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Economic News Release
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Employer Costs for Employee Compensation News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Wednesday, December 18, 2019				 USDL-19-2195

Technical information:	(202) 691-6199  •  ncsinfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/ect
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  pressoffice@bls.gov


		      EMPLOYER COSTS FOR EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION – SEPTEMBER 2019


State and local government compensation averaged $51.66 per hour worked in September 2019, the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries averaged $32.19 per hour worked and
represented 62.3 percent of total compensation costs, while benefit costs averaged $19.47 and accounted
for the remaining 37.7 percent. (See tables 1 and 3.)

Among state and local government occupational groups, total compensation costs ranged from $35.85 per
hour worked for sales and office to $62.08 for management, professional, and related occupations. Among
industry groups, total compensation costs were $54.10 per hour worked in the education and health services
industry and $49.71 in public administration. (See table 3.)

State and local government wages and salaries ranged from $20.68 per hour worked for sales and office to
$40.06 for management, professional, and related occupations. Wages and salaries accounted for 57.7
percent of total compensation for sales and office and 64.5 percent in management, professional, and
related occupations. (See table 3.)

Total benefit costs ($19.47) include paid leave ($3.87), supplemental pay ($0.51), insurance ($6.07),
retirement and savings ($6.17), and legally required benefit ($2.85) costs. The average total benefit
costs in the public administration industry were $20.95 or 42.1 percent of total compensation. (See tables
1 and 3.) 

Benefit costs for state and local government workers - continued

Paid leave consists of vacation ($1.47), holiday ($1.10), sick ($1.00), and personal ($0.31) costs. The
average cost for paid leave was $3.87 per hour worked or 7.5 percent of total compensation. The largest
paid leave cost among occupational groups was $4.37 per hour worked or 7.0 percent of total compensation
for management, professional, and related occupations. The average cost in the junior colleges, colleges
and universities industry was $5.22 or 8.7 percent of total compensation. (See tables 1 and 3.)

Supplemental pay costs for state and local government workers averaged $0.51 per hour worked or 1.0 percent
of total compensation. These costs include shift differentials, $0.05 (0.1 percent of total compensation),
overtime and premium pay, $0.22 (0.4 percent), and nonproduction bonuses $0.24 (0.5 percent). (See tables
1 and 3.)

The percentage of workers with access to nonproduction bonus benefits are available as part of the Employee 
Benefits in the United States publication, see www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/benefits/2019/benefits_other.htm.

Insurance costs were $6.07 per employee hour worked, or 11.7 percent of total compensation. The largest
component was health insurance at $5.92 or 11.5 percent of total compensation. Insurance was the largest
benefit cost for sales and office occupations at $5.69 (15.9 percent of total compensation). (See tables
1 and 3.)

Retirement and savings benefit costs averaged $6.17 per hour worked (11.9 percent of total compensation).
These costs include defined benefit plans ($5.74), and defined contribution plans ($0.43). (See tables 1
and 3.)

Legally required benefit costs averaged $2.85 per hour worked (5.5 percent of total compensation), including
Social Security and Medicare ($2.22), state and federal unemployment insurance ($0.06), and workers’ 
compensation ($0.56). (See tables 1 and 3.)



					    TECHNICAL NOTE

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC), a product of the National Compensation Survey,
provides the average cost to employers for wages and salaries as well as benefits per employee hour worked.

All workers are included in the benefit cost estimates including those that do not have plan access or do not
participate. Costs are also affected by other factors such as cost sharing between employers and employees,
plan features, and plan generosity. For the latest information on the percentage of workers with access to
and participating in employer-sponsored benefit plans, including health care and retirement and savings
plans, see www.bls.gov/ebs.

The “National Compensation Measures,” of the BLS Handbook of Methods, www.bls.gov/opub/hom/ncs/home.htm,
provides additional details on the sample design, calculation methodology, and resources explaining changes
over time.

Additional ECEC estimates, including historical data, are available in the ECEC database query tool at
www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/data.htm.

Sample size
Data for this reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately
26,300 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 6,400 private industry establishments and
approximately 7,900 occupational observations selected from a sample of about 1,400 state and local
government establishments that provided data at the initial interview.

Measures of reliability
Relative standard errors are available at www.bls.gov/web/ecec.supp.toc.htm and database query tools at
www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/data.htm.

Comparing estimates across economic sectors
Compensation cost levels in state and local government should not be directly compared with levels in
private industry. Differences between these sectors stem from factors such as variation in work activities
and occupational structures. Manufacturing and sales, for example, make up a large part of private
industry work activities but are rare in state and local government. Professional and administrative
support occupations (including teachers) account for two-thirds of the state and local government
workforce, compared with one-half of private industry.

Publication focus
This release focuses on compensation costs in state and local government. Topics for the upcoming news
releases are as follows:

• December 2019—supplemental pay costs in private industry
• March 2020—compensation costs by wage percentile, and 15 metropolitan areas in private industry

For 2020 ECEC release dates, see www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/ecec.htm. 

Table 1. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation by ownership [Sept. 2019]
Compensation component Civilian workers(1) Private industry
workers
State and local
government workers
Cost ($) Percent of
compensation
Cost ($) Percent of
compensation
Cost ($) Percent of
compensation

Total compensation(2)

37.03 100.0 34.77 100.0 51.66 100.0

Wages and salaries

25.43 68.7 24.38 70.1 32.19 62.3

Total benefits

11.60 31.3 10.38 29.9 19.47 37.7

Paid leave

2.68 7.2 2.50 7.2 3.87 7.5

Vacation

1.31 3.5 1.29 3.7 1.47 2.8

Holiday

0.79 2.1 0.75 2.2 1.10 2.1

Sick

0.41 1.1 0.32 0.9 1.00 1.9

Personal

0.16 0.4 0.14 0.4 0.31 0.6

Supplemental pay

1.04 2.8 1.12 3.2 0.51 1.0

Overtime and premium(3)

0.29 0.8 0.30 0.9 0.22 0.4

Shift differentials

0.08 0.2 0.08 0.2 0.05 0.1

Nonproduction bonuses

0.67 1.8 0.74 2.1 0.24 0.5

Insurance

3.22 8.7 2.78 8.0 6.07 11.7

Life

0.05 0.1 0.04 0.1 0.07 0.1

Health

3.06 8.3 2.62 7.5 5.92 11.5

Short-term disability

0.06 0.2 0.07 0.2 0.03 0.1

Long-term disability

0.04 0.1 0.04 0.1 0.05 0.1

Retirement and savings

1.96 5.3 1.31 3.8 6.17 11.9

Defined benefit

1.21 3.3 0.52 1.5 5.74 11.1

Defined contribution

0.74 2.0 0.79 2.3 0.43 0.8

Legally Required benefits

2.70 7.3 2.68 7.7 2.85 5.5

Social Security and Medicare

2.08 5.6 2.05 5.9 2.22 4.3

Social Security(4)

1.65 4.5 1.65 4.7 1.70 3.3

Medicare

0.42 1.1 0.40 1.2 0.53 1.0

Federal unemployment insurance

0.02 0.1 0.03 0.1 (5)- (6)-

State unemployment insurance

0.13 0.4 0.14 0.4 0.06 0.1

Workers' compensation

0.47 1.3 0.45 1.3 0.56 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) Includes premium pay for work (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) in addition to the regular work schedule.
(4) Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
(5) Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
(6) Less than .05 percent.


Table 2. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for civilian workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Civilian workers(2)

37.03 100.0 25.43 68.7 11.60 31.3 2.68 7.2 1.04 2.8 3.22 8.7 1.96 5.3 2.70 7.3

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

61.11 100.0 41.79 68.4 19.32 31.6 5.19 8.5 1.68 2.7 4.89 8.0 3.76 6.1 3.80 6.2

Management, business and financial

68.28 100.0 46.70 68.4 21.58 31.6 6.40 9.4 2.60 3.8 4.76 7.0 3.53 5.2 4.29 6.3

Professional and related

57.89 100.0 39.59 68.4 18.30 31.6 4.64 8.0 1.27 2.2 4.95 8.6 3.86 6.7 3.58 6.2

Teachers(3)

63.93 100.0 43.68 68.3 20.25 31.7 3.32 5.2 0.24 0.4 6.31 9.9 7.08 11.1 3.31 5.2

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

63.76 100.0 42.55 66.7 21.21 33.3 2.99 4.7 0.21 0.3 6.93 10.9 8.02 12.6 3.06 4.8

Registered nurses

57.12 100.0 37.36 65.4 19.75 34.6 5.46 9.6 2.08 3.6 5.32 9.3 3.09 5.4 3.80 6.6

Sales and office

27.43 100.0 19.25 70.2 8.18 29.8 1.87 6.8 0.69 2.5 2.61 9.5 1.01 3.7 2.00 7.3

Sales and related

25.83 100.0 19.50 75.5 6.33 24.5 1.52 5.9 0.63 2.4 1.59 6.2 0.63 2.4 1.96 7.6

Office and administrative support

28.38 100.0 19.10 67.3 9.28 32.7 2.08 7.3 0.72 2.5 3.21 11.3 1.24 4.4 2.03 7.1

Service

19.75 100.0 14.11 71.4 5.65 28.6 1.03 5.2 0.41 2.1 1.64 8.3 0.86 4.4 1.70 8.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

36.76 100.0 24.66 67.1 12.10 32.9 1.95 5.3 1.21 3.3 3.35 9.1 2.12 5.8 3.47 9.4

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

37.69 100.0 24.99 66.3 12.69 33.7 1.57 4.2 1.24 3.3 3.38 9.0 2.65 7.0 3.85 10.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

35.76 100.0 24.30 68.0 11.46 32.0 2.37 6.6 1.17 3.3 3.31 9.3 1.55 4.3 3.05 8.5

Production, transportation, and material moving

29.30 100.0 19.29 65.8 10.01 34.2 1.74 5.9 1.19 4.0 3.09 10.6 1.35 4.6 2.64 9.0

Production

28.37 100.0 18.76 66.1 9.62 33.9 1.75 6.2 1.39 4.9 3.08 10.9 0.98 3.4 2.43 8.5

Transportation and material moving

30.16 100.0 19.79 65.6 10.38 34.4 1.74 5.8 1.00 3.3 3.11 10.3 1.69 5.6 2.84 9.4

Industry group

Education and health services

43.08 100.0 29.26 67.9 13.82 32.1 3.27 7.6 0.65 1.5 4.23 9.8 2.99 6.9 2.68 6.2

Educational services

53.80 100.0 35.76 66.5 18.04 33.5 3.47 6.4 0.25 0.5 5.80 10.8 5.63 10.5 2.88 5.4

Elementary and secondary schools

52.73 100.0 34.66 65.7 18.06 34.3 2.84 5.4 0.20 0.4 6.06 11.5 6.31 12.0 2.66 5.0

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

59.96 100.0 39.99 66.7 19.97 33.3 5.26 8.8 0.37 0.6 5.92 9.9 4.97 8.3 3.45 5.7

Health care and social assistance

36.93 100.0 25.53 69.1 11.40 30.9 3.15 8.5 0.88 2.4 3.33 9.0 1.47 4.0 2.57 7.0

Hospitals

50.50 100.0 32.58 64.5 17.92 35.5 4.91 9.7 1.78 3.5 5.30 10.5 2.69 5.3 3.24 6.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(3) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.


Table 3. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for state and local government workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

State and local government workers

51.66 100.0 32.19 62.3 19.47 37.7 3.87 7.5 0.51 1.0 6.07 11.7 6.17 11.9 2.85 5.5

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

62.08 100.0 40.06 64.5 22.02 35.5 4.37 7.0 0.41 0.7 6.64 10.7 7.40 11.9 3.21 5.2

Professional and related

60.26 100.0 39.19 65.0 21.06 35.0 3.87 6.4 0.37 0.6 6.60 11.0 7.12 11.8 3.09 5.1

Teachers(2)

68.22 100.0 45.64 66.9 22.58 33.1 3.40 5.0 0.24 0.4 7.15 10.5 8.50 12.5 3.28 4.8

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

68.15 100.0 44.97 66.0 23.17 34.0 3.09 4.5 0.23 0.3 7.64 11.2 9.08 13.3 3.13 4.6

Sales and office

35.85 100.0 20.68 57.7 15.16 42.3 3.14 8.7 0.32 0.9 5.69 15.9 3.88 10.8 2.15 6.0

Office and administrative support

36.02 100.0 20.74 57.6 15.28 42.4 3.15 8.7 0.32 0.9 5.76 16.0 3.91 10.9 2.14 6.0

Service

37.97 100.0 21.81 57.4 16.16 42.6 3.21 8.5 0.81 2.1 4.81 12.7 5.00 13.2 2.34 6.2

Industry group

Education and health services

54.10 100.0 34.97 64.6 19.13 35.4 3.56 6.6 0.34 0.6 6.24 11.5 6.21 11.5 2.78 5.1

Educational services

55.56 100.0 36.18 65.1 19.39 34.9 3.41 6.1 0.25 0.5 6.36 11.4 6.58 11.9 2.79 5.0

Elementary and secondary schools

54.06 100.0 35.22 65.1 18.84 34.9 2.81 5.2 0.21 0.4 6.39 11.8 6.79 12.6 2.64 4.9

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

59.91 100.0 39.02 65.1 20.89 34.9 5.22 8.7 0.34 0.6 6.18 10.3 5.92 9.9 3.23 5.4

Health care and social assistance

45.80 100.0 28.11 61.4 17.69 38.6 4.42 9.6 0.88 1.9 5.59 12.2 4.05 8.8 2.76 6.0

Hospitals

48.39 100.0 30.27 62.6 18.12 37.4 4.68 9.7 1.05 2.2 5.55 11.5 3.93 8.1 2.91 6.0

Public administration

49.71 100.0 28.76 57.9 20.95 42.1 4.63 9.3 0.78 1.6 5.98 12.0 6.55 13.2 3.01 6.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.


Table 4. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Private industry workers

34.77 100.0 24.38 70.1 10.38 29.9 2.50 7.2 1.12 3.2 2.78 8.0 1.31 3.8 2.68 7.7

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

60.79 100.0 42.36 69.7 18.43 30.3 5.45 9.0 2.10 3.4 4.32 7.1 2.56 4.2 4.00 6.6

Management, business, and financial

67.69 100.0 46.90 69.3 20.78 30.7 6.29 9.3 2.86 4.2 4.48 6.6 2.81 4.1 4.35 6.4

Professional and related

56.86 100.0 39.77 69.9 17.09 30.1 4.98 8.8 1.66 2.9 4.23 7.4 2.43 4.3 3.80 6.7

Sales and office

26.69 100.0 19.12 71.6 7.57 28.4 1.76 6.6 0.72 2.7 2.34 8.8 0.76 2.9 1.99 7.5

Sales and related

25.80 100.0 19.51 75.6 6.29 24.4 1.51 5.9 0.63 2.4 1.58 6.1 0.61 2.4 1.96 7.6

Office and administrative support

27.29 100.0 18.87 69.1 8.43 30.9 1.93 7.1 0.78 2.9 2.85 10.4 0.86 3.2 2.01 7.4

Service

17.24 100.0 13.04 75.7 4.20 24.3 0.73 4.2 0.35 2.0 1.21 7.0 0.29 1.7 1.62 9.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

36.18 100.0 24.56 67.9 11.61 32.1 1.80 5.0 1.24 3.4 3.14 8.7 1.93 5.3 3.51 9.7

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

37.23 100.0 24.97 67.1 12.27 32.9 1.39 3.7 1.29 3.5 3.16 8.5 2.49 6.7 3.93 10.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair

35.05 100.0 24.13 68.8 10.92 31.2 2.24 6.4 1.19 3.4 3.11 8.9 1.32 3.8 3.06 8.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

28.88 100.0 19.14 66.3 9.74 33.7 1.70 5.9 1.20 4.2 2.99 10.3 1.22 4.2 2.64 9.1

Production

28.11 100.0 18.64 66.3 9.47 33.7 1.72 6.1 1.39 4.9 3.03 10.8 0.91 3.2 2.42 8.6

Transportation and material moving

29.63 100.0 19.64 66.3 10.00 33.7 1.68 5.7 1.01 3.4 2.94 9.9 1.52 5.1 2.84 9.6

Industry group

Goods-producing(2)

40.50 100.0 27.06 66.8 13.44 33.2 2.61 6.4 1.74 4.3 3.74 9.2 1.96 4.8 3.39 8.4

Construction

40.45 100.0 28.05 69.4 12.40 30.6 1.78 4.4 1.31 3.2 3.26 8.1 2.08 5.2 3.97 9.8

Manufacturing

40.01 100.0 26.19 65.5 13.81 34.5 3.03 7.6 1.97 4.9 3.99 10.0 1.78 4.4 3.04 7.6

Aircraft manufacturing

71.69 100.0 43.49 60.7 28.20 39.3 6.40 8.9 4.94 6.9 6.97 9.7 5.33 7.4 4.55 6.4

Service-providing(3)

33.58 100.0 23.83 71.0 9.75 29.0 2.47 7.4 1.00 3.0 2.58 7.7 1.18 3.5 2.53 7.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28.82 100.0 20.30 70.4 8.53 29.6 1.80 6.2 0.82 2.8 2.38 8.3 1.15 4.0 2.38 8.3

Wholesale trade

37.80 100.0 26.71 70.7 11.08 29.3 2.75 7.3 1.20 3.2 2.92 7.7 1.32 3.5 2.89 7.6

Retail trade

20.54 100.0 15.54 75.6 5.00 24.4 0.99 4.8 0.46 2.2 1.40 6.8 0.41 2.0 1.75 8.5

Transportation and warehousing

39.14 100.0 25.24 64.5 13.89 35.5 2.69 6.9 1.28 3.3 4.10 10.5 2.43 6.2 3.39 8.7

Utilities

63.68 100.0 38.47 60.4 25.21 39.6 5.42 8.5 2.26 3.5 6.30 9.9 6.77 10.6 4.46 7.0

Information

58.32 100.0 39.22 67.2 19.10 32.8 5.37 9.2 2.60 4.5 5.09 8.7 2.25 3.9 3.80 6.5

Financial activities

47.97 100.0 32.20 67.1 15.77 32.9 4.17 8.7 2.61 5.4 4.15 8.7 1.76 3.7 3.08 6.4

Financial and insurance

53.61 100.0 35.48 66.2 18.13 33.8 4.87 9.1 3.20 6.0 4.65 8.7 2.14 4.0 3.28 6.1

Credit intermediation and related activities

45.63 100.0 30.49 66.8 15.15 33.2 4.20 9.2 2.20 4.8 4.22 9.2 1.64 3.6 2.90 6.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

52.02 100.0 34.07 65.5 17.95 34.5 4.61 8.9 3.03 5.8 4.70 9.0 2.36 4.5 3.24 6.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

32.06 100.0 22.96 71.6 9.11 28.4 2.17 6.8 0.94 2.9 2.76 8.6 0.70 2.2 2.54 7.9

Professional and business services

41.48 100.0 29.87 72.0 11.62 28.0 3.30 7.9 1.32 3.2 2.60 6.3 1.34 3.2 3.05 7.4

Professional and technical services

54.52 100.0 39.08 71.7 15.44 28.3 4.78 8.8 1.71 3.1 3.44 6.3 1.80 3.3 3.72 6.8

Administrative and waste services

23.87 100.0 18.10 75.8 5.77 24.2 1.17 4.9 0.65 2.7 1.39 5.8 0.38 1.6 2.18 9.1

Education and health services

37.58 100.0 26.41 70.3 11.17 29.7 3.12 8.3 0.81 2.1 3.23 8.6 1.38 3.7 2.64 7.0

Educational services

47.66 100.0 34.32 72.0 13.34 28.0 3.68 7.7 0.24 0.5 3.87 8.1 2.32 4.9 3.22 6.8

Junior colleges, colleges, universities and professional schools

60.04 100.0 41.80 69.6 18.25 30.4 5.33 8.9 0.42 0.7 5.44 9.1 3.20 5.3 3.86 6.4

Health care and social assistance

36.18 100.0 25.31 70.0 10.87 30.0 3.04 8.4 0.89 2.4 3.14 8.7 1.25 3.4 2.55 7.1

Leisure and hospitality

15.80 100.0 12.40 78.5 3.40 21.5 0.52 3.3 0.22 1.4 0.86 5.4 0.25 1.6 1.55 9.8

Accommodation and food services

14.68 100.0 11.53 78.5 3.15 21.5 0.46 3.1 0.21 1.5 0.78 5.3 0.24 1.6 1.46 9.9

Other services

29.52 100.0 21.58 73.1 7.94 26.9 1.77 6.0 0.42 1.4 2.18 7.4 1.22 4.1 2.35 8.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(3) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.


Table 5. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by bargaining and work status [Sept. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Union

All workers

47.56 100.0 28.17 59.2 19.40 40.8 3.33 7.0 1.58 3.3 6.74 14.2 4.11 8.6 3.63 7.6

Goods-producing(2)

52.45 100.0 30.11 57.4 22.34 42.6 2.81 5.3 2.32 4.4 7.65 14.6 5.26 10.0 4.30 8.2

Service-providing(3)

45.52 100.0 27.36 60.1 18.16 39.9 3.56 7.8 1.27 2.8 6.35 14.0 3.63 8.0 3.35 7.4

Nonunion

All workers

33.54 100.0 24.02 71.6 9.52 28.4 2.42 7.2 1.08 3.2 2.39 7.1 1.04 3.1 2.59 7.7

Goods-producing(2)

38.37 100.0 26.52 69.1 11.86 30.9 2.58 6.7 1.63 4.3 3.05 7.9 1.37 3.6 3.23 8.4

Service-providing(3)

32.62 100.0 23.55 72.2 9.07 27.8 2.39 7.3 0.97 3.0 2.27 7.0 0.98 3.0 2.46 7.6

Full-time

All workers

40.19 100.0 27.64 68.8 12.55 31.2 3.13 7.8 1.40 3.5 3.42 8.5 1.63 4.1 2.97 7.4

Occupational group

Management, professional and related

63.07 100.0 43.56 69.1 19.51 30.9 5.82 9.2 2.24 3.6 4.63 7.3 2.75 4.4 4.08 6.5

Management, business, and financial

68.65 100.0 47.42 69.1 21.23 30.9 6.44 9.4 2.91 4.2 4.61 6.7 2.89 4.2 4.38 6.4

Professional and related

59.45 100.0 41.06 69.1 18.39 30.9 5.41 9.1 1.81 3.0 4.64 7.8 2.66 4.5 3.88 6.5

Sales and office

31.34 100.0 21.88 69.8 9.45 30.2 2.34 7.5 0.93 3.0 2.97 9.5 1.00 3.2 2.23 7.1

Sales and related

35.47 100.0 26.02 73.4 9.45 26.6 2.56 7.2 0.99 2.8 2.40 6.8 1.01 2.8 2.49 7.0

Office and administrative support

29.47 100.0 20.01 67.9 9.46 32.1 2.23 7.6 0.90 3.1 3.22 10.9 0.99 3.4 2.11 7.2

Service

20.10 100.0 14.41 71.7 5.69 28.3 1.15 5.7 0.50 2.5 1.89 9.4 0.45 2.2 1.71 8.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

37.23 100.0 25.13 67.5 12.10 32.5 1.90 5.1 1.30 3.5 3.31 8.9 2.02 5.4 3.57 9.6

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

38.16 100.0 25.47 66.7 12.70 33.3 1.45 3.8 1.36 3.6 3.31 8.7 2.60 6.8 3.98 10.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

36.24 100.0 24.77 68.4 11.46 31.6 2.37 6.5 1.24 3.4 3.31 9.1 1.41 3.9 3.13 8.6

Production, transportation, and material moving

30.93 100.0 20.30 65.6 10.63 34.4 1.93 6.2 1.36 4.4 3.29 10.7 1.31 4.2 2.73 8.8

Production

29.31 100.0 19.25 65.7 10.06 34.3 1.84 6.3 1.49 5.1 3.26 11.1 0.99 3.4 2.48 8.4

Transportation and material moving

32.84 100.0 21.54 65.6 11.29 34.4 2.04 6.2 1.21 3.7 3.33 10.1 1.68 5.1 3.04 9.2

Industry group

Goods-producing(2)

41.01 100.0 27.33 66.7 13.68 33.3 2.67 6.5 1.77 4.3 3.82 9.3 2.01 4.9 3.40 8.3

Construction

41.16 100.0 28.43 69.1 12.73 30.9 1.83 4.5 1.35 3.3 3.39 8.2 2.17 5.3 3.99 9.7

Manufacturing

40.40 100.0 26.42 65.4 13.98 34.6 3.08 7.6 2.00 4.9 4.04 10.0 1.81 4.5 3.06 7.6

Service-providing(3)

39.95 100.0 27.73 69.4 12.22 30.6 3.26 8.2 1.29 3.2 3.30 8.3 1.53 3.8 2.85 7.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

35.28 100.0 24.30 68.9 10.98 31.1 2.51 7.1 1.11 3.1 3.04 8.6 1.53 4.3 2.79 7.9

Information

62.62 100.0 41.93 67.0 20.69 33.0 5.85 9.3 2.83 4.5 5.51 8.8 2.46 3.9 4.04 6.5

Financial activities

51.00 100.0 34.02 66.7 16.98 33.3 4.56 8.9 2.82 5.5 4.49 8.8 1.89 3.7 3.22 6.3

Professional and business services

45.34 100.0 32.21 71.0 13.13 29.0 3.80 8.4 1.51 3.3 3.01 6.6 1.57 3.5 3.23 7.1

Education and health services

40.60 100.0 28.01 69.0 12.59 31.0 3.61 8.9 0.88 2.2 3.78 9.3 1.62 4.0 2.71 6.7

Leisure and hospitality

20.01 100.0 14.76 73.7 5.25 26.3 1.04 5.2 0.38 1.9 1.64 8.2 0.48 2.4 1.72 8.6

Other services

34.80 100.0 24.56 70.6 10.24 29.4 2.45 7.0 0.51 1.5 3.06 8.8 1.63 4.7 2.59 7.5

Part-time

All workers

18.55 100.0 14.63 78.9 3.91 21.1 0.61 3.3 0.31 1.7 0.85 4.6 0.34 1.8 1.80 9.7

Occupational group

Management, professional and related

41.83 100.0 32.36 77.4 9.48 22.6 2.43 5.8 0.89 2.1 1.76 4.2 1.05 2.5 3.35 8.0

Professional and related

42.25 100.0 32.50 76.9 9.75 23.1 2.55 6.0 0.83 2.0 1.88 4.5 1.13 2.7 3.36 7.9

Sales and office

16.07 100.0 12.81 79.7 3.25 20.3 0.44 2.7 0.24 1.5 0.90 5.6 0.23 1.4 1.45 9.0

Sales and related

14.55 100.0 11.93 82.0 2.62 18.0 0.29 2.0 0.21 1.4 0.62 4.2 0.15 1.1 1.35 9.3

Office and administrative support

18.46 100.0 14.21 77.0 4.25 23.0 0.67 3.6 0.29 1.6 1.34 7.2 0.35 1.9 1.61 8.7

Service

14.19 100.0 11.59 81.7 2.60 18.3 0.29 2.0 0.19 1.4 0.47 3.3 0.13 0.9 1.52 10.7

Production, transportation, and material moving

18.53 100.0 13.29 71.7 5.24 28.3 0.53 2.9 0.37 2.0 1.42 7.7 0.78 4.2 2.14 11.6

Transportation and material moving

19.69 100.0 13.72 69.7 5.97 30.3 0.58 3.0 0.41 2.1 1.72 8.7 1.01 5.1 2.25 11.4

Industry group

Service-providing(3)

18.46 100.0 14.57 78.9 3.89 21.1 0.61 3.3 0.30 1.6 0.85 4.6 0.34 1.9 1.78 9.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

16.76 100.0 12.81 76.4 3.95 23.6 0.46 2.7 0.28 1.7 1.16 6.9 0.45 2.7 1.61 9.6

Professional and business services

21.63 100.0 17.79 82.2 3.84 17.8 0.67 3.1 0.38 1.8 0.50 2.3 (4)0.17 (4)0.8 2.12 9.8

Education and health services

28.64 100.0 21.70 75.7 6.95 24.3 1.67 5.8 0.58 2.0 1.61 5.6 0.67 2.3 2.42 8.4

Leisure and hospitality

12.47 100.0 10.54 84.6 1.92 15.4 0.10 0.8 0.10 0.8 0.24 1.9 0.08 0.6 1.41 11.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(3) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(4) The relative standard error for this estimate is greater than 30 percent.


Table 6. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by establishment size and industry group [Sept. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

All workers

1-99 workers

28.81 100.0 21.30 74.0 7.50 26.0 1.75 6.1 0.70 2.4 1.90 6.6 0.75 2.6 2.40 8.3

1-49 workers

28.06 100.0 20.95 74.7 7.11 25.3 1.67 5.9 0.67 2.4 1.74 6.2 0.67 2.4 2.36 8.4

50-99 workers

31.22 100.0 22.44 71.9 8.78 28.1 2.00 6.4 0.80 2.6 2.41 7.7 1.01 3.2 2.56 8.2

100 workers or more

41.98 100.0 28.11 67.0 13.87 33.0 3.40 8.1 1.64 3.9 3.84 9.1 1.98 4.7 3.01 7.2

100-499 workers

36.02 100.0 24.84 69.0 11.18 31.0 2.67 7.4 1.17 3.2 3.18 8.8 1.43 4.0 2.74 7.6

500 workers or more

50.08 100.0 32.56 65.0 17.52 35.0 4.40 8.8 2.28 4.5 4.74 9.5 2.74 5.5 3.37 6.7

Goods-producing(2)

1-99 workers

33.87 100.0 23.98 70.8 9.89 29.2 1.69 5.0 1.11 3.3 2.65 7.8 1.20 3.5 3.24 9.6

1-49 workers

32.36 100.0 23.32 72.1 9.04 27.9 1.54 4.8 1.04 3.2 2.21 6.8 1.04 3.2 3.21 9.9

50-99 workers

37.53 100.0 25.57 68.1 11.96 31.9 2.06 5.5 1.28 3.4 3.70 9.8 1.60 4.3 3.32 8.9

100 workers or more

46.17 100.0 29.70 64.3 16.47 35.7 3.40 7.4 2.27 4.9 4.68 10.1 2.61 5.6 3.52 7.6

100-499 workers

40.99 100.0 27.10 66.1 13.90 33.9 2.78 6.8 1.68 4.1 4.10 10.0 1.97 4.8 3.36 8.2

500 workers or more

53.93 100.0 33.59 62.3 20.33 37.7 4.32 8.0 3.16 5.9 5.54 10.3 3.56 6.6 3.75 7.0

Service-providing(3)

1-99 workers

27.95 100.0 20.85 74.6 7.10 25.4 1.76 6.3 0.63 2.3 1.77 6.3 0.68 2.4 2.26 8.1

1-49 workers

27.40 100.0 20.59 75.1 6.81 24.9 1.69 6.2 0.61 2.2 1.67 6.1 0.62 2.3 2.23 8.1

50-99 workers

29.85 100.0 21.76 72.9 8.09 27.1 1.99 6.7 0.69 2.3 2.13 7.1 0.89 3.0 2.39 8.0

100 workers or more

40.91 100.0 27.71 67.7 13.20 32.3 3.41 8.3 1.47 3.6 3.62 8.9 1.82 4.5 2.88 7.0

100-499 workers

34.67 100.0 24.23 69.9 10.45 30.1 2.64 7.6 1.03 3.0 2.92 8.4 1.28 3.7 2.57 7.4

500 workers or more

49.16 100.0 32.31 65.7 16.85 34.3 4.41 9.0 2.06 4.2 4.55 9.3 2.54 5.2 3.28 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(3) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.


Table 7. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by census region and division [Sept. 2019]
Area(1) Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent Cost ($) Percent

Northeast

39.38 100.0 26.97 68.5 12.41 31.5 3.10 7.9 1.31 3.3 3.37 8.6 1.55 3.9 3.07 7.8

New England

41.83 100.0 28.68 68.6 13.14 31.4 3.31 7.9 1.34 3.2 3.42 8.2 2.00 4.8 3.07 7.3

Middle Atlantic

38.52 100.0 26.37 68.5 12.15 31.5 3.03 7.9 1.30 3.4 3.35 8.7 1.40 3.6 3.07 8.0

South

31.51 100.0 22.49 71.4 9.02 28.6 2.18 6.9 1.09 3.5 2.28 7.2 1.12 3.5 2.36 7.5

South Atlantic

31.85 100.0 22.67 71.2 9.19 28.8 2.23 7.0 1.02 3.2 2.36 7.4 1.17 3.7 2.40 7.5

East South Central

28.06 100.0 19.73 70.3 8.33 29.7 1.92 6.8 0.97 3.5 2.29 8.2 1.04 3.7 2.10 7.5

West South Central

32.56 100.0 23.49 72.2 9.07 27.8 2.21 6.8 1.25 3.8 2.13 6.5 1.06 3.3 2.42 7.4

Midwest

31.98 100.0 22.19 69.4 9.79 30.6 2.17 6.8 1.09 3.4 2.81 8.8 1.20 3.8 2.50 7.8

East North Central

32.11 100.0 22.22 69.2 9.89 30.8 2.17 6.7 1.12 3.5 2.86 8.9 1.24 3.9 2.51 7.8

West North Central

31.68 100.0 22.13 69.9 9.55 30.1 2.20 6.9 1.02 3.2 2.71 8.6 1.12 3.5 2.50 7.9

West

39.03 100.0 27.54 70.6 11.49 29.4 2.84 7.3 1.06 2.7 3.03 7.8 1.53 3.9 3.04 7.8

Mountain

33.77 100.0 24.10 71.4 9.67 28.6 2.37 7.0 0.97 2.9 2.50 7.4 1.29 3.8 2.54 7.5

Pacific

41.39 100.0 29.08 70.3 12.30 29.7 3.05 7.4 1.10 2.7 3.26 7.9 1.64 4.0 3.26 7.9

Footnotes
(1) The census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.


Last Modified Date: December 18, 2019