.6

Education and health services industry

42.93 100.0 30.37 70.7 12.56 29.3 3.77 8.8 0.97 2.3 3.28 7.6 1.46 3.4 3.09 7.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

57.90 100.0 40.65 70.2 17.25 29.8 5.51 9.5 1.35 2.3 4.28 7.4 2.20 3.8 3.92 6.8

Management, business, and financial occupations

71.86 100.0 50.73 70.6 21.13 29.4 8.02 11.2 0.97 1.4 4.89 6.8 2.84 4.0 4.41 6.1

Professional and related occupations

56.23 100.0 39.44 70.1 16.79 29.9 5.21 9.3 1.40 2.5 4.20 7.5 2.12 3.8 3.86 6.9

Sales and office occupations

30.95 100.0 21.98 71.0 8.96 29.0 2.51 8.1 0.42 1.4 2.90 9.4 0.77 2.5 2.37 7.6

Office and administrative support occupations

29.67 100.0 20.92 70.5 8.75 29.5 2.39 8.1 0.44 1.5 2.90 9.8 0.78 2.6 2.24 7.5

Service occupations

23.93 100.0 17.43 72.9 6.49 27.1 1.48 6.2 0.59 2.5 1.82 7.6 0.55 2.3 2.06 8.6

Educational services industry

52.93 100.0 38.12 72.0 14.81 28.0 4.34 8.2 0.40 0.8 4.01 7.6 2.44 4.6 3.62 6.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

58.44 100.0 42.32 72.4 16.12 27.6 4.83 8.3 0.42 0.7 4.25 7.3 2.70 4.6 3.93 6.7

Management, business, and financial occupations

72.64 100.0 51.24 70.5 21.40 29.5 8.13 11.2 (4)0.68 0.9 4.90 6.7 3.24 4.5 4.45 6.1

Professional and related occupations

55.32 100.0 40.36 73.0 14.96 27.0 4.10 7.4 0.36 0.7 4.11 7.4 2.58 4.7 3.81 6.9

Sales and office occupations

32.18 100.0 22.04 68.5 10.14 31.5 2.64 8.2 0.25 0.8 3.60 11.2 1.41 4.4 2.24 7.0

Office and administrative support occupations

32.11 100.0 21.98 68.5 10.13 31.5 2.64 8.2 0.24 0.7 3.60 11.2 1.41 4.4 2.24 7.0

Service occupations

28.04 100.0 20.11 71.7 7.93 28.3 1.86 6.6 0.34 1.2 2.13 7.6 1.22 4.3 2.38 8.5

Junior colleges, colleges, universities and professional schools industry

67.83 100.0 46.85 69.1 20.99 30.9 6.56 9.7 0.57 0.8 5.81 8.6 3.75 5.5 4.30 6.3

Health care and social assistance industry

41.48 100.0 29.24 70.5 12.23 29.5 3.68 8.9 1.05 2.5 3.17 7.6 1.31 3.2 3.01 7.3

Registered nurse occupations

66.96 100.0 44.39 66.3 22.57 33.7 6.94 10.4 2.66 4.0 5.44 8.1 2.86 4.3 4.67 7.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

57.77 100.0 40.25 69.7 17.52 30.3 5.67 9.8 1.57 2.7 4.28 7.4 2.08 3.6 3.91 6.8

Professional and related occupations

56.42 100.0 39.25 69.6 17.18 30.4 5.45 9.7 1.62 2.9 4.22 7.5 2.02 3.6 3.87 6.9

Sales and office occupations

30.82 100.0 21.97 71.3 8.84 28.7 2.50 8.1 0.44 1.4 2.82 9.2 0.70 2.3 2.38 7.7

Office and administrative support occupations

29.40 100.0 20.81 70.8 8.59 29.2 2.36 8.0 0.46 1.6 2.82 9.6 0.71 2.4 2.24 7.6

Service occupations

23.78 100.0 17.34 72.9 6.44 27.1 1.46 6.1 0.60 2.5 1.81 7.6 0.53 2.2 2.05 8.6

Hospitals industry

59.70 100.0 39.73 66.5 19.97 33.5 5.85 9.8 2.31 3.9 5.26 8.8 2.63 4.4 3.93 6.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

71.20 100.0 47.79 67.1 23.41 32.9 7.18 10.1 2.71 3.8 5.75 8.1 3.18 4.5 4.60 6.5

Registered nurse occupations

68.99 100.0 44.93 65.1 24.07 34.9 7.05 10.2 3.06 4.4 6.02 8.7 3.24 4.7 4.69 6.8

Service occupations

31.57 100.0 20.04 63.5 11.53 36.5 2.50 7.9 1.57 5.0 3.74 11.8 1.40 4.4 2.31 7.3

Nursing and residential care facilities industry

28.80 100.0 20.91 72.6 7.89 27.4 2.07 7.2 0.75 2.6 2.27 7.9 0.45 1.6 2.36 8.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

43.21 100.0 31.25 72.3 11.96 27.7 3.58 8.3 1.12 2.6 3.15 7.3 0.86 2.0 3.25 7.5

Service occupations

23.05 100.0 16.79 72.9 6.26 27.1 1.45 6.3 0.63 2.7 1.89 8.2 0.28 1.2 2.01 8.7

Nursing care facilities industry

32.04 100.0 23.04 71.9 9.00 28.1 2.33 7.3 0.94 2.9 2.67 8.3 0.50 1.6 2.56 8.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

47.05 100.0 34.28 72.8 12.78 27.2 3.75 8.0 1.36 2.9 3.33 7.1 0.78 1.7 3.54 7.5

Service occupations

24.33 100.0 17.25 70.9 7.08 29.1 1.58 6.5 0.75 3.1 2.31 9.5 0.36 1.5 2.07 8.5

Leisure and hospitality industry

18.40 100.0 14.98 81.4 3.42 18.6 0.56 3.1 0.26 1.4 0.67 3.6 0.18 1.0 1.74 9.5

Sales and office occupations

20.55 100.0 15.99 77.8 4.56 22.2 0.92 4.5 0.25 1.2 1.42 6.9 0.25 1.2 1.71 8.3

Service occupations

16.49 100.0 13.67 82.9 2.82 17.1 0.36 2.2 0.23 1.4 0.47 2.9 0.14 0.8 1.62 9.9

Accommodation and food services industry

17.31 100.0 14.20 82.0 3.11 18.0 0.44 2.6 0.26 1.5 0.59 3.4 0.15 0.9 1.67 9.6

Other services industry

34.89 100.0 26.10 74.8 8.80 25.2 2.47 7.1 0.47 1.4 1.93 5.5 1.22 3.5 2.70 7.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(3) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific, and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.


Table 5. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by bargaining and work status [Dec. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Union workers

54.34 100.0 32.71 60.2 21.63 39.8 3.91 7.2 2.08 3.8 7.03 12.9 4.62 8.5 3.99 7.3

Goods-producing industries(2)

53.98 100.0 31.36 58.1 22.62 41.9 2.94 5.5 2.71 5.0 7.61 14.1 5.15 9.5 4.20 7.8

Manufacturing industry

46.63 100.0 26.48 56.8 20.15 43.2 3.27 7.0 3.10 6.6 7.34 15.7 3.04 6.5 3.40 7.3

Service-providing industries(3)

54.52 100.0 33.38 61.2 21.14 38.8 4.39 8.0 1.76 3.2 6.75 12.4 4.36 8.0 3.88 7.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

53.43 100.0 32.78 61.4 20.65 38.6 4.10 7.7 1.72 3.2 6.58 12.3 4.44 8.3 3.81 7.1

Retail trade industry

26.28 100.0 16.74 63.7 9.54 36.3 1.57 6.0 0.65 2.5 3.44 13.1 1.74 6.6 2.14 8.1

Transportation and warehousing industry

62.87 100.0 38.79 61.7 24.08 38.3 4.98 7.9 2.04 3.2 7.61 12.1 5.09 8.1 4.36 6.9

Education and health services industry

63.58 100.0 38.83 61.1 24.75 38.9 5.83 9.2 2.25 3.5 7.85 12.4 4.44 7.0 4.37 6.9

Health care and social assistance industry

63.14 100.0 38.21 60.5 24.93 39.5 5.88 9.3 2.47 3.9 7.77 12.3 4.46 7.1 4.36 6.9

Nonunion workers

38.96 100.0 27.98 71.8 10.99 28.2 2.93 7.5 1.43 3.7 2.63 6.8 1.07 2.7 2.92 7.5

Goods-producing industries(2)

40.89 100.0 28.69 70.2 12.20 29.8 2.73 6.7 1.95 4.8 3.00 7.3 1.20 2.9 3.33 8.1

Manufacturing industries

42.03 100.0 28.74 68.4 13.29 31.6 3.21 7.6 2.13 5.1 3.47 8.3 1.36 3.2 3.12 7.4

Service-providing industries(3)

38.63 100.0 27.85 72.1 10.77 27.9 2.96 7.7 1.34 3.5 2.57 6.7 1.05 2.7 2.85 7.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities industries

31.25 100.0 23.07 73.8 8.18 26.2 1.97 6.3 0.97 3.1 1.94 6.2 0.76 2.4 2.54 8.1

Retail trade industries

23.83 100.0 18.50 77.6 5.33 22.4 1.20 5.0 0.62 2.6 1.19 5.0 0.33 1.4 1.99 8.4

Transportation and warehousing industries

33.92 100.0 23.80 70.2 10.11 29.8 2.09 6.2 1.03 3.0 2.84 8.4 1.04 3.1 3.10 9.2

Education and health services industries

41.58 100.0 29.81 71.7 11.76 28.3 3.63 8.7 0.89 2.1 2.98 7.2 1.26 3.0 3.01 7.2

Health care and social assistance industries

40.02 100.0 28.64 71.6 11.38 28.4 3.54 8.8 0.96 2.4 2.86 7.1 1.10 2.7 2.92 7.3

Full-time workers

46.30 100.0 31.94 69.0 14.35 31.0 3.73 8.1 1.85 4.0 3.76 8.1 1.70 3.7 3.31 7.2

Occupational group

Management, professional and related occupations

69.71 100.0 47.92 68.7 21.79 31.3 6.69 9.6 2.96 4.2 5.08 7.3 2.62 3.8 4.45 6.4

Management, business, and financial occupations

79.87 100.0 54.90 68.7 24.96 31.3 7.88 9.9 3.95 4.9 5.35 6.7 2.92 3.7 4.87 6.1

Professional and related occupations

62.90 100.0 43.23 68.7 19.67 31.3 5.90 9.4 2.29 3.6 4.90 7.8 2.41 3.8 4.17 6.6

Sales and office occupations

35.73 100.0 25.27 70.7 10.46 29.3 2.65 7.4 1.15 3.2 3.13 8.8 1.00 2.8 2.53 7.1

Sales and related occupations

40.86 100.0 30.20 73.9 10.66 26.1 2.86 7.0 1.39 3.4 2.51 6.1 1.03 2.5 2.86 7.0

Office and administrative support occupations

32.86 100.0 22.51 68.5 10.35 31.5 2.53 7.7 1.02 3.1 3.47 10.6 0.97 3.0 2.35 7.1

Service occupations

24.15 100.0 17.75 73.5 6.40 26.5 1.36 5.6 0.70 2.9 1.86 7.7 0.47 2.0 2.01 8.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

42.98 100.0 29.02 67.5 13.96 32.5 2.35 5.5 1.68 3.9 3.59 8.3 2.55 5.9 3.80 8.8

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

42.84 100.0 28.90 67.5 13.94 32.5 1.73 4.0 1.71 4.0 3.52 8.2 2.93 6.8 4.06 9.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

43.13 100.0 29.15 67.6 13.98 32.4 3.03 7.0 1.65 3.8 3.66 8.5 2.12 4.9 3.51 8.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

35.36 100.0 23.59 66.7 11.77 33.3 2.30 6.5 1.63 4.6 3.67 10.4 1.30 3.7 2.88 8.1

Production occupations

33.11 100.0 21.92 66.2 11.19 33.8 2.09 6.3 1.90 5.7 3.62 10.9 0.92 2.8 2.66 8.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

37.26 100.0 24.99 67.1 12.26 32.9 2.47 6.6 1.40 3.8 3.71 10.0 1.62 4.4 3.06 8.2

Industry group

Goods-producing industries(2)

43.66 100.0 29.44 67.4 14.22 32.6 2.83 6.5 2.11 4.8 3.87 8.9 1.90 4.3 3.50 8.0

Construction industry

44.11 100.0 30.75 69.7 13.36 30.3 2.08 4.7 1.66 3.8 3.29 7.5 2.31 5.2 4.02 9.1

Manufacturing industry

43.41 100.0 28.72 66.2 14.69 33.8 3.30 7.6 2.33 5.4 4.21 9.7 1.66 3.8 3.19 7.3

Service-providing industries(3)

47.00 100.0 32.61 69.4 14.39 30.6 3.97 8.5 1.78 3.8 3.73 7.9 1.64 3.5 3.26 6.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

41.64 100.0 28.91 69.4 12.73 30.6 3.10 7.5 1.43 3.4 3.40 8.2 1.68 4.0 3.11 7.5

Information industry

73.56 100.0 47.75 64.9 25.81 35.1 7.29 9.9 3.52 4.8 6.73 9.2 3.74 5.1 4.52 6.1

Financial activities industry

58.01 100.0 38.33 66.1 19.68 33.9 5.29 9.1 3.71 6.4 5.00 8.6 2.11 3.6 3.57 6.1

Professional and business services industry

53.05 100.0 37.33 70.4 15.72 29.6 4.53 8.5 2.34 4.4 3.76 7.1 1.47 2.8 3.62 6.8

Education and health services industry

45.99 100.0 31.87 69.3 14.12 30.7 4.25 9.2 1.06 2.3 3.96 8.6 1.68 3.7 3.17 6.9

Leisure and hospitality industry

24.57 100.0 18.91 77.0 5.66 23.0 1.19 4.8 0.53 2.1 1.48 6.0 0.40 1.6 2.05 8.4

Other services industry

41.18 100.0 29.93 72.7 11.25 27.3 3.32 8.1 0.61 1.5 2.62 6.4 1.68 4.1 3.01 7.3

Part-time workers

22.05 100.0 17.65 80.1 4.39 19.9 0.84 3.8 0.40 1.8 0.70 3.2 0.35 1.6 2.10 9.5

Occupational group

Management, professional and related occupations

49.60 100.0 38.10 76.8 11.49 23.2 3.47 7.0 1.18 2.4 1.61 3.2 1.15 2.3 4.07 8.2

Professional and related occupations

50.38 100.0 38.72 76.9 11.66 23.1 3.56 7.1 1.21 2.4 1.57 3.1 1.17 2.3 4.15 8.2

Sales and office occupations

18.71 100.0 15.44 82.5 3.27 17.5 0.51 2.7 0.30 1.6 0.55 2.9 0.19 1.0 1.73 9.2

Sales and related occupations

17.04 100.0 14.29 83.9 2.75 16.1 0.36 2.1 0.28 1.6 0.34 2.0 0.16 0.9 1.61 9.4

Office and administrative support occupations

22.75 100.0 18.20 80.0 4.54 20.0 0.86 3.8 0.33 1.4 1.05 4.6 0.28 1.2 2.02 8.9

Service occupations

16.52 100.0 13.84 83.8 2.68 16.2 0.34 2.1 0.19 1.1 0.31 1.9 0.13 0.8 1.71 10.4

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

22.76 100.0 16.89 74.2 5.88 25.8 0.89 3.9 0.59 2.6 1.46 6.4 0.61 2.7 2.33 10.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

23.16 100.0 17.06 73.7 6.10 26.3 0.92 4.0 0.58 2.5 1.56 6.7 0.66 2.9 2.37 10.2

Industry group

Service-providing industries(3)

21.96 100.0 17.60 80.1 4.37 19.9 0.84 3.8 0.39 1.8 0.70 3.2 0.34 1.6 2.09 9.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

20.24 100.0 15.84 78.3 4.40 21.7 0.65 3.2 0.41 2.0 0.97 4.8 0.44 2.2 1.94 9.6

Professional and business services industry

28.49 100.0 23.42 82.2 5.07 17.8 0.70 2.5 0.67 2.3 0.60 2.1 0.17 (4)0.6 2.93 10.3

Education and health services industry

33.54 100.0 25.77 76.8 7.77 23.2 2.29 6.8 0.71 2.1 1.17 3.5 0.77 2.3 2.84 8.5

Leisure and hospitality industry

14.78 100.0 12.68 85.8 2.10 14.2 0.19 1.3 0.11 0.7 (4)0.19 (4)1.3 0.06 0.4 1.56 10.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(3) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.


Table 6. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by establishment size and industry group [Dec. 2022]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

All workers

40.23 100.0 28.37 70.5 11.86 29.5 3.01 7.5 1.49 3.7 3.00 7.4 1.36 3.4 3.01 7.5

1-99 workers

33.52 100.0 24.91 74.3 8.61 25.7 2.14 6.4 0.90 2.7 2.08 6.2 0.81 2.4 2.69 8.0

1-49 workers

32.32 100.0 24.26 75.1 8.06 24.9 1.99 6.2 0.83 2.6 1.90 5.9 0.71 2.2 2.63 8.1

50-99 workers

37.85 100.0 27.25 72.0 10.60 28.0 2.69 7.1 1.15 3.0 2.71 7.2 1.16 3.1 2.89 7.6

100 workers or more

48.38 100.0 32.57 67.3 15.81 32.7 4.06 8.4 2.20 4.5 4.11 8.5 2.03 4.2 3.40 7.0

100-499 workers

41.07 100.0 28.53 69.5 12.54 30.5 3.19 7.8 1.53 3.7 3.35 8.2 1.44 3.5 3.03 7.4

500 workers or more

58.38 100.0 38.09 65.2 20.29 34.8 5.26 9.0 3.12 5.3 5.16 8.8 2.84 4.9 3.90 6.7

Goods-producing industries(2)

43.07 100.0 29.14 67.7 13.93 32.3 2.76 6.4 2.07 4.8 3.76 8.7 1.86 4.3 3.47 8.1

1-99 workers

37.08 100.0 26.62 71.8 10.46 28.2 1.88 5.1 1.32 3.6 2.57 6.9 1.35 3.7 3.33 9.0

1-49 workers

35.78 100.0 26.09 72.9 9.69 27.1 1.71 4.8 1.14 3.2 2.24 6.3 1.24 3.5 3.36 9.4

50-99 workers

40.35 100.0 27.95 69.3 12.40 30.7 2.30 5.7 1.79 4.4 3.39 8.4 1.65 4.1 3.27 8.1

100 workers or more

48.49 100.0 31.42 64.8 17.08 35.2 3.56 7.3 2.75 5.7 4.85 10.0 2.31 4.8 3.60 7.4

100-499 workers

44.72 100.0 29.74 66.5 14.99 33.5 3.03 6.8 2.15 4.8 4.29 9.6 2.00 4.5 3.52 7.9

500 workers or more

53.97 100.0 33.86 62.7 20.11 37.3 4.33 8.0 3.63 6.7 5.65 10.5 2.77 5.1 3.73 6.9

Manufacturing industry

42.78 100.0 28.38 66.3 14.40 33.7 3.22 7.5 2.29 5.3 4.10 9.6 1.64 3.8 3.16 7.4

1-99 workers

33.66 100.0 24.05 71.5 9.61 28.5 2.09 6.2 1.22 3.6 2.64 7.8 0.91 2.7 2.74 8.1

1-49 workers

31.58 100.0 23.17 73.4 8.41 26.6 1.89 6.0 0.97 3.1 2.12 6.7 (3)0.76 (3)2.4 2.67 8.4

50-99 workers

37.20 100.0 25.55 68.7 11.64 31.3 2.44 6.5 1.65 4.4 3.52 9.5 1.16 3.1 2.87 7.7

100 workers or more

47.87 100.0 30.79 64.3 17.08 35.7 3.85 8.0 2.88 6.0 4.91 10.3 2.04 4.3 3.40 7.1

100-499 workers

41.97 100.0 28.02 66.8 13.94 33.2 3.25 7.7 2.04 4.9 4.10 9.8 1.41 3.4 3.14 7.5

500 workers or more

54.52 100.0 33.91 62.2 20.61 37.8 4.51 8.3 3.83 7.0 5.83 10.7 2.76 5.1 3.69 6.8

Service-providing industries(4)

39.67 100.0 28.22 71.1 11.46 28.9 3.06 7.7 1.37 3.5 2.85 7.2 1.26 3.2 2.92 7.4

1-99 workers

32.93 100.0 24.63 74.8 8.31 25.2 2.18 6.6 0.83 2.5 1.99 6.1 0.72 2.2 2.58 7.8

1-49 workers

31.81 100.0 23.99 75.4 7.82 24.6 2.03 6.4 0.78 2.5 1.85 5.8 0.63 2.0 2.52 7.9

50-99 workers

37.28 100.0 27.09 72.7 10.19 27.3 2.77 7.4 1.00 2.7 2.56 6.9 1.05 2.8 2.81 7.5

100 workers or more

48.35 100.0 32.84 67.9 15.51 32.1 4.18 8.6 2.07 4.3 3.94 8.2 1.96 4.1 3.35 6.9

100-499 workers

40.19 100.0 28.24 70.3 11.94 29.7 3.23 8.0 1.38 3.4 3.12 7.8 1.30 3.2 2.92 7.3

500 workers or more

59.37 100.0 39.04 65.8 20.33 34.2 5.47 9.2 3.01 5.1 5.05 8.5 2.85 4.8 3.94 6.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

34.17 100.0 24.35 71.3 9.82 28.7 2.25 6.6 1.07 3.1 2.55 7.5 1.25 3.6 2.70 7.9

1-99 workers

30.36 100.0 22.84 75.2 7.52 24.8 1.75 5.8 0.81 2.7 1.79 5.9 0.66 2.2 2.52 8.3

1-49 workers

29.80 100.0 22.68 76.1 7.11 23.9 1.66 5.6 0.78 2.6 1.60 5.4 0.58 2.0 2.49 8.3

50-99 workers

32.53 100.0 23.46 72.1 9.07 27.9 2.07 6.4 0.89 2.8 2.52 7.7 0.93 2.9 2.66 8.2

100 workers or more

38.58 100.0 26.09 67.6 12.49 32.4 2.83 7.3 1.38 3.6 3.44 8.9 1.93 5.0 2.91 7.6

100-499 workers

32.13 100.0 22.42 69.8 9.71 30.2 2.15 6.7 1.14 3.6 2.66 8.3 1.20 3.7 2.56 8.0

500 workers or more

53.08 100.0 34.35 64.7 18.73 35.3 4.35 8.2 1.92 3.6 5.19 9.8 3.57 6.7 3.71 7.0

Wholesale trade industry

46.35 100.0 33.03 71.2 13.33 28.8 3.60 7.8 1.79 3.9 3.09 6.7 1.45 3.1 3.39 7.3

1-99 workers

45.03 100.0 32.66 72.5 12.37 27.5 3.33 7.4 1.62 3.6 2.84 6.3 1.21 2.7 3.36 7.5

1-49 workers

45.01 100.0 32.90 73.1 12.12 26.9 3.27 7.3 1.56 3.5 2.71 6.0 1.21 2.7 3.37 7.5

100 workers or more

48.67 100.0 33.67 69.2 15.00 30.8 4.06 8.3 2.09 4.3 3.54 7.3 1.88 3.9 3.44 7.1

100-499 workers

47.64 100.0 33.16 69.6 14.47 30.4 3.90 8.2 2.02 4.2 3.45 7.2 1.74 3.6 3.36 7.1

Retail trade industry

23.98 100.0 18.39 76.7 5.59 23.3 1.22 5.1 0.62 2.6 1.33 5.6 0.41 1.7 2.00 8.3

1-99 workers

23.19 100.0 18.38 79.3 4.80 20.7 1.05 4.5 0.46 2.0 1.03 4.4 0.29 1.2 1.98 8.5

1-49 workers

22.64 100.0 18.14 80.1 4.50 19.9 0.98 4.3 0.45 2.0 0.90 4.0 0.23 1.0 1.95 8.6

50-99 workers

25.41 100.0 19.36 76.2 6.04 23.8 1.34 5.3 0.49 1.9 1.58 6.2 0.54 2.1 2.10 8.3

100 workers or more

25.15 100.0 18.40 73.2 6.75 26.8 1.47 5.9 0.87 3.4 1.78 7.1 0.60 2.4 2.03 8.1

100-499 workers

24.65 100.0 18.03 73.2 6.61 26.8 1.41 5.7 0.84 3.4 1.78 7.2 0.58 2.3 2.01 8.2

Transportation and warehousing industry

43.75 100.0 28.89 66.0 14.85 34.0 3.07 7.0 1.37 3.1 4.46 10.2 2.42 5.5 3.53 8.1

1-99 workers

32.57 100.0 23.56 72.3 9.01 27.7 1.67 5.1 0.76 2.3 2.72 8.4 0.68 2.1 3.17 9.7

1-49 workers

31.55 100.0 23.29 73.8 8.26 26.2 1.55 4.9 0.70 2.2 2.33 7.4 0.58 1.8 3.11 9.8

100 workers or more

49.44 100.0 31.61 63.9 17.83 36.1 3.79 7.7 1.69 3.4 5.34 10.8 3.30 6.7 3.71 7.5

100-499 workers

38.29 100.0 24.78 64.7 13.51 35.3 2.52 6.6 1.27 3.3 4.25 11.1 2.10 5.5 3.36 8.8

Information industry

68.31 100.0 44.63 65.3 23.68 34.7 6.78 9.9 3.19 4.7 6.09 8.9 3.37 4.9 4.26 6.2

1-99 workers

49.77 100.0 33.35 67.0 16.43 33.0 4.29 8.6 1.87 3.8 4.39 8.8 (3)2.47 (3)5.0 3.41 6.9

100 workers or more

83.21 100.0 53.70 64.5 29.50 35.5 8.78 10.6 4.25 5.1 7.46 9.0 4.08 4.9 4.93 5.9

100-499 workers

67.46 100.0 45.13 66.9 22.33 33.1 6.55 9.7 2.33 3.5 6.56 9.7 2.67 4.0 4.22 6.3

500 workers or more

96.10 100.0 60.72 63.2 35.38 36.8 10.61 11.0 5.82 6.1 8.19 8.5 5.24 5.5 5.52 5.7

Financial activities industry

56.23 100.0 37.31 66.4 18.92 33.6 5.07 9.0 3.54 6.3 4.79 8.5 2.02 3.6 3.49 6.2

1-99 workers

45.52 100.0 31.50 69.2 14.02 30.8 3.85 8.5 2.07 4.6 3.79 8.3 1.29 2.8 3.01 6.6

1-49 workers

43.42 100.0 30.16 69.5 13.26 30.5 3.57 8.2 2.01 4.6 3.60 8.3 1.18 2.7 2.91 6.7

100 workers or more

70.30 100.0 44.95 63.9 25.35 36.1 6.67 9.5 5.46 7.8 6.11 8.7 2.98 4.2 4.13 5.9

100-499 workers

65.69 100.0 43.42 66.1 22.28 33.9 6.03 9.2 4.01 6.1 5.76 8.8 2.55 3.9 3.93 6.0

500 workers or more

74.08 100.0 46.21 62.4 27.87 37.6 7.19 9.7 6.66 9.0 6.39 8.6 3.33 4.5 4.30 5.8

Professional and business services industry

49.66 100.0 35.41 71.3 14.25 28.7 4.00 8.1 2.11 4.2 3.33 6.7 1.29 2.6 3.53 7.1

1-99 workers

46.92 100.0 34.55 73.6 12.37 26.4 3.52 7.5 1.54 3.3 2.91 6.2 0.97 2.1 3.42 7.3

1-49 workers

43.25 100.0 32.08 74.2 11.17 25.8 3.06 7.1 1.40 3.2 2.65 6.1 0.81 1.9 3.26 7.5

50-99 workers

57.93 100.0 41.97 72.5 15.96 27.5 4.92 8.5 1.98 3.4 3.70 6.4 1.46 2.5 3.90 6.7

100 workers or more

52.28 100.0 36.23 69.3 16.05 30.7 4.46 8.5 2.65 5.1 3.72 7.1 1.59 3.0 3.63 6.9

100-499 workers

47.28 100.0 33.40 70.6 13.88 29.4 4.03 8.5 1.75 3.7 3.57 7.5 1.23 2.6 3.30 7.0

500 workers or more

58.82 100.0 39.93 67.9 18.90 32.1 5.02 8.5 3.83 6.5 3.93 6.7 2.06 3.5 4.06 6.9

Education and health services industry

42.93 100.0 30.37 70.7 12.56 29.3 3.77 8.8 0.97 2.3 3.28 7.6 1.46 3.4 3.09 7.2

1-99 workers

33.87 100.0 25.43 75.1 8.45 24.9 2.57 7.6 0.37 1.1 2.16 6.4 0.73 2.1 2.62 7.7

1-49 workers

33.85 100.0 25.63 75.7 8.22 24.3 2.52 7.5 0.34 1.0 2.03 6.0 0.71 2.1 2.61 7.7

50-99 workers

33.98 100.0 24.67 72.6 9.30 27.4 2.74 8.1 0.47 1.4 2.66 7.8 0.80 2.3 2.64 7.8

100 workers or more

51.16 100.0 34.86 68.1 16.30 31.9 4.86 9.5 1.52 3.0 4.29 8.4 2.12 4.1 3.52 6.9

100-499 workers

41.57 100.0 29.64 71.3 11.92 28.7 3.71 8.9 0.93 2.2 3.00 7.2 1.29 3.1 2.99 7.2

500 workers or more

59.04 100.0 39.15 66.3 19.89 33.7 5.80 9.8 2.00 3.4 5.34 9.1 2.80 4.7 3.95 6.7

Educational services industry

52.93 100.0 38.12 72.0 14.81 28.0 4.34 8.2 0.40 0.8 4.01 7.6 2.44 4.6 3.62 6.8

1-99 workers

39.57 100.0 30.44 76.9 9.13 23.1 2.48 6.3 0.14 0.3 2.28 5.8 1.20 3.0 3.04 7.7

100 workers or more

63.12 100.0 43.98 69.7 19.14 30.3 5.76 9.1 0.60 1.0 5.32 8.4 3.40 5.4 4.06 6.4

100-499 workers

50.00 100.0 36.34 72.7 13.66 27.3 3.94 7.9 (3)0.34 (3)0.7 3.93 7.9 1.93 3.9 3.53 7.1

500 workers or more

72.26 100.0 49.29 68.2 22.96 31.8 7.02 9.7 0.79 1.1 6.30 8.7 4.42 6.1 4.43 6.1

Health care and social assistance industry

41.48 100.0 29.24 70.5 12.23 29.5 3.68 8.9 1.05 2.5 3.17 7.6 1.31 3.2 3.01 7.3

1-99 workers

33.13 100.0 24.78 74.8 8.36 25.2 2.58 7.8 0.40 1.2 2.15 6.5 0.67 2.0 2.56 7.7

1-49 workers

33.66 100.0 25.33 75.3 8.33 24.7 2.61 7.7 0.37 1.1 2.09 6.2 0.68 2.0 2.59 7.7

50-99 workers

31.02 100.0 22.56 72.7 8.46 27.3 2.47 8.0 0.52 1.7 2.40 7.7 0.59 1.9 2.47 8.0

100 workers or more

49.26 100.0 33.41 67.8 15.85 32.2 4.71 9.6 1.67 3.4 4.12 8.4 1.91 3.9 3.43 7.0

100-499 workers

40.36 100.0 28.69 71.1 11.68 28.9 3.68 9.1 1.02 2.5 2.86 7.1 1.20 3.0 2.92 7.2

500 workers or more

56.76 100.0 37.39 65.9 19.36 34.1 5.59 9.8 2.22 3.9 5.18 9.1 2.52 4.4 3.86 6.8

Leisure and hospitality industry

18.40 100.0 14.98 81.4 3.42 18.6 0.56 3.1 0.26 1.4 0.67 3.6 0.18 1.0 1.74 9.5

1-99 workers

16.99 100.0 14.15 83.3 2.84 16.7 0.39 2.3 0.20 1.2 0.50 2.9 0.09 0.5 1.66 9.8

1-49 workers

16.66 100.0 13.92 83.6 2.73 16.4 0.36 2.2 0.19 1.1 0.49 2.9 0.06 0.4 1.64 9.9

50-99 workers

18.24 100.0 15.01 82.3 3.22 17.7 0.49 2.7 0.26 1.4 0.53 2.9 0.20 1.1 1.75 9.6

100 workers or more

24.10 100.0 18.34 76.1 5.75 23.9 1.27 5.3 0.51 2.1 1.36 5.6 0.57 2.4 2.05 8.5

100-499 workers

23.66 100.0 18.30 77.3 5.36 22.7 1.15 4.9 0.51 2.2 1.19 5.0 0.45 1.9 2.06 8.7

500 workers or more

25.28 100.0 18.46 73.1 6.81 26.9 1.58 6.3 0.50 2.0 1.81 7.2 0.89 3.5 2.03 8.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(3) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.


Table 7. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by census region and division [Dec. 2022]
Area(1) Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Northeast

46.57 100.0 32.26 69.3 14.30 30.7 3.66 7.9 1.76 3.8 3.56 7.7 1.83 3.9 3.49 7.5

New England

46.44 100.0 31.96 68.8 14.47 31.2 3.77 8.1 2.18 4.7 3.56 7.7 1.61 3.5 3.35 7.2

Middle Atlantic

46.61 100.0 32.37 69.4 14.24 30.6 3.62 7.8 1.62 3.5 3.57 7.6 1.90 4.1 3.54 7.6

South

35.52 100.0 25.71 72.4 9.81 27.6 2.60 7.3 1.22 3.4 2.39 6.7 1.00 2.8 2.60 7.3

South Atlantic

36.74 100.0 26.49 72.1 10.24 27.9 2.76 7.5 1.19 3.2 2.50 6.8 1.06 2.9 2.73 7.4

East South Central

31.61 100.0 22.83 72.2 8.78 27.8 2.21 7.0 1.08 3.4 2.38 7.5 0.80 2.5 2.32 7.3

West South Central

35.25 100.0 25.70 72.9 9.55 27.1 2.50 7.1 1.36 3.8 2.18 6.2 0.98 2.8 2.52 7.2

Midwest

38.95 100.0 26.81 68.8 12.14 31.2 2.85 7.3 1.70 4.4 3.29 8.5 1.46 3.8 2.83 7.3

East North Central

40.82 100.0 28.08 68.8 12.75 31.2 3.03 7.4 1.81 4.4 3.35 8.2 1.64 4.0 2.92 7.2

West North Central

35.04 100.0 24.18 69.0 10.86 31.0 2.47 7.0 1.49 4.2 3.18 9.1 1.09 3.1 2.65 7.6

West

43.52 100.0 30.81 70.8 12.71 29.2 3.27 7.5 1.44 3.3 3.16 7.3 1.43 3.3 3.41 7.8

Mountain

36.51 100.0 26.04 71.3 10.47 28.7 2.53 6.9 1.26 3.5 2.80 7.7 1.10 3.0 2.78 7.6

Pacific

46.68 100.0 32.96 70.6 13.72 29.4 3.60 7.7 1.52 3.3 3.33 7.1 1.58 3.4 3.69 7.9

Footnotes
(1) The census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.


Last Modified Date: March 17, 2023