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Economic News Release
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Employer Costs for Employee Compensation News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, March 19, 2019				     USDL-19-0449

Technical information:	(202) 691-6199  •  ncsinfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/ect
Media contact:	(202) 691-5902  •  pressoffice@bls.gov


		    EMPLOYER COSTS FOR EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION – DECEMBER 2018

Employer costs for employee compensation averaged $36.32 per hour worked in December 2018, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries averaged $24.91 per hour 
worked and accounted for 68.6 percent of these costs, while benefit costs averaged $11.41 and 
accounted for the remaining 31.4 percent. (See tables A and 1.)

Total employer compensation costs for state and local government workers averaged $50.55 per hour 
worked in December 2018. Wages and salaries averaged $31.59 per hour worked and accounted for 62.5 
percent of these costs, while benefit costs averaged $18.96 and accounted for the remaining 37.5 
percent. For benefit costs by category, insurance and retirement and savings costs both averaged 
$5.95 per hour worked or 11.8 percent of total compensation, and paid leave costs averaged $3.79 
per hour worked for 7.5 percent of total compensation. (See tables A and 3.) 

Total employer compensation costs for private industry workers averaged $34.05 per hour worked in 
December 2018. Wages and salaries averaged $23.85 per hour worked and accounted for 70.0 percent of 
these costs, while benefit costs averaged $10.20 and accounted for 30.0 percent. For benefit costs 
by category, insurance benefits costs averaged $2.71 or 8.0 percent and legally required benefits 
costs averaged $2.64 per hour worked or 7.7 percent. (See tables A and 5.)

Highlights of supplemental pay costs in private industry:
Supplemental pay includes employer costs for employee nonproduction bonuses, overtime and premium 
pay, and shift differentials. Nonproduction bonuses such as holiday bonuses and cash profit sharing 
are given at the discretion of the employer and are not tied to a production formula. Overtime and 
premium pay includes pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule. Shift differentials are 
extra payments for working a non-traditional work schedule.  

•  Supplemental pay costs for private industry workers averaged $1.09 per hour worked or 3.2 percent 
of total compensation. (See table 5.)
•  Supplemental pay costs by major occupational group ranged from 35 cents per hour worked for service 
workers to $2.05 per hour worked for management, professional, and related workers. (See table 5.)
•  Costs for supplemental pay by bargaining status averaged $1.05 for nonunion workers and $1.56 for 
union workers. (See table 5.)
•  Costs for supplemental pay by census region averaged $1.04 in the West, $1.05 in the South, $1.07 
in the Midwest, and $1.28 in the Northeast. (See table 7.)
•  Supplemental pay costs by establishment employment size ranged from 68 cents for establishments with
1 to 99 workers to $1.59 for 100 workers or more. (See table 8.)
•  Supplemental pay costs for part-time workers were 30 cents and $1.36 for full-time workers. 
(See table 11.)  
•  Private industry employers spent an average of 8 cents per hour worked or 0.2 percent of total 
compensation on shift differentials and 29 cents per hour worked or 0.9 percent of total compensation 
on overtime and premium pay. (See table 5.)
•  Private industry employers spent an average of 72 cents per hour worked or 2.1 percent of total 
compensation on nonproduction bonuses. Costs for nonproduction bonuses by major industry group ranged 
from 11 cents for leisure and hospitality to $2.32 for information industry workers. (See tables 5 and 6.)  

Table A.  Relative importance of employer costs for employee compensation, December 2018

Compensation                            Civilian       Private      State and local
  component                             workers(1)     industry       government
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Wages and salaries                       68.6%          70.0%            62.5%
Benefits                                 31.4           30.0             37.5
   Paid leave                             7.2            7.2              7.5
   Supplemental pay                       2.8            3.2              1.0
   Insurance                              8.7            8.0             11.8
     Health benefits                      8.3            7.5             11.5
   Retirement and savings                 5.4            3.9             11.8
     Defined benefit                      3.4            1.6             10.9
     Defined contribution                 2.0            2.3              0.8
   Legally required                       7.3            7.7              5.5
____________________________________________________________________________________________
   1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and 
     workers in the public sector, except the federal government.

____________
Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for March 2019 is scheduled to be released on 
Tuesday, June 18, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). 


                        Compensation Costs and Metropolitan Area Definition Updates

The news release and associated tables will be modified beginning with the March 2019 release to incorporate 
compensation costs by wage percentile and highlight data characteristics. Additional information on these 
upcoming changes will be available at www.bls.gov/ect.

Metropolitan area definitions will be updated with the March 2019 release based on Office of Management and 
Budget, Bulletin No. 13-01 dated February 28, 2013. For more information on metropolitan area definitions, 
see www.census.gov/programs-surveys/metro-micro.html.

					   TECHNICAL NOTE

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC), a product of the National Compensation Survey, 
measures the average cost to employers for wages and salaries and benefits per employee hour worked. The 
ECEC includes the civilian economy, which includes data from both private industry and state and local 
government. Excluded from private industry are the self-employed and farm and private household workers. 
Federal government workers are excluded from the public sector. The private industry series and the state 
and local government series provide data for the two sectors separately. All workers are included in the 
benefit cost estimates including those that do not have plan access or do not participate. Costs are also 
affected by other factors such as cost sharing between employers and employees, plan features, and plan 
generosity.

Sample size
Data for the December 2018 reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 
27,000 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 6,500 private industry establishments 
and approximately 8,000 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local 
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview.  

Measures of reliability
Relative standard errors for all estimates in the most recent news release are available at 
www.bls.gov/web/ecec/ececrse.txt. Footnotes have been added for estimates with relative standard errors 
greater than 30 percent. For more information on standard errors, see “Measuring Trends in the Structure and 
Levels of Employer Costs for Employee Compensation,” at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/cwc/measuring-trends-in-the-
structure-and-levels-of-employer-costs-for-employee-compensation.pdf.

Benchmarking by establishment size and industry
For information on benchmarking by establishment size and industry, see “The Weighting Process Used in the 
Employer Costs for Employee Compensation Series for the National Compensation Survey,” at 
www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/st110220.pdf.

Comparing private and public sector data
Compensation cost levels in state and local government should not be directly compared with levels in private 
industry. Differences between these sectors stem from factors such as variation in work activities and 
occupational structures. Manufacturing and sales, for example, make up a large part of private industry work 
activities but are rare in state and local government. Professional and administrative support occupations 
(including teachers) account for two-thirds of the state and local government workforce, compared with 
one-half of private industry.

Quarterly publication focus
This quarter’s release focuses on supplemental pay benefit costs in private industry. Topics of news releases 
for the upcoming reference periods are as follows:
•  March 2019—Compensation costs by wage percentile, and 15 metropolitan areas, as well as health benefit 
costs in private industry
•  June 2019—Retirement and savings benefit costs in private industry

Additional information
The “National Compensation Measures,” in the BLS Handbook of Methods at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm 
provides explanations of survey design, estimation methodology and additional resources. For data on the 
percentage of workers with access to and participating in employer-sponsored benefit plans such as health 
care, see www.bls.gov/ebs. 

Table 1. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: civilian workers, by major occupational and industry group, December 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                             Occupational group                                                        Industry group          
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                     Management,                                             Natural         Production,                                       
                 Compensation                          All          professional,         Sales                             resources,     transportation,        Goods-           Service-    
                   component                        workers(1)           and               and             Service        construction,          and           producing(2)      providing(3)  
                                                                       related            office                               and             material                                        
                                                                                                                           maintenance          moving                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                  Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                               
Total compensation.............................  $36.32    100.0   $59.86    100.0   $26.50    100.0   $19.28    100.0   $35.92    100.0   $28.90    100.0   $39.53    100.0   $35.77    100.0 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
  Wages and salaries...........................   24.91     68.6    40.94     68.4    18.57     70.1    13.73     71.2    24.06     67.0    18.98     65.7    26.33     66.6    24.67     69.0 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
  Total benefits...............................   11.41     31.4    18.92     31.6     7.93     29.9     5.55     28.8    11.86     33.0     9.93     34.3    13.20     33.4    11.10     31.0 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Paid leave.................................    2.62      7.2     5.04      8.4     1.78      6.7     1.01      5.2     1.92      5.4     1.74      6.0     2.57      6.5     2.63      7.4 
      Vacation.................................    1.28      3.5     2.45      4.1      .89      3.3      .47      2.4      .97      2.7      .87      3.0     1.32      3.3     1.27      3.6 
      Holiday..................................     .78      2.1     1.45      2.4      .53      2.0      .31      1.6      .62      1.7      .58      2.0      .87      2.2      .76      2.1 
      Sick.....................................     .40      1.1      .83      1.4      .24       .9      .16       .8      .24       .7      .22       .8      .29       .7      .42      1.2 
      Personal.................................     .16       .4      .31       .5      .12       .5      .07       .3      .10       .3      .08       .3      .09       .2      .17       .5 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Supplemental pay...........................    1.01      2.8     1.63      2.7      .65      2.5      .40      2.1     1.17      3.3     1.15      4.0     1.67      4.2      .90      2.5 
      Overtime and premium(4)..................     .28       .8      .16       .3      .17       .6      .19      1.0      .77      2.1      .59      2.1      .65      1.6      .22       .6 
      Shift differentials......................     .07       .2      .10       .2      .03       .1      .07       .4      .05       .1      .11       .4      .11       .3      .07       .2 
      Nonproduction bonuses....................     .66      1.8     1.36      2.3      .46      1.7      .14       .7      .35      1.0      .45      1.5      .92      2.3      .61      1.7 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Insurance..................................    3.16      8.7     4.81      8.0     2.52      9.5     1.62      8.4     3.23      9.0     3.04     10.5     3.66      9.3     3.07      8.6 
      Life.....................................     .05       .1      .08       .1      .03       .1      .02       .1      .05       .1      .04       .1      .06       .2      .04       .1 
      Health...................................    3.00      8.3     4.54      7.6     2.41      9.1     1.57      8.1     3.07      8.6     2.89     10.0     3.46      8.7     2.92      8.2 
      Short-term disability....................     .06       .2      .11       .2      .04       .2      .02       .1      .08       .2      .06       .2      .09       .2      .06       .2 
      Long-term disability.....................     .04       .1      .09       .1      .03       .1     (5)      (6)       .03       .1      .04       .1      .05       .1      .04       .1 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Retirement and savings.....................    1.95      5.4     3.72      6.2     1.02      3.8      .84      4.4     2.12      5.9     1.37      4.7     1.98      5.0     1.95      5.5 
      Defined benefit..........................    1.22      3.4     2.31      3.9      .53      2.0      .67      3.5     1.44      4.0      .79      2.7     1.01      2.6     1.26      3.5 
      Defined contribution.....................     .73      2.0     1.41      2.4      .48      1.8      .18       .9      .68      1.9      .58      2.0      .97      2.4      .69      1.9 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Legally required benefits..................    2.66      7.3     3.73      6.2     1.96      7.4     1.68      8.7     3.41      9.5     2.63      9.1     3.33      8.4     2.54      7.1 
      Social Security and Medicare.............    2.03      5.6     3.22      5.4     1.55      5.9     1.14      5.9     2.04      5.7     1.64      5.7     2.26      5.7     1.99      5.6 
        Social Security(7).....................    1.62      4.5     2.54      4.2     1.25      4.7      .91      4.7     1.65      4.6     1.32      4.6     1.82      4.6     1.58      4.4 
        Medicare...............................     .41      1.1      .68      1.1      .30      1.1      .22      1.2      .39      1.1      .32      1.1      .44      1.1      .41      1.1 
      Federal unemployment insurance...........     .03       .1      .02     (6)       .04       .1      .04       .2      .03       .1      .03       .1      .03       .1      .03       .1 
      State unemployment insurance.............     .14       .4      .14       .2      .13       .5      .12       .6      .18       .5      .14       .5      .19       .5      .13       .4 
      Workers' compensation....................     .46      1.3      .34       .6      .24       .9      .38      2.0     1.17      3.2      .81      2.8      .85      2.2      .40      1.1 

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy excluding households and the public sector excluding the Federal government.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  3 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation;
accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
  4 Includes premium pay (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) for work in addition to the regular work schedule.
  5 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  6 Less than .05 percent.
  7 Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.


Table 2. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
civilian workers, by occupational and industry group, December 2018
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                      Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                       
                                                  Total    Wages                                                       
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings         
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                
                                                                         Cost per hour worked
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
Civilian workers(1)............................  $36.32   $24.91   $11.41    $2.62    $1.01    $3.16    $1.95    $2.66 
                                                                                                                       
              Occupational group                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
        Management, professional, and related..   59.86    40.94    18.92     5.04     1.63     4.81     3.72     3.73 
          Management, business, and financial..   66.49    45.45    21.04     6.21     2.51     4.61     3.51     4.20 
          Professional and related.............   56.89    38.92    17.97     4.52     1.24     4.89     3.81     3.52 
            Teachers(2)........................   62.94    42.97    19.97     3.29      .24     6.29     6.89     3.26 
              Primary, secondary, and special                                                                          
                 education school teachers.....   62.39    41.53    20.85     2.94      .21     6.84     7.88     2.98 
            Registered nurses..................   56.11    36.79    19.32     5.30     2.04     5.20     3.04     3.73 
        Sales and office.......................   26.50    18.57     7.93     1.78      .65     2.52     1.02     1.96 
          Sales and related....................   24.56    18.52     6.04     1.40      .60     1.51      .63     1.90 
          Office and administrative support....   27.69    18.60     9.09     2.02      .68     3.13     1.26     2.00 
        Service................................   19.28    13.73     5.55     1.01      .40     1.62      .84     1.68 
        Natural resources, construction, and                                                                           
           maintenance.........................   35.92    24.06    11.86     1.92     1.17     3.23     2.12     3.41 
          Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                           
             fishing, and forestry(3)..........   36.71    24.35    12.36     1.54     1.18     3.26     2.57     3.81 
          Installation, maintenance, and repair   35.09    23.76    11.33     2.32     1.16     3.20     1.65     3.00 
        Production, transportation, and                                                                                
           material moving.....................   28.90    18.98     9.93     1.74     1.15     3.04     1.37     2.63 
          Production...........................   27.71    18.36     9.35     1.70     1.32     2.97      .96     2.40 
          Transportation and material moving...   30.01    19.55    10.46     1.78      .99     3.10     1.74     2.84 
                                                                                                                       
                Industry group                                                                                         
                                                                                                                       
        Education and health services..........   42.39    28.78    13.61     3.20      .64     4.18     2.95     2.64 
          Educational services.................   52.66    34.98    17.68     3.43      .25     5.71     5.46     2.82 
            Elementary and secondary schools...   51.45    33.76    17.70     2.77      .20     5.94     6.20     2.59 
            Junior colleges, colleges, and                                                                             
                universities...................   58.40    38.92    19.48     5.13      .37     5.90     4.74     3.34 
          Health care and social assistance....   36.10    24.99    11.11     3.06      .88     3.23     1.41     2.52 
            Hospitals..........................   49.42    31.95    17.47     4.76     1.74     5.14     2.63     3.19 
                                                
                                                                     Percent of total compensation
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
Civilian workers(1)............................   100.0     68.6     31.4      7.2      2.8      8.7      5.4      7.3 
                                                                                                                       
              Occupational group                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
        Management, professional, and related..   100.0     68.4     31.6      8.4      2.7      8.0      6.2      6.2 
          Management, business, and financial..   100.0     68.4     31.6      9.3      3.8      6.9      5.3      6.3 
          Professional and related.............   100.0     68.4     31.6      7.9      2.2      8.6      6.7      6.2 
            Teachers(2)........................   100.0     68.3     31.7      5.2       .4     10.0     10.9      5.2 
              Primary, secondary, and special                                                                          
                 education school teachers.....   100.0     66.6     33.4      4.7       .3     11.0     12.6      4.8 
            Registered nurses..................   100.0     65.6     34.4      9.4      3.6      9.3      5.4      6.6 
        Sales and office.......................   100.0     70.1     29.9      6.7      2.5      9.5      3.8      7.4 
          Sales and related....................   100.0     75.4     24.6      5.7      2.5      6.1      2.5      7.7 
          Office and administrative support....   100.0     67.2     32.8      7.3      2.5     11.3      4.5      7.2 
        Service................................   100.0     71.2     28.8      5.2      2.1      8.4      4.4      8.7 
        Natural resources, construction, and                                                                           
           maintenance.........................   100.0     67.0     33.0      5.4      3.3      9.0      5.9      9.5 
          Construction, extraction, farming,                                                                           
             fishing, and forestry(3)..........   100.0     66.3     33.7      4.2      3.2      8.9      7.0     10.4 
          Installation, maintenance, and repair   100.0     67.7     32.3      6.6      3.3      9.1      4.7      8.6 
        Production, transportation, and                                                                                
           material moving.....................   100.0     65.7     34.3      6.0      4.0     10.5      4.7      9.1 
          Production...........................   100.0     66.3     33.7      6.1      4.8     10.7      3.5      8.7 
          Transportation and material moving...   100.0     65.1     34.9      5.9      3.3     10.3      5.8      9.5 
                                                                                                                       
                Industry group                                                                                         
                                                                                                                       
        Education and health services..........   100.0     67.9     32.1      7.5      1.5      9.9      7.0      6.2 
          Educational services.................   100.0     66.4     33.6      6.5       .5     10.8     10.4      5.4 
            Elementary and secondary schools...   100.0     65.6     34.4      5.4       .4     11.5     12.0      5.0 
            Junior colleges, colleges, and                                                                             
                universities...................   100.0     66.6     33.4      8.8       .6     10.1      8.1      5.7 
          Health care and social assistance....   100.0     69.2     30.8      8.5      2.4      9.0      3.9      7.0 
            Hospitals..........................   100.0     64.7     35.3      9.6      3.5     10.4      5.3      6.4 

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy excluding households and the public sector excluding the Federal
government.
  2 Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and
instructors.
  3 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations were combined with construction and extraction occupational group as of
December 2006.


Table 3. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: state and local
government workers, by major occupational and industry group, December 2018
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                         Occupational group(1)                            Industry group 
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                     Management,          Sales                                          
                 Compensation                          All          professional,          and             Service      Service-providin-
                   component                         workers             and              office                               g(2)      
                                                                       related                                                           
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                                  Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
Total compensation.............................  $50.55    100.0   $60.70    100.0   $34.80    100.0   $36.79    100.0   $50.64    100.0 
                                                                                                                                         
  Wages and salaries...........................   31.59     62.5    39.21     64.6    20.18     58.0    21.22     57.7    31.68     62.5 
                                                                                                                                         
  Total benefits...............................   18.96     37.5    21.49     35.4    14.63     42.0    15.57     42.3    18.97     37.5 
                                                                                                                                         
    Paid leave.................................    3.79      7.5     4.27      7.0     3.04      8.7     3.11      8.4     3.79      7.5 
      Vacation.................................    1.44      2.8     1.47      2.4     1.35      3.9     1.38      3.7     1.43      2.8 
      Holiday..................................    1.08      2.1     1.17      1.9      .94      2.7      .95      2.6     1.08      2.1 
      Sick.....................................     .97      1.9     1.23      2.0      .60      1.7      .62      1.7      .97      1.9 
      Personal.................................     .30       .6      .40       .7      .16       .4      .16       .4      .30       .6 
                                                                                                                                         
    Supplemental pay...........................     .50      1.0      .40       .7      .30       .9      .78      2.1      .49      1.0 
      Overtime and premium(3)..................     .21       .4      .09       .1      .16       .5      .46      1.3      .21       .4 
      Shift differentials......................     .05       .1      .04       .1      .02       .1      .09       .2      .05       .1 
      Nonproduction bonuses....................     .24       .5      .27       .4      .13       .4      .23       .6      .24       .5 
                                                                                                                                         
    Insurance..................................    5.95     11.8     6.53     10.8     5.52     15.9     4.67     12.7     5.95     11.7 
      Life.....................................     .07       .1      .08       .1      .06       .2      .05       .1      .07       .1 
      Health...................................    5.79     11.5     6.35     10.5     5.41     15.5     4.56     12.4     5.79     11.4 
      Short-term disability....................     .03       .1      .04       .1      .03       .1      .02       .1      .03       .1 
      Long-term disability.....................     .05       .1      .06       .1      .03       .1      .03       .1      .05       .1 
                                                                                                                                         
    Retirement and savings.....................    5.95     11.8     7.15     11.8     3.66     10.5     4.75     12.9     5.96     11.8 
      Defined benefit..........................    5.52     10.9     6.58     10.8     3.42      9.8     4.52     12.3     5.53     10.9 
      Defined contribution.....................     .43       .8      .57       .9      .24       .7      .23       .6      .43       .8 
                                                                                                                                         
    Legally required benefits..................    2.78      5.5     3.13      5.2     2.10      6.0     2.27      6.2     2.79      5.5 
      Social Security and Medicare.............    2.18      4.3     2.61      4.3     1.57      4.5     1.52      4.1     2.18      4.3 
        Social Security(4).....................    1.66      3.3     1.98      3.3     1.23      3.5     1.15      3.1     1.67      3.3 
        Medicare...............................     .52      1.0      .63      1.0      .34      1.0      .36      1.0      .52      1.0 
      Federal unemployment insurance...........    (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)  
      State unemployment insurance.............     .06       .1      .07       .1      .06       .2      .06       .2      .06       .1 
      Workers' compensation....................     .54      1.1      .45       .7      .47      1.4      .69      1.9      .54      1.1 

  1 This table presents data for the three major occupational groups in State and local government: management, professional, and related
occupations, including teachers; sales and office occupations, including clerical workers; and service occupations, including police and
firefighters.
  2 Service-providing industries, which include health and educational services, employ a large part of the State and local government
workforce.
  3 Includes premium pay (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) for work in addition to the regular work schedule.
  4 Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
  5 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  6 Less than .05 percent.


Table 4. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: state
and local government workers, by occupational and industry group, December 2018
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                      Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                       
                                                  Total    Wages                                                       
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings         
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                
                                                                         Cost per hour worked
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
State and local government workers.............  $50.55   $31.59   $18.96    $3.79    $0.50    $5.95    $5.95    $2.78 
                                                                                                                       
              Occupational group                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
        Management, professional, and related..   60.70    39.21    21.49     4.27      .40     6.53     7.15     3.13 
          Professional and related.............   59.02    38.42    20.60     3.80      .37     6.52     6.90     3.02 
            Teachers(1)........................   66.95    44.73    22.22     3.37      .25     7.14     8.25     3.22 
              Primary, secondary, and special                                                                          
                 education school teachers.....   66.46    43.80    22.66     3.04      .23     7.49     8.85     3.05 
        Sales and office.......................   34.80    20.18    14.63     3.04      .30     5.52     3.66     2.10 
          Office and administrative support....   34.96    20.22    14.73     3.05      .30     5.59     3.69     2.10 
        Service................................   36.79    21.22    15.57     3.11      .78     4.67     4.75     2.27 
                                                                                                                       
                Industry group                                                                                         
                                                                                                                       
        Education and health services..........   52.95    34.24    18.71     3.50      .34     6.13     6.03     2.71 
          Educational services.................   54.29    35.32    18.98     3.37      .25     6.26     6.37     2.72 
            Elementary and secondary schools...   52.69    34.28    18.41     2.76      .21     6.24     6.63     2.57 
            Junior colleges, colleges, and                                                                             
                universities...................   58.60    38.13    20.47     5.09      .35     6.28     5.62     3.13 
          Health care and social assistance....   44.63    27.54    17.09     4.27      .87     5.35     3.93     2.66 
            Hospitals..........................   47.15    29.70    17.45     4.52     1.05     5.28     3.80     2.79 
        Public administration..................   48.48    28.16    20.32     4.51      .77     5.85     6.23     2.96 
                                                
                                                                     Percent of total compensation
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
State and local government workers.............   100.0     62.5     37.5      7.5      1.0     11.8     11.8      5.5 
                                                                                                                       
              Occupational group                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
        Management, professional, and related..   100.0     64.6     35.4      7.0       .7     10.8     11.8      5.2 
          Professional and related.............   100.0     65.1     34.9      6.4       .6     11.1     11.7      5.1 
            Teachers(1)........................   100.0     66.8     33.2      5.0       .4     10.7     12.3      4.8 
              Primary, secondary, and special                                                                          
                 education school teachers.....   100.0     65.9     34.1      4.6       .3     11.3     13.3      4.6 
        Sales and office.......................   100.0     58.0     42.0      8.7       .9     15.9     10.5      6.0 
          Office and administrative support....   100.0     57.9     42.1      8.7       .9     16.0     10.6      6.0 
        Service................................   100.0     57.7     42.3      8.4      2.1     12.7     12.9      6.2 
                                                                                                                       
                Industry group                                                                                         
                                                                                                                       
        Education and health services..........   100.0     64.7     35.3      6.6       .6     11.6     11.4      5.1 
          Educational services.................   100.0     65.0     35.0      6.2       .5     11.5     11.7      5.0 
            Elementary and secondary schools...   100.0     65.1     34.9      5.2       .4     11.8     12.6      4.9 
            Junior colleges, colleges, and                                                                             
                universities...................   100.0     65.1     34.9      8.7       .6     10.7      9.6      5.3 
          Health care and social assistance....   100.0     61.7     38.3      9.6      2.0     12.0      8.8      6.0 
            Hospitals..........................   100.0     63.0     37.0      9.6      2.2     11.2      8.1      5.9 
        Public administration..................   100.0     58.1     41.9      9.3      1.6     12.1     12.8      6.1 

  1 Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and
instructors.


Table 5. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: private industry workers, by major occupational group and bargaining unit status, December 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                   Occupational group                                                            Bargaining unit status        
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                        Management,                                                   Natural           Production,                                            
                 Compensation                           All            professional,           Sales                                 resources,       transportation,                                          
                   component                          workers               and                 and               Service          construction,            and                Union              Nonunion     
                                                                          related              office                                   and               material                                             
                                                                                                                                    maintenance            moving                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                   Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Total compensation.............................   $34.05    100.0     $59.57    100.0     $25.77    100.0     $16.78    100.0     $35.34    100.0     $28.51    100.0     $47.29    100.0     $32.81    100.0  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  Wages and salaries...........................    23.85     70.0      41.52     69.7      18.43     71.5      12.66     75.4      23.95     67.8      18.84     66.1      27.85     58.9      23.47     71.6  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  Total benefits...............................    10.20     30.0      18.05     30.3       7.34     28.5       4.12     24.6      11.39     32.2       9.67     33.9      19.45     41.1       9.33     28.4  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Paid leave.................................     2.44      7.2       5.30      8.9       1.67      6.5        .71      4.2       1.77      5.0       1.70      6.0       3.36      7.1       2.35      7.2  
      Vacation.................................     1.26      3.7       2.78      4.7        .85      3.3        .34      2.0        .91      2.6        .86      3.0       1.71      3.6       1.21      3.7  
      Holiday..................................      .73      2.2       1.55      2.6        .50      1.9        .22      1.3        .57      1.6        .57      2.0        .99      2.1        .71      2.2  
      Sick.....................................      .31       .9        .69      1.2        .21       .8        .10       .6        .20       .6        .21       .7        .48      1.0        .30       .9  
      Personal.................................      .14       .4        .28       .5        .12       .5        .05       .3        .09       .3        .07       .3        .18       .4        .14       .4  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Supplemental pay...........................     1.09      3.2       2.05      3.4        .69      2.7        .35      2.1       1.20      3.4       1.16      4.1       1.56      3.3       1.05      3.2  
      Overtime and premium(1)..................      .29       .9        .19       .3        .17       .6        .16       .9        .79      2.2        .60      2.1        .77      1.6        .25       .8  
      Shift differentials......................      .08       .2        .13       .2        .03       .1        .07       .4        .05       .1        .11       .4        .22       .5        .06       .2  
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .72      2.1       1.73      2.9        .49      1.9        .13       .8        .37      1.0        .45      1.6        .57      1.2        .74      2.3  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Insurance..................................     2.71      8.0       4.22      7.1       2.25      8.7       1.18      7.0       3.02      8.6       2.94     10.3       6.61     14.0       2.34      7.1  
      Life.....................................      .04       .1        .08       .1        .03       .1        .02       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .08       .2        .04       .1  
      Health...................................     2.56      7.5       3.92      6.6       2.15      8.3       1.14      6.8       2.87      8.1       2.79      9.8       6.27     13.3       2.21      6.7  
      Short-term disability....................      .07       .2        .13       .2        .05       .2        .02       .1        .08       .2        .06       .2        .18       .4        .06       .2  
      Long-term disability.....................      .04       .1        .09       .2        .03       .1      (2)       (3)         .03       .1        .04       .2        .08       .2        .04       .1  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Retirement and savings.....................     1.32      3.9       2.55      4.3        .78      3.0        .29      1.7       1.93      5.5       1.25      4.4       4.31      9.1       1.04      3.2  
      Defined benefit..........................      .54      1.6        .86      1.4        .28      1.1        .12       .7       1.23      3.5        .65      2.3       3.16      6.7        .29       .9  
      Defined contribution.....................      .78      2.3       1.69      2.8        .51      2.0        .17      1.0        .71      2.0        .60      2.1       1.15      2.4        .74      2.3  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    Legally required benefits..................     2.64      7.7       3.93      6.6       1.95      7.6       1.59      9.5       3.46      9.8       2.62      9.2       3.60      7.6       2.55      7.8  
      Social Security and Medicare.............     2.01      5.9       3.43      5.8       1.55      6.0       1.08      6.5       2.05      5.8       1.64      5.7       2.46      5.2       1.96      6.0  
        Social Security(4).....................     1.61      4.7       2.73      4.6       1.25      4.9        .88      5.2       1.66      4.7       1.32      4.6       1.98      4.2       1.57      4.8  
        Medicare...............................      .40      1.2        .70      1.2        .30      1.2        .21      1.2        .39      1.1        .31      1.1        .48      1.0        .39      1.2  
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .04       .1        .03       .1        .04       .1        .04       .2        .03       .1        .03       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1  
      State unemployment insurance.............      .15       .4        .16       .3        .13       .5        .13       .8        .19       .5        .15       .5        .18       .4        .14       .4  
      Workers' compensation....................      .45      1.3        .31       .5        .22       .9        .34      2.0       1.19      3.4        .81      2.8        .93      2.0        .41      1.2  

  1 Includes premium pay (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) for work in addition to the regular work schedule.
  2 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  3 Less than .05 percent.
  4 Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.


Table 6. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: private industry workers, by major industry group, December 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                     Goods-producing(1)                                                                                           Service-providing(2)                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                    All                Trade,                                                   Professional         Education            Leisure                          
                 Compensation                        All goods-         Construction       Manufacturing          service-        transportation,       Information          Financial              and                 and                 and            Other services  
                   component                        producing(1)                                                providing(2)            and                                  activities           business             health           hospitality                        
                                                                                                                                     utilities                                                    services            services                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                   Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Total compensation.............................   $39.49    100.0     $39.19    100.0     $39.09    100.0     $32.95    100.0     $28.22    100.0     $57.29    100.0     $46.67    100.0     $40.65    100.0     $36.85    100.0     $15.40    100.0     $28.93    100.0  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  Wages and salaries...........................    26.35     66.7      27.12     69.2      25.59     65.5      23.34     70.8      19.82     70.2      37.98     66.3      31.40     67.3      29.25     71.9      25.92     70.3      12.05     78.3      21.11     73.0  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  Total benefits...............................    13.14     33.3      12.07     30.8      13.49     34.5       9.61     29.2       8.40     29.8      19.31     33.7      15.26     32.7      11.41     28.1      10.93     29.7       3.35     21.7       7.82     27.0  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    Paid leave.................................     2.55      6.5       1.71      4.4       2.96      7.6       2.42      7.3       1.77      6.3       5.18      9.0       4.02      8.6       3.21      7.9       3.04      8.3        .50      3.3       1.72      5.9  
      Vacation.................................     1.31      3.3        .89      2.3       1.52      3.9       1.24      3.8        .92      3.3       2.72      4.8       2.12      4.5       1.67      4.1       1.51      4.1        .28      1.8        .84      2.9  
      Holiday..................................      .87      2.2        .58      1.5       1.02      2.6        .70      2.1        .51      1.8       1.36      2.4       1.13      2.4        .96      2.4        .91      2.5        .12       .8        .56      1.9  
      Sick.....................................      .28       .7        .18       .4        .33       .8        .32      1.0        .23       .8        .58      1.0        .51      1.1        .41      1.0        .43      1.2        .08       .5        .21       .7  
      Personal.................................      .09       .2        .07       .2        .10       .2        .15       .5        .11       .4        .52       .9        .26       .6        .17       .4        .19       .5        .03       .2        .10       .4  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    Supplemental pay...........................     1.68      4.3       1.22      3.1       1.92      4.9        .98      3.0        .79      2.8       2.58      4.5       2.50      5.4       1.28      3.2        .80      2.2        .22      1.5        .44      1.5  
      Overtime and premium(3)..................      .65      1.6        .72      1.8        .60      1.5        .22       .7        .28      1.0        .23       .4        .20       .4        .25       .6        .22       .6        .10       .7        .19       .7  
      Shift differentials......................      .11       .3      (4)       (5)         .16       .4        .07       .2        .02       .1        .03     (5)       (4)       (5)      (*).02     (5)         .25       .7      (4)       (5)       (4)       (5)   
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .93      2.3        .49      1.2       1.16      3.0        .68      2.1        .48      1.7       2.32      4.1       2.29      4.9       1.02      2.5        .33       .9        .11       .7     (*).23       .8  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    Insurance..................................     3.63      9.2       3.13      8.0       3.88      9.9       2.53      7.7       2.32      8.2       4.89      8.5       3.97      8.5       2.58      6.3       3.15      8.5        .85      5.5       2.13      7.4  
      Life.....................................      .06       .2        .04       .1        .07       .2        .04       .1        .03       .1        .08       .1        .06       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1      (4)       (5)         .03       .1  
      Health...................................     3.43      8.7       2.99      7.6       3.65      9.3       2.38      7.2       2.21      7.8       4.50      7.9       3.71      8.0       2.41      5.9       2.97      8.1        .82      5.3       2.03      7.0  
      Short-term disability....................      .09       .2        .06       .2        .11       .3        .06       .2        .05       .2        .23       .4        .14       .3        .07       .2        .07       .2      (4)       (5)         .05       .2  
      Long-term disability.....................      .05       .1        .04       .1        .05       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .08       .1        .06       .1        .06       .1        .06       .2      (4)       (5)         .02       .1  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    Retirement and savings.....................     1.94      4.9       2.09      5.3       1.74      4.5       1.19      3.6       1.18      4.2       2.97      5.2       1.74      3.7       1.33      3.3       1.34      3.6        .24      1.5       1.23      4.3  
      Defined benefit..........................      .96      2.4       1.27      3.2        .73      1.9        .45      1.4        .58      2.1    (*)1.48      2.6        .45      1.0        .48      1.2        .39      1.0     (*).07       .5        .62      2.1  
      Defined contribution.....................      .97      2.5        .83      2.1       1.01      2.6        .74      2.2        .60      2.1       1.48      2.6       1.29      2.8        .84      2.1        .95      2.6        .17      1.1        .61      2.1  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    Legally required benefits..................     3.34      8.4       3.92     10.0       3.00      7.7       2.50      7.6       2.34      8.3       3.70      6.5       3.03      6.5       3.01      7.4       2.60      7.1       1.53      9.9       2.30      8.0  
      Social Security and Medicare.............     2.26      5.7       2.27      5.8       2.24      5.7       1.95      5.9       1.66      5.9       3.18      5.6       2.62      5.6       2.45      6.0       2.15      5.8       1.04      6.7       1.77      6.1  
        Social Security(6).....................     1.82      4.6       1.83      4.7       1.80      4.6       1.57      4.8       1.34      4.7       2.53      4.4       2.08      4.5       1.96      4.8       1.72      4.7        .84      5.5       1.43      4.9  
        Medicare...............................      .44      1.1        .43      1.1        .44      1.1        .39      1.2        .32      1.1        .65      1.1        .54      1.2        .48      1.2        .43      1.2        .20      1.3        .34      1.2  
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .03       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .03       .1        .05       .3        .03       .1  
      State unemployment insurance.............      .19       .5        .26       .7        .16       .4        .14       .4        .12       .4        .16       .3        .14       .3        .19       .5        .14       .4        .12       .8        .12       .4  
      Workers' compensation....................      .85      2.2       1.36      3.5        .57      1.5        .37      1.1        .53      1.9        .32       .6        .23       .5        .34       .8        .29       .8        .32      2.1        .38      1.3  

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  2 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste
services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
  3 Includes premium pay (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) for work in addition to the regular work schedule.
  4 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  5 Less than .05 percent.
  6 Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
(*) The relative standard error for this estimate is greater than 30 percent.


Table 7. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: private industry workers, by Census region and division, December 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                   Census region and division(1)                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                     Northeast                Northeast divisions                  South                              South divisions                             Midwest                  Midwest divisions                    West                     West divisions            
                 Compensation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                   component                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                        New England       Middle Atlantic                          South Atlantic    East South Central  West South Central                      East North Central  West North Central                           Mountain            Pacific      
                                                   Cost    Percent                                             Cost    Percent                                                                 Cost    Percent                                             Cost    Percent                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                       Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent                         Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent                         Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent                         Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Total compensation.............................   $38.36    100.0     $40.80    100.0     $37.50    100.0     $30.84    100.0     $31.29    100.0     $27.35    100.0     $31.72    100.0      31.50    100.0      31.71    100.0      31.04    100.0      38.24    100.0      32.72    100.0      40.69    100.0  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
  Wages and salaries...........................    26.23     68.4      27.91     68.4      25.64     68.4      21.99     71.3      22.23     71.0      19.21     70.2      22.90     72.2      21.83     69.3      21.93     69.2      21.61     69.6      26.93     70.4      23.36     71.4      28.52     70.1  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
  Total benefits...............................    12.13     31.6      12.89     31.6      11.86     31.6       8.85     28.7       9.07     29.0       8.14     29.8       8.82     27.8       9.67     30.7       9.78     30.8       9.43     30.4      11.31     29.6       9.37     28.6      12.17     29.9  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Paid leave.................................     3.01      7.9       3.25      8.0       2.93      7.8       2.12      6.9       2.19      7.0       1.86      6.8       2.14      6.7       2.16      6.9       2.16      6.8       2.16      6.9       2.75      7.2       2.28      7.0       2.96      7.3  
      Vacation.................................     1.54      4.0       1.71      4.2       1.47      3.9       1.08      3.5       1.13      3.6        .93      3.4       1.06      3.4       1.17      3.7       1.17      3.7       1.15      3.7       1.40      3.7       1.15      3.5       1.51      3.7  
      Holiday..................................      .89      2.3        .96      2.4        .86      2.3        .65      2.1        .64      2.1        .60      2.2        .68      2.1        .64      2.0        .64      2.0        .62      2.0        .84      2.2        .67      2.1        .91      2.2  
      Sick.....................................      .40      1.0        .40      1.0        .40      1.1        .26       .8        .27       .9        .20       .7        .27       .8        .25       .8        .24       .7        .27       .9        .39      1.0        .29       .9        .43      1.1  
      Personal.................................      .19       .5        .17       .4        .20       .5        .13       .4        .14       .5        .12       .4        .13       .4        .11       .4        .11       .3        .12       .4        .13       .3        .16       .5        .12       .3  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Supplemental pay...........................     1.28      3.3       1.36      3.3       1.26      3.4       1.05      3.4       1.00      3.2        .93      3.4       1.18      3.7       1.07      3.4       1.10      3.5       1.00      3.2       1.04      2.7        .93      2.8       1.08      2.7  
      Overtime and premium(2)..................      .29       .8        .26       .6        .30       .8        .30      1.0        .27       .9        .26      1.0        .37      1.2        .31      1.0        .32      1.0        .29       .9        .26       .7        .22       .7        .28       .7  
      Shift differentials......................      .10       .2        .13       .3        .08       .2        .08       .3        .09       .3        .10       .4        .04       .1        .09       .3        .10       .3        .09       .3        .04       .1        .05       .1        .04       .1  
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .90      2.3        .97      2.4        .88      2.3        .67      2.2        .64      2.0        .57      2.1        .77      2.4        .66      2.1        .68      2.2        .62      2.0        .73      1.9        .67      2.0        .76      1.9  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Insurance..................................     3.26      8.5       3.34      8.2       3.24      8.6       2.23      7.2       2.33      7.4       2.26      8.3       2.05      6.5       2.73      8.7       2.77      8.7       2.66      8.6       2.99      7.8       2.42      7.4       3.24      8.0  
      Life.....................................      .04       .1        .05       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .05       .1  
      Health...................................     3.07      8.0       3.13      7.7       3.05      8.1       2.10      6.8       2.19      7.0       2.13      7.8       1.93      6.1       2.57      8.2       2.60      8.2       2.50      8.1       2.85      7.4       2.28      7.0       3.10      7.6  
      Short-term disability....................      .10       .3        .08       .2        .11       .3        .06       .2        .06       .2        .05       .2        .05       .1        .07       .2        .08       .3        .06       .2        .05       .1        .06       .2        .05       .1  
      Long-term disability.....................      .05       .1        .07       .2        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .05       .1        .04       .1        .05       .2        .05       .1        .05       .1        .05       .1  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Retirement and savings.....................     1.57      4.1       1.92      4.7       1.45      3.9       1.13      3.7       1.19      3.8       1.05      3.8       1.06      3.4       1.23      3.9       1.26      4.0       1.17      3.8       1.50      3.9       1.27      3.9       1.61      4.0  
      Defined benefit..........................      .73      1.9        .72      1.8        .74      2.0        .46      1.5        .49      1.6        .42      1.5        .45      1.4        .48      1.5        .54      1.7        .34      1.1        .56      1.5        .40      1.2        .63      1.5  
      Defined contribution.....................      .84      2.2       1.21      3.0        .71      1.9        .66      2.2        .70      2.2        .63      2.3        .62      2.0        .75      2.4        .71      2.3        .83      2.7        .95      2.5        .87      2.7        .98      2.4  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    Legally required benefits..................     3.00      7.8       3.02      7.4       2.99      8.0       2.31      7.5       2.35      7.5       2.06      7.5       2.38      7.5       2.47      7.9       2.49      7.8       2.44      7.9       3.03      7.9       2.47      7.6       3.27      8.0  
      Social Security and Medicare.............     2.21      5.8       2.34      5.7       2.16      5.8       1.85      6.0       1.87      6.0       1.65      6.0       1.91      6.0       1.88      6.0       1.89      6.0       1.87      6.0       2.21      5.8       1.96      6.0       2.32      5.7  
        Social Security(3).....................     1.77      4.6       1.87      4.6       1.73      4.6       1.49      4.8       1.50      4.8       1.33      4.9       1.53      4.8       1.52      4.8       1.52      4.8       1.51      4.9       1.76      4.6       1.58      4.8       1.85      4.5  
        Medicare...............................      .44      1.1        .47      1.1        .43      1.1        .36      1.2        .37      1.2        .32      1.2        .38      1.2        .36      1.2        .37      1.2        .36      1.2        .44      1.2        .38      1.2        .47      1.2  
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .02       .1        .03       .1        .02       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .02       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .07       .2        .03       .1        .09       .2  
      State unemployment insurance.............      .24       .6        .26       .6        .24       .6        .08       .2        .07       .2        .06       .2        .10       .3        .15       .5        .16       .5        .11       .4        .18       .5        .13       .4        .20       .5  
      Workers' compensation....................      .52      1.4        .39      1.0        .57      1.5        .36      1.2        .38      1.2        .32      1.2        .34      1.1        .42      1.3        .41      1.3        .44      1.4        .57      1.5        .35      1.1        .66      1.6  

  1 The Census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
  2 Includes premium pay (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) for work in addition to the regular work schedule.
  3 Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.


Table 8. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: private industry workers, by establishment employment
size, December 2018
                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                        1-99 workers                                            100 workers or more                    
                                                                                                                                                                       
                 Compensation                                                                                                                                          
                   component                        1-99 workers        1-49 workers       50-99 workers    100 workers or more   100-499 workers   500 workers or more
                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                   Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent 
                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                       
Total compensation.............................   $28.14    100.0     $27.58    100.0     $29.95    100.0     $41.08    100.0     $34.75    100.0     $49.85    100.0  
                                                                                                                                                                       
  Wages and salaries...........................    20.80     73.9      20.58     74.6      21.53     71.9      27.47     66.9      23.96     69.0      32.34     64.9  
                                                                                                                                                                       
  Total benefits...............................     7.34     26.1       7.01     25.4       8.41     28.1      13.60     33.1      10.79     31.0      17.51     35.1  
                                                                                                                                                                       
    Paid leave.................................     1.70      6.0       1.63      5.9       1.92      6.4       3.32      8.1       2.55      7.3       4.39      8.8  
      Vacation.................................      .86      3.1        .82      3.0        .99      3.3       1.73      4.2       1.32      3.8       2.29      4.6  
      Holiday..................................      .54      1.9        .53      1.9        .58      1.9        .96      2.3        .76      2.2       1.24      2.5  
      Sick.....................................      .21       .7        .20       .7        .24       .8        .44      1.1        .32       .9        .61      1.2  
      Personal.................................      .09       .3        .09       .3        .10       .3        .19       .5        .15       .4        .25       .5  
                                                                                                                                                                       
    Supplemental pay...........................      .68      2.4        .65      2.3        .78      2.6       1.59      3.9       1.12      3.2       2.24      4.5  
      Overtime and premium(1)..................      .22       .8        .20       .7        .31      1.0        .37       .9        .36      1.0        .39       .8  
      Shift differentials......................      .02       .1      (2)       (3)         .04       .1        .15       .4        .08       .2        .24       .5  
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .43      1.5        .44      1.6        .43      1.4       1.07      2.6        .68      2.0       1.61      3.2  
                                                                                                                                                                       
    Insurance..................................     1.85      6.6       1.73      6.3       2.27      7.6       3.73      9.1       3.02      8.7       4.72      9.5  
      Life.....................................      .03       .1        .03       .1        .04       .1        .06       .1        .05       .1        .06       .1  
      Health...................................     1.76      6.3       1.64      5.9       2.14      7.2       3.51      8.5       2.84      8.2       4.43      8.9  
      Short-term disability....................      .04       .1        .03       .1        .05       .2        .11       .3        .08       .2        .14       .3  
      Long-term disability.....................      .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .06       .1        .05       .1        .08       .2  
                                                                                                                                                                       
    Retirement and savings.....................      .74      2.6        .67      2.4        .99      3.3       2.00      4.9       1.43      4.1       2.79      5.6  
      Defined benefit..........................      .26       .9        .21       .8        .43      1.4        .87      2.1        .59      1.7       1.26      2.5  
      Defined contribution.....................      .48      1.7        .46      1.7        .56      1.9       1.13      2.8        .84      2.4       1.54      3.1  
                                                                                                                                                                       
    Legally required benefits..................     2.36      8.4       2.33      8.5       2.47      8.2       2.96      7.2       2.67      7.7       3.37      6.8  
      Social Security and Medicare.............     1.73      6.2       1.71      6.2       1.81      6.0       2.33      5.7       2.00      5.8       2.78      5.6  
        Social Security(4).....................     1.40      5.0       1.38      5.0       1.46      4.9       1.86      4.5       1.60      4.6       2.22      4.5  
        Medicare...............................      .34      1.2        .33      1.2        .35      1.2        .47      1.1        .40      1.1        .56      1.1  
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .04       .1        .04       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1  
      State unemployment insurance.............      .15       .5        .15       .6        .14       .5        .15       .4        .15       .4        .14       .3  
      Workers' compensation....................      .44      1.6        .43      1.6        .48      1.6        .46      1.1        .49      1.4        .42       .8  

  1 Includes premium pay (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) for work in addition to the regular work schedule.
  2 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  3 Less than .05 percent.
  4 Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.


Table 9.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: private
industry workers, goods-producing and service-providing industries, by occupational group, December 2018
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                            Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                             
                                                        Total    Wages                                                       
                       Series                          compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                       sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                                   leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                             savings         
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                      
                                                                               Cost per hour worked
                                                      
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
All workers in private industry......................  $34.05   $23.85   $10.20    $2.44    $1.09    $2.71    $1.32    $2.64 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   59.57    41.52    18.05     5.30     2.05     4.22     2.55     3.93 
        Management, business, and financial..........   65.95    45.68    20.27     6.10     2.77     4.34     2.81     4.25 
        Professional and related.....................   55.92    39.14    16.78     4.85     1.63     4.15     2.41     3.74 
      Sales and office...............................   25.77    18.43     7.34     1.67      .69     2.25      .78     1.95 
        Sales and related............................   24.52    18.51     6.00     1.39      .61     1.50      .61     1.90 
        Office and administrative support............   26.63    18.36     8.27     1.87      .74     2.78      .90     1.98 
      Service........................................   16.78    12.66     4.12      .71      .35     1.18      .29     1.59 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   35.34    23.95    11.39     1.77     1.20     3.02     1.93     3.46 
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,                                                                          
           and forestry(1)...........................   36.22    24.30    11.93     1.36     1.23     3.04     2.41     3.89 
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   34.43    23.60    10.83     2.20     1.18     3.00     1.44     3.01 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   28.51    18.84     9.67     1.70     1.16     2.94     1.25     2.62 
        Production...................................   27.46    18.24     9.22     1.66     1.33     2.93      .90     2.40 
        Transportation and material moving...........   29.53    19.42    10.11     1.74     1.00     2.95     1.58     2.85 
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, goods-producing industries(2).......   39.49    26.35    13.14     2.55     1.68     3.63     1.94     3.34 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   69.00    46.59    22.41     6.04     2.72     5.12     3.94     4.59 
      Sales and office...............................   34.50    23.99    10.51     2.30     1.20     3.18     1.14     2.70 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   37.23    24.99    12.24     1.55     1.39     3.25     2.21     3.84 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   29.48    19.08    10.40     1.81     1.57     3.39     1.05     2.58 
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   32.95    23.34     9.61     2.42      .98     2.53     1.19     2.50 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   58.34    40.86    17.48     5.21     1.96     4.10     2.37     3.84 
      Sales and office...............................   25.19    18.06     7.13     1.63      .65     2.19      .76     1.90 
      Service........................................   16.75    12.64     4.11      .71      .34     1.18      .29     1.59 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   32.75    22.53    10.22     2.07      .95     2.72     1.56     2.93 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   27.78    18.66     9.12     1.62      .85     2.59     1.39     2.66 
                                                      
                                                                           Percent of total compensation
                                                      
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
All workers in private industry......................   100.0     70.0     30.0      7.2      3.2      8.0      3.9      7.7 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     69.7     30.3      8.9      3.4      7.1      4.3      6.6 
        Management, business, and financial..........   100.0     69.3     30.7      9.2      4.2      6.6      4.3      6.5 
        Professional and related.....................   100.0     70.0     30.0      8.7      2.9      7.4      4.3      6.7 
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     71.5     28.5      6.5      2.7      8.7      3.0      7.6 
        Sales and related............................   100.0     75.5     24.5      5.7      2.5      6.1      2.5      7.7 
        Office and administrative support............   100.0     69.0     31.0      7.0      2.8     10.4      3.4      7.4 
      Service........................................   100.0     75.4     24.6      4.2      2.1      7.0      1.7      9.5 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   100.0     67.8     32.2      5.0      3.4      8.6      5.5      9.8 
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,                                                                          
           and forestry(1)...........................   100.0     67.1     32.9      3.7      3.4      8.4      6.6     10.7 
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   100.0     68.5     31.5      6.4      3.4      8.7      4.2      8.8 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     66.1     33.9      6.0      4.1     10.3      4.4      9.2 
        Production...................................   100.0     66.4     33.6      6.1      4.8     10.7      3.3      8.7 
        Transportation and material moving...........   100.0     65.8     34.2      5.9      3.4     10.0      5.4      9.6 
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, goods-producing industries(2).......   100.0     66.7     33.3      6.5      4.3      9.2      4.9      8.4 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     67.5     32.5      8.8      3.9      7.4      5.7      6.7 
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     69.5     30.5      6.7      3.5      9.2      3.3      7.8 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   100.0     67.1     32.9      4.2      3.7      8.7      5.9     10.3 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     64.7     35.3      6.1      5.3     11.5      3.6      8.8 
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   100.0     70.8     29.2      7.3      3.0      7.7      3.6      7.6 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     70.0     30.0      8.9      3.4      7.0      4.1      6.6 
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     71.7     28.3      6.5      2.6      8.7      3.0      7.5 
      Service........................................   100.0     75.5     24.5      4.2      2.1      7.0      1.7      9.5 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   100.0     68.8     31.2      6.3      2.9      8.3      4.8      8.9 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     67.2     32.8      5.8      3.1      9.3      5.0      9.6 

  1 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations were combined with construction and extraction occupational group as of
December 2006.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  3 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance;
real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises;
administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and
recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.


Table 10.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: private
industry workers, by industry group, December 2018
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                            Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                             
                                                        Total    Wages                                                       
                       Series                          compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                       sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                                   leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                             savings         
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                      
                                                                               Cost per hour worked
                                                      
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, goods-producing industries(1).......  $39.49   $26.35   $13.14    $2.55    $1.68    $3.63    $1.94    $3.34 
                                                                                                                             
      Construction...................................   39.19    27.12    12.07     1.71     1.22     3.13     2.09     3.92 
      Manufacturing..................................   39.09    25.59    13.49     2.96     1.92     3.88     1.74     3.00 
        Aircraft manufacturing(2)....................   70.06    42.42    27.64     6.22     4.99     7.01     4.98     4.45 
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   32.95    23.34     9.61     2.42      .98     2.53     1.19     2.50 
                                                                                                                             
      Trade, transportation, and utilities...........   28.22    19.82     8.40     1.77      .79     2.32     1.18     2.34 
        Wholesale trade..............................   37.75    26.70    11.05     2.77     1.18     2.90     1.35     2.85 
        Retail trade.................................   19.95    15.02     4.93      .96      .43     1.36      .47     1.71 
        Transportation and warehousing...............   38.80    24.96    13.84     2.71     1.26     4.03     2.44     3.39 
        Utilities....................................   61.87    37.60    24.27     5.31     2.23     6.10     6.25     4.38 
      Information....................................   57.29    37.98    19.31     5.18     2.58     4.89     2.97     3.70 
      Financial activities...........................   46.67    31.40    15.26     4.02     2.50     3.97     1.74     3.03 
        Finance and insurance........................   52.20    34.62    17.58     4.70     3.08     4.45     2.12     3.23 
          Credit intermediation and related                                                                                  
             activities..............................   44.13    29.48    14.64     4.00     2.13     4.04     1.63     2.85 
          Insurance carriers and related activities..   50.74    33.29    17.44     4.47     2.96     4.49     2.34     3.19 
        Real estate and rental and leasing...........   31.30    22.47     8.83     2.12      .88     2.66      .68     2.48 
      Professional and business services.............   40.65    29.25    11.41     3.21     1.28     2.58     1.33     3.01 
        Professional and technical services..........   53.19    38.13    15.05     4.61     1.64     3.40     1.75     3.65 
        Administrative and waste services............   23.49    17.75     5.74     1.14      .65     1.42      .37     2.16 
      Education and health services..................   36.85    25.92    10.93     3.04      .80     3.15     1.34     2.60 
        Educational services.........................   46.85    33.76    13.09     3.63      .24     3.77     2.26     3.19 
          Junior colleges, colleges, and universities   58.00    40.43    17.57     5.20      .40     5.17     3.05     3.75 
        Health care and social assistance............   35.39    24.78    10.61     2.95      .88     3.06     1.20     2.51 
      Leisure and hospitality........................   15.40    12.05     3.35      .50      .22      .85      .24     1.53 
        Accommodation and food services..............   14.28    11.18     3.09      .45      .22      .78      .22     1.44 
      Other services.................................   28.93    21.11     7.82     1.72      .44     2.13     1.23     2.30 
                                                      
                                                                           Percent of total compensation
                                                      
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, goods-producing industries(1).......   100.0     66.7     33.3      6.5      4.3      9.2      4.9      8.4 
                                                                                                                             
      Construction...................................   100.0     69.2     30.8      4.4      3.1      8.0      5.3     10.0 
      Manufacturing..................................   100.0     65.5     34.5      7.6      4.9      9.9      4.5      7.7 
        Aircraft manufacturing(2)....................   100.0     60.5     39.5      8.9      7.1     10.0      7.1      6.4 
                                                                                                                             
    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   100.0     70.8     29.2      7.3      3.0      7.7      3.6      7.6 
                                                                                                                             
      Trade, transportation, and utilities...........   100.0     70.2     29.8      6.3      2.8      8.2      4.2      8.3 
        Wholesale trade..............................   100.0     70.7     29.3      7.3      3.1      7.7      3.6      7.6 
        Retail trade.................................   100.0     75.3     24.7      4.8      2.2      6.8      2.3      8.6 
        Transportation and warehousing...............   100.0     64.3     35.7      7.0      3.3     10.4      6.3      8.7 
        Utilities....................................   100.0     60.8     39.2      8.6      3.6      9.9     10.1      7.1 
      Information....................................   100.0     66.3     33.7      9.0      4.5      8.5      5.2      6.5 
      Financial activities...........................   100.0     67.3     32.7      8.6      5.4      8.5      3.7      6.5 
        Finance and insurance........................   100.0     66.3     33.7      9.0      5.9      8.5      4.1      6.2 
          Credit intermediation and related                                                                                  
             activities..............................   100.0     66.8     33.2      9.1      4.8      9.1      3.7      6.5 
          Insurance carriers and related activities..   100.0     65.6     34.4      8.8      5.8      8.9      4.6      6.3 
        Real estate and rental and leasing...........   100.0     71.8     28.2      6.8      2.8      8.5      2.2      7.9 
      Professional and business services.............   100.0     71.9     28.1      7.9      3.2      6.3      3.3      7.4 
        Professional and technical services..........   100.0     71.7     28.3      8.7      3.1      6.4      3.3      6.9 
        Administrative and waste services............   100.0     75.6     24.4      4.9      2.7      6.0      1.6      9.2 
      Education and health services..................   100.0     70.3     29.7      8.3      2.2      8.5      3.6      7.1 
        Educational services.........................   100.0     72.1     27.9      7.8       .5      8.0      4.8      6.8 
          Junior colleges, colleges, and universities   100.0     69.7     30.3      9.0       .7      8.9      5.3      6.5 
        Health care and social assistance............   100.0     70.0     30.0      8.3      2.5      8.6      3.4      7.1 
      Leisure and hospitality........................   100.0     78.3     21.7      3.3      1.5      5.5      1.5      9.9 
        Accommodation and food services..............   100.0     78.3     21.7      3.1      1.5      5.4      1.5     10.1 
      Other services.................................   100.0     73.0     27.0      5.9      1.5      7.4      4.3      8.0 

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  2 Data are available beginning with December 2006.
  3 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance;
real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises;
administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and
recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.


Table 11. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: private
industry workers, by occupational group and full-time and part-time status, December 2018
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                            Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                             
                                                        Total    Wages                                                       
                       Series                          compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                       sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                                   leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                             savings         
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                      
                                                                               Cost per hour worked
                                                      
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
  All full-time workers in private industry..........  $39.43   $27.09   $12.34    $3.06    $1.36    $3.35    $1.64    $2.93 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   61.75    42.65    19.11     5.66     2.19     4.53     2.73     4.00 
        Management, business, and financial..........   66.82    46.13    20.69     6.25     2.82     4.46     2.88     4.28 
        Professional and related.....................   58.44    40.37    18.07     5.27     1.78     4.57     2.64     3.82 
      Sales and office...............................   30.34    21.15     9.19     2.23      .89     2.88     1.00     2.18 
        Sales and related............................   33.63    24.63     9.00     2.36      .97     2.31      .97     2.39 
        Office and administrative support............   28.82    19.54     9.28     2.17      .86     3.15     1.02     2.08 
      Service........................................   19.63    14.04     5.60     1.12      .50     1.86      .44     1.68 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   36.39    24.52    11.86     1.86     1.26     3.19     2.03     3.52 
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,                                                                          
           and forestry(1)...........................   37.13    24.80    12.34     1.42     1.29     3.18     2.51     3.94 
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   35.61    24.24    11.37     2.33     1.23     3.21     1.53     3.08 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   30.65    20.06    10.59     1.95     1.33     3.26     1.34     2.72 
        Production...................................   28.67    18.83     9.84     1.80     1.43     3.18      .98     2.44 
        Transportation and material moving...........   32.96    21.48    11.47     2.12     1.20     3.36     1.76     3.04 
                                                                                                                             
  All part-time workers in private industry..........   18.10    14.24     3.86      .59      .30      .82      .36     1.78 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   41.44    32.17     9.27     2.35      .86     1.69     1.03     3.33 
        Professional and related.....................   41.77    32.26     9.51     2.46      .81     1.80     1.11     3.33 
      Sales and office...............................   15.51    12.32     3.20      .43      .22      .84      .29     1.42 
        Sales and related............................   14.03    11.48     2.56      .28      .19      .56      .20     1.32 
        Office and administrative support............   17.90    13.67     4.22      .66      .26     1.30      .43     1.57 
      Service........................................   13.77    11.21     2.57      .28      .19      .46      .13     1.50 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   18.05    12.90     5.16      .49      .35     1.36      .79     2.16 
        Transportation and material moving...........   18.97    13.06     5.91      .54      .39     1.68     1.04     2.26 
                                                      
                                                                           Percent of total compensation
                                                      
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
  All full-time workers in private industry..........   100.0     68.7     31.3      7.8      3.5      8.5      4.2      7.4 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     69.1     30.9      9.2      3.5      7.3      4.4      6.5 
        Management, business, and financial..........   100.0     69.0     31.0      9.3      4.2      6.7      4.3      6.4 
        Professional and related.....................   100.0     69.1     30.9      9.0      3.0      7.8      4.5      6.5 
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     69.7     30.3      7.3      2.9      9.5      3.3      7.2 
        Sales and related............................   100.0     73.2     26.8      7.0      2.9      6.9      2.9      7.1 
        Office and administrative support............   100.0     67.8     32.2      7.5      3.0     10.9      3.5      7.2 
      Service........................................   100.0     71.5     28.5      5.7      2.5      9.5      2.2      8.6 
      Natural resources, construction, and                                                                                   
         maintenance.................................   100.0     67.4     32.6      5.1      3.5      8.8      5.6      9.7 
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,                                                                          
           and forestry(1)...........................   100.0     66.8     33.2      3.8      3.5      8.6      6.7     10.6 
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   100.0     68.1     31.9      6.5      3.4      9.0      4.3      8.6 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     65.4     34.6      6.4      4.3     10.6      4.4      8.9 
        Production...................................   100.0     65.7     34.3      6.3      5.0     11.1      3.4      8.5 
        Transportation and material moving...........   100.0     65.2     34.8      6.4      3.6     10.2      5.3      9.2 
                                                                                                                             
  All part-time workers in private industry..........   100.0     78.7     21.3      3.3      1.7      4.5      2.0      9.9 
                                                                                                                             
      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     77.6     22.4      5.7      2.1      4.1      2.5      8.0 
        Professional and related.....................   100.0     77.2     22.8      5.9      1.9      4.3      2.7      8.0 
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     79.4     20.6      2.8      1.4      5.4      1.9      9.1 
        Sales and related............................   100.0     81.8     18.2      2.0      1.4      4.0      1.4      9.4 
        Office and administrative support............   100.0     76.4     23.6      3.7      1.5      7.3      2.4      8.8 
      Service........................................   100.0     81.4     18.6      2.0      1.4      3.4       .9     10.9 
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     71.4     28.6      2.7      2.0      7.5      4.4     12.0 
        Transportation and material moving...........   100.0     68.9     31.1      2.9      2.1      8.9      5.5     11.9 

  1 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations were combined with construction and extraction occupational group as of
December 2006.
Note: The sum of individual items may not equal totals due to rounding.


Table 12. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
private industry workers, by industry group and full-time and part-time status, December 2018
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                      Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                       
                                                  Total    Wages                                                       
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings         
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                
                                                                         Cost per hour worked
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
  All full-time workers in private industry....  $39.43   $27.09   $12.34    $3.06    $1.36    $3.35    $1.64    $2.93 
                                                                                                                       
    Goods-producing(1).........................   40.07    26.66    13.41     2.62     1.72     3.72     1.99     3.35 
      Construction.............................   40.03    27.55    12.48     1.78     1.26     3.28     2.20     3.95 
      Manufacturing............................   39.52    25.85    13.67     3.01     1.95     3.93     1.78     3.01 
                                                                                                                       
    Service-providing(2).......................   39.26    27.21    12.04     3.19     1.26     3.24     1.54     2.81 
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   34.78    23.93    10.85     2.49     1.08     3.00     1.53     2.75 
      Information..............................   61.51    40.58    20.93     5.64     2.81     5.30     3.25     3.93 
      Financial activities.....................   49.56    33.14    16.42     4.39     2.70     4.30     1.87     3.16 
      Professional and business services.......   44.36    31.51    12.86     3.70     1.46     2.97     1.55     3.18 
      Education and health services............   39.94    27.55    12.39     3.54      .88     3.72     1.58     2.67 
      Leisure and hospitality..................   19.58    14.41     5.17     1.01      .39     1.62      .46     1.69 
      Other services...........................   34.45    24.27    10.19     2.41      .55     3.02     1.66     2.55 
                                                                                                                       
  All part-time workers in private industry....   18.10    14.24     3.86      .59      .30      .82      .36     1.78 
                                                                                                                       
    Service-providing(2).......................   18.01    14.18     3.83      .59      .29      .82      .36     1.76 
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   16.12    12.24     3.88      .43      .26     1.08      .53     1.58 
      Professional and business services.......   21.30    17.48     3.83      .65      .37      .52   (*).17     2.11 
      Education and health services............   27.90    21.21     6.69     1.59      .57     1.51      .64     2.38 
      Leisure and hospitality..................   12.08    10.18     1.90      .10      .09      .24      .06     1.41 
                                                
                                                                     Percent of total compensation
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
  All full-time workers in private industry....   100.0     68.7     31.3      7.8      3.5      8.5      4.2      7.4 
                                                                                                                       
    Goods-producing(1).........................   100.0     66.5     33.5      6.5      4.3      9.3      5.0      8.4 
      Construction.............................   100.0     68.8     31.2      4.5      3.1      8.2      5.5      9.9 
      Manufacturing............................   100.0     65.4     34.6      7.6      4.9      9.9      4.5      7.6 
                                                                                                                       
    Service-providing(2).......................   100.0     69.3     30.7      8.1      3.2      8.3      3.9      7.2 
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   100.0     68.8     31.2      7.2      3.1      8.6      4.4      7.9 
      Information..............................   100.0     66.0     34.0      9.2      4.6      8.6      5.3      6.4 
      Financial activities.....................   100.0     66.9     33.1      8.9      5.5      8.7      3.8      6.4 
      Professional and business services.......   100.0     71.0     29.0      8.3      3.3      6.7      3.5      7.2 
      Education and health services............   100.0     69.0     31.0      8.9      2.2      9.3      4.0      6.7 
      Leisure and hospitality..................   100.0     73.6     26.4      5.2      2.0      8.3      2.4      8.6 
      Other services...........................   100.0     70.4     29.6      7.0      1.6      8.8      4.8      7.4 
                                                                                                                       
  All part-time workers in private industry....   100.0     78.7     21.3      3.3      1.7      4.5      2.0      9.9 
                                                                                                                       
    Service-providing(2).......................   100.0     78.7     21.3      3.3      1.6      4.6      2.0      9.8 
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   100.0     75.9     24.1      2.7      1.6      6.7      3.3      9.8 
      Professional and business services.......   100.0     82.0     18.0      3.1      1.7      2.4       .8      9.9 
      Education and health services............   100.0     76.0     24.0      5.7      2.0      5.4      2.3      8.5 
      Leisure and hospitality..................   100.0     84.3     15.7       .8       .8      2.0       .5     11.6 

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is
excluded.
  2 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and
insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and
enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(*) The relative standard error for this estimate is greater than 30 percent.


Table 13. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
private industry workers, by major industry group and establishment employment size and bargaining unit status,
December 2018
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                      Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                       
                                                  Total    Wages                                                       
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings         
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                
                                                                         Cost per hour worked
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
    All workers, goods-producing industries(1)   $39.49   $26.35   $13.14    $2.55    $1.68    $3.63    $1.94    $3.34 
                                                                                                                       
    1-99 workers...............................   32.64    23.13     9.51     1.64     1.05     2.53     1.10     3.18 
      1-49 workers.............................   31.56    22.71     8.85     1.50      .99     2.18     1.00     3.18 
      50-99 workers............................   35.42    24.22    11.19     2.01     1.20     3.45     1.38     3.16 
    100 workers or more........................   45.28    29.07    16.21     3.32     2.22     4.56     2.64     3.47 
      100-499 workers..........................   40.15    26.51    13.64     2.70     1.65     3.94     2.03     3.32 
      500 workers or more......................   53.06    32.95    20.11     4.25     3.08     5.49     3.58     3.70 
                                                                                                                       
    Union......................................   51.34    29.46    21.87     2.83     2.30     7.41     5.11     4.23 
    Nonunion...................................   37.42    25.81    11.62     2.50     1.58     2.97     1.39     3.18 
                                                                                                                       
    All workers, service-providing                                                                                     
       industries(2)...........................   32.95    23.34     9.61     2.42      .98     2.53     1.19     2.50 
                                                                                                                       
    1-99 workers...............................   27.39    20.41     6.98     1.70      .62     1.74      .68     2.23 
      1-49 workers.............................   26.97    20.25     6.72     1.65      .59     1.66      .62     2.20 
      50-99 workers............................   28.82    20.98     7.84     1.90      .69     2.03      .91     2.32 
    100 workers or more........................   40.03    27.07    12.96     3.32     1.43     3.52     1.84     2.84 
      100-499 workers..........................   33.34    23.30    10.04     2.51      .98     2.77     1.27     2.50 
      500 workers or more......................   49.10    32.20    16.91     4.42     2.05     4.54     2.61     3.29 
                                                                                                                       
    Union......................................   45.64    27.18    18.46     3.58     1.26     6.29     3.98     3.35 
    Nonunion...................................   31.94    23.04     8.91     2.32      .95     2.23      .97     2.43 
                                                
                                                                     Percent of total compensation
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
    All workers, goods-producing industries(1)    100.0     66.7     33.3      6.5      4.3      9.2      4.9      8.4 
                                                                                                                       
    1-99 workers...............................   100.0     70.9     29.1      5.0      3.2      7.8      3.4      9.7 
      1-49 workers.............................   100.0     72.0     28.0      4.8      3.2      6.9      3.2     10.1 
      50-99 workers............................   100.0     68.4     31.6      5.7      3.4      9.7      3.9      8.9 
    100 workers or more........................   100.0     64.2     35.8      7.3      4.9     10.1      5.8      7.7 
      100-499 workers..........................   100.0     66.0     34.0      6.7      4.1      9.8      5.0      8.3 
      500 workers or more......................   100.0     62.1     37.9      8.0      5.8     10.4      6.7      7.0 
                                                                                                                       
    Union......................................   100.0     57.4     42.6      5.5      4.5     14.4     10.0      8.2 
    Nonunion...................................   100.0     69.0     31.0      6.7      4.2      7.9      3.7      8.5 
                                                                                                                       
    All workers, service-providing                                                                                     
       industries(2)...........................   100.0     70.8     29.2      7.3      3.0      7.7      3.6      7.6 
                                                                                                                       
    1-99 workers...............................   100.0     74.5     25.5      6.2      2.2      6.4      2.5      8.1 
      1-49 workers.............................   100.0     75.1     24.9      6.1      2.2      6.1      2.3      8.2 
      50-99 workers............................   100.0     72.8     27.2      6.6      2.4      7.0      3.1      8.1 
    100 workers or more........................   100.0     67.6     32.4      8.3      3.6      8.8      4.6      7.1 
      100-499 workers..........................   100.0     69.9     30.1      7.5      2.9      8.3      3.8      7.5 
      500 workers or more......................   100.0     65.6     34.4      9.0      4.2      9.2      5.3      6.7 
                                                                                                                       
    Union......................................   100.0     59.6     40.4      7.8      2.8     13.8      8.7      7.3 
    Nonunion...................................   100.0     72.1     27.9      7.3      3.0      7.0      3.0      7.6 

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is
excluded.
  2 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and
insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and
enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.


Table 14. Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
private industry health care and social assistance workers, by industry and occupational group, December 2018
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                      Benefit costs                    
                                                                                                                       
                                                  Total    Wages                                                       
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insuran-   ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay      ce       and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings         
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                
                                                                         Cost per hour worked
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
  Health care and social assistance............  $35.39   $24.78   $10.61    $2.95    $0.88    $3.06    $1.20    $2.51 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   53.38    37.20    16.18     4.95     1.34     4.23     2.16     3.50 
        Registered nurses......................   56.30    37.02    19.28     5.38     2.22     5.09     2.77     3.82 
      Sales and office.........................   25.43    17.59     7.84     1.95      .47     2.90      .69     1.84 
      Service..................................   20.25    14.46     5.80     1.23      .55     1.90      .40     1.72 
                                                                                                                       
    Hospitals..................................   49.88    32.40    17.47     4.81     1.88     5.12     2.40     3.26 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   60.41    39.72    20.69     6.07     2.19     5.57     2.97     3.89 
        Registered nurses......................   61.07    39.24    21.83     6.19     2.54     5.85     3.21     4.05 
      Service..................................   26.44    16.16    10.29     1.97     1.40     3.83     1.15     1.93 
                                                                                                                       
    Nursing and residential care facilities....   23.25    16.78     6.47     1.53      .57     2.05      .36     1.95 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   35.93    26.13     9.81     2.75      .85     2.84      .68     2.69 
      Service..................................   18.00    12.94     5.06     1.01      .49     1.69      .22     1.65 
                                                                                                                       
      Nursing care facilities(1)...............   25.32    18.34     6.98     1.67      .67     2.13      .47     2.04 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   38.48    28.43    10.05     2.75      .91     2.75      .75     2.88 
      Service..................................   18.78    13.38     5.39     1.10      .59     1.76      .33     1.62 
                                                
                                                                     Percent of total compensation
                                                
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
  Health care and social assistance............   100.0     70.0     30.0      8.3      2.5      8.6      3.4      7.1 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     69.7     30.3      9.3      2.5      7.9      4.0      6.6 
        Registered nurses......................   100.0     65.8     34.2      9.5      3.9      9.0      4.9      6.8 
      Sales and office.........................   100.0     69.2     30.8      7.7      1.8     11.4      2.7      7.2 
      Service..................................   100.0     71.4     28.6      6.1      2.7      9.4      2.0      8.5 
                                                                                                                       
    Hospitals..................................   100.0     65.0     35.0      9.7      3.8     10.3      4.8      6.5 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     65.7     34.3     10.1      3.6      9.2      4.9      6.4 
        Registered nurses......................   100.0     64.3     35.7     10.1      4.2      9.6      5.3      6.6 
      Service..................................   100.0     61.1     38.9      7.5      5.3     14.5      4.3      7.3 
                                                                                                                       
    Nursing and residential care facilities....   100.0     72.2     27.8      6.6      2.5      8.8      1.5      8.4 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     72.7     27.3      7.7      2.4      7.9      1.9      7.5 
      Service..................................   100.0     71.9     28.1      5.6      2.7      9.4      1.2      9.2 
                                                                                                                       
      Nursing care facilities(1)...............   100.0     72.4     27.6      6.6      2.7      8.4      1.8      8.0 
                                                                                                                       
      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     73.9     26.1      7.1      2.4      7.1      2.0      7.5 
      Service..................................   100.0     71.3     28.7      5.8      3.1      9.4      1.7      8.6 

  1 Data are available beginning with December 2006.

Note: The sum of individual items may not equal totals due to rounding.

Last Modified Date: March 19, 2019