Unpaid Eldercare in the United States News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, September 20, 2017			USDL-17-1292

Technical information:	(202) 691-6339  *  atusinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


             UNPAID ELDERCARE IN THE UNITED STATES -- 2015-16 
                DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


Sixteen percent of the civilian noninstitutional population age 15 and over (41.3 million
people) provide unpaid eldercare, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
About one-fourth (26 percent) of eldercare providers engage in unpaid eldercare on a
given day, spending an average of 2.8 hours providing this care. These estimates are
averages for the 2-year period of 2015-16.

Eldercare providers are defined as individuals who provide unpaid care to someone age
65 or older who needs help because of a condition related to aging. This care can be
provided to household or nonhousehold members, as well as persons living in retirement
homes or assisted care facilities. Eldercare can involve a range of care activities,
such as assisting with grooming, preparing meals, and providing transportation. Eldercare
also can involve providing companionship or being available to assist when help is
needed, and thus it can be associated with nearly any activity.

Information about eldercare providers and the time they spend providing care are 
collected as part of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS is a continuous
household survey that provides estimates on how people spend their time. For a 
description of ATUS data, concepts, and methodology, see the Technical Note.

Eldercare providers in 2015-16

  •  Of the 41.3 million eldercare providers in the civilian noninstitutional
     population age 15 and over, the majority (56 percent) were women. (See table 1.)

  •  Individuals ages 55 to 64 were the most likely to provide eldercare (24 percent),
     followed by those ages 45 to 54 (21 percent) and those ages 65 and over (19 percent).
     (See table 1.)

  •  Almost one-half (48 percent) of eldercare providers had provided this care for
     2 years or less, while 14 percent had provided care for 10 years or more. Forty-
     five percent of caregivers provided care daily or several times a week.
     (See table 2.)

  •  Thirty-nine percent of eldercare providers cared for someone age 85 or older,
     while 14 percent provided care for someone age 65 to 69. (See table 2.)

  •  A majority of all eldercare providers ages 15 to 34 cared for a grandparent.
     Providers ages 35 to 64 were more likely to care for a parent than were
     caregivers who were younger and older, and those ages 65 and over were more
     likely to care for a spouse. (See table 3.) 

  •  Sixteen percent of eldercare providers cared solely for someone with whom they
     lived, and 83 percent cared solely for someone with whom they did not live. Those
     who provided eldercare for someone in their household were more than three times
     as likely to provide eldercare on a given day than those who provided care for
     someone living in another household--64 percent compared with 18 percent. 
     (See tables 2 and 4.)

Time spent providing eldercare in 2015-16

  •  On a given day, about one-fourth (26 percent) of eldercare providers engaged in
     eldercare. Compared with those in other age groups, eldercare providers who were
     ages 65 and older were the most likely to provide care on a given day (38 percent).
     (See table 4.)

  •  On average over all days--including days they did and did not provide care--providers
     who cared solely for someone with whom they lived (6.5 million providers) spent 2.2
     hours per day providing care. (See table 4.)

  •  Eldercare providers who cared solely for a parent spent an average of 49 minutes
     per day providing eldercare (includes days they did and did not provide care).
     (See table 4.)

  •  On days they provided eldercare, persons spent an average of 2.8 hours in caregiving
     activities. Providers ages 65 and over spent the most time providing eldercare (3.6
     hours). (See table 4.)

  •  On weekend days they provided care, employed eldercare providers spent an average
     of 2.4 hours doing so. This compares to an average of 1.8 hours for employed
     caregivers who provided care on weekdays. (See table 4.)

  •  Women were more likely than men to provide eldercare on a given day--28 percent
     of female eldercare providers engaged in eldercare activities on an average day,
     compared with 23 percent of male eldercare providers. On days they provided
     eldercare, men and women spent about the same amount of time providing this
     care (2.8 hours and 2.9 hours, respectively). (See table 4.)

Eldercare activities in 2015-16

  •  On days they provided care, 37 percent of eldercare providers engaged in
     caregiving associated with household activities, spending on average 32
     minutes per day in these activities. This includes 27 percent of providers
     who engaged in eldercare associated with food preparation and cleanup and
     13 percent who provided eldercare associated with housework. (See table 5.) 

  •  Thirty-seven percent of eldercare providers engaged in caregiving associated
     with leisure and sports on days they provided care, spending 1.0 hour per
     day in these activities. This includes 24 percent of eldercare providers who
     engaged in eldercare associated with socializing and communicating, spending
     25 minutes per day in these activities. (See table 5.)

Eldercare providers who were parents of household children under age 18 in 2015-16

  •  There were 8.7 million eldercare providers who were parents of children living
     at home. Of these parents, about one-third (33 percent) had a child under age 6,
     and the remainder (67 percent) were parents whose youngest child was between the
     ages of 6 and 17. (See table 9.) 

  •  Almost one-half (47 percent) of eldercare providers who were parents of children
     under the age of 18 provided care for their own parent. These persons sometimes are
     described as members of the “sandwich generation,” because they are in between two
     generations that require care. (See table 9.)

  •  Most (81 percent) eldercare providers who were parents were employed, and 64
     percent were employed full time. Eighty-six percent of fathers were employed full
     time, compared with 48 percent of mothers. (See table 9.)  

  •  Seventeen percent of eldercare providers who were parents had no spouse or
     unmarried partner present in the household. (See table 9.) 

  •  Eldercare providers who were parents were less likely to provide daily care than
     the overall population of eldercare providers (14 percent compared with 21 percent)
     but just as likely to provide care several times a week (about 25 percent). 
     (See tables 2 and 9.)




Technical Note
 

The estimates in this release are from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS, which is
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a continuous
survey about how individuals age 15 and over spend their time. In the 2-year period of 2015–16,
approximately 21,000 individuals were interviewed for the ATUS; of these, approximately 3,400
individuals were identified as eldercare providers. Data for the combined years of 2015–16 were
used to facilitate a more in-depth analysis of eldercare.   

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.
Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:  (800) 877-8339.

Survey methodology   
        
ATUS sample households are chosen from the households that completed their eighth (final) interview
for the Current Population Survey (CPS), the nation's monthly labor force survey. ATUS sample
households are selected to ensure that estimates will be nationally representative of the civilian
noninstitutional population. One individual age 15 or over--referred to as the designated person--is
randomly chosen from each sampled household. This person is interviewed by telephone once about his
or her activities on the day before the interview.  

All ATUS interviews are conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Procedures are
in place to collect information from the small number of households that did not provide a telephone
number during the CPS interview.   

ATUS designated persons are preassigned a day of the week about which to report. Preassignment is
designed to reduce variability in response rates across the week and to allow oversampling of
weekend days so that accurate weekend day measures can be developed. Interviews occur on the day
following the assigned day. For example, a person assigned to report about a Monday would be
contacted on the following Tuesday. Ten percent of designated persons are assigned to report
about each of the five weekdays. Twenty-five percent are assigned to report about each weekend
day. Households are called for up to 8 consecutive weeks (for example, 8 Tuesdays) in order to
secure an interview.

About the questionnaire

In the time diary portion of the ATUS interview, survey respondents sequentially report activities
they did between 4 a.m. on the day before the interview until 4 a.m. on the day of the interview.
For each activity, respondents are asked how long the activity lasted. For activities other than 
personal care activities (such as sleeping and grooming), interviewers also ask respondents where
they were and who was in the room with them (if at home) or who accompanied them (if away from home).
If respondents report doing more than one activity at a time, they are asked to identify which one
was their main activity. If none can be identified, the interviewer records the first activity
mentioned. After completing the time diary, interviewers ask additional questions, including questions
to identify eldercare providers and activities done as eldercare. Questions on eldercare were added
to the survey in 2011.  

After completing the interview, activity descriptions are assigned a single 6-digit code using the
ATUS Coding Lexicon. The 3-tier coding system consists of 17 major activity categories, each with
multiple second- and third-tier subcategories. These coding lexicon categories are then combined 
into composite categories for publication. Descriptions of categories shown in this release can be
found in the Activity definitions section of this Technical Note. The ATUS Coding Lexicons can be
accessed at www.bls.gov/tus/lexicons.htm.

Concepts and definitions

Average day. The average day measure reflects an average distribution across all persons in the
reference population and all days of the week.
   
Average hours per day. The average number of hours spent in a 24-hour day (between 4 a.m. on the
diary day and 4 a.m. on the interview day) doing a specified activity.

   •   Average hours per day, population. The average number of hours per day is computed using
       all responses from a given population, including those of respondents who did not do a
       particular activity on their diary day. These estimates reflect how many population members
       engaged in an activity and the amount of time they spent doing it.

   •   Average hours per day, persons who did the activity. The average number of hours per day
       is computed using only responses from those who engaged in a particular activity on their
       diary day.

Condition related to aging. An ongoing ailment or physical or emotional limitation that typically
affects older people, such as becoming more frail; having difficulty seeing, hearing, or physically
moving; becoming more forgetful; tiring more quickly; or having specific medical ailments that
are more common among older adults. It also refers to existing conditions that become progressively
worse as one ages.
   
Diary day. The diary day is the day about which the respondent reports. For example, the diary
day of a respondent interviewed on Tuesday is Monday.
 
Eldercare. Eldercare is providing unpaid care or assistance to an individual who needed help
because of a condition related to aging. This care can be provided by a family member or non-family
member. Care can be provided in the recipient's home, the provider's home, or a care facility
such as a nursing home.

Eldercare can involve a range of care activities, such as assisting with grooming and feeding,
preparing meals, arranging medical care, and providing transportation. Eldercare also can involve
providing companionship or being available to assist when help is needed, and thus it can be
associated with nearly any activity.

Estimates of the time spent providing eldercare are derived by summing the durations of activities
during which respondents provided care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a
condition related to aging. These estimates never include times the respondent reported sleeping,
grooming, or engaging in personal care services.

Eldercare provider. An individual who provided eldercare more than one time in the 3 to 4 months
prior to the interview day. The time frame varies slightly by respondent because the question
asks about care provided between the first day of a given reference month and the interview day.
Estimates are restricted to eldercare providers caring for at least one person age 65 or older.

Employment status

   •   Employed. All persons who:

	1) At any time during the 7 days prior to the interview did any work at all as paid
	employees, or worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or 

	2) Were not working during the 7 days prior to the interview but had jobs or
	businesses from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, bad weather,
	vacation, childcare problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity
	leave, job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were
	paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs; or

	3) Usually worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise.

   •   Employed full time. Full-time workers are those who usually worked 35 or more hours per
       week at all jobs combined.

   •   Employed part time. Part-time workers are those who usually worked fewer than 35 hours
       per week at all jobs combined.

   •   Not employed. Persons are not employed if they do not meet the conditions for employment.
       People who are not employed include those classified as unemployed as well as those
       classified as not in the labor force (using CPS definitions).

Household children. Household children are children under age 18 residing in the household of the
ATUS respondent. The children may be related to the respondent (such as his or her own children,
grandchildren, nieces or nephews, or brothers or sisters) or not related (such as foster children
or children of roommates or boarders).

Primary activity. A primary activity is the main activity a respondent was doing at a specified time. 

Weekday, weekend, and holiday estimates. Estimates for weekdays are an average of reports about
Monday through Friday. Estimates for weekend days and holidays are an average of reports about
Saturdays, Sundays, and the following holidays:  New Year's Day, Easter, Memorial Day, the Fourth
of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. In 2016, data were not collected about
Christmas Day.

Activity definitions

The following definitions describe the activities associated with eldercare appearing in this release.
These are diary activities that survey respondents identified as ones during which they had provided
care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a condition related to aging.  

Eating and drinking. All time spent eating or drinking (except eating and drinking done as part of
a work or volunteer activity) is classified here.

Household activities. Household activities are activities done by people to maintain their households.
These include housework; cooking; lawn and garden care; pet care; vehicle maintenance and repair;
home maintenance, repair, decoration, and renovation; and household management and organizational
activities (such as filling out paperwork or planning a party). Food preparation, whether or not
reported as done specifically for another household member, is always classified as a household
activity unless it was done as a volunteer, work, or income-generating activity, or when done for
a nonhousehold member. 

Purchasing goods and services. This category includes time spent obtaining, receiving, and purchasing
consumer goods, professional services, household services, and government services. Consumer purchases
include most purchases and rentals of consumer goods. Professional services refer to financial services
and banking, legal services, medical and adult care services, real estate services, and veterinary 
services. Household services include housecleaning; cooking; lawn care and landscaping; pet care;
tailoring, laundering, and dry cleaning; vehicle maintenance and repairs; and home repairs, maintenance,
and construction. This category also captures the time spent obtaining government services--such as
applying for food stamps--and purchasing government-required licenses or paying fines or fees.

Caring for and helping household members. Time spent doing activities to care for members of the
household, regardless of relationship to the respondent or the physical or mental health status of
the person being helped, is classified here. This category includes a range of activities done to
benefit members of households, such as providing physical and medical care or obtaining medical
services.

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members. This category includes time spent in activities done
to care for or help individuals who do not live in the household. When done for or through an
organization, time spent helping nonhousehold members is classified as volunteering, rather than
as helping nonhousehold members.

Working and work-related activities. This category includes time spent working, doing activities
as part of one's job, engaging in income-generating activities not as part of one's job, and
job search activities. "Working" includes hours spent doing the specific tasks required of one's
main or other job, regardless of location or time of day. "Work-related activities" include
activities that are not obviously work but are done as part of one's job, such as having a
business lunch and playing golf with clients. "Other income-generating activities" are those
done "on the side" or under informal arrangement and are not part of a regular job. Such activities
might include selling homemade crafts, maintaining a rental property, or having a yard sale.
These activities are those for which people are paid or will be paid.

Organizational, civic, and religious activities. This category captures time spent volunteering
for or through an organization, performing civic obligations, and participating in religious and
spiritual activities. 

Leisure and sports. The leisure and sports category includes time spent in sports, exercise,
and recreation; socializing and communicating; and other leisure activities. Sports, exercise,
and recreation activities include participating in--as well as attending or watching--sports,
exercise, and recreational activities. Recreational activities include yard games like croquet
or horseshoes, as well as activities like billiards and dancing. Socializing and communicating
includes face-to-face social communication and hosting or attending social functions. Leisure 
activities include watching television; reading; relaxing or thinking; playing computer, board,
or card games; using a computer or the Internet for personal interest; playing or listening to
music; and other activities, such as attending arts, cultural, and entertainment events.

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail. This category captures time spent in telephone communication
and handling household or personal mail or e-mail. This category also includes texting and
Internet voice and video calling.

Traveling. This category includes all travel, regardless of mode or purpose, as well as
security procedures related to traveling.

Other activities, not elsewhere classified. This is a residual category intended to capture
activities not elsewhere classified in each table. These might be ambiguous activities that
could not be coded, missing activities, or activities that occurred very infrequently. Missing
activities result when respondents do not remember what they did for a period of time, or when
they consider an activity too private or personal to report. This category includes a small
amount of time that was spent in educational activities, as no educational activities category
appears in the tables.

Processing and estimation

After ATUS data are collected, they go through an editing and imputation procedure. Responses
to CPS questions that are re-asked in the ATUS go through the regular CPS edit and imputation
procedures. Some item nonresponses for questions unique to the ATUS also are imputed.

ATUS records are weighted quarterly to reduce bias in the estimates due to differences in
sampling and response rates across subpopulations and days of the week. Specifically, the
data are weighted to ensure the following:

   •   Weekdays represent about 5/7 of the weighted data, and weekend days represent about
       2/7 of the weighted data for the population as a whole. The actual proportions depend
       on the number of weekdays and weekend days in a given quarter.

   •   The sum of the weights is equal to the number of person-days in the quarter for the
       population as a whole and for selected subpopulations (the population times the
       number of days in the quarter).

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the ATUS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ from the true 
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because 
samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate.

Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the estimates
from all possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population value. In this
case, the sample estimate and its standard error can be used to construct approximate
confidence intervals, or ranges of values that include the true population value with known
probabilities. If the process of selecting a sample from the population were repeated many
times, an estimate made from each sample, and a suitable estimate of its standard error
calculated for each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 standard
errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above the estimate would include the true
population value. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

The ATUS data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the average difference between
population and sample values for samples generated by a given process. Nonsampling error can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing
of the data. Errors also could occur if nonresponse is correlated with time use.

Nonsampling error and eldercare. Eldercare done for a spouse or partner may be underreported,
especially when the care provided has only recently become necessary. For example, a survey
respondent who has always prepared the family dinner may not view cooking as an eldercare 
activity; if her husband is no longer capable of preparing his own meals, though, he depends
on this assistance and it meets the definition of eldercare. 

Additionally, nonsampling error affects data on the frequency of care. Survey respondents
were asked how often they provided eldercare in recent months and whether they provided
eldercare on the diary day. Information about care provided on the diary day was used to
calculate daily participation rates. There are some inconsistencies between the reported
frequency of care and the actual provision of eldercare on an average day. For example, in
2015–16, only 64 percent of eldercare providers who self-reported providing care "daily"
actually provided eldercare on an average day. This discrepancy reflects some respondents’
choice of "daily" rather than "several times a week" or another option to best describe
their eldercare frequency, even while acknowledging they had not provided care on the diary
day.

ATUS publication standards

Estimates of average hours per day and participation rates are not published unless there
are a minimum number of respondents representing the given population. Additional publication
criteria are applied that include the number of respondents who reported doing a specified
activity and the standard error or coefficient of variation for the estimate. Estimates that
are considered "close to zero" or that round to 0.00, are published as approximately zero.
For a detailed description of the statistical reliability criteria necessary for publication,
please contact ATUS staff at ATUSinfo@bls.gov.




Table 1. Number and percent of the U.S. population who were eldercare providers by sex and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2015-16 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total Men Women
Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers Civilian noninstitutional population Eldercare providers
Number Percent of population Number Percent of population Number Percent of population

Age

Total, 15 years and over

256,387 41,324 16.1 123,882 18,142 14.6 132,505 23,182 17.5

15 to 24 years

42,723 4,876 11.4 21,557 2,365 11.0 21,167 2,510 11.9

25 to 34 years

43,161 3,590 8.3 21,291 1,626 7.6 21,870 1,964 9.0

35 to 44 years

39,759 4,790 12.0 19,521 2,032 10.4 20,238 2,758 13.6

45 to 54 years

42,520 9,086 21.4 20,788 4,236 20.4 21,732 4,850 22.3

55 to 64 years

40,953 9,961 24.3 19,673 4,265 21.7 21,279 5,696 26.8

65 years and over

47,271 9,021 19.1 21,052 3,618 17.2 26,219 5,403 20.6

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(1)

White

206,678 34,718 16.8 101,077 15,088 14.9 105,601 19,630 18.6

Black or African American

31,552 4,579 14.5 14,373 1,928 13.4 17,179 2,651 15.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

41,114 3,837 9.3 20,514 1,652 8.1 20,600 2,186 10.6

Employment status

Employed

159,320 25,332 15.9 84,594 12,234 14.5 74,726 13,098 17.5

Full-time workers

123,608 18,488 15.0 71,574 9,851 13.8 52,034 8,637 16.6

Part-time workers

35,712 6,844 19.2 13,020 2,383 18.3 22,692 4,461 19.7

Not employed

97,066 15,992 16.5 39,287 5,908 15.0 57,779 10,084 17.5

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

22,621 2,306 10.2 11,749 1,179 10.0 10,873 1,127 10.4

High school graduates, no college

62,197 10,261 16.5 30,244 4,811 15.9 31,953 5,450 17.1

Some college or associate degree

52,667 9,892 18.8 23,721 3,630 15.3 28,946 6,262 21.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

76,178 13,989 18.4 36,611 6,157 16.8 39,566 7,832 19.8

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

69,109 8,655 12.5 30,697 3,605 11.7 38,412 5,050 13.1

Parent of household children age 6 to 17, none younger

37,429 5,827 15.6 16,718 2,443 14.6 20,711 3,384 16.3

Parent of a household child under age 6

31,680 2,828 8.9 13,978 1,162 8.3 17,701 1,666 9.4

Not a parent of a household child

187,278 32,669 17.4 93,185 14,537 15.6 94,093 18,132 19.3

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

112,450 15,277 13.6 52,261 6,534 12.5 60,189 8,743 14.5

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

143,936 26,047 18.1 71,621 11,608 16.2 72,315 14,439 20.0

Footnotes
(1) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 2. Eldercare providers by sex and selected characteristics related to care provided, averages for the combined years 2015-16 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Eldercare providers
Total Men Women
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Total, 15 years and over

41,324 100.0 18,142 100.0 23,182 100.0

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,655 20.9 3,605 19.9 5,050 21.8

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,827 14.1 2,443 13.5 3,384 14.6

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,828 6.8 1,162 6.4 1,666 7.2

Not a parent of a household child

32,669 79.1 14,537 80.1 18,132 78.2

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

29,376 71.1 12,722 70.1 16,655 71.8

Caring for two persons

8,833 21.4 3,862 21.3 4,971 21.4

Caring for three or more persons

3,114 7.5 1,558 8.6 1,556 6.7

Relationship to care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

41,324 (1)- 18,142 (1)- 23,182 (1)-

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

3,109 7.5 984 5.4 2,124 9.2

Caring for a parent

17,205 41.6 7,367 40.6 9,837 42.4

Caring for a grandparent(3)

6,881 16.7 3,031 16.7 3,850 16.6

Caring for another related person

10,419 25.2 5,247 28.9 5,173 22.3

Caring for a friend or neighbor

6,665 16.1 2,910 16.0 3,755 16.2

Caring for someone else

2,143 5.2 861 4.7 1,282 5.5

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

29,376 100.0 12,722 100.0 16,655 100.0

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

2,809 9.6 952 7.5 1,857 11.1

Caring for a parent

11,494 39.1 4,771 37.5 6,723 40.4

Caring for a grandparent(3)

4,507 15.3 1,807 14.2 2,700 16.2

Caring for another related person

5,966 20.3 3,169 24.9 2,797 16.8

Caring for a friend or neighbor

3,610 12.3 1,621 12.7 1,989 11.9

Caring for someone else

991 3.4 402 3.2 590 3.5

Age of care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

41,324 (1)- 18,142 (1)- 23,182 (1)-

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

5,767 14.0 2,859 15.8 2,909 12.5

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

7,499 18.1 3,123 17.2 4,376 18.9

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

8,496 20.6 4,179 23.0 4,316 18.6

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

10,526 25.5 4,964 27.4 5,562 24.0

Caring for someone age 85 or older

16,176 39.1 6,466 35.6 9,710 41.9

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

29,376 100.0 12,722 100.0 16,655 100.0

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

3,295 11.2 1,557 12.2 1,738 10.4

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

4,146 14.1 1,539 12.1 2,607 15.7

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

4,912 16.7 2,459 19.3 2,453 14.7

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

6,408 21.8 3,013 23.7 3,396 20.4

Caring for someone age 85 or older

10,616 36.1 4,154 32.7 6,462 38.8

Care of household or nonhousehold members

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

6,544 15.8 2,838 15.6 3,706 16.0

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

34,243 82.9 15,166 83.6 19,078 82.3

Provided eldercare to both household and nonhousehold person(s)

536 1.3 138 0.8 398 1.7

Frequency of care(4)

Provided care daily

8,538 20.7 3,287 18.1 5,251 22.6

Provided care several times a week

10,264 24.8 4,564 25.2 5,700 24.6

Provided care once a week

6,777 16.4 3,010 16.6 3,766 16.2

Provided care several times a month

8,574 20.7 4,178 23.0 4,396 19.0

Provided care once a month

5,267 12.7 2,392 13.2 2,875 12.4

Other

1,904 4.6 710 3.9 1,194 5.1

Duration of care(5)

Provided care for less than 1 year

9,607 23.2 3,680 20.3 5,927 25.6

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

10,267 24.8 4,482 24.7 5,785 25.0

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

7,595 18.4 3,125 17.2 4,470 19.3

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

8,122 19.7 3,937 21.7 4,185 18.1

Provided care for 10 years or more

5,734 13.9 2,919 16.1 2,815 12.1

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for more than one person.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(4) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(5) For persons who provided eldercare to more than 1 person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 3. Eldercare providers by relationship to care recipient and selected characteristics of eldercare providers, averages for the combined years 2015-16
Characteristic Number of eldercare providers (in thousands) Percent of eldercare providers caring for(1)
A spouse or unmarried partner(2) A parent A grandparent(3) Another related
person
A friend or neighbor Someone else

Age

Total, 15 years and over

41,324 7.5 41.6 16.7 25.2 16.1 5.2

15 to 24 years

4,876 (4)- 2.0 74.9 16.9 8.8 5.0

25 to 34 years

3,590 (4)- 26.1 50.1 21.8 9.3 6.3

35 to 44 years

4,790 0.3 48.7 23.1 24.0 15.7 5.0

45 to 54 years

9,086 0.9 67.4 3.3 25.2 13.5 3.7

55 to 64 years

9,961 4.2 60.2 0.2 29.0 14.8 5.3

65 years and over

9,021 28.8 18.9 (4)- 27.6 27.1 6.3

Sex

Men

18,142 5.4 40.6 16.7 28.9 16.0 4.7

Women

23,182 9.2 42.4 16.6 22.3 16.2 5.5

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(5)

White

34,718 8.2 41.9 16.4 25.2 15.8 4.7

Black or African American

4,579 3.9 40.6 17.6 26.5 17.6 7.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,837 7.0 40.1 21.6 24.7 12.9 3.4

Employment status

Employed

25,332 2.6 48.8 17.5 26.7 14.0 5.0

Full-time workers

18,488 1.6 53.4 14.3 28.0 12.2 4.8

Part-time workers

6,844 5.1 36.4 26.1 23.3 18.8 5.4

Not employed

15,992 15.4 30.3 15.4 22.8 19.5 5.5

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

2,306 13.2 35.8 6.1 26.1 18.2 7.8

High school graduates, no college

10,261 11.0 44.6 9.1 28.4 15.5 4.7

Some college or associate degree

9,892 8.7 46.5 10.1 25.0 19.0 5.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

13,989 5.8 50.8 8.3 25.8 16.8 5.1

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,655 0.4 46.6 22.7 27.1 12.2 4.8

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,827 0.5 55.6 13.1 27.2 12.6 4.7

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,828 0.4 28.2 42.5 27.0 11.3 5.0

Not a parent of a household child

32,669 9.4 40.3 15.0 24.7 17.2 5.3

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

15,277 1.5 37.3 30.5 16.6 19.4 5.8

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

26,047 11.1 44.2 8.5 30.3 14.2 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for multiple persons with whom they had different relationships.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Another related person."
(4) Estimate is approximately zero.
(5) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 4. Percent of eldercare providers who provided care on an average day and time spent providing this care by day of week and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2015-16
Characteristic Number of eldercare providers (in thousands) Percent of eldercare providers who provided care on an average day Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care on days they engaged in eldercare
Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total, all days Weekdays Weekends and holidays

Age

Total, 15 years and over

41,324 25.7 25.6 25.9 0.73 0.71 0.78 2.84 2.76 3.03

15 to 24 years

4,876 13.1 14.5 9.0 0.19 0.19 0.19 1.48 1.34 2.16

25 to 34 years

3,590 18.5 17.2 21.5 0.37 (1)- 0.58 2.00 1.62 2.69

35 to 44 years

4,790 22.5 22.3 23.0 0.54 0.51 0.61 2.41 2.28 2.68

45 to 54 years

9,086 22.2 22.0 22.5 0.54 0.50 0.64 2.44 2.25 2.87

55 to 64 years

9,961 28.3 26.6 32.2 0.82 0.80 0.85 2.89 3.02 2.63

65 years and over

9,021 37.9 39.5 33.9 1.36 1.37 1.31 3.58 3.47 3.88

Sex

Men

18,142 23.0 22.7 23.9 0.64 0.63 0.67 2.77 2.76 2.79

Women

23,182 27.8 28.0 27.5 0.80 0.77 0.87 2.88 2.76 3.18

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

White

34,718 25.9 25.5 26.9 0.72 0.69 0.79 2.78 2.71 2.95

Black or African American

4,579 23.7 24.5 21.9 0.80 0.79 0.81 3.36 3.21 3.72

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,837 37.4 37.4 37.3 1.16 1.07 1.39 3.11 2.86 3.72

Employment status

Employed

25,332 20.1 18.9 22.9 0.40 0.34 0.55 1.99 1.78 2.40

Full-time workers

18,488 19.2 17.8 22.4 0.39 0.32 0.54 2.01 1.79 2.41

Part-time workers

6,844 22.5 21.8 24.4 0.44 0.38 0.58 1.95 1.76 2.39

Not employed

15,992 34.7 36.3 30.7 1.25 1.29 1.16 3.61 3.56 3.77

Educational attainment, 25 years and over

Less than a high school diploma

2,306 35.1 (1)- (1)- 1.24 1.05 1.63 3.52 3.22 4.03

High school graduates, no college

10,261 32.1 31.6 33.4 0.96 0.95 0.99 3.00 3.01 2.97

Some college or associate degree

9,892 28.6 30.0 25.4 0.76 0.77 0.75 2.67 2.57 2.94

Bachelor's degree and higher

13,989 21.8 21.2 23.3 0.64 0.62 0.69 2.92 2.91 2.95

Parent of household children under 18 years

Parent of one or more household children

8,655 18.4 18.0 19.0 0.41 0.37 0.49 2.23 2.08 2.55

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,827 20.0 21.2 17.2 0.45 0.50 0.36 2.27 2.34 2.08

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,828 15.0 11.3 22.6 0.32 0.12 0.73 2.13 (1)- 3.24

Not a parent of a household child

32,669 27.7 27.5 27.9 0.81 0.79 0.87 2.94 2.87 3.12

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

15,277 27.1 27.2 26.9 0.67 0.64 0.75 2.47 2.34 2.77

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

26,047 24.9 24.7 25.4 0.77 0.75 0.81 3.07 3.03 3.18

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

29,376 27.1 26.6 28.3 0.83 0.80 0.90 3.05 3.00 3.17

Caring for two persons

8,833 23.5 24.6 21.0 0.54 0.53 0.54 2.27 2.17 2.57

Caring for three or more persons

3,114 18.8 19.5 17.2 0.37 0.36 (1)- 1.95 1.83 2.31

Relationship to care recipient(3)

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

29,376 27.1 26.6 28.3 0.83 0.80 0.90 3.05 3.00 3.17

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(4)

2,809 65.6 (1)- (1)- 2.78 2.72 2.91 4.24 4.13 4.49

Caring for a parent

11,494 29.3 28.7 30.6 0.82 0.79 0.89 2.80 2.74 2.92

Caring for a grandparent(5)

4,507 12.6 12.9 12.1 0.28 0.23 (1)- 2.24 1.78 3.39

Caring for another related person

5,966 23.9 22.1 29.2 0.76 0.76 0.74 3.16 3.44 2.55

Caring for a friend or neighbor

3,610 14.4 14.5 14.2 0.26 0.20 (1)- 1.82 1.40 2.81

Age of care recipient

Eldercare providers caring for one person only

29,376 27.1 26.6 28.3 0.83 0.80 0.90 3.05 3.00 3.17

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

3,295 25.6 25.9 24.9 0.59 0.59 (1)- 2.30 2.27 2.41

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

4,146 22.2 23.1 20.0 0.68 0.72 0.57 3.04 3.11 2.85

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

4,912 23.8 21.4 29.6 0.72 0.61 0.96 3.00 2.86 3.24

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

6,408 32.8 31.0 37.3 0.98 0.80 1.42 2.99 2.58 3.82

Caring for someone age 85 or older

10,616 27.5 28.0 26.5 0.92 0.99 0.76 3.33 3.53 2.88

Care of household or nonhousehold members(3)

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

6,544 64.1 61.3 71.7 2.15 2.01 2.54 3.35 3.28 3.54

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

34,243 17.8 17.8 17.6 0.44 0.44 0.46 2.50 2.45 2.63

Frequency of care(6)

Provided care daily

8,538 64.2 64.8 62.7 2.25 2.24 2.27 3.51 3.46 3.62

Provided care several times a week

10,264 26.8 27.0 26.2 0.61 0.59 0.65 2.27 2.19 2.50

Provided care once a week

6,777 11.8 11.0 13.5 0.17 0.12 0.27 1.44 1.06 2.02

Provided care several times a month

8,574 12.8 12.4 13.9 0.23 0.18 0.37 1.82 1.46 2.66

Provided care once a month

5,267 6.4 6.0 7.6 0.15 0.14 0.20 2.41 (1)- 2.68

Duration of care(7)

Provided care for less than 1 year

9,607 18.1 18.8 16.4 0.45 0.43 0.50 2.51 2.30 3.06

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

10,267 24.6 23.5 27.3 0.75 0.69 0.90 3.03 2.91 3.29

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

7,595 30.1 29.9 30.7 0.78 0.67 1.05 2.59 2.26 3.41

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

8,122 31.3 32.7 28.2 1.05 1.19 0.73 3.34 3.65 2.59

Provided care for 10 years or more

5,734 26.8 25.2 31.0 0.65 0.58 0.84 2.42 2.29 2.70

Footnotes
(1) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(2) Not all race categories are shown. Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Not all categories are shown.
(4) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(5) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(6) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care. Corresponding time and percent estimates were measured using information about care provided on the diary day. Not all categories are shown.
(7) For persons who provided eldercare to more than one person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 5. Time spent providing eldercare and percent of eldercare providers engaging in caregiving by sex and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2015-16
Caregiving activity Eldercare providers
Percent distribution of time spent in selected eldercare activities On days they provided care
Total Men Women Percent who engaged in
caregiving activity(1)
Average hours spent providing care
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 (1)- (1)- (1)- 2.84 2.77 2.88

Eating and drinking

6.8 8.3 5.8 22.5 25.5 20.6 0.19 0.23 0.17

Household activities

19.2 18.9 19.4 37.2 34.2 39.1 0.54 0.52 0.56

Housework

5.5 4.0 6.4 13.2 9.5 15.6 0.16 0.11 0.19

Food preparation and cleanup

8.6 7.0 9.6 27.4 23.7 29.7 0.24 0.19 0.28

Lawn and garden care

1.7 3.4 0.6 2.8 5.2 1.3 0.05 0.09 (2)-

Household management

1.6 0.8 2.0 4.9 4.0 5.4 0.04 0.02 0.06

Purchasing goods and services

2.9 2.4 3.2 11.2 10.0 12.0 0.08 0.07 0.09

Caring for and helping household members

10.0 8.6 10.8 19.9 14.5 23.4 0.28 0.24 0.31

Caring for household adults

9.1 7.4 10.1 17.5 11.7 21.2 0.26 0.21 0.29

Physical care for household adults

6.3 5.9 6.6 12.7 9.4 14.9 0.18 0.16 0.19

Providing medical care to household adults

1.2 0.3 1.7 7.2 2.4 10.2 0.03 (2)- 0.05

Helping household adults

0.3 (3)- 0.4 1.9 1.6 2.1 0.01 (2)- 0.01

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

12.6 10.4 13.9 25.0 22.0 26.9 0.36 0.29 0.40

Caring for nonhousehold adults

5.5 3.4 6.9 10.7 9.4 11.6 0.16 0.09 0.20

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

1.4 1.8 1.2 5.4 5.6 5.3 0.04 0.05 0.03

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

0.5 0.5 0.4 3.1 2.8 3.2 0.01 0.01 0.01

Helping nonhousehold adults

6.7 6.8 6.6 18.2 16.0 19.6 0.19 0.19 0.19

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

2.3 1.2 3.0 6.5 4.0 8.0 0.07 0.03 0.09

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.1 2.2 0.5 2.0 3.0 1.4 0.03 0.06 0.01

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

0.3 0.2 0.4 5.5 3.9 6.6 0.01 0.01 0.01

Working and work-related activities

1.8 0.8 2.5 1.9 1.1 2.4 0.05 (2)- 0.07

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

2.0 1.8 2.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.06 0.05 0.06

Leisure and sports

36.5 39.6 34.5 37.0 39.0 35.7 1.03 1.10 0.99

Socializing and communicating

14.4 13.7 14.9 23.6 23.6 23.7 0.41 0.38 0.43

Watching TV

15.9 18.8 14.1 12.5 13.5 11.8 0.45 (2)- 0.41

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

0.4 0.6 0.3 1.7 1.2 2.1 0.01 (2)- (2)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

0.9 1.0 0.8 5.3 5.9 5.0 0.03 0.03 0.02

Traveling

5.9 6.1 5.8 21.6 20.0 22.5 0.17 0.17 0.17

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

1.6 2.0 1.3 3.1 2.0 3.8 0.05 (2)- 0.04

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(3) Estimate is approximately zero.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 6. Time spent providing eldercare and percent of eldercare providers engaging in caregiving by day of week and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2015-16
Caregiving activity Eldercare providers
Percent distribution of time spent in selected
eldercare activities
On days they provided care
Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays Percent who engaged in
caregiving activity(1)
Average hours spent providing care
Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays Total Weekdays Weekends and holidays

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

100.0 100.0 100.0 (1)- (1)- (1)- 2.84 2.76 3.03

Eating and drinking

6.8 6.7 6.9 22.5 23.2 20.9 0.19 0.19 0.21

Household activities

19.2 18.8 19.9 37.2 36.8 38.2 0.54 0.52 0.60

Housework

5.5 5.3 5.9 13.2 14.5 10.2 0.16 0.15 0.18

Food preparation and cleanup

8.6 8.3 9.4 27.4 27.4 27.2 0.24 0.23 0.28

Lawn and garden care

1.7 1.9 1.2 2.8 3.1 2.1 0.05 (2)- (2)-

Household management

1.6 1.9 1.0 4.9 5.0 4.4 0.04 0.05 0.03

Purchasing goods and services

2.9 3.1 2.4 11.2 11.9 9.6 0.08 0.09 0.07

Caring for and helping household members

10.0 10.7 8.4 19.9 19.8 20.2 0.28 0.30 0.25

Caring for household adults

9.1 9.8 7.4 17.5 17.8 16.8 0.26 0.27 0.22

Physical care for household adults

6.3 6.5 6.0 12.7 12.6 13.0 0.18 0.18 0.18

Providing medical care to household adults

1.2 1.2 1.0 7.2 6.1 9.7 0.03 0.03 0.03

Helping household adults

0.3 0.3 0.2 1.9 1.6 2.5 0.01 (2)- 0.01

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

12.6 12.5 12.7 25.0 23.7 27.9 0.36 0.34 0.39

Caring for nonhousehold adults

5.5 6.9 2.7 10.7 11.3 9.4 0.16 0.19 0.08

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

1.4 1.3 1.7 5.4 5.1 6.2 0.04 0.04 0.05

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

0.5 0.4 0.6 3.1 2.9 3.3 0.01 0.01 0.02

Helping nonhousehold adults

6.7 5.5 9.2 18.2 17.0 21.0 0.19 0.15 0.28

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

2.3 1.8 3.3 6.5 6.0 7.6 0.07 0.05 0.10

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.1 1.1 1.3 2.0 1.7 2.6 0.03 0.03 0.04

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

0.3 0.3 0.4 5.5 5.1 6.4 0.01 0.01 0.01

Working and work-related activities

1.8 2.2 0.9 1.9 2.2 1.1 0.05 0.06 (2)-

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

2.0 1.2 3.6 3.2 2.6 4.6 0.06 0.03 0.11

Leisure and sports

36.5 36.0 37.5 37.0 36.3 38.7 1.03 0.99 1.13

Socializing and communicating

14.4 13.1 17.3 23.6 22.1 27.2 0.41 0.36 0.52

Watching TV

15.9 16.5 14.7 12.5 12.8 11.7 0.45 0.45 0.44

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

0.4 0.5 0.3 1.7 2.0 1.0 0.01 (2)- (2)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

0.9 1.1 0.4 5.3 6.5 2.6 0.03 0.03 0.01

Traveling

5.9 6.4 4.9 21.6 21.7 21.2 0.17 0.18 0.15

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

1.6 1.2 2.4 3.1 2.4 4.8 0.05 0.03 0.07

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 7. Percent of eldercare providers and time spent in caregiving on days they provided care by frequency of care and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2015-16
Caregiving activity Percent of eldercare providers who engaged in caregiving activities, on days they provided care(1) Average hours per day eldercare providers spent providing care on days they engaged in eldercare
Total Frequency of care(2) Total Frequency of care(2)
Daily Several times per week Once a week or less Daily Several times per week Once a week or less

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

(1)- (1)- (1)- (1)- 2.84 3.51 2.27 1.77

Eating and drinking

22.5 30.1 12.7 15.0 0.19 0.25 0.09 0.13

Household activities

37.2 55.4 18.0 16.3 0.54 0.83 0.16 0.25

Housework

13.2 21.4 6.5 1.7 0.16 0.28 0.02 (3)-

Food preparation and cleanup

27.4 44.9 9.6 6.6 0.24 0.41 0.08 0.05

Lawn and garden care

2.8 3.9 0.9 1.9 0.05 (3)- (3)- (3)-

Household management

4.9 5.2 4.9 3.3 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.03

Purchasing goods and services

11.2 10.6 14.3 8.6 0.08 0.07 0.12 0.07

Caring for and helping household members

19.9 35.1 1.6 6.1 0.28 0.53 (3)- (3)-

Caring for household adults

17.5 32.1 0.7 3.5 0.26 0.49 (3)- (3)-

Physical care for household adults

12.7 23.2 (4)- 3.5 0.18 0.35 (3)- (3)-

Providing medical care to household adults

7.2 13.9 (4)- (4)- 0.03 0.06 (3)- (3)-

Helping household adults

1.9 3.0 0.3 0.4 0.01 0.01 (3)- (3)-

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

25.0 15.9 34.9 31.9 0.36 0.22 (3)- 0.39

Caring for nonhousehold adults

10.7 9.2 14.0 9.2 0.16 0.09 (3)- 0.11

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

5.4 4.4 7.7 4.6 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.03

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

3.1 4.0 1.4 1.7 0.01 0.02 (3)- (3)-

Helping nonhousehold adults

18.2 10.9 26.2 24.5 0.19 0.12 0.27 0.26

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

6.5 4.1 13.0 4.2 0.07 0.05 0.09 0.08

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

2.0 1.3 1.7 3.0 0.03 (3)- (3)- (3)-

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

5.5 3.8 7.2 7.8 0.01 (4)- 0.02 0.01

Working and work-related activities

1.9 1.3 4.2 0.3 0.05 (3)- 0.12 (3)-

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

3.2 3.0 1.5 5.2 0.06 0.06 (3)- 0.07

Leisure and sports

37.0 37.6 37.5 34.5 1.03 1.28 0.84 0.63

Socializing and communicating

23.6 18.0 32.8 25.0 0.41 0.27 0.67 0.39

Watching TV

12.5 20.3 3.3 4.6 0.45 0.78 0.10 (3)-

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

1.7 2.4 0.4 1.2 0.01 (3)- (3)- (3)-

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

5.3 6.9 3.6 3.3 0.03 0.03 (3)- (3)-

Traveling

21.6 19.3 27.7 18.8 0.17 0.14 0.23 0.15

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

3.1 5.0 0.5 1.8 0.05 0.07 (3)- (3)-

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(3) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
(4) Estimate is approximately zero.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 8. Percent of eldercare providers who cared for one person only by age of eldercare recipient and caregiving activity, averages for the combined years 2015-16
Caregiving activity Percent of eldercare providers who cared for one person only,
on days they provided care(1)
Total Age of care recipient
65 to 74 75 to 84 85 or older

Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and over

(1)- (1)- (1)- (1)-

Eating and drinking

23.9 21.0 24.7 24.8

Household activities

39.5 (2)- 37.3 37.9

Housework

14.7 (2)- 12.5 14.9

Food preparation and cleanup

29.8 (2)- 27.8 30.4

Lawn and garden care

3.0 3.1 2.5 3.6

Household management

4.8 3.2 5.5 5.1

Purchasing goods and services

9.7 11.4 8.1 10.5

Caring for and helping household members

23.5 21.6 28.9 18.7

Caring for household adults

20.7 19.8 25.1 16.3

Physical care for household adults

15.4 14.8 19.4 11.3

Providing medical care to household adults

8.6 9.9 10.7 5.6

Helping household adults

2.2 2.4 3.1 1.1

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

22.0 14.6 20.7 27.8

Caring for nonhousehold adults

10.1 8.0 8.9 12.7

Physical care for nonhousehold adults

5.5 3.0 5.6 7.0

Providing medical care to nonhousehold adults

2.2 1.2 2.9 2.1

Helping nonhousehold adults

14.2 9.2 13.9 17.6

Housework, cooking, and shopping assistance for nonhousehold adults

5.0 3.2 5.0 6.1

House and lawn maintenance and repair assistance for nonhousehold adults

1.7 0.4 1.9 2.2

Picking up and dropping off nonhousehold adults

4.4 4.7 2.8 6.0

Working and work-related activities

1.5 1.3 2.2 0.8

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

2.7 3.0 2.6 2.6

Leisure and sports

38.7 (2)- 36.5 43.5

Socializing and communicating

23.1 20.5 21.2 26.8

Watching TV

15.7 14.6 12.4 20.1

Participating in sports, exercise, and recreation

2.1 2.6 2.8 1.0

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

6.0 4.7 4.1 9.0

Traveling

19.5 23.5 20.6 15.8

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

3.5 1.3 5.6 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Percents sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers did more than one care activity on days they provided care.
(2) Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Table 9. Number and percent of eldercare providers who were parents of household children under age 18 by sex and selected characteristics, averages for the combined years 2015-16 [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Eldercare providers with children under age 18 living at home
Total Men Women
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Parent of household children under 18 years

Total, parent of one or more household children

8,655 100.0 3,605 100.0 5,050 100.0

Parent of a household child age 6 to 17, none younger

5,827 67.3 2,443 67.8 3,384 67.0

Parent of a household child under age 6

2,828 32.7 1,162 32.2 1,666 33.0

Employment status

Employed

7,022 81.1 3,302 91.6 3,719 73.6

Full-time workers

5,522 63.8 3,115 86.4 2,406 47.7

Part-time workers

1,500 17.3 187 5.2 1,313 26.0

Not employed

1,633 18.9 303 8.4 1,331 26.4

Marital status

No spouse or unmarried partner present in household

1,471 17.0 318 8.8 1,153 22.8

Spouse or unmarried partner present in household

7,184 83.0 3,287 91.2 3,897 77.2

Number of care recipients

Caring for one person

5,703 65.9 2,172 60.3 3,531 69.9

Caring for two persons

2,257 26.1 1,068 29.6 1,189 23.6

Caring for three or more persons

694 8.0 365 10.1 329 6.5

Relationship to care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

8,655 (1)- 3,605 (1)- 5,050 (1)-

Caring for a spouse or unmarried partner(2)

39 0.4 6 0.2 33 0.6

Caring for a parent

4,035 46.6 1,674 46.4 2,362 46.8

Caring for a grandparent(3)

1,967 22.7 723 20.1 1,244 24.6

Caring for another related person

2,346 27.1 1,279 35.5 1,067 21.1

Caring for a friend or neighbor

1,056 12.2 395 11.0 661 13.1

Caring for someone else

416 4.8 104 2.9 312 6.2

Age of care recipient

Total, all eldercare providers

8,655 (1)- 3,605 (1)- 5,050 (1)-

Caring for someone age 65 to 69

1,766 20.4 905 25.1 861 17.1

Caring for someone age 70 to 74

2,030 23.5 778 21.6 1,252 24.8

Caring for someone age 75 to 79

2,243 25.9 1,038 28.8 1,205 23.9

Caring for someone age 80 to 84

1,905 22.0 846 23.5 1,059 21.0

Caring for someone age 85 or older

2,446 28.3 896 24.8 1,550 30.7

Care of household or nonhousehold members(4)

Provided eldercare to household member(s) only

684 7.9 200 5.6 484 9.6

Provided eldercare to nonhousehold member(s) only

7,936 91.7 3,383 93.9 4,553 90.2

Frequency of care(5)

Provided care daily

1,169 13.5 358 9.9 811 16.1

Provided care several times a week

2,224 25.7 882 24.5 1,342 26.6

Provided care once a week

1,712 19.8 761 21.1 951 18.8

Provided care several times a month

1,719 19.9 838 23.3 880 17.4

Provided care once a month

1,430 16.5 603 16.7 827 16.4

Other

401 4.6 162 4.5 239 4.7

Duration of care(6)

Provided care for less than 1 year

2,172 25.1 772 21.4 1,401 27.7

Provided care for 1 to 2 years

2,020 23.3 731 20.3 1,289 25.5

Provided care for 3 to 4 years

1,662 19.2 713 19.8 949 18.8

Provided care for 5 to 9 years

1,650 19.1 855 23.7 795 15.7

Provided care for 10 years or more

1,150 13.3 534 14.8 616 12.2

Footnotes
(1) Categories sum to more than 100 percent because some eldercare providers cared for more than one person.
(2) Care for a spouse or unmarried partner may be underreported. See the Technical Note for more information.
(3) Refers only to persons caring for a grandparent who did not live with them. Persons caring for a grandparent with whom they lived are included in the category "Caring for another related person."
(4) Not all categories are shown.
(5) Survey participants were asked how often they provided care in the past 3 to 4 months; this information was used to categorize them by frequency of care.
(6) For persons who provided eldercare to more than 1 person, the duration of care is calculated based on the person for whom they had cared the longest.

NOTE: Eldercare providers are those who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, cared for someone with a condition related to aging. Estimates were calculated for persons who cared for at least one person age 65 or older. Data refer to persons 15 years and over.


Last Modified Date: September 20, 2017