Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until             USDL-19-0002
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 4, 2019

Technical information:
 Household data:      (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 312,000 in December, and the unemployment
rate rose to 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains
occurred in health care, food services and drinking places, construction, manufacturing,
and retail trade.

   _____________________________________________________________________________________
  |                                                                                     |
  |                  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data              |
  |                                                                                     |
  |Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal   |
  |adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally    |
  |adjusted estimates back to January 2014 were subject to revision. The unemployment   |
  |rates for January 2018 through November 2018 (as originally published and as revised)|
  |appear in table A, along with additional information about the revisions.            |
  |_____________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate rose by 0.2 percentage point to 3.9 percent in December, and the
number of unemployed persons increased by 276,000 to 6.3 million. A year earlier, the
jobless rate was 4.1 percent, and the number of unemployed persons was 6.6 million. 
(See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.6 percent) and
Blacks (6.6 percent) increased in December. The jobless rates for adult women (3.5
percent), teenagers (12.5 percent), Whites (3.4 percent), Asians (3.3 percent), and
Hispanics (4.4 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1,
A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of job leavers increased by 142,000 in December to
839,000. Job leavers are unemployed persons who quit or otherwise voluntarily left
their previous job and immediately began looking for new employment. (See table A-11.)

In December, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more)
was little changed at 1.3 million and accounted for 20.5 percent of the unemployed.
Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed was down by 205,000. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 63.1 percent, changed little in December, and the
employment-population ratio was 60.6 percent for the third consecutive month. Both
measures were up by 0.4 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to
as involuntary part-time workers), at 4.7 million, changed little in December but was
down by 329,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were
unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In December, 1.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
changed from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were
not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job
sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had
not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 375,000 discouraged workers in December, down
by 99,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers
are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available
for them. The remaining 1.2 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in
December had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family
responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data 

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 312,000 in December. Job gains occurred
in health care, food services and drinking places, construction, manufacturing, and
retail trade. Payroll employment rose by 2.6 million in 2018, compared with a gain of
2.2 million in 2017. (See table B-1.) 

Employment in health care rose by 50,000 in December. Within the industry, job gains
occurred in ambulatory health care services (+38,000) and hospitals (+7,000). Health
care added 346,000 jobs in 2018, more than the gain of 284,000 jobs in 2017.

In December, employment in food services and drinking places increased by 41,000. Over
the year, the industry added 235,000 jobs, similar to the increase in 2017 (+261,000).

Construction employment rose by 38,000 in December, with job gains in heavy and civil
engineering construction (+16,000) and nonresidential specialty trade construction
(+16,000). The construction industry added 280,000 jobs in 2018, compared with an
increase of 250,000 in 2017.

Manufacturing added 32,000 jobs in December. Most of the gain occurred in the durable
goods component (+19,000), with job growth in fabricated metal products (+7,000) and
in computer and electronic products (+4,000). Employment in the nondurable goods
component also increased over the month (+13,000). Manufacturing employment increased
by 284,000 over the year, with about three-fourths of the gain in durable goods 
industries. Manufacturing had added 207,000 jobs in 2017.

In December, employment in retail trade rose by 24,000. Job growth occurred in general
merchandise stores (+15,000) and automobile dealers (+6,000). These gains were partially
offset by a job loss in sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores (-9,000). Retail
trade employment increased by 92,000 in 2018, after little net change in 2017 (-29,000).

Over the month, employment in professional and business services continued to trend up
(+43,000). The industry added 583,000 jobs in 2018, outpacing the 458,000 jobs added
in 2017.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, wholesale trade, transportation
and warehousing, information, financial activities, and government, showed little change
over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour
to 34.5 hours in December. In manufacturing, both the workweek and overtime increased by
0.1 hour to 40.9 hours and 3.6 hours, respectively. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls held at 33.7 hours. (See
tables B-2 and B-7.)

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
11 cents to $27.48. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by 84 cents,
or 3.2 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory
employees increased by 9 cents to $23.05 in December. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for November was revised up from +155,000
to +176,000, and the change for October was revised up from +237,000 to +274,000. With
these revisions, employment gains in October and November combined were 58,000 more than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the
recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 254,000
per month over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday,
February 1, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).


    __________________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                                  |
   |                       Upcoming Changes to the Household Survey                   |
   |                                                                                  |
   |Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2019 on        |
   |February 1, 2019, new population controls will be used in the household survey    |
   |estimation process. These new controls reflect the annual updating of intercensal |
   |population estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual practice,|
   |historical data will not be revised to incorporate the new controls; consequently,|
   |household survey data for January 2019 will not be directly comparable with data  |
   |for December 2018 or earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the new      |
   |controls on the major labor force series will be included in the January 2019     |
   |news release.                                                                     |
   |__________________________________________________________________________________|


    _______________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                               |
   |                 Upcoming Revisions of Establishment Survey Data               |
   |                                                                               |
   |Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2019 on     |
   |February 1, 2019, the establishment survey will introduce revisions to nonfarm |
   |payroll employment, hours, and earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark   |
   |process and updated seasonal adjustment factors. Not seasonally adjusted data  |
   |beginning with April 2017 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with January  |
   |2014 are subject to revision. Consistent with standard practice, additional    |
   |historical data are subject to revision as a result of the benchmark process.  |
   |_______________________________________________________________________________|


                  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data


At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment factors
for the labor force series derived from the household survey. As a result of this process,
seasonally adjusted data for January 2014 through November 2018 were subject to revision.
(Not seasonally adjusted data were not subject to revision.)

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2018 through November 2018, as first
published and as revised. The rates changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 3
of the 11 months and were unchanged in the remaining 8 months. Revised seasonally 
adjusted data for other major labor force series beginning in December 2017 appear
in table B.

More information on this year's revisions to seasonally adjusted series is available
at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf. Detailed information
on the seasonal adjustment methodology can be found at
www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology.htm.

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables of this news release can
be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical seasonally adjusted data
are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.


Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2018 and changes due to revision
January - November 2018

                                  As First             As 
Month                             Computed          Revised              Change

January.............                 4.1              4.1                 0.0
February............                 4.1              4.1                  .0
March...............                 4.1              4.0                 -.1
April...............                 3.9              3.9                  .0
May.................                 3.8              3.8                  .0
June................                 4.0              4.0                  .0
July................                 3.9              3.9                  .0
August..............                 3.9              3.8                 -.1
September...........                 3.7              3.7                  .0
October.............                 3.7              3.8                  .1
November............                 3.7              3.7                  .0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2017 2018
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

256,109 256,780 256,934 257,097 257,272 257,454 257,642 257,843 258,066 258,290 258,514 258,708 258,888

Civilian labor force

160,636 161,123 161,900 161,646 161,551 161,667 162,129 162,209 161,802 162,055 162,694 162,821 163,240

Participation rate

62.7 62.7 63.0 62.9 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.9 62.7 62.7 62.9 62.9 63.1

Employed

154,065 154,482 155,213 155,160 155,216 155,539 155,592 155,964 155,604 156,069 156,582 156,803 156,945

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.2 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.5 60.3 60.4 60.6 60.6 60.6

Unemployed

6,572 6,641 6,687 6,486 6,335 6,128 6,537 6,245 6,197 5,986 6,112 6,018 6,294

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

115,292 115,669 115,748 115,832 115,921 116,017 116,115 116,220 116,328 116,437 116,546 116,646 116,739

Civilian labor force

82,594 82,915 83,258 83,149 83,163 83,257 83,103 83,019 83,044 83,104 83,277 83,408 83,500

Participation rate

71.6 71.7 71.9 71.8 71.7 71.8 71.6 71.4 71.4 71.4 71.5 71.5 71.5

Employed

79,493 79,719 80,186 80,091 80,108 80,299 80,006 80,217 80,149 80,251 80,388 80,633 80,501

Employment-population ratio

68.9 68.9 69.3 69.1 69.1 69.2 68.9 69.0 68.9 68.9 69.0 69.1 69.0

Unemployed

3,101 3,196 3,072 3,059 3,055 2,958 3,097 2,801 2,895 2,853 2,889 2,775 2,999

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

124,057 124,328 124,407 124,491 124,579 124,674 124,771 124,875 124,983 125,091 125,200 125,299 125,393

Civilian labor force

72,272 72,238 72,595 72,580 72,558 72,590 73,155 73,295 73,153 73,107 73,442 73,478 73,769

Participation rate

58.3 58.1 58.4 58.3 58.2 58.2 58.6 58.7 58.5 58.4 58.7 58.6 58.8

Employed

69,587 69,620 69,849 69,946 70,033 70,161 70,455 70,622 70,563 70,710 70,935 70,949 71,218

Employment-population ratio

56.1 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.2 56.3 56.5 56.6 56.5 56.5 56.7 56.6 56.8

Unemployed

2,686 2,618 2,746 2,634 2,525 2,429 2,701 2,673 2,590 2,398 2,507 2,529 2,550

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,760 16,783 16,778 16,774 16,771 16,763 16,755 16,748 16,755 16,762 16,768 16,763 16,756

Civilian labor force

5,771 5,970 6,047 5,916 5,829 5,820 5,871 5,896 5,604 5,843 5,974 5,935 5,971

Participation rate

34.4 35.6 36.0 35.3 34.8 34.7 35.0 35.2 33.4 34.9 35.6 35.4 35.6

Employed

4,985 5,143 5,178 5,123 5,074 5,079 5,131 5,125 4,892 5,108 5,258 5,221 5,226

Employment-population ratio

29.7 30.6 30.9 30.5 30.3 30.3 30.6 30.6 29.2 30.5 31.4 31.1 31.2

Unemployed

785 827 870 793 755 741 740 771 712 735 715 714 745

Unemployment rate

13.6 13.9 14.4 13.4 13.0 12.7 12.6 13.1 12.7 12.6 12.0 12.0 12.5

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Change from:
Nov.
2018-
Dec.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

256,109 258,514 258,708 258,888 180

Civilian labor force

160,636 162,694 162,821 163,240 419

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 62.9 63.1 0.2

Employed

154,065 156,582 156,803 156,945 142

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.6 60.6 60.6 0.0

Unemployed

6,572 6,112 6,018 6,294 276

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 0.2

Not in labor force

95,473 95,821 95,886 95,649 -237

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.8 3.5 3.3 3.6 0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.7 3.4 3.4 3.5 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.6 12.0 12.0 12.5 0.5

White

3.7 3.3 3.4 3.4 0.0

Black or African American

6.7 6.2 6.0 6.6 0.6

Asian

2.5 3.1 2.7 3.3 0.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.9 4.4 4.5 4.4 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.4 3.1 3.0 3.1 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

6.3 5.9 5.6 5.8 0.2

High school graduates, no college

4.2 4.0 3.5 3.8 0.3

Some college or associate degree

3.6 3.0 3.1 3.3 0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.1 2.0 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,249 2,858 2,842 2,903 61

Job leavers

726 731 697 839 142

Reentrants

1,985 1,914 1,880 1,958 78

New entrants

568 605 577 588 11

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,230 2,062 2,128 2,126 -2

5 to 14 weeks

1,984 1,845 1,842 2,027 185

15 to 26 weeks

892 859 865 897 32

27 weeks and over

1,511 1,370 1,259 1,306 47

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,986 4,630 4,781 4,657 -124

Slack work or business conditions

3,081 2,837 2,882 2,891 9

Could only find part-time work

1,570 1,461 1,562 1,496 -66

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,163 21,448 20,909 21,234 325

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,623 1,491 1,678 1,556 -

Discouraged workers

474 506 453 375 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

175 274 176 312

Total private

174 281 173 301

Goods-producing

82 64 27 74

Mining and logging

1 4 0 4

Construction

42 31 0 38

Manufacturing

39 29 27 32

Durable goods(1)

29 19 14 19

Motor vehicles and parts

2.5 6.2 -1.4 1.8

Nondurable goods

10 10 13 13

Private service-providing

92 217 146 227

Wholesale trade

8.6 5.6 9.3 8.4

Retail trade

-25.9 0.1 29.2 23.8

Transportation and warehousing

8.7 16.7 28.9 2.2

Utilities

-0.2 1.4 0.6 0.5

Information

-4 7 -5 -1

Financial activities

8 10 1 6

Professional and business services(1)

31 56 44 43

Temporary help services

-1.0 15.8 10.5 10.3

Education and health services(1)

30 44 21 82

Health care and social assistance

30.9 47.8 31.3 57.9

Leisure and hospitality

31 67 18 55

Other services

5 9 -1 8

Government

1 -7 3 11

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

221 226 190 254

Total private

223 222 190 252

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.5 34.4 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.64 $27.31 $27.37 $27.48

Average weekly earnings

$919.08 $942.20 $941.53 $948.06

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

108.5 110.3 110.1 110.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.5 -0.2 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

138.2 144.0 144.1 145.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.7 0.1 0.9

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

65.5 68.4 61.0 70.0

Manufacturing (76 industries)

68.4 62.5 62.5 67.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

256,109 258,708 258,888 256,109 258,066 258,290 258,514 258,708 258,888

Civilian labor force

159,880 162,665 162,510 160,636 161,802 162,055 162,694 162,821 163,240

Participation rate

62.4 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.7 62.7 62.9 62.9 63.1

Employed

153,602 157,015 156,481 154,065 155,604 156,069 156,582 156,803 156,945

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.7 60.4 60.2 60.3 60.4 60.6 60.6 60.6

Unemployed

6,278 5,650 6,029 6,572 6,197 5,986 6,112 6,018 6,294

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 3.7 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9

Not in labor force

96,230 96,043 96,378 95,473 96,264 96,235 95,821 95,886 95,649

Persons who currently want a job

5,071 5,060 5,121 5,285 5,401 5,266 5,333 5,397 5,327

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,786 125,137 125,227 123,786 124,816 124,928 125,041 125,137 125,227

Civilian labor force

84,831 85,974 85,857 85,409 85,868 85,912 86,146 86,330 86,441

Participation rate

68.5 68.7 68.6 69.0 68.8 68.8 68.9 69.0 69.0

Employed

81,300 83,033 82,440 81,893 82,565 82,686 82,894 83,194 83,041

Employment-population ratio

65.7 66.4 65.8 66.2 66.1 66.2 66.3 66.5 66.3

Unemployed

3,531 2,941 3,417 3,517 3,303 3,226 3,252 3,136 3,401

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.4 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.9

Not in labor force

38,955 39,163 39,370 38,377 38,948 39,016 38,895 38,807 38,785

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,292 116,646 116,739 115,292 116,328 116,437 116,546 116,646 116,739

Civilian labor force

82,193 83,231 83,101 82,594 83,044 83,104 83,277 83,408 83,500

Participation rate

71.3 71.4 71.2 71.6 71.4 71.4 71.5 71.5 71.5

Employed

79,025 80,636 80,036 79,493 80,149 80,251 80,388 80,633 80,501

Employment-population ratio

68.5 69.1 68.6 68.9 68.9 68.9 69.0 69.1 69.0

Unemployed

3,168 2,596 3,066 3,101 2,895 2,853 2,889 2,775 2,999

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.1 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.6

Not in labor force

33,099 33,414 33,638 32,699 33,284 33,333 33,269 33,238 33,239

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

132,323 133,571 133,662 132,323 133,250 133,362 133,474 133,571 133,662

Civilian labor force

75,048 76,691 76,654 75,227 75,934 76,143 76,548 76,492 76,798

Participation rate

56.7 57.4 57.3 56.9 57.0 57.1 57.4 57.3 57.5

Employed

72,301 73,982 74,041 72,172 73,039 73,383 73,688 73,609 73,904

Employment-population ratio

54.6 55.4 55.4 54.5 54.8 55.0 55.2 55.1 55.3

Unemployed

2,747 2,709 2,612 3,055 2,895 2,760 2,860 2,883 2,894

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.5 3.4 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8

Not in labor force

57,275 56,880 57,008 57,096 57,316 57,219 56,926 57,079 56,864

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,057 125,299 125,393 124,057 124,983 125,091 125,200 125,299 125,393

Civilian labor force

72,237 73,820 73,768 72,272 73,153 73,107 73,442 73,478 73,769

Participation rate

58.2 58.9 58.8 58.3 58.5 58.4 58.7 58.6 58.8

Employed

69,775 71,438 71,422 69,587 70,563 70,710 70,935 70,949 71,218

Employment-population ratio

56.2 57.0 57.0 56.1 56.5 56.5 56.7 56.6 56.8

Unemployed

2,462 2,383 2,345 2,686 2,590 2,398 2,507 2,529 2,550

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.2 3.2 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

51,820 51,479 51,625 51,785 51,829 51,984 51,757 51,821 51,624

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,760 16,763 16,756 16,760 16,755 16,762 16,768 16,763 16,756

Civilian labor force

5,449 5,613 5,641 5,771 5,604 5,843 5,974 5,935 5,971

Participation rate

32.5 33.5 33.7 34.4 33.4 34.9 35.6 35.4 35.6

Employed

4,801 4,941 5,023 4,985 4,892 5,108 5,258 5,221 5,226

Employment-population ratio

28.6 29.5 30.0 29.7 29.2 30.5 31.4 31.1 31.2

Unemployed

648 672 619 785 712 735 715 714 745

Unemployment rate

11.9 12.0 11.0 13.6 12.7 12.6 12.0 12.0 12.5

Not in labor force

11,311 11,150 11,115 10,989 11,151 10,918 10,795 10,828 10,785

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

199,458 200,690 200,774 199,458 200,356 200,476 200,596 200,690 200,774

Civilian labor force

124,594 126,165 126,072 125,227 125,347 125,617 126,100 126,334 126,680

Participation rate

62.5 62.9 62.8 62.8 62.6 62.7 62.9 63.0 63.1

Employed

120,148 122,247 121,900 120,585 121,074 121,507 121,923 122,036 122,318

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.9 60.7 60.5 60.4 60.6 60.8 60.8 60.9

Unemployed

4,446 3,918 4,173 4,642 4,272 4,110 4,177 4,299 4,362

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

74,864 74,525 74,702 74,231 75,009 74,858 74,496 74,355 74,094

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,263 65,825 65,822 65,559 65,527 65,661 65,771 65,961 66,110

Participation rate

71.6 71.6 71.6 71.9 71.4 71.5 71.6 71.8 71.9

Employed

62,964 64,000 63,649 63,370 63,513 63,664 63,785 63,960 64,046

Employment-population ratio

69.0 69.6 69.2 69.5 69.2 69.4 69.4 69.6 69.6

Unemployed

2,299 1,826 2,174 2,190 2,014 1,996 1,986 2,000 2,064

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.8 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,061 56,054 55,939 55,131 55,372 55,378 55,778 55,819 55,995

Participation rate

57.4 58.1 58.0 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.8 57.9 58.0

Employed

53,356 54,413 54,368 53,231 53,616 53,792 54,062 54,023 54,226

Employment-population ratio

55.6 56.4 56.3 55.5 55.7 55.8 56.1 56.0 56.2

Unemployed

1,705 1,642 1,571 1,900 1,757 1,586 1,716 1,796 1,769

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.9 2.8 3.4 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,270 4,285 4,311 4,537 4,447 4,578 4,551 4,554 4,575

Participation rate

34.6 34.8 35.1 36.8 36.1 37.2 37.0 37.0 37.2

Employed

3,828 3,835 3,883 3,985 3,945 4,051 4,076 4,052 4,047

Employment-population ratio

31.0 31.2 31.6 32.3 32.1 32.9 33.1 32.9 32.9

Unemployed

442 450 428 552 501 527 476 502 528

Unemployment rate

10.4 10.5 9.9 12.2 11.3 11.5 10.5 11.0 11.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,436 32,923 32,956 32,436 32,810 32,848 32,887 32,923 32,956

Civilian labor force

20,050 20,467 20,325 20,181 20,384 20,504 20,564 20,451 20,460

Participation rate

61.8 62.2 61.7 62.2 62.1 62.4 62.5 62.1 62.1

Employed

18,791 19,288 19,067 18,827 19,108 19,265 19,290 19,232 19,107

Employment-population ratio

57.9 58.6 57.9 58.0 58.2 58.6 58.7 58.4 58.0

Unemployed

1,260 1,179 1,257 1,354 1,276 1,239 1,274 1,219 1,353

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.8 6.2 6.7 6.3 6.0 6.2 6.0 6.6

Not in labor force

12,385 12,456 12,632 12,255 12,426 12,345 12,323 12,472 12,496

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,128 9,298 9,214 9,193 9,394 9,349 9,400 9,310 9,284

Participation rate

67.3 67.3 66.7 67.8 68.3 67.9 68.2 67.4 67.2

Employed

8,537 8,771 8,645 8,598 8,828 8,800 8,814 8,771 8,709

Employment-population ratio

63.0 63.5 62.5 63.4 64.2 63.9 63.9 63.5 63.0

Unemployed

591 528 570 595 565 549 586 539 575

Unemployment rate

6.5 5.7 6.2 6.5 6.0 5.9 6.2 5.8 6.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,236 10,375 10,329 10,262 10,356 10,422 10,327 10,303 10,359

Participation rate

62.5 62.4 62.1 62.7 62.5 62.8 62.2 62.0 62.2

Employed

9,707 9,872 9,779 9,672 9,769 9,874 9,825 9,789 9,749

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.4 58.8 59.1 59.0 59.5 59.2 58.9 58.6

Unemployed

529 503 551 590 587 548 501 515 611

Unemployment rate

5.2 4.8 5.3 5.7 5.7 5.3 4.9 5.0 5.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

686 794 781 726 634 733 837 837 817

Participation rate

27.4 31.9 31.4 28.9 25.4 29.4 33.6 33.6 32.8

Employed

547 645 644 557 510 591 650 672 650

Employment-population ratio

21.8 25.9 25.9 22.2 20.5 23.7 26.1 27.0 26.1

Unemployed

140 149 137 169 124 141 187 165 167

Unemployment rate

20.3 18.7 17.5 23.3 19.5 19.3 22.4 19.7 20.5

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,610 16,096 16,138 15,610 16,093 16,011 16,030 16,096 16,138

Civilian labor force

9,779 10,281 10,250 9,787 10,260 10,303 10,280 10,334 10,262

Participation rate

62.6 63.9 63.5 62.7 63.8 64.3 64.1 64.2 63.6

Employed

9,546 9,999 9,928 9,547 9,951 9,943 9,956 10,050 9,929

Employment-population ratio

61.2 62.1 61.5 61.2 61.8 62.1 62.1 62.4 61.5

Unemployed

233 282 322 241 309 360 324 284 334

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.7 3.1 2.5 3.0 3.5 3.1 2.7 3.3

Not in labor force

5,831 5,814 5,888 5,823 5,832 5,709 5,750 5,762 5,876

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,831 43,146 43,234 41,831 42,863 42,959 43,054 43,146 43,234

Civilian labor force

27,429 28,854 28,913 27,499 28,253 28,388 28,513 28,820 28,963

Participation rate

65.6 66.9 66.9 65.7 65.9 66.1 66.2 66.8 67.0

Employed

26,077 27,585 27,659 26,140 26,935 27,102 27,266 27,524 27,701

Employment-population ratio

62.3 63.9 64.0 62.5 62.8 63.1 63.3 63.8 64.1

Unemployed

1,352 1,269 1,255 1,359 1,317 1,287 1,248 1,296 1,261

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.4 4.3 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.4

Not in labor force

14,402 14,293 14,321 14,332 14,610 14,571 14,541 14,326 14,271

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,090 15,599 15,639 15,103 15,425 15,424 15,448 15,595 15,651

Participation rate

80.1 80.1 80.1 80.2 79.7 79.5 79.5 80.1 80.2

Employed

14,457 15,080 15,042 14,522 14,852 14,832 14,854 15,063 15,107

Employment-population ratio

76.7 77.4 77.1 77.1 76.8 76.5 76.4 77.3 77.4

Unemployed

634 519 596 581 574 592 594 533 544

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.3 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.4 3.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,165 11,945 11,996 11,175 11,608 11,689 11,767 11,857 12,002

Participation rate

58.4 60.6 60.8 58.4 59.3 59.6 59.9 60.2 60.8

Employed

10,604 11,395 11,511 10,584 11,025 11,188 11,266 11,308 11,487

Employment-population ratio

55.5 57.8 58.3 55.4 56.3 57.0 57.3 57.4 58.2

Unemployed

561 550 485 591 582 501 501 550 515

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.6 4.0 5.3 5.0 4.3 4.3 4.6 4.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,174 1,310 1,278 1,221 1,220 1,276 1,298 1,367 1,310

Participation rate

30.3 33.0 32.2 31.5 30.9 32.3 32.8 34.5 33.0

Employed

1,017 1,110 1,105 1,035 1,058 1,082 1,145 1,154 1,107

Employment-population ratio

26.2 28.0 27.8 26.7 26.8 27.4 28.9 29.1 27.9

Unemployed

158 200 173 186 161 193 153 214 202

Unemployment rate

13.4 15.3 13.6 15.3 13.2 15.2 11.8 15.6 15.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,148 10,254 10,265 10,167 10,310 10,204 10,268 10,191 10,283

Participation rate

44.8 47.0 46.0 44.9 46.3 46.1 47.8 46.7 46.1

Employed

9,455 9,700 9,604 9,529 9,722 9,635 9,658 9,619 9,683

Employment-population ratio

41.8 44.4 43.1 42.1 43.7 43.5 44.9 44.0 43.4

Unemployed

693 554 661 638 588 569 610 572 600

Unemployment rate

6.8 5.4 6.4 6.3 5.7 5.6 5.9 5.6 5.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,760 35,967 36,011 35,924 36,132 36,213 36,103 35,901 36,154

Participation rate

57.5 57.7 57.8 57.8 57.3 57.5 57.6 57.6 58.1

Employed

34,245 34,764 34,631 34,412 34,718 34,856 34,650 34,631 34,776

Employment-population ratio

55.1 55.8 55.6 55.3 55.1 55.3 55.3 55.6 55.9

Unemployed

1,515 1,203 1,380 1,511 1,414 1,357 1,454 1,271 1,377

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.3 3.8 4.2 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.5 3.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,897 37,649 37,132 37,958 37,296 37,390 37,531 37,471 37,175

Participation rate

66.2 65.6 65.6 66.3 65.6 65.2 65.2 65.3 65.7

Employed

36,590 36,516 35,952 36,599 35,977 36,200 36,392 36,293 35,954

Employment-population ratio

63.9 63.6 63.5 63.9 63.2 63.1 63.2 63.2 63.5

Unemployed

1,307 1,133 1,180 1,359 1,320 1,189 1,139 1,178 1,222

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.0 3.2 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

55,824 58,392 58,701 55,834 57,686 57,294 57,968 58,451 58,701

Participation rate

73.4 73.7 73.6 73.4 74.1 73.6 73.5 73.8 73.6

Employed

54,701 57,194 57,519 54,637 56,508 56,167 56,782 57,150 57,442

Employment-population ratio

72.0 72.2 72.1 71.9 72.6 72.2 72.0 72.1 72.0

Unemployed

1,123 1,198 1,182 1,197 1,178 1,127 1,186 1,301 1,260

Unemployment rate

2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,389 19,028 17,533 17,153 1,856 1,875

Civilian labor force

9,521 9,337 8,405 8,175 1,115 1,162

Participation rate

49.1 49.1 47.9 47.7 60.1 62.0

Employed

9,159 9,040 8,084 7,906 1,075 1,135

Employment-population ratio

47.2 47.5 46.1 46.1 57.9 60.5

Unemployed

362 296 321 269 41 27

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.2 3.8 3.3 3.6 2.3

Not in labor force

9,868 9,691 9,128 8,978 741 713

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,164 4,251 3,469 3,556 695 696

Civilian labor force

3,383 3,437 2,897 2,951 486 486

Participation rate

81.2 80.8 83.5 83.0 69.9 69.9

Employed

3,270 3,313 2,800 2,841 470 471

Employment-population ratio

78.5 77.9 80.7 79.9 67.6 67.8

Unemployed

113 124 97 110 16 15

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.0

Not in labor force

781 814 572 605 209 210

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,981 3,062 2,501 2,547 480 514

Civilian labor force

2,284 2,371 1,952 1,988 332 383

Participation rate

76.6 77.5 78.1 78.0 69.1 74.5

Employed

2,204 2,300 1,885 1,924 319 376

Employment-population ratio

73.9 75.1 75.4 75.5 66.4 73.2

Unemployed

80 71 67 64 13 7

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.0 3.4 3.2 4.0 1.9

Not in labor force

697 690 548 559 148 131

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,839 7,434 7,572 7,179 267 255

Civilian labor force

1,638 1,550 1,573 1,492 65 57

Participation rate

20.9 20.8 20.8 20.8 24.3 22.5

Employed

1,577 1,511 1,512 1,453 65 57

Employment-population ratio

20.1 20.3 20.0 20.2 24.3 22.5

Unemployed

61 39 61 39 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.7 2.5 3.9 2.6 - -

Not in labor force

6,201 5,884 5,999 5,687 202 198

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,405 4,281 3,991 3,871 414 410

Civilian labor force

2,216 1,978 1,983 1,744 233 235

Participation rate

50.3 46.2 49.7 45.0 56.3 57.3

Employed

2,109 1,917 1,887 1,687 222 230

Employment-population ratio

47.9 44.8 47.3 43.6 53.5 56.0

Unemployed

107 62 96 56 11 5

Unemployment rate

4.8 3.1 4.8 3.2 4.9 2.2

Not in labor force

2,189 2,303 2,008 2,127 181 175

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

227,397 231,032 101,486 103,609 125,911 127,424

Civilian labor force

148,288 151,248 75,509 76,777 72,779 74,470

Participation rate

65.2 65.5 74.4 74.1 57.8 58.4

Employed

142,639 145,746 72,437 73,757 70,203 71,989

Employment-population ratio

62.7 63.1 71.4 71.2 55.8 56.5

Unemployed

5,649 5,502 3,073 3,020 2,576 2,481

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.6 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

79,109 79,785 25,976 26,831 53,133 52,954

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,780 30,426 226,329 228,462

Civilian labor force

6,211 6,288 153,668 156,222

Participation rate

20.9 20.7 67.9 68.4

Employed

5,690 5,793 147,912 150,688

Employment-population ratio

19.1 19.0 65.4 66.0

Unemployed

522 495 5,757 5,535

Unemployment rate

8.4 7.9 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

23,569 24,138 72,661 72,240

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,777 2,690 76,818 77,618

Participation rate

37.5 35.5 81.8 82.3

Employed

2,509 2,469 73,748 74,570

Employment-population ratio

33.9 32.6 78.6 79.1

Unemployed

268 221 3,071 3,048

Unemployment rate

9.7 8.2 4.0 3.9

Not in labor force

4,622 4,880 17,037 16,681

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,327 2,455 68,380 69,515

Participation rate

30.2 31.2 70.6 71.6

Employed

2,134 2,230 65,960 67,262

Employment-population ratio

27.7 28.3 68.1 69.3

Unemployed

193 225 2,421 2,253

Unemployment rate

8.3 9.2 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

5,367 5,414 28,461 27,528

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,107 1,144 8,470 9,090

Participation rate

7.5 7.6 23.8 24.5

Employed

1,047 1,094 8,204 8,856

Employment-population ratio

7.1 7.3 23.0 23.9

Unemployed

60 49 265 234

Unemployment rate

5.4 4.3 3.1 2.6

Not in labor force

13,580 13,843 27,163 28,031

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,546 42,985 19,966 20,855 21,579 22,130

Civilian labor force

27,143 28,359 15,612 16,140 11,531 12,219

Participation rate

65.3 66.0 78.2 77.4 53.4 55.2

Employed

26,091 27,393 15,058 15,633 11,033 11,761

Employment-population ratio

62.8 63.7 75.4 75.0 51.1 53.1

Unemployed

1,052 966 554 507 498 459

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.4 3.5 3.1 4.3 3.8

Not in labor force

14,403 14,626 4,354 4,715 10,048 9,911

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

214,563 215,903 103,820 104,372 110,744 111,532

Civilian labor force

132,736 134,151 69,219 69,717 63,517 64,435

Participation rate

61.9 62.1 66.7 66.8 57.4 57.8

Employed

127,510 129,088 66,242 66,807 61,268 62,281

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.8 63.8 64.0 55.3 55.8

Unemployed

5,226 5,064 2,977 2,910 2,249 2,154

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.8 4.3 4.2 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

81,827 81,752 34,600 34,655 47,227 47,097

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,368 2,553 2,393 2,512 2,346 2,478 2,418 2,556 2,522

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,590 1,784 1,659 1,680 1,534 1,661 1,674 1,772 1,747

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

743 742 708 791 771 813 722 768 752

Unpaid family workers

35 27 26 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

151,233 154,461 154,088 151,628 153,376 153,634 154,135 154,297 154,520

Wage and salary workers(1)

142,295 145,430 145,063 142,677 144,380 144,480 145,071 145,313 145,478

Government

20,789 21,270 20,709 20,731 20,785 20,753 21,186 21,054 20,677

Private industries

121,506 124,161 124,354 121,938 123,584 123,773 124,063 124,365 124,787

Private households

687 811 879 - - - - - -

Other industries

120,819 123,349 123,474 121,245 122,806 122,968 123,239 123,512 123,904

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,881 8,961 8,973 8,971 8,872 8,957 8,949 8,889 9,031

Unpaid family workers

57 69 52 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,060 4,558 4,740 4,986 4,368 4,656 4,630 4,781 4,657

Slack work or business conditions

3,172 2,760 2,984 3,081 2,581 2,807 2,837 2,882 2,891

Could only find part-time work

1,529 1,541 1,456 1,570 1,377 1,471 1,461 1,562 1,496

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,631 21,930 21,726 21,163 21,803 21,404 21,448 20,909 21,234

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,992 4,512 4,621 4,953 4,311 4,575 4,549 4,726 4,580

Slack work or business conditions

3,132 2,719 2,909 3,032 2,546 2,767 2,779 2,843 2,816

Could only find part-time work

1,528 1,541 1,435 1,566 1,367 1,462 1,453 1,571 1,473

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,226 21,539 21,349 20,716 21,501 21,002 21,083 20,521 20,826

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

153,602 157,015 156,481 154,065 155,604 156,069 156,582 156,803 156,945

16 to 19 years

4,801 4,941 5,023 4,985 4,892 5,108 5,258 5,221 5,226

16 to 17 years

1,803 1,807 1,695 1,889 1,776 1,765 1,954 1,915 1,784

18 to 19 years

2,998 3,134 3,328 3,099 3,118 3,299 3,305 3,295 3,441

20 years and over

148,801 152,073 151,458 149,080 150,712 150,961 151,324 151,582 151,720

20 to 24 years

13,809 13,899 13,753 13,937 13,829 14,022 13,897 13,942 13,885

25 years and over

134,991 138,174 137,706 135,087 136,816 136,887 137,504 137,615 137,786

25 to 54 years

99,547 101,273 100,845 99,551 100,328 100,333 100,892 100,844 100,833

25 to 34 years

34,614 35,779 35,664 34,631 35,352 35,511 35,693 35,672 35,689

35 to 44 years

32,302 32,958 32,884 32,304 32,655 32,501 32,857 32,796 32,881

45 to 54 years

32,631 32,537 32,298 32,616 32,322 32,320 32,343 32,376 32,263

55 years and over

35,444 36,901 36,860 35,536 36,489 36,554 36,612 36,771 36,954

Men, 16 years and over

81,300 83,033 82,440 81,893 82,565 82,686 82,894 83,194 83,041

16 to 19 years

2,275 2,397 2,404 2,400 2,416 2,435 2,506 2,561 2,540

16 to 17 years

779 775 777 845 813 779 895 848 848

18 to 19 years

1,495 1,622 1,627 1,554 1,605 1,640 1,621 1,711 1,686

20 years and over

79,025 80,636 80,036 79,493 80,149 80,251 80,388 80,633 80,501

20 to 24 years

7,093 7,019 6,934 7,200 6,987 7,162 7,082 7,089 7,044

25 years and over

71,933 73,617 73,102 72,263 73,099 73,021 73,331 73,519 73,435

25 to 54 years

53,163 54,032 53,612 53,333 53,605 53,575 53,789 53,933 53,774

25 to 34 years

18,559 19,205 19,084 18,635 19,011 19,123 19,169 19,201 19,165

35 to 44 years

17,397 17,698 17,645 17,455 17,643 17,512 17,625 17,664 17,701

45 to 54 years

17,206 17,128 16,883 17,243 16,952 16,941 16,995 17,068 16,908

55 years and over

18,770 19,585 19,490 18,931 19,494 19,445 19,542 19,587 19,661

Women, 16 years and over

72,301 73,982 74,041 72,172 73,039 73,383 73,688 73,609 73,904

16 to 19 years

2,526 2,544 2,619 2,586 2,476 2,674 2,753 2,660 2,686

16 to 17 years

1,024 1,032 918 1,044 962 986 1,059 1,067 936

18 to 19 years

1,502 1,512 1,701 1,545 1,513 1,659 1,684 1,584 1,755

20 years and over

69,775 71,438 71,422 69,587 70,563 70,710 70,935 70,949 71,218

20 to 24 years

6,717 6,880 6,819 6,737 6,842 6,860 6,816 6,853 6,841

25 years and over

63,058 64,557 64,604 62,823 63,718 63,866 64,173 64,096 64,352

25 to 54 years

46,385 47,242 47,233 46,218 46,723 46,757 47,103 46,912 47,059

25 to 34 years

16,055 16,573 16,580 15,996 16,341 16,388 16,524 16,471 16,524

35 to 44 years

14,905 15,260 15,238 14,850 15,012 14,989 15,231 15,132 15,180

45 to 54 years

15,425 15,408 15,415 15,372 15,369 15,379 15,348 15,308 15,355

55 years and over

16,674 17,316 17,371 16,605 16,995 17,109 17,070 17,184 17,293

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,284 46,164 45,720 45,520 45,876 45,972 46,192 46,204 45,984

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,952 36,521 36,603 35,747 36,066 36,041 36,089 36,220 36,379

Women who maintain families(2)

9,893 9,816 9,667 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

125,985 129,464 129,143 126,771 128,649 128,958 129,255 129,774 129,913

Part-time workers(4)

27,616 27,551 27,338 27,269 26,912 27,120 27,311 27,017 26,994

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,776 7,934 8,030 7,636 7,924 7,717 7,873 7,749 7,866

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.1 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,047 6,226 6,085 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,624 9,703 9,682 9,762 9,644 9,770 9,671 9,657 9,783

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,572 6,018 6,294 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9

16 to 19 years

785 714 745 13.6 12.7 12.6 12.0 12.0 12.5

16 to 17 years

335 291 286 15.1 13.3 13.8 10.6 13.2 13.8

18 to 19 years

466 430 476 13.1 12.0 12.1 12.9 11.5 12.1

20 years and over

5,786 5,305 5,549 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,055 979 1,074 7.0 6.8 6.9 6.8 6.6 7.2

25 years and over

4,709 4,314 4,454 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1

25 to 54 years

3,513 3,218 3,377 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,590 1,360 1,460 4.4 4.1 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.9

35 to 44 years

1,005 979 942 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8

45 to 54 years

918 879 975 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.9

55 years and over

1,197 1,084 1,090 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9

Men, 16 years and over

3,517 3,136 3,401 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.9

16 to 19 years

416 360 402 14.8 14.4 13.3 12.6 12.3 13.7

16 to 17 years

159 147 148 15.8 15.3 14.6 11.1 14.8 14.9

18 to 19 years

270 214 269 14.8 14.0 12.9 13.5 11.1 13.7

20 years and over

3,101 2,775 2,999 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.6

20 to 24 years

615 556 597 7.9 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.8

25 years and over

2,460 2,217 2,375 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,801 1,631 1,775 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 2.9 3.2

25 to 34 years

829 655 730 4.3 4.1 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.7

35 to 44 years

476 526 517 2.7 2.6 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8

45 to 54 years

496 450 528 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6 3.0

55 years and over

658 587 600 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.9 3.0

Women, 16 years and over

3,055 2,883 2,894 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8

16 to 19 years

370 353 343 12.5 11.0 11.9 11.4 11.7 11.3

16 to 17 years

176 144 138 14.4 11.5 13.1 10.1 11.9 12.9

18 to 19 years

196 216 207 11.3 9.9 11.3 12.3 12.0 10.5

20 years and over

2,686 2,529 2,550 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5

20 to 24 years

440 423 477 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.1 5.8 6.5

25 years and over

2,249 2,097 2,080 3.5 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,712 1,587 1,602 3.6 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.3

25 to 34 years

761 706 730 4.5 4.1 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.2

35 to 44 years

529 453 425 3.4 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.7

45 to 54 years

422 429 447 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8

55 years and over

550 498 501 3.2 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,008 923 964 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

944 871 866 2.6 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

552 558 453 5.3 5.4 5.1 5.3 5.4 4.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,321 4,739 4,951 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,263 1,280 1,353 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,298 2,598 2,947 3,249 2,868 2,796 2,858 2,842 2,903

On temporary layoff

1,010 699 834 923 855 812 793 804 762

Not on temporary layoff

2,288 1,899 2,113 2,326 2,013 1,984 2,066 2,038 2,141

Permanent job losers

1,604 1,242 1,415 1,627 1,351 1,257 1,365 1,337 1,432

Persons who completed temporary jobs

684 657 698 699 663 727 701 701 710

Job leavers

673 699 775 726 866 739 731 697 839

Reentrants

1,827 1,829 1,810 1,985 1,864 1,889 1,914 1,880 1,958

New entrants

480 524 496 568 586 588 605 577 588

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

52.5 46.0 48.9 49.8 46.4 46.5 46.8 47.4 46.2

On temporary layoff

16.1 12.4 13.8 14.1 13.8 13.5 13.0 13.4 12.1

Not on temporary layoff

36.4 33.6 35.0 35.6 32.6 33.0 33.8 34.0 34.1

Job leavers

10.7 12.4 12.9 11.1 14.0 12.3 12.0 11.6 13.3

Reentrants

29.1 32.4 30.0 30.4 30.1 31.4 31.3 31.4 31.1

New entrants

7.7 9.3 8.2 8.7 9.5 9.8 9.9 9.6 9.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.1 1.6 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.8

Job leavers

0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,144 1,974 2,050 2,230 2,199 2,065 2,062 2,128 2,126

5 to 14 weeks

1,848 1,670 1,901 1,984 1,722 1,751 1,845 1,842 2,027

15 weeks and over

2,287 2,005 2,078 2,404 2,247 2,240 2,229 2,124 2,203

15 to 26 weeks

867 817 859 892 927 861 859 865 897

27 weeks and over

1,420 1,188 1,219 1,511 1,320 1,379 1,370 1,259 1,306

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.5 22.7 21.5 23.8 22.6 24.1 22.4 21.7 21.8

Median duration, in weeks

8.8 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.0 9.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

34.1 34.9 34.0 33.7 35.7 34.1 33.6 34.9 33.4

5 to 14 weeks

29.4 29.6 31.5 30.0 27.9 28.9 30.1 30.2 31.9

15 weeks and over

36.4 35.5 34.5 36.3 36.4 37.0 36.3 34.9 34.7

15 to 26 weeks

13.8 14.5 14.2 13.5 15.0 14.2 14.0 14.2 14.1

27 weeks and over

22.6 21.0 20.2 22.8 21.4 22.8 22.3 20.7 20.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

153,602 156,481 6,278 6,029 3.9 3.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,121 63,642 1,290 1,368 2.0 2.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,760 26,450 514 582 2.0 2.2

Professional and related occupations

36,361 37,192 775 786 2.1 2.1

Service occupations

25,826 26,271 1,405 1,301 5.2 4.7

Sales and office occupations

33,633 33,718 1,268 1,244 3.6 3.6

Sales and related occupations

15,985 16,217 627 602 3.8 3.6

Office and administrative support occupations

17,649 17,500 641 642 3.5 3.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,299 14,439 961 858 6.3 5.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,107 1,148 195 143 15.0 11.1

Construction and extraction occupations

8,198 8,390 600 539 6.8 6.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,994 4,901 166 175 3.2 3.4

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,722 18,412 865 746 4.7 3.9

Production occupations

8,546 8,689 376 298 4.2 3.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,177 9,722 489 448 5.1 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,278 6,029 3.9 3.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,841 4,605 3.8 3.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

41 21 5.1 2.6

Construction

554 493 5.9 5.1

Manufacturing

505 441 3.3 2.8

Durable goods

289 231 3.0 2.3

Nondurable goods

217 210 3.8 3.5

Wholesale and retail trade

841 753 4.1 3.7

Transportation and utilities

208 280 3.0 3.9

Information

108 103 3.8 3.9

Financial activities

143 248 1.5 2.4

Professional and business services

712 723 4.2 4.3

Education and health services

706 519 3.0 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

833 814 6.2 6.0

Other services

189 211 2.8 3.0

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

210 151 11.9 8.6

Government workers

460 526 2.2 2.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

287 251 2.9 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2017
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.1 1.6 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.9 3.5 3.7 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.2 3.7 3.9 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.9 4.5 4.6 5.1 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.0 7.2 7.5 8.1 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.6

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,230 96,378 38,955 39,370 57,275 57,008

Persons who currently want a job

5,071 5,121 2,330 2,514 2,742 2,607

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,623 1,556 811 878 812 678

Discouraged workers(2)

474 375 316 232 158 143

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,149 1,181 495 646 654 535

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,776 8,030 3,744 3,952 4,032 4,078

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.1 4.6 4.8 5.6 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,391 4,329 2,335 2,331 2,056 1,998

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,964 2,177 668 733 1,296 1,445

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

269 267 154 180 116 88

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,091 1,203 560 700 531 504

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)
Change from:
Nov.2018 - Dec.2018(p)

Total nonfarm

148,530 150,760 151,244 151,190 147,625 149,775 149,951 150,263 312

Total private

125,855 127,997 128,371 128,431 125,294 127,384 127,557 127,858 301

Goods-producing

20,230 21,051 20,947 20,856 20,328 20,851 20,878 20,952 74

Mining and logging

700 764 758 759 698 754 754 758 4

Logging

50.1 48.1 47.3 47.4 49.7 47.2 46.5 47.1 0.6

Mining

649.6 716.2 710.2 711.2 648.3 707.1 707.0 710.7 3.7

Oil and gas extraction

145.3 153.3 155.2 155.1 144.5 153.2 154.4 154.7 0.3

Mining, except oil and gas

183.7 194.2 192.0 190.2 185.8 191.1 191.2 192.1 0.9

Coal mining

51.9 53.2 53.2 54.0 51.8 52.9 53.3 53.9 0.6

Metal ore mining

38.4 38.9 38.4 38.4 38.4 38.9 38.5 38.4 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

93.4 102.1 100.4 97.8 95.7 99.3 99.4 99.8 0.4

Support activities for mining

320.6 368.7 363.0 365.9 318.0 362.8 361.4 363.9 2.5

Construction

6,970 7,496 7,389 7,253 7,072 7,314 7,314 7,352 38

Construction of buildings

1,555.5 1,646.7 1,636.7 1,625.9 1,563.8 1,621.2 1,626.5 1,634.5 8.0

Residential building

766.0 817.3 817.3 815.7 767.5 805.6 811.6 816.2 4.6

Nonresidential building

789.5 829.4 819.4 810.2 796.3 815.6 814.9 818.3 3.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

942.4 1,092.6 1,054.0 1,003.0 991.3 1,034.6 1,037.5 1,053.8 16.3

Specialty trade contractors

4,471.7 4,756.8 4,698.4 4,623.9 4,516.7 4,657.9 4,650.2 4,663.4 13.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,964.9 2,085.3 2,060.9 2,018.3 1,986.5 2,042.2 2,040.5 2,037.6 -2.9

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,506.8 2,671.5 2,637.5 2,605.6 2,530.2 2,615.7 2,609.7 2,625.8 16.1

Manufacturing

12,560 12,791 12,800 12,844 12,558 12,783 12,810 12,842 32

Durable goods

7,829 8,000 8,015 8,045 7,821 8,004 8,018 8,037 19

Wood products

399.1 408.6 407.9 406.8 398.5 407.0 406.8 405.7 -1.1

Nonmetallic mineral products

413.0 425.9 425.3 422.2 415.8 422.0 423.2 424.6 1.4

Primary metals

379.9 381.5 384.2 387.1 378.7 382.1 385.4 386.4 1.0

Fabricated metal products

1,458.2 1,495.4 1,495.1 1,503.2 1,456.0 1,498.0 1,497.5 1,504.2 6.7

Machinery

1,097.5 1,129.8 1,133.2 1,140.3 1,097.2 1,133.9 1,136.6 1,139.9 3.3

Computer and electronic products

1,057.2 1,070.2 1,072.9 1,080.2 1,055.8 1,072.2 1,074.6 1,078.2 3.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

166.3 170.7 170.8 170.6 166.0 170.7 170.4 170.3 -0.1

Communications equipment

86.5 85.5 85.7 86.4 86.5 85.6 85.9 86.3 0.4

Semiconductors and electronic components

367.6 368.8 370.2 372.4 366.6 369.9 370.8 371.3 0.5

Electronic instruments

404.1 412.3 413.3 417.6 404.1 413.3 414.6 417.2 2.6

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

32.7 32.9 32.9 33.2 32.7 32.7 32.9 33.1 0.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

395.6 408.1 409.9 411.2 395.1 408.7 410.2 410.6 0.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,642.3 1,685.1 1,692.1 1,700.3 1,639.0 1,686.4 1,690.9 1,695.0 4.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

959.2 968.9 968.9 973.8 956.3 969.0 967.6 969.4 1.8

Furniture and related products

392.2 391.3 390.4 391.0 392.2 391.0 391.4 390.7 -0.7

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

593.6 603.7 603.7 602.4 592.3 602.3 601.0 601.3 0.3

Nondurable goods

4,731 4,791 4,785 4,799 4,737 4,779 4,792 4,805 13

Food manufacturing

1,620.0 1,655.4 1,644.8 1,649.6 1,623.9 1,646.5 1,650.2 1,653.9 3.7

Textile mills

111.8 111.1 112.4 112.4 111.5 111.3 112.2 112.3 0.1

Textile product mills

113.0 111.0 111.2 111.8 112.8 110.7 110.7 111.3 0.6

Apparel

116.5 111.8 111.2 110.9 115.9 111.6 110.7 110.6 -0.1

Paper and paper products

369.8 377.0 377.3 379.7 370.0 378.6 378.4 380.2 1.8

Printing and related support activities

439.3 432.4 432.6 432.2 436.9 431.6 430.9 429.9 -1.0

Petroleum and coal products

113.0 119.0 115.3 114.6 114.9 116.4 115.3 116.6 1.3

Chemicals

831.6 836.1 841.6 844.6 830.3 838.0 844.3 843.1 -1.2

Plastics and rubber products

723.9 727.1 732.8 735.7 724.3 731.0 733.7 735.9 2.2

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

292.4 310.1 305.4 307.2 296.0 303.5 305.6 311.1 5.5

Private service-providing

105,625 106,946 107,424 107,575 104,966 106,533 106,679 106,906 227

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,337 27,897 28,506 28,704 27,593 27,861 27,929 27,963 34

Wholesale trade

5,951.7 6,021.9 6,036.2 6,042.8 5,941.9 6,013.1 6,022.4 6,030.8 8.4

Durable goods

2,998.1 3,038.1 3,050.5 3,058.4 2,994.9 3,041.4 3,048.8 3,053.7 4.9

Nondurable goods

2,057.5 2,063.5 2,065.2 2,061.3 2,054.8 2,053.3 2,055.1 2,057.0 1.9

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

896.1 920.3 920.5 923.1 892.2 918.4 918.5 920.1 1.6

Retail trade

16,371.1 15,890.4 16,370.2 16,446.7 15,861.1 15,899.7 15,928.9 15,952.7 23.8

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,010.6 2,047.4 2,039.9 2,038.3 2,019.9 2,044.0 2,040.3 2,047.6 7.3

Automobile dealers

1,300.8 1,314.9 1,311.3 1,314.8 1,303.4 1,312.4 1,311.0 1,317.3 6.3

Other motor vehicle dealers

147.8 157.2 152.0 148.9 155.9 158.0 156.9 157.1 0.2

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

562.0 575.3 576.6 574.6 560.6 573.6 572.4 573.2 0.8

Furniture and home furnishings stores

503.2 489.1 502.9 512.1 480.7 487.1 487.1 489.8 2.7

Electronics and appliance stores

513.0 489.8 492.6 489.9 495.0 487.1 476.6 476.7 0.1

Building material and garden supply stores

1,261.0 1,276.6 1,271.5 1,264.4 1,299.5 1,303.1 1,303.5 1,304.4 0.9

Food and beverage stores

3,125.2 3,106.4 3,134.8 3,144.1 3,099.8 3,105.3 3,110.9 3,114.9 4.0

Health and personal care stores

1,089.1 1,055.2 1,079.4 1,086.0 1,065.9 1,058.6 1,061.3 1,061.2 -0.1

Gasoline stations

930.3 941.3 945.9 940.6 933.1 940.4 942.2 943.5 1.3

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,486.5 1,340.6 1,468.2 1,487.0 1,347.5 1,355.2 1,351.5 1,351.5 0.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

674.4 557.4 589.8 588.4 598.8 553.7 541.1 531.7 -9.4

General merchandise stores

3,334.3 3,148.2 3,374.4 3,420.9 3,121.7 3,145.9 3,182.9 3,197.9 15.0

Department stores

1,315.2 1,175.5 1,298.7 1,344.1 1,175.5 1,180.5 1,190.7 1,198.8 8.1

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,019.1 1,972.7 2,075.7 2,076.8 1,946.2 1,965.4 1,992.1 1,999.1 7.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

835.6 831.2 847.7 850.6 821.2 820.8 832.2 835.3 3.1

Nonstore retailers

607.9 607.2 623.1 624.4 578.0 598.5 599.3 598.2 -1.1

Transportation and warehousing

5,459.1 5,432.8 5,547.2 5,659.3 5,236.2 5,394.9 5,423.8 5,426.0 2.2

Air transportation

497.7 506.0 504.9 505.5 499.6 506.2 506.6 507.3 0.7

Rail transportation

211.8 216.4 216.4 216.4 212.1 215.8 216.0 216.7 0.7

Water transportation

64.7 66.0 64.7 64.6 65.8 65.6 65.5 65.6 0.1

Truck transportation

1,460.2 1,505.9 1,504.2 1,497.5 1,460.3 1,489.9 1,494.0 1,496.9 2.9

Transit and ground passenger transportation

511.0 512.8 510.8 509.5 495.5 494.5 494.4 494.2 -0.2

Pipeline transportation

47.8 47.0 46.8 46.9 47.6 47.0 46.8 46.6 -0.2

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

30.0 35.9 32.4 31.3 36.0 35.2 36.9 36.9 0.0

Support activities for transportation

703.8 720.7 725.8 730.4 700.2 717.6 724.0 725.7 1.7

Couriers and messengers

887.9 748.8 845.1 958.3 707.7 764.9 777.4 772.2 -5.2

Warehousing and storage

1,044.2 1,073.3 1,096.1 1,098.9 1,011.4 1,058.2 1,062.2 1,063.9 1.7

Utilities

554.9 551.9 552.6 554.8 554.1 552.8 553.4 553.9 0.5

Information

2,784 2,773 2,782 2,763 2,776 2,766 2,761 2,760 -1

Publishing industries, except Internet

720.3 715.1 718.0 716.9 717.0 713.8 715.0 713.4 -1.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

414.6 420.5 417.5 397.1 416.3 413.7 402.4 403.3 0.9

Broadcasting, except Internet

264.7 263.6 266.0 264.6 263.0 262.3 264.1 262.9 -1.2

Telecommunications

778.1 746.5 749.6 751.9 773.9 749.5 748.9 748.4 -0.5

Data processing, hosting and related services

320.1 328.1 327.8 328.6 319.6 327.7 328.6 328.9 0.3

Other information services

286.5 299.0 302.8 304.0 285.9 299.3 302.4 302.8 0.4

Financial activities

8,516 8,626 8,612 8,629 8,511 8,614 8,615 8,621 6

Finance and insurance

6,301.6 6,339.6 6,345.9 6,348.3 6,291.2 6,336.3 6,340.5 6,337.4 -3.1

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.0 19.2 19.2 19.2 18.9 19.2 19.1 19.2 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,660.6 2,662.5 2,657.8 2,655.0 2,657.3 2,664.1 2,658.5 2,652.9 -5.6

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,714.5 1,713.2 1,714.4 1,715.9 1,716.0 1,719.1 1,718.0 1,717.9 -0.1

Commercial banking

1,321.1 1,313.2 1,313.6 1,313.2 1,322.5 1,318.1 1,316.8 1,315.0 -1.8

Nondepository credit intermediation

629.9 632.7 627.5 623.4 625.9 628.9 625.2 620.7 -4.5

Activities related to credit intermediation

316.2 316.6 315.9 315.7 315.4 316.2 315.3 314.3 -1.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

952.5 971.3 978.2 981.2 950.8 969.5 976.7 977.9 1.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,669.5 2,686.6 2,690.7 2,692.9 2,664.2 2,683.5 2,686.2 2,687.4 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,214.7 2,286.4 2,266.4 2,280.3 2,219.5 2,277.7 2,274.9 2,283.2 8.3

Real estate

1,615.5 1,653.6 1,644.8 1,657.6 1,611.1 1,646.5 1,646.5 1,652.1 5.6

Rental and leasing services

574.8 607.5 596.5 597.5 584.2 606.0 603.5 606.1 2.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.4 25.3 25.1 25.2 24.2 25.2 24.9 25.0 0.1

Professional and business services

20,770 21,381 21,431 21,349 20,677 21,173 21,217 21,260 43

Professional and technical services

9,110.2 9,316.4 9,370.7 9,391.5 9,080.8 9,322.4 9,348.9 9,366.5 17.6

Legal services

1,143.8 1,141.7 1,139.5 1,143.2 1,137.1 1,138.6 1,137.3 1,136.7 -0.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

979.8 969.0 998.8 1,017.0 982.1 1,019.5 1,020.9 1,023.7 2.8

Architectural and engineering services

1,454.6 1,502.2 1,500.4 1,499.8 1,456.0 1,493.4 1,498.7 1,500.1 1.4

Specialized design services

140.6 139.8 142.5 142.6 138.3 138.8 140.1 140.3 0.2

Computer systems design and related services

2,066.2 2,140.1 2,153.6 2,142.6 2,064.5 2,129.6 2,139.8 2,142.0 2.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,439.1 1,484.7 1,488.7 1,492.7 1,424.1 1,470.0 1,472.8 1,477.0 4.2

Scientific research and development services

662.5 688.5 691.0 695.1 663.1 690.1 691.9 695.5 3.6

Advertising and related services

493.0 496.7 498.9 500.5 490.9 495.5 498.2 499.6 1.4

Other professional and technical services

730.6 753.7 757.3 758.0 724.7 746.9 749.3 751.6 2.3

Management of companies and enterprises

2,312.1 2,338.8 2,337.7 2,341.0 2,308.4 2,340.2 2,337.3 2,337.7 0.4

Administrative and waste services

9,347.8 9,725.9 9,722.5 9,616.3 9,287.4 9,510.6 9,531.0 9,556.2 25.2

Administrative and support services

8,931.5 9,288.6 9,286.8 9,179.0 8,869.4 9,074.3 9,094.0 9,117.0 23.0

Office administrative services

519.3 530.2 532.7 532.2 518.7 529.2 530.0 531.4 1.4

Facilities support services

155.3 159.6 158.3 158.0 155.8 158.2 157.9 158.2 0.3

Employment services(1)

3,800.5 3,902.9 3,935.8 3,920.7 3,673.6 3,769.6 3,777.6 3,792.4 14.8

Temporary help services

3,113.6 3,198.2 3,229.6 3,215.5 2,998.1 3,075.9 3,086.4 3,096.7 10.3

Business support services

932.1 924.6 937.3 935.3 908.5 910.3 913.3 911.5 -1.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

213.9 217.4 213.4 212.5 216.4 217.2 215.3 215.1 -0.2

Investigation and security services

933.2 949.0 952.2 958.7 927.9 944.0 947.8 952.5 4.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,052.0 2,258.3 2,217.2 2,121.5 2,137.6 2,203.8 2,208.7 2,209.9 1.2

Other support services

325.2 346.6 339.9 340.1 331.1 342.2 343.4 345.9 2.5

Waste management and remediation services

416.3 437.3 435.7 437.3 418.0 436.3 437.0 439.2 2.2

Education and health services

23,556 23,997 24,066 24,077 23,380 23,794 23,815 23,897 82

Educational services

3,808.3 3,900.3 3,919.4 3,865.3 3,695.7 3,738.4 3,728.5 3,752.6 24.1

Health care and social assistance

19,748.0 20,096.3 20,146.7 20,212.1 19,684.4 20,055.4 20,086.7 20,144.6 57.9

Health care(3)

15,921.8 16,163.9 16,207.3 16,272.3 15,867.0 16,134.8 16,162.8 16,213.0 50.2

Ambulatory health care services

7,419.1 7,571.2 7,597.3 7,640.6 7,388.6 7,549.9 7,570.5 7,608.3 37.8

Offices of physicians

2,628.0 2,661.3 2,668.5 2,682.7 2,612.2 2,652.9 2,659.4 2,666.1 6.7

Offices of dentists

945.2 956.6 957.5 965.8 943.5 954.5 955.3 962.5 7.2

Offices of other health practitioners

908.4 943.5 950.2 954.6 905.6 942.2 945.6 951.2 5.6

Outpatient care centers

916.2 943.7 949.8 953.6 914.0 943.5 948.1 951.2 3.1

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

275.6 284.5 284.0 287.5 274.0 284.0 284.2 285.9 1.7

Home health care services

1,436.5 1,478.5 1,483.3 1,493.7 1,430.5 1,471.9 1,474.8 1,488.1 13.3

Other ambulatory health care services

309.2 303.1 304.0 302.7 308.8 301.0 303.1 303.2 0.1

Hospitals

5,135.9 5,221.7 5,236.1 5,244.8 5,124.0 5,215.1 5,224.4 5,231.8 7.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,366.8 3,371.0 3,373.9 3,386.9 3,354.4 3,369.8 3,367.9 3,372.9 5.0

Nursing care facilities

1,626.6 1,612.5 1,616.4 1,620.8 1,619.7 1,611.4 1,612.0 1,612.7 0.7

Residential mental health facilities

635.8 637.0 635.8 640.7 635.0 637.7 636.1 639.0 2.9

Community care facilities for the elderly

934.0 947.5 947.5 949.6 929.4 946.6 945.6 945.7 0.1

Other residential care facilities

170.4 174.0 174.2 175.8 170.3 174.0 174.1 175.4 1.3

Social assistance

3,826.2 3,932.4 3,939.4 3,939.8 3,817.4 3,920.6 3,923.9 3,931.6 7.7

Individual and family services

2,366.7 2,458.8 2,463.8 2,468.8 2,366.4 2,458.3 2,461.7 2,470.0 8.3

Emergency and other relief services

172.0 175.9 177.5 178.4 170.6 176.5 177.4 176.7 -0.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

344.0 347.5 346.5 345.1 345.0 347.7 346.3 345.8 -0.5

Child day care services

943.5 950.2 951.6 947.5 935.5 938.1 938.4 939.1 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

15,862 16,384 16,153 16,184 16,207 16,440 16,458 16,513 55

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,174.0 2,355.9 2,226.2 2,232.1 2,349.9 2,393.5 2,391.9 2,398.9 7.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

475.4 528.6 492.7 488.6 496.5 516.4 508.3 508.4 0.1

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

163.0 176.6 171.8 169.9 171.5 176.1 177.7 178.3 0.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,535.6 1,650.7 1,561.7 1,573.6 1,681.9 1,701.0 1,705.9 1,712.2 6.3

Accommodation and food services

13,687.7 14,028.3 13,927.2 13,952.3 13,857.5 14,046.1 14,065.6 14,114.3 48.7

Accommodation

1,948.5 2,020.4 1,967.0 1,968.0 2,013.8 2,032.3 2,027.2 2,035.2 8.0

Food services and drinking places

11,739.2 12,007.9 11,960.2 11,984.3 11,843.7 12,013.8 12,038.4 12,079.1 40.7

Other services

5,800 5,888 5,874 5,869 5,822 5,885 5,884 5,892 8

Repair and maintenance

1,309.6 1,328.9 1,320.2 1,321.0 1,316.8 1,327.2 1,325.6 1,327.7 2.1

Personal and laundry services

1,507.2 1,543.4 1,540.5 1,541.0 1,507.0 1,539.6 1,537.6 1,540.8 3.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,982.8 3,015.3 3,013.3 3,006.9 2,998.0 3,018.2 3,021.1 3,023.5 2.4

Government

22,675 22,763 22,873 22,759 22,331 22,391 22,394 22,405 11

Federal

2,811.0 2,799.0 2,804.0 2,820.0 2,795.0 2,801.0 2,807.0 2,804.0 -3.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,180.3 2,195.2 2,187.9 2,192.7 2,182.4 2,194.2 2,193.2 2,195.2 2.0

U.S. Postal Service

630.2 603.7 615.6 627.6 612.6 607.2 613.6 609.2 -4.4

State government

5,233.0 5,292.0 5,302.0 5,243.0 5,129.0 5,133.0 5,126.0 5,131.0 5.0

State government education

2,576.9 2,632.7 2,641.9 2,578.9 2,462.3 2,464.1 2,456.9 2,457.0 0.1

State government, excluding education

2,655.6 2,659.4 2,659.7 2,663.9 2,667.1 2,668.4 2,669.1 2,673.9 4.8

Local government

14,631.0 14,672.0 14,767.0 14,696.0 14,407.0 14,457.0 14,461.0 14,470.0 9.0

Local government education

8,246.2 8,217.5 8,296.2 8,263.0 7,938.2 7,959.0 7,954.1 7,956.3 2.2

Local government, excluding education

6,384.9 6,454.0 6,470.6 6,432.8 6,468.4 6,497.9 6,506.4 6,513.2 6.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.5 34.4 34.5

Goods-producing

40.5 40.3 40.2 40.6

Mining and logging

45.7 45.8 45.7 46.0

Construction

39.5 39.0 38.7 39.5

Manufacturing

40.8 40.8 40.8 40.9

Durable goods

41.3 41.1 41.1 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.0 40.1 40.3 40.2

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.4 34.5 34.4

Wholesale trade

39.3 38.9 39.0 39.0

Retail trade

31.1 30.9 31.0 30.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.9 39.0 38.9

Utilities

42.0 42.1 42.2 42.2

Information

36.2 36.2 36.2 36.4

Financial activities

37.6 37.8 37.6 37.5

Professional and business services

36.0 36.1 36.1 36.2

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 32.9 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.2 26.0 26.0 26.0

Other services

31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6

Durable goods

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.6 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)

Total private

$26.64 $27.31 $27.37 $27.48 $919.08 $942.20 $941.53 $948.06

Goods-producing

27.84 28.41 28.50 28.61 1,127.52 1,144.92 1,145.70 1,161.57

Mining and logging

32.24 32.87 33.07 33.07 1,473.37 1,505.45 1,511.30 1,521.22

Construction

29.31 30.23 30.29 30.44 1,157.75 1,178.97 1,172.22 1,202.38

Manufacturing

26.77 27.12 27.23 27.30 1,092.22 1,106.50 1,110.98 1,116.57

Durable goods

28.05 28.53 28.71 28.76 1,158.47 1,172.58 1,179.98 1,184.91

Nondurable goods

24.58 24.71 24.70 24.79 983.20 990.87 995.41 996.56

Private service-providing

26.36 27.05 27.11 27.21 877.79 900.77 902.76 906.09

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.04 23.63 23.64 23.80 794.88 812.87 815.58 818.72

Wholesale trade

30.30 30.83 30.87 31.04 1,190.79 1,199.29 1,203.93 1,210.56

Retail trade

18.34 19.03 19.05 19.26 570.37 588.03 590.55 595.13

Transportation and warehousing

24.22 24.44 24.40 24.40 937.31 950.72 951.60 949.16

Utilities

39.52 41.13 41.30 41.44 1,659.84 1,731.57 1,742.86 1,748.77

Information

38.80 40.57 40.73 41.02 1,404.56 1,468.63 1,474.43 1,493.13

Financial activities

34.04 35.02 35.31 35.45 1,279.90 1,323.76 1,327.66 1,329.38

Professional and business services

31.96 32.73 32.80 32.86 1,150.56 1,181.55 1,184.08 1,189.53

Education and health services

26.65 27.18 27.24 27.27 879.45 896.94 896.20 899.91

Leisure and hospitality

15.69 16.14 16.20 16.27 411.08 419.64 421.20 423.02

Other services

24.22 24.56 24.58 24.65 770.20 781.01 781.64 783.87

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2018 - Dec.
2018(p)
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2018 - Dec.
2018(p)

Total private

108.5 110.3 110.1 110.7 0.5 138.2 144.0 144.1 145.4 0.9

Goods-producing

93.8 95.7 95.6 96.9 1.4 118.0 122.9 123.2 125.3 1.7

Mining and logging

100.2 108.5 108.3 109.6 1.2 129.7 143.2 143.8 145.5 1.2

Construction

96.3 98.3 97.6 100.1 2.6 122.6 129.2 128.4 132.4 3.1

Manufacturing

92.2 93.8 94.0 94.5 0.5 114.8 118.3 119.1 120.0 0.8

Durable goods

90.9 92.6 92.8 93.2 0.4 113.3 117.4 118.3 119.1 0.7

Nondurable goods

94.6 95.7 96.4 96.4 0.0 118.0 119.9 120.8 121.3 0.4

Private service-providing

112.5 114.1 114.3 114.5 0.2 144.1 150.0 150.6 151.4 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.5 104.2 104.8 104.6 -0.2 128.4 132.6 133.3 134.0 0.5

Wholesale trade

101.9 102.1 102.5 102.6 0.1 128.8 131.3 132.0 132.9 0.7

Retail trade

100.2 99.8 100.3 100.1 -0.2 121.5 125.6 126.3 127.5 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

116.0 120.1 121.1 120.8 -0.2 142.5 149.0 149.9 149.6 -0.2

Utilities

100.7 100.7 101.0 101.1 0.1 131.5 136.8 137.9 138.5 0.4

Information

91.8 91.4 91.3 91.8 0.5 126.8 132.1 132.4 134.0 1.2

Financial activities

104.8 106.6 106.1 105.9 -0.2 139.2 145.7 146.1 146.4 0.2

Professional and business services

117.1 120.2 120.5 121.0 0.4 151.6 159.4 160.1 161.1 0.6

Education and health services

126.0 128.2 127.9 128.8 0.7 161.5 167.6 167.7 168.9 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

121.2 122.0 122.1 122.5 0.3 153.4 158.8 159.6 160.8 0.8

Other services

106.7 107.9 107.9 108.0 0.1 141.7 145.2 145.3 146.0 0.5

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)
Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

73,124 74,447 74,559 74,726 49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private

60,286 61,522 61,631 61,787 48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,466 4,634 4,648 4,654 22.0 22.2 22.3 22.2

Mining and logging

91 96 96 97 13.0 12.7 12.7 12.8

Construction

902 944 952 954 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.0

Manufacturing

3,473 3,594 3,600 3,603 27.7 28.1 28.1 28.1

Durable goods

1,831 1,901 1,904 1,906 23.4 23.8 23.7 23.7

Nondurable goods

1,642 1,693 1,696 1,697 34.7 35.4 35.4 35.3

Private service-providing

55,820 56,888 56,983 57,133 53.2 53.4 53.4 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,057 11,165 11,204 11,222 40.1 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,755.4 1,798.6 1,799.3 1,801.5 29.5 29.9 29.9 29.9

Retail trade

7,888.2 7,897.0 7,929.3 7,944.7 49.7 49.7 49.8 49.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,285.8 1,340.4 1,346.0 1,346.0 24.6 24.8 24.8 24.8

Utilities

127.4 128.7 129.5 129.8 23.0 23.3 23.4 23.4

Information

1,095 1,091 1,087 1,082 39.4 39.4 39.4 39.2

Financial activities

4,797 4,862 4,859 4,859 56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4

Professional and business services

9,327 9,614 9,624 9,644 45.1 45.4 45.4 45.4

Education and health services

17,981 18,355 18,393 18,451 76.9 77.1 77.2 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,477 8,664 8,675 8,725 52.3 52.7 52.7 52.8

Other services

3,086 3,137 3,141 3,150 53.0 53.3 53.4 53.5

Government

12,838 12,925 12,928 12,939 57.5 57.7 57.7 57.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)

Total private

103,244 104,937 105,047 105,321

Goods-producing

14,633 14,969 14,972 15,058

Mining and logging

517 563 560 566

Construction

5,294 5,439 5,427 5,473

Manufacturing

8,822 8,967 8,985 9,019

Durable goods

5,371 5,510 5,524 5,549

Nondurable goods

3,451 3,457 3,461 3,470

Private service-providing

88,611 89,968 90,075 90,263

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,304 23,557 23,610 23,635

Wholesale trade

4,765.4 4,824.2 4,835.8 4,849.1

Retail trade

13,533.9 13,582.8 13,594.4 13,607.2

Transportation and warehousing

4,559.0 4,706.5 4,735.9 4,734.1

Utilities

445.8 443.8 443.8 444.5

Information

2,236 2,230 2,229 2,228

Financial activities

6,609 6,677 6,673 6,685

Professional and business services

16,846 17,289 17,319 17,361

Education and health services

20,528 20,890 20,903 20,956

Leisure and hospitality

14,276 14,452 14,468 14,520

Other services

4,812 4,873 4,873 4,878

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Dec.
2017
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018(p)
Dec.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.7 33.7 33.7

Goods-producing

41.3 41.3 41.2 41.5

Mining and logging

46.5 46.3 45.8 46.3

Construction

40.0 39.6 39.3 40.1
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