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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until                       USDL-24-0006
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, January 5, 2024

Technical information: 
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                          THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2023
                          
                          
Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 216,000 in December, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
Employment continued to trend up in government, health care, social assistance, and 
construction, while transportation and warehousing lost jobs. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. 
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. 
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two 
surveys, see the Technical Note.

  _________________________________________________________________________________________ 
 |											   |
 |                  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data		   |
 |											   |
 |  Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal     |
 |  adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally      |
 |  adjusted estimates back to January 2019 were subject to revision. The unemployment     |
 |  rates for January 2023 through November 2023 (as originally published and as revised)  |
 |  appear in table A, along with additional information about the revisions.              |
 |_________________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate held at 3.7 percent in December, and the number of unemployed 
persons was essentially unchanged at 6.3 million. These measures are higher than a 
year earlier, when the jobless rate was 3.5 percent and the number of unemployed 
persons was 5.7 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.5 percent), 
adult women (3.3 percent), teenagers (11.9 percent), Whites (3.5 percent), Blacks 
(5.2 percent), Asians (3.1 percent), and Hispanics (5.0 percent) showed little change 
in December. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.2 million,
was little changed in December and over the year. The long-term unemployed accounted 
for 19.7 percent of all unemployed persons in December. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.5 percent, and the employment-population ratio,
at 60.1 percent, both decreased by 0.3 percentage point in December. These measures 
showed little or no change over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.2 million, changed 
little in December but was up by 333,000 over the year. These individuals, who would 
have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had 
been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job edged up to 5.7
million in December and was up by 514,000 over the year. These individuals were not
counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during the 4 
weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force changed little at 1.6 million in December but was up by 
306,000 over the year. These individuals wanted and were available for work and had 
looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 
4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the 
marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, at 346,000, 
was little changed in December and over the year. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 216,000 in December. Employment 
continued to trend up in government, health care, social assistance, and construction,
while transportation and warehousing lost jobs. Payroll employment rose by 2.7 million 
in 2023 (an average monthly gain of 225,000), less than the increase of 4.8 million in
2022 (an average monthly gain of 399,000). (See table B-1.) 

Government employment increased by 52,000 in December. Employment continued to trend
up in local government (+37,000) and federal government (+7,000). Government added an
average of 56,000 jobs per month in 2023, more than double the average monthly gain of
23,000 in 2022. 

In December, health care added 38,000 jobs. Employment continued to trend up in 
ambulatory health care services (+19,000) and hospitals (+15,000). Job growth in health 
care averaged 55,000 per month in 2023, compared with the 2022 average monthly gain 
of 46,000. 

Employment in social assistance rose by 21,000 in December, mostly in individual and 
family services (+17,000). Social assistance employment rose by an average of 22,000 
per month in 2023, little different than the average increase of 19,000 per month 
in 2022. 

In December, construction employment continued to trend up (+17,000). Employment in 
nonresidential building construction increased by 8,000. Construction added an average 
of 16,000 jobs per month in 2023, little different than the 2022 average monthly gain 
of 22,000. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing declined by 23,000 in December. Couriers 
and messengers lost 32,000 jobs, while air transportation added 4,000 jobs. Since 
reaching a peak in October 2022, employment in transportation and warehousing has 
decreased by 100,000. 

Employment in leisure and hospitality changed little in December (+40,000). The 
industry added an average of 39,000 jobs per month in 2023, less than half the 
average gain of 88,000 jobs per month in 2022. Employment in the industry is
below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level by 163,000, or 1.0 percent. 

Retail trade employment changed little in December (+17,000). Over the month, 
employment increased in warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise 
retailers (+14,000); building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers 
(+8,000); and automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers (+4,000). These job
gains were partially offset by a job loss in department stores (-13,000). Retail 
trade employment has shown little change, on net, since recovering in early 2022 
from pandemic-related losses. 

In December, employment in professional and business services changed little (+13,000). 
Employment in professional, scientific, and technical services continued to trend up
(+25,000); this industry added an average of 22,000 jobs per month in 2023, about half 
the average monthly gain of 41,000 in 2022. In December, employment in temporary help 
services continued its downward trend (-33,000) and has fallen by 346,000 since reaching 
a peak in March 2022. Overall, employment in professional and business services changed 
little in 2023.

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including 
mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; 
information; financial activities; and other services.

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
rose by 15 cents, or 0.4 percent, to $34.27. Over the past 12 months, average hourly 
earnings have increased by 4.1 percent. In December, average hourly earnings of
private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 10 cents, or 0.3 percent,
to $29.42. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1 
hour to 34.3 hours in December. In manufacturing, the average workweek was little changed 
at 39.8 hours, and overtime remained at 2.9 hours. The average workweek for production 
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1 hour to 33.7 
hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised down by 45,000, 
from +150,000 to +105,000, and the change for November was revised down by 26,000, from 
+199,000 to +173,000. With these revisions, employment in October and November combined 
is 71,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional 
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published 
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, February 2, 
2024, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


  _________________________________________________________________________________________ 
 |											   |
 |                      Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data                          |
 |                                                                                         |
 |  Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2024 on February    |
 |  2, 2024, new population controls will be used in the household survey estimation       |
 |  process. These new controls reflect the annual update of population estimates by the   |
 |  U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual practice, historical data will not be     |
 |  revised to incorporate the new controls. Consequently, household survey data for       |
 |  January 2024 will not be directly comparable with data for December 2023 or earlier    |
 |  periods. A table showing the effects of the new controls on the major labor force      |
 |  series will be included in The Employment Situation for January 2024.                  |
 |_________________________________________________________________________________________|
 
  _________________________________________________________________________________________ 
 |											   |
 |                      Upcoming Changes to Establishment Survey Data                      |
 |                                                                                         |
 |  Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2024 on February    |
 |  2, 2024, nonfarm payroll employment, hours, and earnings data from the establishment   |
 |  survey will be revised to reflect the annual benchmark process and updated seasonal    |
 |  adjustment factors. Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with April 2022 and         |
 |  seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2019 are subject to revision.          |
 |  Consistent with standard practice, additional historical data may be revised as a      |
 |  result of the benchmark process.                                                       |
 |_________________________________________________________________________________________|
 
 
                     Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data
 
At the end of each calendar year, BLS updates the seasonal adjustment factors for the 
national labor force series derived from the household survey. As a result of this 
process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2019 through November 2023 were subject 
to revision. (Not seasonally adjusted data were not subject to revision.) 

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2023 through November 2023, as first
published and as revised. The rate changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 1 of 
the 11 months and was unchanged in the remaining 10 months. Table B shows revised 
seasonally adjusted data for major labor force series back to December 2022. 

More information on this year’s revisions to seasonally adjusted household series is 
available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf. Detailed 
information on the seasonal adjustment methodology is found at 
www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology.htm. 

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables (A-1 through A-16) 
of this news release, including the revised seasonally adjusted data, can be accessed 
at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Additional revised historical seasonally adjusted data
are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.

Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2023 and changes due to revision 
January - November 2023		

Month		      As First Published          As Revised          Change

January.............                 3.4	         3.4	         0.0
February............	             3.6	         3.6	         0.0
March...............	             3.5	         3.5	         0.0
April...............	             3.4	         3.4	         0.0
May.................	             3.7	         3.7	         0.0
June................	             3.6	         3.6	         0.0
July................	             3.5	         3.5	         0.0
August..............	             3.8	         3.8	         0.0
September...........	             3.8	         3.8	         0.0
October.............	             3.9	         3.8	        -0.1
November............	             3.7	         3.7	         0.0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2022 2023
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

264,844 265,962 266,112 266,272 266,443 266,618 266,801 267,002 267,213 267,428 267,642 267,822 267,991

Civilian labor force

164,998 165,871 166,263 166,690 166,678 166,823 167,000 167,113 167,840 167,897 167,723 168,127 167,451

Participation rate

62.3 62.4 62.5 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.8 62.8 62.7 62.8 62.5

Employed

159,300 160,152 160,301 160,824 160,962 160,707 161,004 161,209 161,500 161,550 161,280 161,866 161,183

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.2 60.2 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.1

Unemployed

5,698 5,719 5,962 5,866 5,715 6,117 5,997 5,904 6,340 6,347 6,443 6,262 6,268

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

120,360 121,283 121,346 121,415 121,488 121,565 121,646 121,735 121,832 121,931 122,029 122,111 122,187

Civilian labor force

84,702 85,039 85,145 85,565 85,393 85,481 85,776 85,770 85,951 86,124 85,687 86,256 86,007

Participation rate

70.4 70.1 70.2 70.5 70.3 70.3 70.5 70.5 70.5 70.6 70.2 70.6 70.4

Employed

82,051 82,281 82,340 82,688 82,596 82,520 82,836 82,896 82,800 82,853 82,526 83,084 82,958

Employment-population ratio

68.2 67.8 67.9 68.1 68.0 67.9 68.1 68.1 68.0 68.0 67.6 68.0 67.9

Unemployed

2,651 2,759 2,805 2,877 2,797 2,962 2,941 2,874 3,151 3,271 3,161 3,172 3,050

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

127,345 127,546 127,613 127,684 127,761 127,845 127,932 128,028 128,132 128,237 128,342 128,430 128,513

Civilian labor force

73,951 74,472 74,703 74,723 74,920 75,030 74,963 75,167 75,514 75,453 75,487 75,399 75,047

Participation rate

58.1 58.4 58.5 58.5 58.6 58.7 58.6 58.7 58.9 58.8 58.8 58.7 58.4

Employed

71,570 72,176 72,257 72,368 72,597 72,527 72,605 72,837 73,107 73,119 73,066 73,049 72,587

Employment-population ratio

56.2 56.6 56.6 56.7 56.8 56.7 56.8 56.9 57.1 57.0 56.9 56.9 56.5

Unemployed

2,382 2,295 2,446 2,355 2,324 2,503 2,358 2,330 2,407 2,333 2,421 2,350 2,460

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

17,139 17,133 17,153 17,173 17,194 17,208 17,223 17,239 17,249 17,260 17,270 17,281 17,291

Civilian labor force

6,345 6,360 6,415 6,402 6,365 6,312 6,261 6,176 6,374 6,321 6,549 6,472 6,396

Participation rate

37.0 37.1 37.4 37.3 37.0 36.7 36.4 35.8 37.0 36.6 37.9 37.5 37.0

Employed

5,680 5,695 5,704 5,767 5,770 5,660 5,563 5,476 5,593 5,578 5,688 5,733 5,638

Employment-population ratio

33.1 33.2 33.3 33.6 33.6 32.9 32.3 31.8 32.4 32.3 32.9 33.2 32.6

Unemployed

665 665 711 635 595 652 698 699 781 743 861 739 758

Unemployment rate

10.5 10.5 11.1 9.9 9.3 10.3 11.2 11.3 12.3 11.8 13.1 11.4 11.9

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Change from:
Nov.
2023-
Dec.
2023

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

264,844 267,642 267,822 267,991 169

Civilian labor force

164,998 167,723 168,127 167,451 -676

Participation rate

62.3 62.7 62.8 62.5 -0.3

Employed

159,300 161,280 161,866 161,183 -683

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.3 60.4 60.1 -0.3

Unemployed

5,698 6,443 6,262 6,268 6

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.8 3.7 3.7 0.0

Not in labor force

99,846 99,919 99,695 100,540 845

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.5 3.8 3.7 3.7 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.1 3.7 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

10.5 13.1 11.4 11.9 0.5

White

3.0 3.5 3.3 3.5 0.2

Black or African American

5.7 5.8 5.8 5.2 -0.6

Asian

2.4 3.1 3.5 3.1 -0.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.2 4.8 4.6 5.0 0.4

Total, 25 years and over

2.8 3.1 3.1 3.2 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.0 5.8 6.3 6.0 -0.3

High school graduates, no college

3.6 4.0 4.1 4.2 0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.0 3.1 2.8 3.1 0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

1.9 2.1 2.1 2.1 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,596 3,120 3,058 3,058 0

Job leavers

824 801 821 833 12

Reentrants

1,786 1,869 1,771 1,741 -30

New entrants

502 603 582 609 27

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,218 2,269 2,069 2,191 122

5 to 14 weeks

1,645 1,836 2,060 1,791 -269

15 to 26 weeks

792 1,079 931 1,104 173

27 weeks and over

1,106 1,291 1,220 1,245 25

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

3,878 4,284 3,994 4,211 217

Slack work or business conditions

2,643 2,985 2,790 2,960 170

Could only find part-time work

916 1,000 934 964 30

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,537 21,576 21,879 22,458 579

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,256 1,416 1,583 1,562 -21

Discouraged workers

417 419 425 346 -79

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

239 105 173 216

Total private

232 44 136 164

Goods-producing

36 -12 30 22

Mining and logging

4 -1 -2 -1

Construction

26 27 6 17

Manufacturing

6 -38 26 6

Durable goods(1)

23 -37 34 8

Motor vehicles and parts

9.5 -31.8 31.3 -2.1

Nondurable goods

-17 -1 -8 -2

Private service-providing

196 56 106 142

Wholesale trade

9.6 8.1 4.5 5.5

Retail trade

26.7 16.5 -24.4 17.4

Transportation and warehousing

0.3 -28.4 -5.0 -22.6

Utilities

-0.7 1.8 0.0 -0.4

Information

-9 -12 15 14

Financial activities

4 -8 1 2

Professional and business services(1)

23 -26 -19 13

Temporary help services

-55.0 -42.1 -22.1 -33.3

Private education and health services(1)

71 84 109 74

Health care and social assistance

73.1 67.1 96.0 58.9

Leisure and hospitality

58 25 12 40

Other services

13 -5 13 -1

Government

7 61 37 52

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

284 177 180 165

Total private

253 119 126 115

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.3 81.4 81.4 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.3 34.4 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$32.92 $34.00 $34.12 $34.27

Average weekly earnings

$1,132.45 $1,166.20 $1,173.73 $1,175.46

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

114.2 115.3 115.8 115.6

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 -0.3 0.4 -0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

179.7 187.5 188.9 189.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.1 0.7 0.3

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

64.0 56.4 56.6 59.6

Manufacturing (72 industries)

52.8 43.1 48.6 47.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 122,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 666,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

264,844 267,822 267,991 264,844 267,213 267,428 267,642 267,822 267,991

Civilian labor force

164,224 167,977 166,661 164,998 167,840 167,897 167,723 168,127 167,451

Participation rate

62.0 62.7 62.2 62.3 62.8 62.8 62.7 62.8 62.5

Employed

158,872 162,149 160,754 159,300 161,500 161,550 161,280 161,866 161,183

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.5 60.0 60.1 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.1

Unemployed

5,352 5,827 5,907 5,698 6,340 6,347 6,443 6,262 6,268

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

100,621 99,845 101,330 99,846 99,374 99,531 99,919 99,695 100,540

Persons who currently want a job

4,948 5,006 5,465 5,157 5,374 5,424 5,376 5,343 5,671

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

129,050 130,903 130,985 129,050 130,608 130,713 130,816 130,903 130,985

Civilian labor force

87,251 89,258 88,610 87,875 89,114 89,335 88,968 89,555 89,250

Participation rate

67.6 68.2 67.6 68.1 68.2 68.3 68.0 68.4 68.1

Employed

84,304 85,910 85,198 84,897 85,527 85,657 85,327 85,981 85,794

Employment-population ratio

65.3 65.6 65.0 65.8 65.5 65.5 65.2 65.7 65.5

Unemployed

2,947 3,347 3,412 2,978 3,587 3,678 3,641 3,574 3,456

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.8 3.9 3.4 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9

Not in labor force

41,799 41,646 42,375 41,175 41,494 41,378 41,848 41,348 41,735

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

120,360 122,111 122,187 120,360 121,832 121,931 122,029 122,111 122,187

Civilian labor force

84,262 86,094 85,564 84,702 85,951 86,124 85,687 86,256 86,007

Participation rate

70.0 70.5 70.0 70.4 70.5 70.6 70.2 70.6 70.4

Employed

81,589 83,128 82,493 82,051 82,800 82,853 82,526 83,084 82,958

Employment-population ratio

67.8 68.1 67.5 68.2 68.0 68.0 67.6 68.0 67.9

Unemployed

2,673 2,966 3,071 2,651 3,151 3,271 3,161 3,172 3,050

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.4 3.6 3.1 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

36,098 36,017 36,623 35,658 35,881 35,807 36,343 35,854 36,180

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,795 136,919 137,006 135,795 136,605 136,715 136,826 136,919 137,006

Civilian labor force

76,973 78,719 78,051 77,123 78,726 78,562 78,755 78,572 78,201

Participation rate

56.7 57.5 57.0 56.8 57.6 57.5 57.6 57.4 57.1

Employed

74,568 76,239 75,556 74,404 75,973 75,893 75,953 75,885 75,389

Employment-population ratio

54.9 55.7 55.1 54.8 55.6 55.5 55.5 55.4 55.0

Unemployed

2,405 2,480 2,495 2,720 2,752 2,669 2,801 2,688 2,811

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6

Not in labor force

58,821 58,199 58,955 58,671 57,879 58,153 58,071 58,346 58,805

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,345 128,430 128,513 127,345 128,132 128,237 128,342 128,430 128,513

Civilian labor force

73,981 75,681 75,079 73,951 75,514 75,453 75,487 75,399 75,047

Participation rate

58.1 58.9 58.4 58.1 58.9 58.8 58.8 58.7 58.4

Employed

71,843 73,504 72,862 71,570 73,107 73,119 73,066 73,049 72,587

Employment-population ratio

56.4 57.2 56.7 56.2 57.1 57.0 56.9 56.9 56.5

Unemployed

2,138 2,177 2,217 2,382 2,407 2,333 2,421 2,350 2,460

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.3

Not in labor force

53,365 52,749 53,434 53,394 52,618 52,784 52,856 53,031 53,466

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,139 17,281 17,291 17,139 17,249 17,260 17,270 17,281 17,291

Civilian labor force

5,981 6,202 6,018 6,345 6,374 6,321 6,549 6,472 6,396

Participation rate

34.9 35.9 34.8 37.0 37.0 36.6 37.9 37.5 37.0

Employed

5,439 5,517 5,399 5,680 5,593 5,578 5,688 5,733 5,638

Employment-population ratio

31.7 31.9 31.2 33.1 32.4 32.3 32.9 33.2 32.6

Unemployed

541 685 619 665 781 743 861 739 758

Unemployment rate

9.1 11.0 10.3 10.5 12.3 11.8 13.1 11.4 11.9

Not in labor force

11,158 11,079 11,273 10,794 10,875 10,939 10,721 10,809 10,895

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,684 204,949 205,022 203,684 204,645 204,756 204,867 204,949 205,022

Civilian labor force

125,934 127,720 126,748 126,392 127,931 127,755 127,612 127,773 127,226

Participation rate

61.8 62.3 61.8 62.1 62.5 62.4 62.3 62.3 62.1

Employed

122,301 123,849 122,552 122,549 123,543 123,403 123,198 123,550 122,802

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.4 59.8 60.2 60.4 60.3 60.1 60.3 59.9

Unemployed

3,633 3,871 4,196 3,843 4,387 4,352 4,414 4,223 4,424

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.0 3.3 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.5

Not in labor force

77,750 77,229 78,274 77,292 76,714 77,001 77,255 77,177 77,796

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,789 66,627 66,172 66,020 66,535 66,615 66,363 66,695 66,405

Participation rate

70.0 70.2 69.7 70.3 70.2 70.3 70.0 70.3 70.0

Employed

63,876 64,660 63,912 64,171 64,307 64,313 64,148 64,559 64,208

Employment-population ratio

68.0 68.2 67.3 68.3 67.9 67.9 67.6 68.1 67.7

Unemployed

1,912 1,967 2,260 1,849 2,228 2,302 2,215 2,136 2,197

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.0 3.4 2.8 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,533 56,373 55,902 55,474 56,422 56,349 56,209 56,130 55,844

Participation rate

57.1 57.8 57.3 57.1 57.9 57.8 57.6 57.5 57.2

Employed

54,181 54,995 54,419 53,935 54,803 54,767 54,621 54,609 54,175

Employment-population ratio

55.7 56.4 55.8 55.5 56.3 56.2 56.0 56.0 55.5

Unemployed

1,353 1,378 1,483 1,540 1,619 1,583 1,588 1,521 1,669

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.4 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,612 4,720 4,674 4,897 4,973 4,790 5,040 4,947 4,976

Participation rate

36.8 37.7 37.3 39.1 39.7 38.2 40.2 39.5 39.7

Employed

4,244 4,194 4,221 4,443 4,433 4,323 4,430 4,382 4,418

Employment-population ratio

33.9 33.5 33.7 35.5 35.4 34.5 35.4 35.0 35.3

Unemployed

369 526 453 454 540 467 611 565 558

Unemployment rate

8.0 11.1 9.7 9.3 10.9 9.8 12.1 11.4 11.2

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,301 34,821 34,853 34,301 34,714 34,751 34,788 34,821 34,853

Civilian labor force

21,278 22,149 21,955 21,424 21,782 21,900 21,902 22,171 22,094

Participation rate

62.0 63.6 63.0 62.5 62.7 63.0 63.0 63.7 63.4

Employed

20,146 20,924 20,896 20,199 20,626 20,650 20,636 20,886 20,952

Employment-population ratio

58.7 60.1 60.0 58.9 59.4 59.4 59.3 60.0 60.1

Unemployed

1,132 1,225 1,059 1,225 1,155 1,251 1,266 1,285 1,143

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.5 4.8 5.7 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.2

Not in labor force

13,023 12,672 12,898 12,877 12,933 12,851 12,886 12,650 12,759

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,886 10,279 10,229 9,950 10,155 10,201 10,048 10,299 10,294

Participation rate

67.8 69.1 68.7 68.2 68.5 68.8 67.7 69.3 69.2

Employed

9,399 9,651 9,771 9,449 9,640 9,631 9,520 9,648 9,821

Employment-population ratio

64.5 64.9 65.7 64.8 65.0 64.9 64.1 64.9 66.0

Unemployed

487 628 459 502 516 570 528 651 473

Unemployment rate

4.9 6.1 4.5 5.0 5.1 5.6 5.3 6.3 4.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,631 11,086 10,964 10,687 10,880 10,890 11,065 11,067 11,014

Participation rate

61.7 63.7 63.0 62.1 62.7 62.7 63.6 63.6 63.2

Employed

10,100 10,575 10,483 10,104 10,367 10,403 10,475 10,533 10,486

Employment-population ratio

58.7 60.8 60.2 58.7 59.8 59.9 60.3 60.5 60.2

Unemployed

531 511 481 583 513 487 590 534 528

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.6 4.4 5.5 4.7 4.5 5.3 4.8 4.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

761 784 762 787 746 809 789 805 786

Participation rate

30.4 30.7 29.8 31.5 29.3 31.7 30.9 31.5 30.7

Employed

646 698 643 647 619 615 642 705 644

Employment-population ratio

25.9 27.3 25.1 25.9 24.3 24.2 25.1 27.6 25.2

Unemployed

114 85 120 140 126 193 147 100 142

Unemployment rate

15.0 10.9 15.7 17.7 16.9 23.9 18.7 12.4 18.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,005 17,769 17,896 17,005 17,515 17,633 17,593 17,769 17,896

Civilian labor force

10,890 11,494 11,384 10,940 11,487 11,587 11,490 11,548 11,436

Participation rate

64.0 64.7 63.6 64.3 65.6 65.7 65.3 65.0 63.9

Employed

10,650 11,096 11,054 10,677 11,125 11,255 11,134 11,144 11,084

Employment-population ratio

62.6 62.4 61.8 62.8 63.5 63.8 63.3 62.7 61.9

Unemployed

241 398 330 263 362 332 356 404 353

Unemployment rate

2.2 3.5 2.9 2.4 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.5 3.1

Not in labor force

6,115 6,275 6,511 6,065 6,028 6,047 6,103 6,221 6,459

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,624 47,974 48,068 46,624 47,671 47,774 47,877 47,974 48,068

Civilian labor force

30,872 32,202 31,996 30,944 32,009 32,115 32,056 32,101 32,081

Participation rate

66.2 67.1 66.6 66.4 67.1 67.2 67.0 66.9 66.7

Employed

29,594 30,822 30,418 29,642 30,451 30,637 30,525 30,636 30,480

Employment-population ratio

63.5 64.2 63.3 63.6 63.9 64.1 63.8 63.9 63.4

Unemployed

1,278 1,379 1,578 1,303 1,558 1,478 1,531 1,465 1,602

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.3 4.9 4.2 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.6 5.0

Not in labor force

15,752 15,772 16,072 15,680 15,662 15,659 15,822 15,873 15,986

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,691 17,271 17,199 16,753 17,172 17,256 17,128 17,267 17,261

Participation rate

79.0 79.2 78.8 79.3 79.3 79.5 78.7 79.2 79.1

Employed

15,958 16,597 16,340 16,055 16,436 16,520 16,409 16,537 16,438

Employment-population ratio

75.6 76.2 74.8 76.0 75.9 76.1 75.4 75.9 75.3

Unemployed

734 674 860 699 736 736 719 729 824

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.9 5.0 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,837 13,368 13,367 12,805 13,363 13,355 13,265 13,260 13,346

Participation rate

60.6 61.5 61.3 60.4 61.8 61.7 61.1 61.0 61.3

Employed

12,385 12,866 12,790 12,328 12,776 12,785 12,727 12,737 12,746

Employment-population ratio

58.5 59.2 58.7 58.2 59.1 59.0 58.6 58.6 58.5

Unemployed

453 502 577 477 587 570 537 523 601

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.8 4.3 3.7 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,343 1,562 1,430 1,386 1,473 1,504 1,664 1,574 1,474

Participation rate

31.1 35.2 32.2 32.1 33.4 34.1 37.6 35.5 33.2

Employed

1,252 1,359 1,288 1,259 1,238 1,332 1,389 1,361 1,296

Employment-population ratio

29.0 30.6 29.0 29.2 28.1 30.2 31.4 30.7 29.2

Unemployed

92 203 142 127 235 172 275 213 177

Unemployment rate

6.8 13.0 9.9 9.2 15.9 11.4 16.5 13.5 12.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,918 9,549 9,417 8,885 9,261 9,203 9,312 9,492 9,384

Participation rate

45.8 48.5 47.6 45.6 47.7 47.0 48.0 48.3 47.5

Employed

8,428 8,992 8,803 8,445 8,759 8,698 8,771 8,891 8,819

Employment-population ratio

43.3 45.7 44.5 43.4 45.1 44.4 45.2 45.2 44.6

Unemployed

490 557 613 441 502 506 542 601 564

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.8 6.5 5.0 5.4 5.5 5.8 6.3 6.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,532 35,817 35,662 35,616 36,250 36,198 35,637 35,790 35,748

Participation rate

56.1 57.4 57.0 56.2 56.5 56.8 56.9 57.3 57.1

Employed

34,270 34,413 34,167 34,348 34,848 34,708 34,195 34,327 34,247

Employment-population ratio

54.1 55.1 54.6 54.2 54.4 54.5 54.6 55.0 54.7

Unemployed

1,262 1,404 1,495 1,268 1,402 1,490 1,442 1,463 1,501

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.9 4.2 3.6 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,849 36,164 35,765 35,816 35,845 35,918 35,814 35,874 35,737

Participation rate

62.8 62.6 62.4 62.7 63.2 62.7 62.2 62.1 62.4

Employed

34,851 35,215 34,715 34,757 34,751 34,843 34,691 34,866 34,623

Employment-population ratio

61.0 61.0 60.6 60.9 61.3 60.8 60.3 60.4 60.4

Unemployed

998 949 1,050 1,059 1,094 1,076 1,123 1,009 1,114

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

63,241 64,518 64,293 63,239 64,330 64,234 64,504 64,452 64,297

Participation rate

72.8 72.8 72.3 72.8 73.4 73.4 72.8 72.7 72.3

Employed

62,156 63,230 63,053 62,029 62,886 62,851 63,133 63,091 62,933

Employment-population ratio

71.5 71.4 70.9 71.4 71.8 71.8 71.2 71.2 70.8

Unemployed

1,085 1,289 1,239 1,210 1,444 1,383 1,371 1,360 1,364

Unemployment rate

1.7 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,237 17,727 16,203 15,686 2,034 2,041

Civilian labor force

8,770 8,716 7,592 7,505 1,177 1,211

Participation rate

48.1 49.2 46.9 47.8 57.9 59.4

Employed

8,487 8,455 7,329 7,284 1,158 1,171

Employment-population ratio

46.5 47.7 45.2 46.4 56.9 57.4

Unemployed

283 261 263 221 20 41

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.0 3.5 2.9 1.7 3.3

Not in labor force

9,467 9,011 8,611 8,181 857 830

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,021 5,094 4,098 4,201 923 893

Civilian labor force

4,029 4,114 3,349 3,441 680 673

Participation rate

80.2 80.8 81.7 81.9 73.6 75.3

Employed

3,907 3,980 3,240 3,323 666 657

Employment-population ratio

77.8 78.1 79.1 79.1 72.2 73.5

Unemployed

122 134 109 118 13 16

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.3 3.3 3.4 1.9 2.4

Not in labor force

992 980 749 760 244 220

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,185 2,965 2,724 2,476 461 489

Civilian labor force

2,185 2,189 1,880 1,841 305 349

Participation rate

68.6 73.8 69.0 74.3 66.1 71.3

Employed

2,117 2,127 1,812 1,797 305 331

Employment-population ratio

66.5 71.7 66.5 72.6 66.1 67.6

Unemployed

68 62 68 44 0 18

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.8 3.6 2.4 0.0 5.2

Not in labor force

1,000 776 844 635 156 140

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,100 5,806 5,857 5,562 243 244

Civilian labor force

964 759 932 738 33 22

Participation rate

15.8 13.1 15.9 13.3 13.4 8.9

Employed

929 736 897 715 33 22

Employment-population ratio

15.2 12.7 15.3 12.8 13.4 8.9

Unemployed

35 23 35 23 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.1 3.8 3.2 - -

Not in labor force

5,136 5,047 4,925 4,824 210 222

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,931 3,862 3,524 3,447 407 415

Civilian labor force

1,592 1,653 1,431 1,485 160 168

Participation rate

40.5 42.8 40.6 43.1 39.4 40.6

Employed

1,534 1,612 1,380 1,450 154 162

Employment-population ratio

39.0 41.7 39.2 42.1 37.8 39.0

Unemployed

58 42 51 35 7 7

Unemployment rate

3.6 2.5 3.6 2.4 4.1 3.9

Not in labor force

2,339 2,209 2,093 1,962 247 247

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

237,329 240,868 108,183 110,479 129,146 130,389

Civilian labor force

153,028 155,581 78,544 79,996 74,484 75,586

Participation rate

64.5 64.6 72.6 72.4 57.7 58.0

Employed

148,134 150,208 75,956 76,962 72,178 73,246

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.4 70.2 69.7 55.9 56.2

Unemployed

4,894 5,374 2,588 3,034 2,306 2,340

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.5 3.3 3.8 3.1 3.1

Not in labor force

84,301 85,287 29,639 30,483 54,662 54,804

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,874 33,847 231,970 234,144

Civilian labor force

7,761 8,293 156,463 158,367

Participation rate

23.6 24.5 67.4 67.6

Employed

7,370 7,741 151,501 153,013

Employment-population ratio

22.4 22.9 65.3 65.3

Unemployed

390 552 4,962 5,355

Unemployment rate

5.0 6.7 3.2 3.4

Not in labor force

25,114 25,554 75,507 75,776

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,208 3,478 77,843 78,963

Participation rate

40.0 42.3 82.1 82.3

Employed

3,052 3,216 75,240 76,007

Employment-population ratio

38.0 39.1 79.4 79.2

Unemployed

156 262 2,603 2,955

Unemployment rate

4.9 7.5 3.3 3.7

Not in labor force

4,819 4,744 16,924 17,004

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,184 3,419 68,853 69,440

Participation rate

38.2 39.4 71.7 72.3

Employed

2,998 3,197 66,762 67,295

Employment-population ratio

35.9 36.8 69.5 70.1

Unemployed

186 221 2,090 2,145

Unemployment rate

5.8 6.5 3.0 3.1

Not in labor force

5,160 5,268 27,235 26,589

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,368 1,396 9,768 9,965

Participation rate

8.3 8.2 23.8 23.6

Employed

1,320 1,328 9,499 9,710

Employment-population ratio

8.0 7.8 23.1 23.0

Unemployed

49 68 269 254

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.9 2.8 2.6

Not in labor force

15,135 15,542 31,348 32,183

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,736 48,049 22,302 23,679 23,434 24,370

Civilian labor force

30,077 31,591 17,165 18,157 12,912 13,435

Participation rate

65.8 65.7 77.0 76.7 55.1 55.1

Employed

29,130 30,387 16,610 17,477 12,520 12,910

Employment-population ratio

63.7 63.2 74.5 73.8 53.4 53.0

Unemployed

947 1,205 554 680 393 525

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.8 3.2 3.7 3.0 3.9

Not in labor force

15,659 16,458 5,137 5,523 10,522 10,935

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,109 219,942 106,748 107,306 112,361 112,636

Civilian labor force

134,147 135,069 70,086 70,453 64,061 64,616

Participation rate

61.2 61.4 65.7 65.7 57.0 57.4

Employed

129,742 130,367 67,693 67,721 62,049 62,646

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.3 63.4 63.1 55.2 55.6

Unemployed

4,405 4,702 2,393 2,732 2,012 1,970

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.5 3.4 3.9 3.1 3.0

Not in labor force

84,962 84,872 36,662 36,853 48,300 48,020

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,267 2,234 2,156 2,317 2,279 2,286 2,201 2,262 2,205

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,482 1,535 1,497 1,503 1,553 1,563 1,468 1,549 1,520

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

755 683 646 789 694 694 707 701 680

Unpaid family workers

31 16 14 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,604 159,916 158,598 156,970 159,275 159,306 159,166 159,578 158,993

Wage and salary workers(1)

147,639 150,878 149,325 147,988 150,262 150,134 150,170 150,505 149,702

Government

21,943 22,072 21,951 21,696 21,249 21,618 21,664 21,878 21,700

Private industries

125,696 128,807 127,373 126,359 128,893 128,558 128,454 128,612 128,086

Private households

692 771 787 - - - - - -

Other industries

125,003 128,035 126,586 125,766 128,254 127,958 127,800 127,889 127,414

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,923 9,011 9,242 9,014 8,827 9,043 8,957 9,014 9,335

Unpaid family workers

43 26 31 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,991 3,871 4,324 3,878 4,221 4,069 4,284 3,994 4,211

Slack work or business conditions

2,755 2,700 3,071 2,643 2,821 2,799 2,985 2,790 2,960

Could only find part-time work

893 911 940 916 1,017 940 1,000 934 964

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,084 22,662 23,020 21,537 22,030 22,177 21,576 21,879 22,458

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,903 3,796 4,229 3,812 4,149 3,988 4,205 3,931 4,138

Slack work or business conditions

2,703 2,654 3,019 2,597 2,779 2,753 2,941 2,735 2,913

Could only find part-time work

873 903 926 898 1,016 930 992 923 953

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,640 22,210 22,604 21,113 21,582 21,752 21,214 21,444 22,060

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,872 162,149 160,754 159,300 161,500 161,550 161,280 161,866 161,183

16 to 19 years

5,439 5,517 5,399 5,680 5,593 5,578 5,688 5,733 5,638

16 to 17 years

2,251 2,172 2,091 2,362 2,104 2,121 2,161 2,235 2,194

18 to 19 years

3,188 3,345 3,308 3,320 3,466 3,432 3,518 3,514 3,446

20 years and over

153,433 156,632 155,355 153,620 155,907 155,972 155,592 156,133 155,545

20 to 24 years

13,728 14,781 14,616 13,861 14,611 14,684 14,565 14,787 14,756

25 years and over

139,705 141,851 140,739 139,576 141,129 141,218 140,887 141,194 140,617

25 to 54 years

102,069 103,930 103,265 101,964 103,508 103,515 103,311 103,451 103,161

25 to 34 years

35,152 35,953 35,888 35,121 35,972 35,945 35,799 35,779 35,859

35 to 44 years

35,029 35,832 35,566 35,010 35,467 35,501 35,486 35,680 35,546

45 to 54 years

31,888 32,145 31,811 31,833 32,069 32,069 32,026 31,992 31,757

55 years and over

37,636 37,921 37,474 37,612 37,620 37,704 37,576 37,742 37,455

Men, 16 years and over

84,304 85,910 85,198 84,897 85,527 85,657 85,327 85,981 85,794

16 to 19 years

2,714 2,783 2,705 2,846 2,727 2,804 2,801 2,897 2,836

16 to 17 years

1,018 1,014 952 1,105 1,015 1,061 1,067 1,071 1,033

18 to 19 years

1,696 1,769 1,753 1,748 1,675 1,725 1,730 1,846 1,807

20 years and over

81,589 83,128 82,493 82,051 82,800 82,853 82,526 83,084 82,958

20 to 24 years

6,967 7,406 7,293 7,099 7,367 7,316 7,262 7,446 7,432

25 years and over

74,623 75,722 75,200 74,817 75,288 75,452 75,118 75,514 75,397

25 to 54 years

54,325 55,420 55,048 54,451 55,279 55,279 55,012 55,262 55,178

25 to 34 years

18,644 19,144 19,066 18,679 19,208 19,120 18,975 19,088 19,104

35 to 44 years

18,743 19,149 19,038 18,812 19,050 19,112 19,043 19,107 19,108

45 to 54 years

16,938 17,127 16,944 16,960 17,020 17,047 16,994 17,067 16,966

55 years and over

20,298 20,302 20,152 20,365 20,009 20,173 20,106 20,252 20,219

Women, 16 years and over

74,568 76,239 75,556 74,404 75,973 75,893 75,953 75,885 75,389

16 to 19 years

2,725 2,735 2,694 2,834 2,866 2,774 2,887 2,836 2,802

16 to 17 years

1,233 1,158 1,139 1,257 1,089 1,061 1,094 1,164 1,162

18 to 19 years

1,492 1,577 1,555 1,572 1,791 1,707 1,788 1,668 1,639

20 years and over

71,843 73,504 72,862 71,570 73,107 73,119 73,066 73,049 72,587

20 to 24 years

6,761 7,375 7,323 6,762 7,244 7,368 7,303 7,342 7,324

25 years and over

65,082 66,129 65,539 64,759 65,841 65,766 65,769 65,679 65,220

25 to 54 years

47,744 48,510 48,216 47,513 48,230 48,236 48,298 48,189 47,983

25 to 34 years

16,508 16,809 16,822 16,442 16,763 16,825 16,823 16,691 16,755

35 to 44 years

16,286 16,683 16,528 16,198 16,417 16,389 16,443 16,573 16,438

45 to 54 years

14,950 15,017 14,867 14,873 15,050 15,022 15,032 14,926 14,791

55 years and over

17,338 17,619 17,322 17,246 17,611 17,530 17,471 17,490 17,237

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,099 46,384 46,319 46,186 45,956 46,338 46,059 46,344 46,392

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,763 37,118 36,982 36,564 37,339 37,198 37,018 36,887 36,790

Women who maintain families(2)

10,150 9,916 9,718 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

131,812 134,634 132,585 132,422 134,267 134,145 134,502 134,727 133,196

Part-time workers(4)

27,060 27,515 28,169 26,712 27,201 27,348 26,702 27,032 27,794

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,140 8,463 8,696 8,020 8,069 8,173 8,360 8,343 8,565

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,811 6,872 6,637 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,678 9,695 9,888 9,804 9,521 9,737 9,664 9,715 10,014

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,698 6,262 6,268 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

665 739 758 10.5 12.3 11.8 13.1 11.4 11.9

16 to 17 years

214 287 331 8.3 11.9 12.8 14.7 11.4 13.1

18 to 19 years

458 455 433 12.1 12.7 11.1 12.5 11.5 11.2

20 years and over

5,033 5,522 5,510 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,095 1,051 1,006 7.3 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.6 6.4

25 years and over

4,015 4,498 4,574 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2

25 to 54 years

2,996 3,356 3,491 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3

25 to 34 years

1,388 1,458 1,556 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.2

35 to 44 years

864 1,055 1,079 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9

45 to 54 years

745 843 856 2.3 2.5 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.6

55 years and over

1,026 1,138 1,089 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.8

Men, 16 years and over

2,978 3,574 3,456 3.4 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9

16 to 19 years

327 402 407 10.3 13.8 12.7 14.6 12.2 12.5

16 to 17 years

113 164 185 9.3 12.1 15.4 16.3 13.3 15.2

18 to 19 years

223 244 229 11.3 15.2 11.4 14.2 11.7 11.3

20 years and over

2,651 3,172 3,050 3.1 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.5

20 to 24 years

567 571 509 7.4 8.4 8.3 7.8 7.1 6.4

25 years and over

2,138 2,624 2,587 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.3

25 to 54 years

1,565 1,942 1,984 2.8 3.2 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5

25 to 34 years

762 844 885 3.9 3.9 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.4

35 to 44 years

442 631 625 2.3 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2

45 to 54 years

361 468 474 2.1 2.8 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.7

55 years and over

573 682 603 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.7 3.3 2.9

Women, 16 years and over

2,720 2,688 2,811 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6

16 to 19 years

338 338 352 10.7 10.7 10.8 11.7 10.6 11.1

16 to 17 years

101 123 147 7.5 11.8 10.1 13.1 9.5 11.2

18 to 19 years

235 211 204 13.0 10.3 10.8 10.8 11.2 11.1

20 years and over

2,382 2,350 2,460 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.3

20 to 24 years

528 480 497 7.2 5.8 5.6 6.2 6.1 6.4

25 years and over

1,877 1,874 1,987 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.8 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,431 1,414 1,506 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.0

25 to 34 years

626 614 671 3.7 3.9 3.3 3.7 3.5 3.9

35 to 44 years

422 424 454 2.5 2.9 2.5 2.9 2.5 2.7

45 to 54 years

383 375 381 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.5

55 years and over

446 458 480 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

828 965 980 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

764 760 825 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

383 495 475 3.6 4.9 4.0 4.6 4.8 4.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,658 5,177 5,228 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8

Part-time workers(4)

1,097 1,108 1,084 3.9 4.4 4.3 4.6 3.9 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,583 2,816 3,048 2,596 2,946 2,869 3,120 3,058 3,058

On temporary layoff

848 720 981 788 813 813 904 889 917

Not on temporary layoff

1,735 2,096 2,067 1,808 2,132 2,056 2,217 2,169 2,140

Permanent job losers

1,255 1,536 1,466 1,332 1,545 1,421 1,636 1,589 1,543

Persons who completed temporary jobs

480 560 601 476 588 636 581 580 597

Job leavers

768 810 777 824 804 797 801 821 833

Reentrants

1,613 1,660 1,570 1,786 1,931 2,024 1,869 1,771 1,741

New entrants

388 541 512 502 592 586 603 582 609

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

48.3 48.3 51.6 45.5 47.0 45.7 48.8 49.1 49.0

On temporary layoff

15.8 12.4 16.6 13.8 13.0 13.0 14.1 14.3 14.7

Not on temporary layoff

32.4 36.0 35.0 31.7 34.0 32.8 34.7 34.8 34.3

Job leavers

14.4 13.9 13.2 14.4 12.8 12.7 12.5 13.2 13.4

Reentrants

30.1 28.5 26.6 31.3 30.8 32.3 29.2 28.4 27.9

New entrants

7.3 9.3 8.7 8.8 9.4 9.3 9.4 9.3 9.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.6 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.0 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0

New entrants

0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,128 1,873 2,102 2,218 2,224 2,053 2,269 2,069 2,191

5 to 14 weeks

1,490 1,939 1,619 1,645 1,913 2,043 1,836 2,060 1,791

15 weeks and over

1,733 2,016 2,185 1,898 2,296 2,288 2,370 2,150 2,350

15 to 26 weeks

749 897 1,000 792 970 985 1,079 931 1,104

27 weeks and over

984 1,119 1,185 1,106 1,326 1,303 1,291 1,220 1,245

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

19.1 19.9 21.9 19.5 20.4 21.4 21.6 19.5 22.3

Median duration, in weeks

7.5 9.3 9.0 8.3 8.8 9.1 8.6 9.0 9.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

39.8 32.1 35.6 38.5 34.6 32.2 35.0 33.0 34.6

5 to 14 weeks

27.8 33.3 27.4 28.6 29.7 32.0 28.4 32.8 28.3

15 weeks and over

32.4 34.6 37.0 33.0 35.7 35.8 36.6 34.2 37.1

15 to 26 weeks

14.0 15.4 16.9 13.8 15.1 15.4 16.7 14.8 17.4

27 weeks and over

18.4 19.2 20.1 19.2 20.6 20.4 19.9 19.4 19.7

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,872 160,754 5,352 5,907 3.3 3.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

69,297 70,572 1,198 1,314 1.7 1.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

29,725 30,327 537 607 1.8 2.0

Professional and related occupations

39,572 40,245 661 706 1.6 1.7

Service occupations

25,334 25,689 1,225 1,177 4.6 4.4

Sales and office occupations

30,185 30,043 1,008 1,152 3.2 3.7

Sales and related occupations

14,053 14,332 488 654 3.4 4.4

Office and administrative support occupations

16,133 15,710 520 497 3.1 3.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,295 14,411 689 732 4.6 4.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

945 978 69 102 6.8 9.5

Construction and extraction occupations

8,491 8,631 510 502 5.7 5.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,860 4,802 110 128 2.2 2.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,760 20,039 829 998 4.0 4.7

Production occupations

8,152 8,372 223 333 2.7 3.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,608 11,667 606 665 5.0 5.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,352 5,907 3.3 3.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,117 4,595 3.2 3.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

12 9 1.9 1.7

Construction

443 442 4.4 4.4

Manufacturing

271 456 1.8 3.0

Durable goods

175 206 1.8 2.1

Nondurable goods

95 250 1.8 4.6

Wholesale and retail trade

688 810 3.6 4.0

Transportation and utilities

349 322 4.0 3.9

Information

67 86 2.4 3.1

Financial activities

271 293 2.6 2.9

Professional and business services

668 721 3.5 3.9

Education and health services

483 560 2.0 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

694 662 5.4 4.8

Other services

170 236 2.7 3.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

75 110 5.0 7.0

Government workers

381 330 1.7 1.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

391 359 3.9 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2022
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.6 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.0 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.4 6.7 7.0 6.5 7.1 7.0 7.2 7.0 7.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2023

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,621 101,330 41,799 42,375 58,821 58,955

Persons who currently want a job

4,948 5,465 2,349 2,599 2,600 2,867

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,260 1,567 673 769 587 798

Discouraged workers(2)

421 350 217 190 204 160

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

839 1,217 456 579 384 638

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,140 8,696 4,075 4,108 4,065 4,588

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.4 4.8 4.8 5.5 6.1

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,594 5,085 2,454 2,632 2,140 2,452

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,940 2,113 759 658 1,182 1,455

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

388 399 226 217 163 181

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,133 1,028 589 560 544 468

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)
Change from:
Nov.2023 - Dec.2023(p)

Total nonfarm

155,344 157,936 158,395 158,228 154,535 156,843 157,016 157,232 216

Total private

132,746 134,669 134,993 134,930 132,204 133,929 134,065 134,229 164

Goods-producing

21,377 21,806 21,746 21,646 21,461 21,631 21,661 21,683 22

Mining and logging

626 649 643 640 628 644 642 641 -1

Logging

45.5 48.1 46.4 45.1 45.7 47.2 45.8 45.0 -0.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

580.5 601.2 596.8 595.1 582.4 596.4 596.2 595.8 -0.4

Oil and gas extraction

118.0 119.7 119.5 120.0 117.2 119.1 118.6 119.1 0.5

Mining (except oil and gas)

183.9 188.2 188.1 187.1 186.5 186.6 187.6 188.4 0.8

Coal mining

40.8 40.9 41.1 41.1 41.1 40.8 41.2 41.1 -0.1

Metal ore mining

43.2 44.0 44.2 44.3 43.5 44.1 44.5 44.4 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

99.9 103.3 102.8 101.7 102.0 101.7 101.9 102.9 1.0

Support activities for mining

278.6 293.3 289.2 288.0 278.7 290.7 290.0 288.3 -1.7

Construction

7,763 8,195 8,113 7,993 7,859 8,033 8,039 8,056 17

Construction of buildings

1,773.2 1,841.2 1,826.5 1,830.0 1,785.9 1,819.2 1,817.5 1,829.5 12.0

Residential building construction

928.2 947.9 935.9 936.5 934.3 934.8 932.2 936.1 3.9

Nonresidential building construction

845.0 893.3 890.6 893.5 851.6 884.4 885.3 893.4 8.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,040.2 1,182.9 1,156.1 1,101.5 1,081.5 1,132.0 1,136.5 1,136.0 -0.5

Specialty trade contractors

4,949.3 5,170.7 5,130.2 5,061.0 4,991.4 5,082.0 5,084.8 5,090.7 5.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,301.4 2,402.5 2,380.1 2,342.8 2,324.8 2,364.4 2,361.5 2,363.1 1.6

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,647.9 2,768.2 2,750.1 2,718.2 2,666.6 2,717.6 2,723.3 2,727.6 4.3

Manufacturing

12,988 12,962 12,990 13,013 12,974 12,954 12,980 12,986 6

Durable goods

8,107 8,107 8,149 8,170 8,096 8,110 8,144 8,152 8

Wood product manufacturing

429.2 420.2 420.5 418.7 429.3 420.5 420.5 418.4 -2.1

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

428.9 438.6 437.7 434.0 432.4 434.2 434.2 434.2 0.0

Primary metal manufacturing

368.6 368.4 365.6 369.5 366.5 369.3 367.3 367.9 0.6

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,448.6 1,455.1 1,458.3 1,463.6 1,449.4 1,456.3 1,458.6 1,461.5 2.9

Machinery manufacturing

1,124.6 1,127.8 1,132.0 1,134.9 1,123.0 1,132.0 1,132.7 1,134.3 1.6

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,102.4 1,095.7 1,096.7 1,101.6 1,100.7 1,097.5 1,098.8 1,100.4 1.6

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

168.2 166.4 166.3 168.1 167.4 166.4 166.7 167.5 0.8

Communications equipment manufacturing

84.5 86.3 86.0 85.6 85.2 86.4 86.0 85.6 -0.4

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

393.8 382.3 383.4 385.2 393.9 383.6 384.3 385.2 0.9

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

423.4 427.8 428.2 429.6 422.0 428.3 429.0 429.6 0.6

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

32.5 32.9 32.8 33.1 32.3 32.9 32.7 32.6 -0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

403.9 406.5 404.9 406.0 405.2 407.0 405.6 405.1 -0.5

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,792.0 1,811.1 1,848.6 1,852.7 1,782.4 1,807.8 1,842.6 1,844.0 1.4

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,060.0 1,051.1 1,084.1 1,084.9 1,048.1 1,046.9 1,078.2 1,076.1 -2.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

374.7 355.2 356.3 356.9 373.2 356.9 356.0 355.3 -0.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

634.4 628.2 628.7 631.9 634.3 628.5 627.7 630.9 3.2

Nondurable goods

4,881 4,855 4,841 4,843 4,878 4,844 4,836 4,834 -2

Food manufacturing

1,725.4 1,732.1 1,728.2 1,735.4 1,717.3 1,724.9 1,724.8 1,726.4 1.6

Textile mills

96.0 93.0 93.8 92.8 96.0 93.0 93.6 92.8 -0.8

Textile product mills

102.3 97.4 97.3 97.2 102.6 97.8 97.2 96.7 -0.5

Apparel manufacturing

92.6 90.5 90.1 89.6 91.9 90.6 90.0 89.9 -0.1

Paper manufacturing

359.0 346.6 347.8 349.0 358.7 347.6 347.4 347.3 -0.1

Printing and related support activities

385.5 374.5 373.0 370.5 381.5 373.4 370.4 368.2 -2.2

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

102.0 106.9 106.3 106.6 104.0 105.3 107.0 108.5 1.5

Chemical manufacturing

915.2 911.2 909.3 911.3 916.1 913.8 911.7 910.4 -1.3

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

755.4 736.7 734.6 733.0 754.7 737.4 733.3 730.7 -2.6

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

347.8 366.3 360.9 357.7 355.3 360.3 360.7 362.6 1.9

Private service-providing

111,369 112,863 113,247 113,284 110,743 112,298 112,404 112,546 142

Trade, transportation, and utilities

29,506 28,963 29,399 29,661 28,767 28,871 28,846 28,846 0

Wholesale trade

6,032.5 6,098.7 6,099.2 6,110.1 6,028.8 6,089.0 6,093.5 6,099.0 5.5

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,331.1 3,370.7 3,374.8 3,383.0 3,330.0 3,370.7 3,373.9 3,377.1 3.2

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,175.6 2,194.2 2,192.0 2,199.1 2,174.6 2,187.6 2,190.2 2,195.2 5.0

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

525.8 533.8 532.4 528.0 524.2 530.7 529.4 526.7 -2.7

Retail trade

15,868.1 15,564.5 15,859.4 15,979.1 15,477.8 15,550.3 15,525.9 15,543.3 17.4

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,019.7 2,061.9 2,061.6 2,060.8 2,026.1 2,058.2 2,059.5 2,063.0 3.5

Automobile dealers

1,257.3 1,271.8 1,276.1 1,277.9 1,259.7 1,271.9 1,274.7 1,275.3 0.6

Other motor vehicle dealers

172.7 174.5 168.7 164.5 178.6 173.9 172.5 171.3 -1.2

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

589.7 615.6 616.8 618.4 587.7 612.4 612.4 616.4 4.0

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,386.9 1,349.3 1,344.6 1,369.1 1,416.4 1,375.8 1,376.7 1,384.2 7.5

Food and beverage retailers

3,259.9 3,249.9 3,283.9 3,283.5 3,231.9 3,251.2 3,251.2 3,247.7 -3.5

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

906.0 844.9 856.9 865.4 877.5 840.5 834.8 831.5 -3.3

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

462.6 437.3 444.4 451.4 448.2 435.6 431.9 430.4 -1.5

Electronics and appliance retailers

443.4 407.6 412.5 414.0 426.7 403.8 402.3 401.1 -1.2

General merchandise retailers

3,269.2 3,192.1 3,309.7 3,351.5 3,068.4 3,173.8 3,152.1 3,153.7 1.6

Department stores

1,038.0 957.7 1,011.8 1,035.4 917.4 946.3 929.4 916.7 -12.7

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,231.2 2,234.4 2,297.9 2,316.1 2,151.0 2,227.5 2,222.8 2,237.0 14.2

Health and personal care retailers

1,139.7 1,105.7 1,119.5 1,122.5 1,114.1 1,099.0 1,095.4 1,091.1 -4.3

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,055.6 1,077.6 1,082.4 1,081.8 1,055.4 1,075.7 1,077.6 1,082.0 4.4

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,239.9 1,139.8 1,213.7 1,251.5 1,153.0 1,141.1 1,142.6 1,154.4 11.8

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,591.2 1,543.3 1,587.1 1,593.0 1,535.0 1,535.0 1,536.0 1,535.7 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

7,049.5 6,736.8 6,877.1 7,008.8 6,704.9 6,669.8 6,664.8 6,642.2 -22.6

Air transportation

520.5 554.8 556.0 559.9 523.6 554.2 558.2 561.9 3.7

Rail transportation

148.7 150.2 150.2 150.2 148.8 150.2 150.0 150.5 0.5

Water transportation

64.5 70.5 67.9 66.7 65.7 69.6 68.8 68.3 -0.5

Truck transportation

1,611.0 1,592.4 1,592.9 1,588.4 1,607.1 1,581.5 1,583.0 1,586.3 3.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

444.0 454.6 452.7 455.7 428.7 435.6 436.7 440.4 3.7

Pipeline transportation

48.1 47.8 48.0 47.6 47.9 47.9 47.9 47.6 -0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

27.5 37.4 33.7 33.7 31.2 36.4 37.0 38.1 1.1

Support activities for transportation

820.7 819.6 822.2 829.0 809.0 815.8 816.4 819.5 3.1

Couriers and messengers

1,383.6 1,114.4 1,244.4 1,374.9 1,109.5 1,112.9 1,110.7 1,078.4 -32.3

Warehousing and storage

1,980.9 1,895.1 1,909.1 1,902.7 1,933.4 1,865.7 1,856.1 1,851.2 -4.9

Utilities

555.5 562.5 563.2 563.0 555.3 562.2 562.2 561.8 -0.4

Information

3,139 3,030 3,055 3,070 3,120 3,022 3,037 3,051 14

Motion picture and sound recording industries

470.1 439.3 466.9 474.1 461.7 432.6 451.9 463.3 11.4

Publishing industries

955.5 919.6 918.4 919.0 952.3 920.9 918.0 916.3 -1.7

Broadcasting and content providers

359.9 350.3 348.9 350.1 359.6 349.5 347.3 348.0 0.7

Telecommunications

662.7 635.0 633.8 635.1 658.1 635.3 633.6 633.8 0.2

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

490.0 494.2 495.0 501.2 486.7 493.8 495.9 500.3 4.4

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

200.8 191.5 192.1 190.8 201.3 190.3 190.0 189.4 -0.6

Financial activities

9,132 9,173 9,166 9,171 9,101 9,145 9,146 9,148 2

Finance and insurance

6,716.2 6,714.7 6,714.5 6,716.3 6,691.7 6,706.0 6,701.2 6,698.8 -2.4

Monetary authorities-central bank

21.8 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.8 21.9 21.9 21.9 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,684.9 2,636.1 2,630.4 2,627.2 2,681.3 2,638.4 2,630.5 2,624.3 -6.2

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,784.7 1,766.6 1,766.4 1,766.2 1,783.4 1,772.2 1,768.6 1,765.7 -2.9

Commercial banking

1,376.9 1,354.5 1,354.0 1,353.0 1,376.6 1,359.7 1,356.7 1,353.9 -2.8

Nondepository credit intermediation

579.5 560.8 557.4 556.3 577.6 558.1 555.5 553.5 -2.0

Activities related to credit intermediation

320.7 308.7 306.6 304.7 320.3 308.1 306.4 305.1 -1.3

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,073.5 1,096.1 1,097.3 1,097.2 1,068.3 1,091.9 1,093.5 1,092.8 -0.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,936.0 2,960.6 2,964.9 2,970.0 2,920.3 2,953.8 2,955.3 2,959.8 4.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,416.1 2,458.0 2,451.0 2,454.6 2,409.2 2,439.4 2,444.7 2,449.0 4.3

Real estate

1,855.6 1,871.1 1,868.3 1,872.8 1,844.9 1,854.5 1,857.4 1,859.6 2.2

Rental and leasing services

537.7 564.0 559.8 558.8 541.8 562.2 564.5 566.6 2.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.8 22.9 22.9 23.0 22.5 22.7 22.8 22.8 0.0

Professional and business services

22,907 23,222 23,182 23,012 22,814 22,952 22,933 22,946 13

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,750.7 10,959.5 10,992.1 11,014.6 10,713.5 10,939.4 10,955.5 10,980.8 25.3

Legal services

1,190.0 1,187.4 1,192.3 1,200.4 1,180.4 1,182.3 1,186.0 1,190.5 4.5

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,130.5 1,118.2 1,135.1 1,159.0 1,131.7 1,158.0 1,157.7 1,162.1 4.4

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,645.5 1,697.5 1,695.8 1,689.7 1,644.7 1,686.7 1,690.3 1,690.6 0.3

Specialized design services

159.3 162.6 162.2 161.2 157.2 161.4 160.3 159.6 -0.7

Computer systems design and related services

2,492.2 2,529.9 2,536.8 2,533.2 2,493.4 2,519.4 2,523.0 2,531.5 8.5

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,850.9 1,909.4 1,910.9 1,910.9 1,832.2 1,888.4 1,891.2 1,896.0 4.8

Scientific research and development services

914.5 946.5 951.6 953.1 913.9 946.6 951.7 953.9 2.2

Advertising, public relations, and related services

493.9 506.3 505.2 507.5 493.3 503.5 502.7 504.6 1.9

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

873.9 901.7 902.2 899.6 866.7 893.1 892.5 892.0 -0.5

Management of companies and enterprises

2,523.7 2,525.3 2,521.6 2,534.4 2,516.3 2,526.1 2,521.6 2,527.7 6.1

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,632.1 9,736.7 9,668.7 9,463.1 9,584.0 9,486.8 9,455.6 9,437.3 -18.3

Administrative and support services

9,147.9 9,236.4 9,166.9 8,961.0 9,101.6 8,989.6 8,955.9 8,935.0 -20.9

Office administrative services

610.0 638.3 639.2 636.4 612.8 633.4 636.2 638.5 2.3

Facilities support services

158.7 167.0 166.5 166.0 158.4 165.4 165.7 165.7 0.0

Employment services(1)

3,945.7 3,814.0 3,799.8 3,691.5 3,839.5 3,652.0 3,621.9 3,592.6 -29.3

Temporary help services

3,147.1 3,028.4 3,011.9 2,916.7 3,037.9 2,886.4 2,864.3 2,831.0 -33.3

Business support services

784.8 745.0 748.5 747.0 766.2 739.0 732.2 728.8 -3.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

179.2 189.0 190.0 189.2 180.9 187.7 190.4 191.2 0.8

Investigation and security services

979.2 988.6 994.1 988.7 970.9 984.1 986.8 985.7 -1.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,151.1 2,341.4 2,281.5 2,196.6 2,230.2 2,281.9 2,277.4 2,286.8 9.4

Other support services

339.2 353.1 347.3 345.6 342.8 346.2 345.4 345.6 0.2

Waste management and remediation services

484.2 500.3 501.8 502.1 482.4 497.2 499.7 502.3 2.6

Private education and health services

24,960 25,894 26,070 26,043 24,827 25,695 25,804 25,878 74

Private educational services

3,920.4 4,098.5 4,138.5 4,070.4 3,856.3 3,959.9 3,972.9 3,987.4 14.5

Health care and social assistance

21,039.2 21,795.9 21,931.1 21,972.6 20,970.2 21,735.2 21,831.2 21,890.1 58.9

Health care(3)

16,660.1 17,177.9 17,285.0 17,323.0 16,591.3 17,129.3 17,207.6 17,245.3 37.7

Ambulatory health care services

8,314.9 8,562.0 8,619.5 8,639.9 8,272.8 8,533.8 8,573.4 8,592.6 19.2

Offices of physicians

2,877.4 2,956.3 2,979.6 2,989.1 2,855.9 2,944.6 2,960.6 2,966.0 5.4

Offices of dentists

1,031.4 1,036.7 1,043.0 1,039.9 1,031.2 1,036.2 1,040.3 1,036.4 -3.9

Offices of other health practitioners

1,114.6 1,160.6 1,166.5 1,170.9 1,110.2 1,155.0 1,159.9 1,165.9 6.0

Outpatient care centers

1,058.2 1,073.6 1,082.6 1,089.7 1,053.0 1,073.9 1,079.2 1,083.6 4.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

321.1 325.0 328.0 328.2 320.4 324.7 327.5 327.6 0.1

Home health care services

1,575.7 1,664.9 1,674.4 1,676.6 1,567.7 1,655.0 1,661.2 1,668.2 7.0

Other ambulatory health care services

336.5 344.9 345.4 345.5 334.4 344.5 344.7 344.9 0.2

Hospitals

5,262.8 5,406.8 5,432.2 5,444.0 5,245.3 5,393.2 5,413.2 5,428.5 15.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,082.4 3,209.1 3,233.3 3,239.1 3,073.2 3,202.3 3,221.0 3,224.2 3.2

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,382.1 1,439.9 1,447.4 1,452.5 1,375.9 1,433.7 1,440.4 1,445.1 4.7

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

623.5 645.6 650.2 651.3 621.7 644.8 649.1 649.9 0.8

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

923.0 966.0 978.2 977.6 921.2 966.4 974.6 972.4 -2.2

Other residential care facilities

153.8 157.6 157.5 157.7 154.4 157.4 156.9 156.8 -0.1

Social assistance

4,379.1 4,618.0 4,646.1 4,649.6 4,378.9 4,605.9 4,623.6 4,644.8 21.2

Individual and family services

2,912.0 3,094.5 3,110.4 3,116.9 2,913.6 3,087.2 3,098.0 3,115.1 17.1

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

211.1 220.4 223.2 223.9 208.9 221.0 221.6 221.1 -0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

274.1 284.8 286.3 285.2 275.1 283.7 284.9 285.0 0.1

Child care services

981.9 1,018.3 1,026.2 1,023.6 981.3 1,014.0 1,019.1 1,023.6 4.5

Leisure and hospitality

15,947 16,693 16,482 16,450 16,316 16,730 16,742 16,782 40

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,241.7 2,477.2 2,369.1 2,372.7 2,397.8 2,503.8 2,501.6 2,513.7 12.1

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

487.5 583.4 556.5 557.1 513.4 571.3 568.8 575.3 6.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

161.8 176.3 173.1 171.1 164.8 174.7 175.6 175.9 0.3

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,592.4 1,717.5 1,639.5 1,644.5 1,719.6 1,757.8 1,757.2 1,762.5 5.3

Accommodation and food services

13,705.5 14,215.8 14,112.6 14,077.2 13,918.1 14,225.9 14,240.2 14,268.6 28.4

Accommodation

1,770.5 1,878.0 1,835.0 1,828.4 1,846.2 1,891.0 1,892.0 1,898.3 6.3

Food services and drinking places

11,935.0 12,337.8 12,277.6 12,248.8 12,071.9 12,334.9 12,348.2 12,370.3 22.1

Other services

5,778 5,888 5,893 5,877 5,798 5,883 5,896 5,895 -1

Repair and maintenance

1,410.8 1,465.8 1,462.5 1,459.1 1,417.7 1,459.3 1,462.0 1,465.0 3.0

Personal and laundry services

1,520.9 1,552.2 1,552.2 1,545.6 1,521.6 1,548.0 1,550.0 1,545.2 -4.8

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,846.4 2,869.8 2,878.5 2,872.2 2,859.1 2,876.1 2,884.3 2,885.1 0.8

Government

22,598 23,267 23,402 23,298 22,331 22,914 22,951 23,003 52

Federal

2,890 2,962 2,970 2,972 2,874 2,956 2,958 2,965 7

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,277.9 2,356.3 2,363.0 2,358.4 2,278.8 2,348.9 2,355.3 2,362.4 7.1

U.S. Postal Service

611.7 605.4 607.0 613.3 595.5 606.6 602.9 602.4 -0.5

State government

5,167 5,481 5,508 5,433 5,087 5,314 5,318 5,326 8

State government education

2,511.3 2,743.0 2,771.2 2,693.7 2,421.5 2,576.4 2,577.3 2,579.0 1.7

State government, excluding education

2,655.5 2,737.8 2,736.5 2,738.8 2,665.8 2,738.0 2,740.4 2,746.8 6.4

Local government

14,541 14,824 14,924 14,893 14,370 14,644 14,675 14,712 37

Local government education

8,114.9 8,208.6 8,299.3 8,288.0 7,868.1 7,993.9 8,008.3 8,027.5 19.2

Local government, excluding education

6,426.5 6,615.1 6,624.7 6,604.6 6,501.6 6,650.3 6,666.5 6,684.2 17.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.3 34.4 34.3

Goods-producing

39.7 39.8 39.8 39.7

Mining and logging

45.5 44.8 45.1 45.5

Construction

38.6 39.2 39.3 39.1

Manufacturing

40.1 40.0 39.9 39.8

Durable goods

40.6 40.5 40.3 40.2

Nondurable goods

39.4 39.2 39.3 39.0

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 33.9 34.0 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.7 38.6 38.8 38.9

Retail trade

30.2 29.8 30.1 29.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 38.3 38.1 38.4

Utilities

41.8 42.0 41.8 42.0

Information

36.5 36.2 36.1 36.7

Financial activities

37.4 37.4 37.4 37.4

Professional and business services

36.4 36.4 36.5 36.4

Private education and health services

33.3 33.3 33.2 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

25.3 25.5 25.5 25.6

Other services

32.3 32.3 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9

Durable goods

3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0

Nondurable goods

2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)

Total private

$32.92 $34.00 $34.12 $34.27 $1,132.45 $1,166.20 $1,173.73 $1,175.46

Goods-producing

33.11 34.58 34.78 34.90 1,314.47 1,376.28 1,384.24 1,385.53

Mining and logging

36.64 38.60 38.60 38.81 1,667.12 1,729.28 1,740.86 1,765.86

Construction

35.60 37.00 37.20 37.24 1,374.16 1,450.40 1,461.96 1,456.08

Manufacturing

31.47 32.89 33.09 33.25 1,261.95 1,315.60 1,320.29 1,323.35

Durable goods

32.96 34.53 34.74 34.97 1,338.18 1,398.47 1,400.02 1,405.79

Nondurable goods

28.92 30.06 30.24 30.25 1,139.45 1,178.35 1,188.43 1,179.75

Private service-providing

32.88 33.86 33.97 34.13 1,094.90 1,127.54 1,131.20 1,136.53

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28.23 29.23 29.32 29.49 962.64 990.90 996.88 999.71

Wholesale trade

35.87 36.95 37.09 37.13 1,388.17 1,426.27 1,439.09 1,444.36

Retail trade

23.45 24.05 24.13 24.33 708.19 716.69 726.31 722.60

Transportation and warehousing

28.17 29.60 29.67 29.84 1,081.73 1,133.68 1,130.43 1,145.86

Utilities

48.44 50.13 50.37 49.78 2,024.79 2,105.46 2,105.47 2,090.76

Information

47.74 48.62 49.03 49.44 1,742.51 1,760.04 1,769.98 1,814.45

Financial activities

42.42 44.20 44.38 44.54 1,586.51 1,653.08 1,659.81 1,665.80

Professional and business services

39.53 40.89 41.08 41.29 1,438.89 1,488.40 1,499.42 1,502.96

Private education and health services

32.58 33.26 33.28 33.38 1,084.91 1,107.56 1,104.90 1,111.55

Leisure and hospitality

20.78 21.41 21.52 21.60 525.73 545.96 548.76 552.96

Other services

29.37 30.29 30.33 30.51 948.65 978.37 979.66 985.47

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2023 - Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2023 - Dec.
2023(p)

Total private

114.2 115.3 115.8 115.6 -0.2 179.7 187.5 188.9 189.4 0.3

Goods-producing

97.1 98.1 98.2 98.1 -0.1 145.3 153.3 154.4 154.7 0.2

Mining and logging

89.8 90.7 91.0 91.6 0.7 132.1 140.5 141.0 142.8 1.3

Construction

104.6 108.5 108.9 108.6 -0.3 161.8 174.5 176.0 175.7 -0.2

Manufacturing

93.6 93.2 93.2 93.0 -0.2 137.0 142.6 143.4 143.8 0.3

Durable goods

92.5 92.5 92.4 92.3 -0.1 135.5 141.8 142.6 143.3 0.5

Nondurable goods

95.9 94.8 94.9 94.1 -0.8 140.8 144.6 145.6 144.4 -0.8

Private service-providing

118.7 120.4 120.5 120.7 0.2 189.7 198.1 199.0 200.2 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.2 106.9 107.2 106.8 -0.4 163.2 168.6 169.4 169.9 0.3

Wholesale trade

102.9 103.7 104.3 104.7 0.4 154.4 160.2 161.8 162.5 0.4

Retail trade

95.1 94.3 95.1 94.0 -1.2 147.5 150.0 151.8 151.2 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

147.9 146.8 145.9 146.6 0.5 212.0 221.0 220.2 222.5 1.0

Utilities

100.4 102.2 101.7 102.1 0.4 160.7 169.2 169.2 167.9 -0.8

Information

104.0 99.9 100.1 102.3 2.2 176.8 173.0 174.8 180.0 3.0

Financial activities

111.5 112.0 112.1 112.1 0.0 184.5 193.2 194.0 194.7 0.4

Professional and business services

129.9 130.7 131.0 130.7 -0.2 208.0 216.5 217.9 218.6 0.3

Private education and health services

135.0 139.7 139.9 140.7 0.6 211.6 223.6 224.0 226.0 0.9

Leisure and hospitality

117.8 121.7 121.8 122.6 0.7 197.5 210.3 211.5 213.6 1.0

Other services

108.0 109.6 109.8 109.8 0.0 173.8 181.9 182.5 183.6 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)
Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)

Total nonfarm

76,965 78,188 78,282 78,412 49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

63,943 64,839 64,904 65,002 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,965 4,993 5,002 5,005 23.1 23.1 23.1 23.1

Mining and logging

81 84 85 84 12.9 13.0 13.2 13.1

Construction

1,111 1,145 1,149 1,154 14.1 14.3 14.3 14.3

Manufacturing

3,773 3,764 3,768 3,767 29.1 29.1 29.0 29.0

Durable goods

2,018 2,021 2,026 2,035 24.9 24.9 24.9 25.0

Nondurable goods

1,755 1,743 1,742 1,732 36.0 36.0 36.0 35.8

Private service-providing

58,978 59,846 59,902 59,997 53.3 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,327 11,283 11,269 11,287 39.4 39.1 39.1 39.1

Wholesale trade

1,845.6 1,866.8 1,859.3 1,859.2 30.6 30.7 30.5 30.5

Retail trade

7,514.4 7,487.5 7,483.5 7,490.7 48.5 48.2 48.2 48.2

Transportation and warehousing

1,823.3 1,779.9 1,776.5 1,787.8 27.2 26.7 26.7 26.9

Utilities

144.0 148.5 149.2 149.3 25.9 26.4 26.5 26.6

Information

1,265 1,229 1,229 1,232 40.5 40.7 40.5 40.4

Financial activities

5,071 5,096 5,099 5,098 55.7 55.7 55.8 55.7

Professional and business services

10,502 10,568 10,544 10,537 46.0 46.0 46.0 45.9

Private education and health services

19,106 19,747 19,815 19,873 77.0 76.9 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,599 8,768 8,784 8,800 52.7 52.4 52.5 52.4

Other services

3,108 3,155 3,162 3,170 53.6 53.6 53.6 53.8

Government

13,022 13,349 13,378 13,410 58.3 58.3 58.3 58.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2022
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023(p)
Dec.
2023(p)

Total private

107,475 108,968 109,134 109,338

Goods-producing

15,393<