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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                 USDL-17-0004
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 6, 2017

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  https://www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  https://www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2016


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 156,000 in December, and the unemployment rate
was little changed at 4.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Job growth occurred in health care and social assistance.

  __________________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                                  |
 |                Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data             |
 |                                                                                  |
 |Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal|
 |adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally |
 |adjusted estimates back to January 2012 were subject to revision. The unemployment|
 |rates for January 2016 through November 2016 (as originally published and as      |
 |revised) appear in table A, along with additional information about the revisions.|
 |__________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate, at 4.7 percent, and the number of unemployed persons, at 7.5
million, changed little in December. However, both measures edged down in the fourth
quarter, after showing little net change earlier in the year. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (4.4 percent), adult
women (4.3 percent), teenagers (14.7 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), Blacks (7.8 percent),
Asians (2.6 percent), and Hispanics (5.9 percent) showed little change in December. (See
tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially
unchanged at 1.8 million in December and accounted for 24.2 percent of the unemployed. In
2016, the number of long-term unemployed declined by 263,000. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, changed little in December and was
unchanged over the year. In December, the employment-population ratio was 59.7 percent
for the third consecutive month; this measure showed little change, on net, in 2016.
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (also referred to as
involuntary part-time workers), at 5.6 million, was essentially unchanged in December
but was down by 459,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred
full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been cut back or
because they were unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

In December, 1.7 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
changed from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 426,000 discouraged workers in December, down
by 237,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged
workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are
available to them. The remaining 1.3 million persons marginally attached to the labor
force in December had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or
family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 156,000 in December, with an increase in health
care and social assistance. Job growth totaled 2.2 million in 2016, less than the increase
of 2.7 million in 2015. (See table B-1.)

Employment in health care rose by 43,000 in December, with most of the increase occurring
in ambulatory health care services (+30,000) and hospitals (+11,000). Health care added
an average of 35,000 jobs per month in 2016, roughly in line with the average monthly
gain of 39,000 in 2015.

Social assistance added 20,000 jobs in December, reflecting job growth in individual and
family services (+21,000). In 2016, social assistance added 92,000 jobs, down from an
increase of 162,000 in 2015. 

Employment in food services and drinking places continued to trend up in December (+30,000).
This industry added 247,000 jobs in 2016, fewer than the 359,000 jobs gained in 2015.

Employment also continued to trend up in transportation and warehousing in December
(+15,000). Within the industry, employment expanded by 12,000 in couriers and messengers.
In 2016, transportation and warehousing added 62,000 jobs, down from a gain of 110,000
jobs in 2015.

Employment in financial activities continued on an upward trend in December (+13,000).
This is in line with the average monthly gains for the industry over the past 2 years.

In December, employment edged up in manufacturing (+17,000), with a gain of 15,000 in the
durable goods component. However, since reaching a recent peak in January, manufacturing
employment has declined by 63,000.

Employment in professional and business services was little changed in December (+15,000),
following an increase of 65,000 in November. The industry added 522,000 jobs in 2016.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, construction, wholesale trade,
retail trade, information, and government, changed little in December.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.3
hours in December. In manufacturing, the workweek edged up by 0.1 hour to 40.7 hours,
and overtime edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained at 33.6 hours. (See
tables B-2 and B-7.)

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
increased by 10 cents to $26.00, after edging down by 2 cents in November. Over the
year, average hourly earnings have risen by 2.9 percent. In December, average hourly
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 7 cents
to $21.80. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised down from +142,000
to +135,000, and the change for November was revised up from +178,000 to +204,000. With
these revisions, employment gains in October and November were 19,000 higher than
previously reported. Over the past 3 months, job gains have averaged 165,000 per month.

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday,
February 3, 2017, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).


  ______________________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                                      |
 |                    Upcoming Changes to the Establishment Survey Data                 |
 |                                                                                      |
 |Effective with the release of January 2017 data on February 3, 2017, the Current      |
 |Employment Statistics (CES) program will begin using an improved methodology to select|
 |models for annual seasonal adjustment processing. See                                 |
 |https://www.bls.gov/ces/cestramo.htm for more information.                            |
 |______________________________________________________________________________________|


  _______________________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                                      |
 |                            Revision of Establishment Survey Data                     |
 |                                                                                      |
 |Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2017 on February 3,|
 |2017, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey will introduce revisions to non- |
 |farm payroll employment, hours, and earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark     |
 |adjustment for March 2016 and updated seasonal adjustment factors. Not seasonally     |
 |adjusted data beginning with April 2015 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with   |
 |January 2012 are subject to revision. Consistent with standard practice, some         |
 |historical data may be subject to minor revisions resulting from issues identified    |
 |during the benchmark process.                                                         |
 |______________________________________________________________________________________|


  ______________________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                                      |
 |                           Upcoming Changes to the Household Survey                   |
 |                                                                                      |
 |Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2017 on February 3,|
 |2017, new population controls will be used in the Current Population Survey (CPS)     |
 |estimation process. These new controls reflect the annual updating of intercensal     |
 |population estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual practice,    |
 |historical data will not be revised to incorporate the new controls; consequently,    |
 |household survey data for January 2017 will not be directly comparable with data for  |
 |December 2016 or earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the new controls on  |
 |the major labor force series will be included in the January 2017 release.            |
 |______________________________________________________________________________________|


                      Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data

At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment factors
for the labor force series derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS), or household
survey. As a result of this process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2012 through
November 2016 were subject to revision.

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2016 through November 2016, as first
published and as revised. The rates changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 2 of
the 11 months and were unchanged in the remaining 9 months. Revised seasonally adjusted
data for other major labor force series beginning in December 2015 appear in table B.

An article describing the seasonal adjustment methodology for the household survey
data and revised data for January 2016 through November 2016 is available at
https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf.

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables of this release can
be accessed at https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical seasonally
adjusted data are available at 
https://www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.


Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2016 and changes due to revision
January - November 2016

       Month              As first published         As revised            Change

January.............            4.9                      4.9                 0.0
February............            4.9                      4.9                  .0
March...............            5.0                      5.0                  .0
April...............            5.0                      5.0                  .0
May.................            4.7                      4.7                  .0
June................            4.9                      4.9                  .0
July................            4.9                      4.9                  .0
August..............            4.9                      4.9                  .0
September...........            5.0                      4.9                 -.1
October.............            4.9                      4.8                 -.1
November............            4.6                      4.6                  .0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2015 2016
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

251,936 252,397 252,577 252,768 252,969 253,174 253,397 253,620 253,854 254,091 254,321 254,540 254,742

Civilian labor force

157,957 158,362 158,888 159,278 158,938 158,510 158,889 159,295 159,508 159,830 159,643 159,456 159,640

Participation rate

62.7 62.7 62.9 63.0 62.8 62.6 62.7 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.6 62.7

Employed

150,030 150,533 151,043 151,301 151,028 151,058 151,090 151,546 151,655 151,926 151,902 152,048 152,111

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.6 59.8 59.9 59.7 59.7 59.6 59.8 59.7 59.8 59.7 59.7 59.7

Unemployed

7,927 7,829 7,845 7,977 7,910 7,451 7,799 7,749 7,853 7,904 7,740 7,409 7,529

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.7

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

113,241 113,483 113,566 113,653 113,746 113,844 113,951 114,058 114,173 114,289 114,401 114,506 114,603

Civilian labor force

81,000 81,319 81,681 81,800 81,743 81,420 81,782 81,818 81,835 81,988 81,967 81,817 81,983

Participation rate

71.5 71.7 71.9 72.0 71.9 71.5 71.8 71.7 71.7 71.7 71.6 71.5 71.5

Employed

77,213 77,670 77,974 78,066 77,993 77,926 78,098 78,042 78,142 78,191 78,232 78,330 78,379

Employment-population ratio

68.2 68.4 68.7 68.7 68.6 68.4 68.5 68.4 68.4 68.4 68.4 68.4 68.4

Unemployed

3,787 3,648 3,707 3,734 3,750 3,493 3,684 3,775 3,693 3,798 3,735 3,486 3,605

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

122,071 122,263 122,345 122,433 122,524 122,622 122,728 122,835 122,949 123,066 123,179 123,285 123,383

Civilian labor force

71,109 71,205 71,289 71,617 71,316 71,226 71,310 71,588 71,674 71,856 71,784 71,737 71,831

Participation rate

58.3 58.2 58.3 58.5 58.2 58.1 58.1 58.3 58.3 58.4 58.3 58.2 58.2

Employed

67,920 67,959 68,071 68,303 68,099 68,218 68,116 68,534 68,452 68,702 68,698 68,712 68,760

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.6 55.6 55.8 55.6 55.6 55.5 55.8 55.7 55.8 55.8 55.7 55.7

Unemployed

3,189 3,246 3,218 3,314 3,218 3,008 3,194 3,054 3,223 3,154 3,085 3,025 3,071

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,624 16,651 16,666 16,682 16,699 16,708 16,718 16,728 16,732 16,737 16,741 16,749 16,756

Civilian labor force

5,848 5,838 5,918 5,861 5,879 5,864 5,798 5,889 5,999 5,987 5,892 5,903 5,826

Participation rate

35.2 35.1 35.5 35.1 35.2 35.1 34.7 35.2 35.9 35.8 35.2 35.2 34.8

Employed

4,898 4,904 4,997 4,931 4,936 4,914 4,877 4,969 5,062 5,034 4,972 5,006 4,972

Employment-population ratio

29.5 29.5 30.0 29.6 29.6 29.4 29.2 29.7 30.3 30.1 29.7 29.9 29.7

Unemployed

951 934 921 929 943 950 921 920 937 953 920 897 854

Unemployment rate

16.3 16.0 15.6 15.9 16.0 16.2 15.9 15.6 15.6 15.9 15.6 15.2 14.7

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Change from:
Nov.
2016-
Dec.
2016

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

251,936 254,321 254,540 254,742 202

Civilian labor force

157,957 159,643 159,456 159,640 184

Participation rate

62.7 62.8 62.6 62.7 0.1

Employed

150,030 151,902 152,048 152,111 63

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.7 59.7 59.7 0.0

Unemployed

7,927 7,740 7,409 7,529 120

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.8 4.6 4.7 0.1

Not in labor force

93,978 94,678 95,084 95,102 18

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.0 4.8 4.6 4.7 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.7 4.6 4.3 4.4 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.5 4.3 4.2 4.3 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

16.3 15.6 15.2 14.7 -0.5

White

4.5 4.3 4.2 4.3 0.1

Black or African American

8.4 8.6 8.0 7.8 -0.2

Asian

4.0 3.4 3.0 2.6 -0.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.2 5.7 5.7 5.9 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

6.7 7.4 7.9 7.9 0.0

High school graduates, no college

5.5 5.5 4.9 5.1 0.2

Some college or associate degree

4.2 3.8 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.5 2.6 2.3 2.5 0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,799 3,749 3,542 3,639 97

Job leavers

817 945 934 905 -29

Reentrants

2,486 2,339 2,266 2,219 -47

New entrants

860 791 728 783 55

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,413 2,393 2,415 2,379 -36

5 to 14 weeks

2,211 2,273 2,133 2,156 23

15 to 26 weeks

1,233 1,167 1,073 1,199 126

27 weeks and over

2,094 1,964 1,856 1,831 -25

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,057 5,850 5,659 5,598 -61

Slack work or business conditions

3,589 3,481 3,485 3,401 -84

Could only find part-time work

2,175 2,093 1,902 1,873 -29

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,173 20,765 21,059 21,251 192

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,833 1,700 1,932 1,684 -

Discouraged workers

663 487 591 426 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

271 135 204 156

Total private

259 146 198 144

Goods-producing

44 8 13 12

Mining and logging

-10 -2 3 -2

Construction

48 14 17 -3

Manufacturing

6 -4 -7 17

Durable goods(1)

-2 4 -4 15

Motor vehicles and parts

0.1 1.1 2.3 2.9

Nondurable goods

8 -8 -3 2

Private service-providing

215 138 185 132

Wholesale trade

3.8 7.0 4.8 2.0

Retail trade

6.6 -2.3 19.5 6.3

Transportation and warehousing

16.5 13.0 11.4 14.7

Utilities

0.9 0.7 -0.2 0.2

Information

10 -2 -12 -6

Financial activities

8 8 8 13

Professional and business services(1)

60 42 65 15

Temporary help services

24.9 5.2 23.8 -15.5

Education and health services(1)

63 50 43 70

Health care and social assistance

46.7 42.9 34.6 63.3

Leisure and hospitality

35 20 37 24

Other services

12 1 9 -8

Government

12 -11 6 12

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

282 173 182 165

Total private

281 161 183 163

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.4 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private women employees

47.9 48.2 48.2 48.2

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.3 82.3 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.3 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$25.26 $25.92 $25.90 $26.00

Average weekly earnings

$871.47 $891.65 $888.37 $891.80

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

104.9 106.0 105.8 106.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.2 -0.2 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

126.6 131.3 131.0 131.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.5 -0.2 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (262 industries)

62.0 59.0 55.7 57.1

Manufacturing (79 industries)

55.1 48.1 44.3 48.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 146,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 623,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

251,936 254,540 254,742 251,936 253,854 254,091 254,321 254,540 254,742

Civilian labor force

157,245 159,451 158,968 157,957 159,508 159,830 159,643 159,456 159,640

Participation rate

62.4 62.6 62.4 62.7 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.6 62.7

Employed

149,703 152,385 151,798 150,030 151,655 151,926 151,902 152,048 152,111

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.9 59.6 59.6 59.7 59.8 59.7 59.7 59.7

Unemployed

7,542 7,066 7,170 7,927 7,853 7,904 7,740 7,409 7,529

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.4 4.5 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.7

Not in labor force

94,691 95,089 95,774 93,978 94,346 94,261 94,678 95,084 95,102

Persons who currently want a job

5,705 5,524 5,449 5,920 5,841 6,082 5,889 5,837 5,662

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,671 122,998 123,099 121,671 122,656 122,775 122,889 122,998 123,099

Civilian labor force

83,439 84,628 84,463 83,959 84,902 85,042 84,994 84,860 84,979

Participation rate

68.6 68.8 68.6 69.0 69.2 69.3 69.2 69.0 69.0

Employed

79,158 80,763 80,368 79,650 80,669 80,735 80,717 80,826 80,861

Employment-population ratio

65.1 65.7 65.3 65.5 65.8 65.8 65.7 65.7 65.7

Unemployed

4,280 3,865 4,095 4,310 4,234 4,307 4,278 4,034 4,118

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.6 4.8 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.8

Not in labor force

38,233 38,370 38,636 37,712 37,754 37,732 37,895 38,139 38,120

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

113,241 114,506 114,603 113,241 114,173 114,289 114,401 114,506 114,603

Civilian labor force

80,663 81,751 81,640 81,000 81,835 81,988 81,967 81,817 81,983

Participation rate

71.2 71.4 71.2 71.5 71.7 71.7 71.6 71.5 71.5

Employed

76,827 78,405 77,984 77,213 78,142 78,191 78,232 78,330 78,379

Employment-population ratio

67.8 68.5 68.0 68.2 68.4 68.4 68.4 68.4 68.4

Unemployed

3,836 3,347 3,656 3,787 3,693 3,798 3,735 3,486 3,605

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.4

Not in labor force

32,578 32,755 32,963 32,241 32,338 32,301 32,434 32,690 32,620

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,265 131,542 131,643 130,265 131,198 131,317 131,432 131,542 131,643

Civilian labor force

73,807 74,823 74,505 73,998 74,605 74,788 74,648 74,597 74,661

Participation rate

56.7 56.9 56.6 56.8 56.9 57.0 56.8 56.7 56.7

Employed

70,544 71,622 71,430 70,381 70,986 71,191 71,185 71,222 71,250

Employment-population ratio

54.2 54.4 54.3 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.2 54.1 54.1

Unemployed

3,262 3,201 3,075 3,618 3,619 3,597 3,463 3,375 3,411

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.3 4.1 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.6

Not in labor force

56,458 56,719 57,138 56,266 56,593 56,529 56,783 56,945 56,982

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,071 123,285 123,383 122,071 122,949 123,066 123,179 123,285 123,383

Civilian labor force

71,055 72,109 71,794 71,109 71,674 71,856 71,784 71,737 71,831

Participation rate

58.2 58.5 58.2 58.3 58.3 58.4 58.3 58.2 58.2

Employed

68,131 69,203 68,984 67,920 68,452 68,702 68,698 68,712 68,760

Employment-population ratio

55.8 56.1 55.9 55.6 55.7 55.8 55.8 55.7 55.7

Unemployed

2,924 2,906 2,810 3,189 3,223 3,154 3,085 3,025 3,071

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.0 3.9 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3

Not in labor force

51,016 51,176 51,589 50,962 51,275 51,210 51,395 51,548 51,552

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,624 16,749 16,756 16,624 16,732 16,737 16,741 16,749 16,756

Civilian labor force

5,527 5,591 5,534 5,848 5,999 5,987 5,892 5,903 5,826

Participation rate

33.2 33.4 33.0 35.2 35.9 35.8 35.2 35.2 34.8

Employed

4,745 4,778 4,831 4,898 5,062 5,034 4,972 5,006 4,972

Employment-population ratio

28.5 28.5 28.8 29.5 30.3 30.1 29.7 29.9 29.7

Unemployed

782 814 704 951 937 953 920 897 854

Unemployment rate

14.2 14.6 12.7 16.3 15.6 15.9 15.6 15.2 14.7

Not in labor force

11,096 11,158 11,221 10,775 10,733 10,750 10,849 10,846 10,930

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

197,471 198,745 198,845 197,471 198,380 198,509 198,633 198,745 198,845

Civilian labor force

123,401 124,549 124,081 123,941 124,736 124,826 124,700 124,578 124,616

Participation rate

62.5 62.7 62.4 62.8 62.9 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.7

Employed

118,157 119,680 118,992 118,409 119,269 119,391 119,310 119,370 119,263

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.2 59.8 60.0 60.1 60.1 60.1 60.1 60.0

Unemployed

5,244 4,869 5,090 5,532 5,466 5,435 5,391 5,208 5,354

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3

Not in labor force

74,070 74,197 74,764 73,530 73,644 73,683 73,932 74,168 74,229

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,506 65,096 64,895 64,755 65,207 65,283 65,259 65,124 65,146

Participation rate

71.5 71.7 71.4 71.8 71.9 72.0 71.9 71.7 71.7

Employed

61,788 62,716 62,194 62,056 62,536 62,589 62,592 62,608 62,476

Employment-population ratio

68.5 69.0 68.4 68.8 69.0 69.0 68.9 68.9 68.7

Unemployed

2,718 2,380 2,700 2,698 2,671 2,693 2,668 2,516 2,669

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.7 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,560 55,065 54,856 54,567 54,863 54,871 54,852 54,808 54,872

Participation rate

57.4 57.6 57.4 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.4 57.4 57.4

Employed

52,596 53,168 52,966 52,435 52,720 52,799 52,774 52,783 52,813

Employment-population ratio

55.4 55.6 55.4 55.2 55.3 55.3 55.3 55.2 55.2

Unemployed

1,964 1,897 1,890 2,132 2,143 2,072 2,078 2,026 2,059

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,335 4,388 4,330 4,620 4,665 4,672 4,589 4,645 4,599

Participation rate

35.2 35.5 35.1 37.5 37.8 37.8 37.2 37.6 37.2

Employed

3,773 3,796 3,832 3,917 4,013 4,002 3,944 3,979 3,974

Employment-population ratio

30.6 30.7 31.0 31.8 32.5 32.4 31.9 32.2 32.2

Unemployed

562 593 499 702 652 670 645 666 625

Unemployment rate

13.0 13.5 11.5 15.2 14.0 14.3 14.1 14.3 13.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,594 32,068 32,105 31,594 31,945 31,987 32,028 32,068 32,105

Civilian labor force

19,359 19,916 19,779 19,444 19,767 19,826 19,801 19,856 19,844

Participation rate

61.3 62.1 61.6 61.5 61.9 62.0 61.8 61.9 61.8

Employed

17,795 18,361 18,307 17,802 18,170 18,181 18,104 18,262 18,292

Employment-population ratio

56.3 57.3 57.0 56.3 56.9 56.8 56.5 56.9 57.0

Unemployed

1,565 1,555 1,472 1,641 1,597 1,646 1,696 1,594 1,552

Unemployment rate

8.1 7.8 7.4 8.4 8.1 8.3 8.6 8.0 7.8

Not in labor force

12,235 12,152 12,327 12,150 12,178 12,161 12,228 12,212 12,261

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,759 9,009 9,023 8,791 8,950 9,000 9,011 9,018 9,056

Participation rate

66.7 67.4 67.4 66.9 67.3 67.5 67.5 67.5 67.7

Employed

7,994 8,355 8,337 8,027 8,269 8,264 8,223 8,328 8,366

Employment-population ratio

60.9 62.5 62.3 61.1 62.2 62.0 61.6 62.3 62.5

Unemployed

764 655 686 764 680 736 789 691 690

Unemployment rate

8.7 7.3 7.6 8.7 7.6 8.2 8.8 7.7 7.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,890 10,226 10,088 9,911 10,025 10,074 10,079 10,135 10,094

Participation rate

61.9 63.2 62.2 62.1 62.2 62.4 62.3 62.6 62.3

Employed

9,240 9,496 9,459 9,206 9,316 9,370 9,367 9,418 9,410

Employment-population ratio

57.9 58.7 58.4 57.7 57.8 58.0 57.9 58.2 58.1

Unemployed

650 730 629 705 709 703 712 716 683

Unemployment rate

6.6 7.1 6.2 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.1 6.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

710 681 668 742 792 752 710 703 694

Participation rate

28.5 27.0 26.5 29.8 31.5 29.9 28.2 27.9 27.6

Employed

560 510 511 569 585 546 515 516 515

Employment-population ratio

22.5 20.3 20.3 22.9 23.3 21.7 20.5 20.5 20.5

Unemployed

150 171 157 173 207 206 196 187 178

Unemployment rate

21.2 25.0 23.5 23.3 26.2 27.4 27.5 26.6 25.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,553 15,323 15,433 14,553 15,304 15,310 15,344 15,323 15,433

Civilian labor force

9,185 9,584 9,681 9,183 9,702 9,760 9,797 9,634 9,678

Participation rate

63.1 62.5 62.7 63.1 63.4 63.7 63.8 62.9 62.7

Employed

8,821 9,292 9,428 8,816 9,293 9,381 9,462 9,342 9,423

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.6 61.1 60.6 60.7 61.3 61.7 61.0 61.1

Unemployed

365 292 253 367 409 379 334 292 256

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.0 2.6 4.0 4.2 3.9 3.4 3.0 2.6

Not in labor force

5,367 5,739 5,752 5,370 5,603 5,550 5,547 5,690 5,755

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,090 41,102 41,190 40,090 40,825 40,919 41,011 41,102 41,190

Civilian labor force

26,210 27,066 27,032 26,258 26,988 27,063 26,931 26,990 27,079

Participation rate

65.4 65.8 65.6 65.5 66.1 66.1 65.7 65.7 65.7

Employed

24,591 25,540 25,450 24,626 25,460 25,331 25,389 25,448 25,486

Employment-population ratio

61.3 62.1 61.8 61.4 62.4 61.9 61.9 61.9 61.9

Unemployed

1,619 1,526 1,582 1,631 1,528 1,732 1,542 1,541 1,594

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.6 5.9 6.2 5.7 6.4 5.7 5.7 5.9

Not in labor force

13,881 14,037 14,158 13,833 13,838 13,856 14,080 14,113 14,111

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,475 14,932 14,832 14,464 14,895 14,833 14,861 14,881 14,821

Participation rate

80.1 80.6 79.9 80.0 80.9 80.4 80.4 80.3 79.8

Employed

13,639 14,162 14,059 13,681 14,176 14,035 14,118 14,113 14,102

Employment-population ratio

75.4 76.4 75.7 75.7 77.0 76.1 76.4 76.2 75.9

Unemployed

835 770 773 783 719 798 743 768 720

Unemployment rate

5.8 5.2 5.2 5.4 4.8 5.4 5.0 5.2 4.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,608 11,035 11,062 10,630 10,957 11,001 10,912 10,971 11,083

Participation rate

58.0 58.8 58.8 58.2 58.8 58.9 58.3 58.5 58.9

Employed

9,979 10,476 10,435 9,969 10,322 10,296 10,314 10,411 10,424

Employment-population ratio

54.6 55.8 55.5 54.5 55.4 55.1 55.1 55.5 55.4

Unemployed

629 559 627 661 635 705 598 560 659

Unemployment rate

5.9 5.1 5.7 6.2 5.8 6.4 5.5 5.1 5.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,127 1,099 1,138 1,164 1,136 1,229 1,158 1,138 1,175

Participation rate

30.2 28.8 29.8 31.2 30.0 32.4 30.5 29.9 30.8

Employed

972 902 956 976 962 1,000 958 924 960

Employment-population ratio

26.1 23.7 25.1 26.2 25.4 26.3 25.2 24.3 25.2

Unemployed

154 196 182 188 174 229 200 214 215

Unemployment rate

13.7 17.9 16.0 16.1 15.3 18.6 17.3 18.8 18.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,810 10,678 10,461 10,854 10,789 10,803 10,657 10,587 10,483

Participation rate

45.3 45.5 44.9 45.4 46.4 45.6 45.3 45.1 45.0

Employed

10,067 9,858 9,621 10,128 10,006 9,881 9,872 9,753 9,660

Employment-population ratio

42.2 42.0 41.3 42.4 43.0 41.7 42.0 41.5 41.4

Unemployed

742 820 840 726 783 922 784 834 823

Unemployment rate

6.9 7.7 8.0 6.7 7.3 8.5 7.4 7.9 7.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

34,720 35,873 35,535 34,819 35,796 35,720 35,871 35,833 35,661

Participation rate

56.9 57.8 57.5 57.1 57.1 57.4 57.8 57.7 57.7

Employed

32,765 34,175 33,710 32,890 33,984 33,877 33,912 34,068 33,860

Employment-population ratio

53.7 55.1 54.6 53.9 54.2 54.4 54.6 54.9 54.8

Unemployed

1,955 1,698 1,825 1,928 1,812 1,843 1,959 1,765 1,801

Unemployment rate

5.6 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.1 5.2 5.5 4.9 5.1

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,679 38,110 38,188 37,799 37,612 37,963 38,119 38,189 38,244

Participation rate

66.2 66.3 66.0 66.4 66.6 67.2 66.4 66.4 66.1

Employed

36,179 36,684 36,795 36,220 36,023 36,378 36,666 36,702 36,773

Employment-population ratio

63.6 63.8 63.6 63.6 63.8 64.4 63.9 63.8 63.6

Unemployed

1,500 1,426 1,394 1,579 1,589 1,584 1,453 1,486 1,472

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 3.6 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

53,202 54,054 54,095 53,164 54,053 54,310 54,064 53,899 54,032

Participation rate

74.2 73.9 73.6 74.1 74.1 74.2 74.1 73.7 73.6

Employed

51,970 52,867 52,843 51,854 52,600 52,942 52,683 52,656 52,699

Employment-population ratio

72.5 72.3 71.9 72.3 72.1 72.3 72.2 72.0 71.7

Unemployed

1,231 1,187 1,252 1,310 1,453 1,367 1,380 1,243 1,333

Unemployment rate

2.3 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,059 20,757 19,053 18,735 2,006 2,022

Civilian labor force

10,745 10,434 9,507 9,210 1,237 1,224

Participation rate

51.0 50.3 49.9 49.2 61.7 60.5

Employed

10,231 10,009 9,030 8,822 1,201 1,187

Employment-population ratio

48.6 48.2 47.4 47.1 59.9 58.7

Unemployed

514 424 478 388 36 36

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.1 5.0 4.2 2.9 3.0

Not in labor force

10,314 10,323 9,546 9,525 769 798

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,677 4,038 3,017 3,334 660 704

Civilian labor force

3,041 3,341 2,556 2,836 485 505

Participation rate

82.7 82.7 84.7 85.1 73.4 71.7

Employed

2,868 3,152 2,406 2,669 462 483

Employment-population ratio

78.0 78.1 79.8 80.0 70.0 68.6

Unemployed

173 189 150 167 22 22

Unemployment rate

5.7 5.7 5.9 5.9 4.6 4.3

Not in labor force

636 697 460 498 175 199

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,458 3,309 2,938 2,799 520 510

Civilian labor force

2,725 2,613 2,363 2,252 362 361

Participation rate

78.8 79.0 80.4 80.5 69.7 70.9

Employed

2,590 2,540 2,228 2,182 362 358

Employment-population ratio

74.9 76.8 75.8 78.0 69.7 70.2

Unemployed

135 74 135 70 0 4

Unemployment rate

5.0 2.8 5.7 3.1 0.0 1.0

Not in labor force

733 695 575 547 158 149

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,705 8,308 8,394 8,010 311 298

Civilian labor force

2,255 1,875 2,174 1,812 80 62

Participation rate

25.9 22.6 25.9 22.6 25.8 20.9

Employed

2,179 1,796 2,107 1,740 72 56

Employment-population ratio

25.0 21.6 25.1 21.7 23.1 18.8

Unemployed

76 79 67 73 9 6

Unemployment rate

3.4 4.2 3.1 4.0 10.7 -

Not in labor force

6,450 6,433 6,220 6,198 231 236

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,219 5,102 4,704 4,592 515 510

Civilian labor force

2,724 2,605 2,414 2,310 310 295

Participation rate

52.2 51.1 51.3 50.3 60.2 57.9

Employed

2,594 2,522 2,288 2,232 305 290

Employment-population ratio

49.7 49.4 48.6 48.6 59.2 56.9

Unemployed

130 83 125 78 5 5

Unemployment rate

4.8 3.2 5.2 3.4 1.6 1.7

Not in labor force

2,495 2,497 2,290 2,282 205 215

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

221,985 224,879 98,160 99,823 123,825 125,055

Civilian labor force

144,625 146,581 72,999 74,321 71,626 72,260

Participation rate

65.2 65.2 74.4 74.5 57.8 57.8

Employed

137,878 140,128 69,367 70,793 68,510 69,335

Employment-population ratio

62.1 62.3 70.7 70.9 55.3 55.4

Unemployed

6,748 6,454 3,632 3,528 3,116 2,925

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.4 5.0 4.7 4.4 4.0

Not in labor force

77,360 78,297 25,161 25,502 52,199 52,795

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,447 30,131 222,489 224,611

Civilian labor force

5,660 6,054 151,585 152,914

Participation rate

19.2 20.1 68.1 68.1

Employed

5,076 5,509 144,627 146,289

Employment-population ratio

17.2 18.3 65.0 65.1

Unemployed

584 545 6,958 6,625

Unemployment rate

10.3 9.0 4.6 4.3

Not in labor force

23,787 24,077 70,904 71,697

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,447 2,650 76,148 76,792

Participation rate

32.4 34.6 81.9 82.0

Employed

2,136 2,379 72,342 73,182

Employment-population ratio

28.3 31.1 77.8 78.2

Unemployed

312 271 3,806 3,610

Unemployment rate

12.7 10.2 5.0 4.7

Not in labor force

5,110 5,001 16,858 16,836

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,237 2,347 67,563 67,993

Participation rate

27.9 28.9 70.3 70.4

Employed

2,005 2,152 64,668 65,264

Employment-population ratio

25.0 26.5 67.3 67.6

Unemployed

232 195 2,895 2,729

Unemployment rate

10.4 8.3 4.3 4.0

Not in labor force

5,781 5,763 28,523 28,522

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

976 1,057 7,874 8,128

Participation rate

7.0 7.4 23.6 23.6

Employed

936 978 7,616 7,842

Employment-population ratio

6.7 6.8 22.8 22.8

Unemployed

40 79 257 286

Unemployment rate

4.1 7.4 3.3 3.5

Not in labor force

12,897 13,312 25,523 26,340

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,737 41,623 19,959 20,196 20,778 21,427

Civilian labor force

26,681 27,062 15,540 15,560 11,141 11,501

Participation rate

65.5 65.0 77.9 77.0 53.6 53.7

Employed

25,426 25,881 14,859 14,945 10,567 10,935

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.2 74.5 74.0 50.9 51.0

Unemployed

1,255 1,181 681 615 574 566

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.4 4.4 4.0 5.2 4.9

Not in labor force

14,056 14,561 4,419 4,636 9,638 9,925

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

211,199 213,119 101,713 102,903 109,486 110,217

Civilian labor force

130,564 131,906 67,898 68,903 62,666 63,004

Participation rate

61.8 61.9 66.8 67.0 57.2 57.2

Employed

124,277 125,917 64,299 65,423 59,978 60,495

Employment-population ratio

58.8 59.1 63.2 63.6 54.8 54.9

Unemployed

6,287 5,989 3,599 3,480 2,688 2,509

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.5 5.3 5.1 4.3 4.0

Not in labor force

80,635 81,213 33,814 34,000 46,820 47,213

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,273 2,366 2,180 2,455 2,505 2,429 2,317 2,431 2,356

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,482 1,535 1,366 1,594 1,597 1,522 1,493 1,559 1,470

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

760 796 797 819 874 890 817 833 857

Unpaid family workers

32 34 18 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

147,430 150,020 149,617 147,635 149,170 149,526 149,604 149,752 149,811

Wage and salary workers(1)

138,989 141,210 140,753 139,025 140,431 140,739 140,806 140,968 140,773

Government

20,905 21,114 21,029 20,755 20,701 20,809 20,698 20,938 20,865

Private industries

118,083 120,096 119,724 118,278 119,682 119,990 120,073 120,016 119,916

Private households

735 717 680 - - - - - -

Other industries

117,348 119,380 119,044 117,511 118,932 119,241 119,325 119,290 119,206

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,386 8,757 8,800 8,576 8,631 8,599 8,731 8,716 8,991

Unpaid family workers

55 53 64 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,179 5,518 5,707 6,057 6,027 5,874 5,850 5,659 5,598

Slack work or business conditions

3,678 3,391 3,478 3,589 3,736 3,587 3,481 3,485 3,401

Could only find part-time work

2,129 1,853 1,828 2,175 1,907 1,972 2,093 1,902 1,873

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,585 22,084 21,711 20,173 20,575 20,742 20,765 21,059 21,251

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,046 5,411 5,561 5,948 5,903 5,770 5,748 5,550 5,476

Slack work or business conditions

3,594 3,327 3,362 3,531 3,599 3,510 3,415 3,424 3,310

Could only find part-time work

2,123 1,832 1,824 2,164 1,903 1,959 2,082 1,870 1,862

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,294 21,757 21,335 19,888 20,261 20,409 20,455 20,696 20,818

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

149,703 152,385 151,798 150,030 151,655 151,926 151,902 152,048 152,111

16 to 19 years

4,745 4,778 4,831 4,898 5,062 5,034 4,972 5,006 4,972

16 to 17 years

1,594 1,590 1,661 1,656 1,814 1,832 1,665 1,682 1,723

18 to 19 years

3,151 3,187 3,170 3,245 3,243 3,186 3,283 3,318 3,253

20 years and over

144,958 147,608 146,967 145,132 146,593 146,892 146,930 147,042 147,139

20 to 24 years

13,975 14,024 13,999 14,044 14,138 14,004 13,889 14,000 14,071

25 years and over

130,983 133,584 132,968 131,093 132,473 132,845 133,100 133,166 133,065

25 to 54 years

96,968 98,751 98,417 97,054 97,912 98,205 98,442 98,453 98,495

25 to 34 years

32,987 34,056 34,219 32,951 33,944 33,979 33,934 33,952 34,185

35 to 44 years

31,430 31,870 31,564 31,479 31,410 31,567 31,604 31,741 31,611

45 to 54 years

32,551 32,824 32,634 32,625 32,558 32,659 32,904 32,760 32,698

55 years and over

34,014 34,833 34,551 34,039 34,560 34,641 34,658 34,713 34,570

Men, 16 years and over

79,158 80,763 80,368 79,650 80,669 80,735 80,717 80,826 80,861

16 to 19 years

2,332 2,359 2,384 2,437 2,527 2,545 2,485 2,495 2,482

16 to 17 years

761 716 753 790 882 840 754 769 786

18 to 19 years

1,570 1,642 1,631 1,647 1,642 1,714 1,725 1,728 1,699

20 years and over

76,827 78,405 77,984 77,213 78,142 78,191 78,232 78,330 78,379

20 to 24 years

7,090 7,171 7,152 7,181 7,223 7,188 7,122 7,206 7,246

25 years and over

69,737 71,233 70,832 70,011 70,907 70,969 71,128 71,186 71,114

25 to 54 years

51,774 52,760 52,529 51,977 52,426 52,515 52,627 52,700 52,737

25 to 34 years

17,777 18,254 18,328 17,819 18,240 18,237 18,223 18,228 18,374

35 to 44 years

16,882 17,187 16,988 16,950 17,004 16,979 17,038 17,137 17,054

45 to 54 years

17,115 17,319 17,213 17,208 17,182 17,299 17,365 17,334 17,309

55 years and over

17,963 18,473 18,303 18,033 18,481 18,454 18,502 18,486 18,377

Women, 16 years and over

70,544 71,622 71,430 70,381 70,986 71,191 71,185 71,222 71,250

16 to 19 years

2,413 2,419 2,446 2,461 2,535 2,489 2,487 2,510 2,490

16 to 17 years

833 874 908 866 932 992 911 914 938

18 to 19 years

1,580 1,545 1,538 1,597 1,601 1,472 1,558 1,590 1,554

20 years and over

68,131 69,203 68,984 67,920 68,452 68,702 68,698 68,712 68,760

20 to 24 years

6,885 6,852 6,847 6,862 6,915 6,816 6,767 6,794 6,825

25 years and over

61,246 62,351 62,136 61,082 61,565 61,877 61,972 61,981 61,951

25 to 54 years

45,194 45,990 45,889 45,077 45,486 45,690 45,815 45,753 45,758

25 to 34 years

15,210 15,802 15,891 15,131 15,704 15,743 15,710 15,724 15,812

35 to 44 years

14,548 14,683 14,577 14,529 14,406 14,588 14,566 14,603 14,557

45 to 54 years

15,437 15,505 15,421 15,417 15,376 15,359 15,539 15,426 15,389

55 years and over

16,051 16,361 16,248 16,005 16,079 16,187 16,157 16,227 16,193

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

45,162 45,294 45,254 45,166 45,441 45,647 45,331 45,268 45,252

Married women, spouse present

35,318 35,653 35,712 35,080 35,354 35,495 35,404 35,342 35,478

Women who maintain families

9,853 9,935 9,998 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

122,013 123,960 123,570 122,700 124,256 124,253 124,190 124,213 124,248

Part-time workers(2)

27,689 28,425 28,228 27,370 27,222 27,684 27,770 27,854 27,895

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,855 8,107 7,675 7,743 7,573 7,845 7,758 7,812 7,554

Percent of total employed

5.2 5.3 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,842 5,898 5,835 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,146 9,553 9,596 9,395 9,504 9,488 9,549 9,549 9,848

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,927 7,409 7,529 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.7

16 to 19 years

951 897 854 16.3 15.6 15.9 15.6 15.2 14.7

16 to 17 years

352 372 368 17.5 16.8 17.4 19.8 18.1 17.6

18 to 19 years

596 551 490 15.5 15.1 15.3 13.5 14.2 13.1

20 years and over

6,977 6,511 6,675 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.3

20 to 24 years

1,451 1,232 1,255 9.4 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.1 8.2

25 years and over

5,517 5,333 5,412 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9

25 to 54 years

4,400 4,053 4,130 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0

25 to 34 years

1,857 1,717 1,699 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.7

35 to 44 years

1,307 1,164 1,305 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.5 4.0

45 to 54 years

1,235 1,172 1,127 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.3

55 years and over

1,127 1,273 1,287 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6

Men, 16 years and over

4,310 4,034 4,118 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.8

16 to 19 years

522 548 513 17.6 17.6 16.7 17.9 18.0 17.1

16 to 17 years

201 234 210 20.3 18.3 19.1 22.0 23.3 21.1

18 to 19 years

309 332 296 15.8 17.4 15.6 16.2 16.1 14.8

20 years and over

3,787 3,486 3,605 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.4

20 to 24 years

805 724 737 10.1 9.3 9.2 9.7 9.1 9.2

25 years and over

2,988 2,810 2,873 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.9

25 to 54 years

2,333 2,129 2,166 4.3 4.1 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.9

25 to 34 years

1,044 927 914 5.5 5.0 5.2 5.1 4.8 4.7

35 to 44 years

670 616 680 3.8 3.8 4.1 3.8 3.5 3.8

45 to 54 years

619 585 572 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.2

55 years and over

655 681 707 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.7

Women, 16 years and over

3,618 3,375 3,411 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.6

16 to 19 years

428 350 340 14.8 13.5 15.1 13.2 12.2 12.0

16 to 17 years

151 138 158 14.8 15.3 15.8 18.0 13.1 14.4

18 to 19 years

287 218 194 15.2 12.6 14.9 10.2 12.1 11.1

20 years and over

3,189 3,025 3,071 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3

20 to 24 years

645 508 517 8.6 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.0 7.0

25 years and over

2,529 2,523 2,539 4.0 4.3 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9

25 to 54 years

2,067 1,924 1,964 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.1

25 to 34 years

813 790 784 5.1 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.7

35 to 44 years

638 548 624 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.6 4.1

45 to 54 years

616 586 555 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.5

55 years and over

496 577 596 3.0 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

1,254 1,264 1,275 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7

Married women, spouse present

1,099 988 1,070 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.9

Women who maintain families(1)

607 657 621 5.8 7.9 6.4 6.1 6.2 5.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

6,596 6,159 6,094 5.1 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.7

Part-time workers(3)

1,328 1,305 1,435 4.6 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.5 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,820 3,271 3,668 3,799 3,777 3,930 3,749 3,542 3,639

On temporary layoff

1,000 723 1,117 925 1,002 1,068 994 896 1,033

Not on temporary layoff

2,820 2,548 2,550 2,875 2,775 2,862 2,755 2,646 2,606

Permanent job losers

2,006 1,838 1,863 2,046 1,989 1,963 1,906 1,903 1,902

Persons who completed temporary jobs

814 710 687 828 786 899 848 743 704

Job leavers

762 936 842 817 893 900 945 934 905

Reentrants

2,239 2,188 2,003 2,486 2,284 2,327 2,339 2,266 2,219

New entrants

721 671 657 860 853 802 791 728 783

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

50.6 46.3 51.2 47.7 48.4 49.4 47.9 47.4 48.2

On temporary layoff

13.3 10.2 15.6 11.6 12.8 13.4 12.7 12.0 13.7

Not on temporary layoff

37.4 36.1 35.6 36.1 35.5 36.0 35.2 35.4 34.5

Job leavers

10.1 13.3 11.7 10.3 11.4 11.3 12.1 12.5 12.0

Reentrants

29.7 31.0 27.9 31.2 29.3 29.2 29.9 30.3 29.4

New entrants

9.6 9.5 9.2 10.8 10.9 10.1 10.1 9.7 10.4

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.4 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.3

Job leavers

0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Reentrants

1.4 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4

New entrants

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,280 2,201 2,251 2,413 2,318 2,584 2,393 2,415 2,379

5 to 14 weeks

2,031 2,006 1,974 2,211 2,308 2,220 2,273 2,133 2,156

15 weeks and over

3,231 2,859 2,945 3,327 3,077 3,127 3,130 2,929 3,030

15 to 26 weeks

1,206 1,060 1,176 1,233 1,080 1,164 1,167 1,073 1,199

27 weeks and over

2,025 1,799 1,769 2,094 1,997 1,963 1,964 1,856 1,831

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.6 27.1 25.8 27.8 27.4 27.3 27.0 26.2 26.0

Median duration, in weeks

10.9 10.5 10.5 10.7 10.9 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

30.2 31.1 31.4 30.4 30.1 32.6 30.7 32.3 31.4

5 to 14 weeks

26.9 28.4 27.5 27.8 30.0 28.0 29.2 28.5 28.5

15 weeks and over

42.8 40.5 41.1 41.8 39.9 39.4 40.1 39.2 40.0

15 to 26 weeks

16.0 15.0 16.4 15.5 14.0 14.7 15.0 14.4 15.8

27 weeks and over

26.9 25.5 24.7 26.3 25.9 24.7 25.2 24.8 24.2

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

149,703 151,798 7,542 7,170 4.8 4.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,030 60,069 1,208 1,361 2.0 2.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,544 25,216 474 609 1.9 2.4

Professional and related occupations

34,486 34,853 734 752 2.1 2.1

Service occupations

25,729 26,459 1,858 1,493 6.7 5.3

Sales and office occupations

33,776 33,976 1,500 1,482 4.3 4.2

Sales and related occupations

15,671 16,019 787 768 4.8 4.6

Office and administrative support occupations

18,105 17,958 713 714 3.8 3.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,610 13,653 1,163 1,064 7.9 7.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,000 926 172 170 14.7 15.5

Construction and extraction occupations

7,602 7,790 807 724 9.6 8.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,008 4,938 183 170 3.5 3.3

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,557 17,641 1,071 1,097 5.8 5.9

Production occupations

8,243 8,315 458 487 5.3 5.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,314 9,326 614 610 6.2 6.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,542 7,170 4.8 4.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,848 5,581 4.7 4.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

104 27 11.2 3.7

Construction

645 670 7.5 7.4

Manufacturing

616 630 4.0 4.0

Durable goods

364 366 3.8 3.7

Nondurable goods

253 264 4.3 4.5

Wholesale and retail trade

1,005 955 4.9 4.6

Transportation and utilities

264 241 4.0 3.6

Information

81 87 2.9 3.1

Financial activities

260 251 2.6 2.6

Professional and business services

838 879 5.2 5.3

Education and health services

725 667 3.1 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

1,018 899 7.4 6.4

Other services

293 276 4.5 4.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

190 166 11.7 11.2

Government workers

445 401 2.1 1.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

338 365 3.5 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2015
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016
Dec.
2016

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.1 1.8 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.9

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.4 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.3

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.8 4.4 4.5 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.2 4.8 4.8 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.0 5.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.9 5.6 5.5 6.1 5.9 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.8 9.0 9.1 9.9 9.7 9.7 9.5 9.3 9.2

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2016

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,691 95,774 38,233 38,636 56,458 57,138

Persons who currently want a job

5,705 5,449 2,639 2,631 3,066 2,819

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,833 1,684 929 963 904 721

Discouraged workers(2)

663 426 396 295 267 131

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,170 1,258 533 668 638 590

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,855 7,675 3,840 3,630 4,016 4,045

Percent of total employed

5.2 5.1 4.9 4.5 5.7 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,315 4,204 2,345 2,235 1,970 1,969

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,067 2,078 696 682 1,371 1,396

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

230 282 133 162 98 120

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,194 1,050 647 521 546 529

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Change from:
Nov.2016 - Dec.2016(p)

Total nonfarm

144,116 145,894 146,418 146,148 143,146 144,943 145,147 145,303 156

Total private

121,710 123,325 123,720 123,583 121,106 122,738 122,936 123,080 144

Goods-producing

19,595 19,865 19,771 19,567 19,678 19,630 19,643 19,655 12

Mining and logging

765 691 693 686 761 680 683 681 -2

Logging

51.1 51.0 50.5 48.6 50.8 49.3 49.2 49.3 0.1

Mining

714.0 639.6 642.0 637.8 710.3 630.8 633.9 631.6 -2.3

Oil and gas extraction

184.3 172.2 174.3 173.3 182.9 172.3 173.7 172.4 -1.3

Mining, except oil and gas

188.6 184.4 184.9 180.6 191.3 181.7 183.1 182.7 -0.4

Coal mining

60.7 53.5 54.5 54.5 60.6 53.4 54.0 53.8 -0.2

Metal ore mining

39.8 38.5 38.6 38.9 39.8 38.8 38.7 38.7 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

88.1 92.4 91.8 87.2 91.0 89.5 90.4 90.3 -0.1

Support activities for mining

341.1 283.0 282.8 283.9 336.1 276.8 277.1 276.5 -0.6

Construction

6,507 6,891 6,815 6,604 6,597 6,685 6,702 6,699 -3

Construction of buildings

1,433.8 1,503.9 1,492.7 1,467.8 1,438.8 1,469.4 1,472.8 1,469.6 -3.2

Residential building

706.0 756.6 753.7 741.1 707.6 736.9 740.4 738.5 -1.9

Nonresidential building

727.8 747.3 739.0 726.7 731.2 732.5 732.4 731.1 -1.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

908.4 999.7 962.8 881.0 943.7 936.2 932.1 923.2 -8.9

Specialty trade contractors

4,164.4 4,387.3 4,359.6 4,255.3 4,214.0 4,279.0 4,297.3 4,305.8 8.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,812.7 1,930.7 1,925.7 1,887.0 1,843.0 1,887.5 1,902.9 1,914.6 11.7

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,351.7 2,456.6 2,433.9 2,368.3 2,371.0 2,391.5 2,394.4 2,391.2 -3.2

Manufacturing

12,323 12,283 12,263 12,277 12,320 12,265 12,258 12,275 17

Durable goods

7,735 7,668 7,663 7,676 7,731 7,667 7,663 7,678 15

Wood products

385.2 385.4 386.8 385.6 385.6 383.5 384.6 386.7 2.1

Nonmetallic mineral products

397.4 410.0 407.7 402.4 400.7 404.0 404.4 406.8 2.4

Primary metals

384.8 373.6 372.1 375.9 383.9 373.9 372.6 374.8 2.2

Fabricated metal products

1,442.7 1,421.8 1,417.0 1,422.7 1,440.0 1,422.2 1,418.8 1,424.6 5.8

Machinery

1,103.5 1,074.0 1,070.8 1,073.8 1,102.3 1,075.3 1,072.2 1,072.5 0.3

Computer and electronic products

1,041.4 1,030.6 1,031.6 1,032.5 1,042.3 1,032.9 1,033.3 1,032.4 -0.9

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.2 161.3 161.3 161.0 157.2 162.5 162.5 162.5 0.0

Communications equipment

86.1 83.7 83.9 82.9 85.8 83.8 83.7 83.0 -0.7

Semiconductors and electronic components

365.5 356.0 356.2 357.8 365.5 356.9 356.7 357.0 0.3

Electronic instruments

398.3 394.5 395.3 396.9 398.8 394.9 395.8 396.1 0.3

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

35.3 35.1 34.9 33.9 35.0 34.8 34.6 33.7 -0.9

Electrical equipment and appliances

384.9 381.9 383.6 383.8 384.3 382.7 383.4 383.4 0.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,608.1 1,601.8 1,604.8 1,608.0 1,605.4 1,604.8 1,605.5 1,605.6 0.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

919.6 926.2 929.8 934.2 918.1 928.8 931.1 934.0 2.9

Furniture and related products

386.3 388.6 386.9 389.6 387.2 388.5 389.1 391.4 2.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

600.3 600.2 602.1 601.5 598.8 599.4 599.5 599.5 0.0

Nondurable goods

4,588 4,615 4,600 4,601 4,589 4,598 4,595 4,597 2

Food manufacturing

1,511.8 1,549.1 1,538.4 1,538.6 1,512.2 1,535.3 1,535.7 1,535.8 0.1

Textile mills

115.2 111.7 111.9 110.6 115.2 112.1 111.6 110.9 -0.7

Textile product mills

117.3 115.2 115.2 114.3 116.9 114.4 114.0 113.5 -0.5

Apparel

136.9 131.4 131.5 130.6 136.1 130.6 130.8 130.5 -0.3

Paper and paper products

373.6 367.6 367.7 368.1 373.1 368.4 367.9 367.0 -0.9

Printing and related support activities

451.4 439.1 439.1 439.9 448.5 438.8 437.2 438.3 1.1

Petroleum and coal products

114.8 116.9 114.3 114.1 116.7 114.5 114.1 115.2 1.1

Chemicals

815.1 815.8 818.4 822.1 814.5 819.1 819.5 818.6 -0.9

Plastics and rubber products

689.3 686.4 684.7 688.5 690.5 689.7 687.1 689.3 2.2

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

262.5 281.7 278.5 274.3 265.6 275.4 277.5 278.2 0.7

Private service-providing

102,115 103,460 103,949 104,016 101,428 103,108 103,293 103,425 132

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,867 27,462 27,967 28,185 27,114 27,428 27,463 27,487 24

Wholesale trade

5,907.7 5,952.8 5,963.8 5,958.9 5,901.1 5,945.8 5,950.6 5,952.6 2.0

Durable goods

2,948.3 2,949.8 2,953.0 2,957.5 2,945.6 2,951.1 2,953.4 2,955.0 1.6

Nondurable goods

2,049.8 2,087.7 2,088.4 2,078.5 2,050.3 2,079.9 2,077.6 2,077.1 -0.5

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

909.6 915.3 922.4 922.9 905.2 914.8 919.6 920.5 0.9

Retail trade

16,303.2 15,995.6 16,411.3 16,519.4 15,760.8 15,991.7 16,011.2 16,017.5 6.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,963.8 2,011.9 2,015.4 2,011.5 1,973.9 2,010.1 2,015.1 2,017.8 2.7

Automobile dealers

1,268.7 1,302.0 1,304.4 1,302.6 1,271.2 1,299.6 1,302.3 1,303.6 1.3

Other motor vehicle dealers

143.1 150.8 148.6 144.9 150.7 151.2 151.7 151.4 -0.3

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

552.0 559.1 562.4 564.0 552.0 559.2 561.1 562.8 1.7

Furniture and home furnishings stores

490.1 486.9 495.3 501.0 467.4 481.9 480.4 481.6 1.2

Electronics and appliance stores

553.7 516.9 533.7 539.6 524.5 513.2 508.1 510.9 2.8

Building material and garden supply stores

1,221.0 1,266.3 1,260.6 1,253.4 1,258.4 1,291.2 1,291.9 1,293.4 1.5

Food and beverage stores

3,089.8 3,112.8 3,124.5 3,132.2 3,067.5 3,109.7 3,111.1 3,113.3 2.2

Health and personal care stores

1,051.5 1,051.6 1,069.7 1,071.8 1,033.2 1,051.7 1,055.3 1,056.3 1.0

Gasoline stations

912.6 934.6 928.9 927.4 915.4 931.4 928.7 931.4 2.7

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,517.5 1,360.2 1,450.2 1,509.0 1,359.1 1,365.3 1,344.7 1,355.0 10.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

692.0 619.4 674.7 702.3 628.4 624.6 626.1 631.3 5.2

General merchandise stores

3,387.1 3,223.6 3,430.1 3,442.4 3,164.4 3,228.9 3,264.0 3,240.1 -23.9

Department stores

1,466.9 1,315.5 1,436.6 1,475.7 1,313.1 1,327.4 1,335.7 1,329.5 -6.2

Other general merchandise stores

1,920.2 1,908.1 1,993.5 1,966.7 1,851.3 1,901.5 1,928.4 1,910.7 -17.7

Miscellaneous store retailers

863.6 859.7 850.9 843.8 844.3 841.7 836.7 833.5 -3.2

Nonstore retailers

560.5 551.7 577.3 585.0 524.3 542.0 549.1 552.9 3.8

Transportation and warehousing

5,093.4 4,949.6 5,026.7 5,141.9 4,888.8 4,924.8 4,936.2 4,950.9 14.7

Air transportation

460.9 470.6 469.6 469.5 462.0 471.1 471.2 471.4 0.2

Rail transportation

228.9 216.2 215.9 214.9 229.1 215.9 215.5 215.3 -0.2

Water transportation

60.8 61.7 59.7 59.8 61.5 61.5 60.9 60.9 0.0

Truck transportation

1,462.5 1,486.4 1,483.1 1,472.3 1,463.8 1,469.7 1,472.8 1,474.2 1.4

Transit and ground passenger transportation

490.9 481.7 480.1 474.9 473.8 464.9 464.6 459.9 -4.7

Pipeline transportation

50.3 47.6 47.7 47.8 50.2 47.7 47.7 47.7 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

24.4 30.3 24.6 24.7 29.5 29.7 29.6 30.5 0.9

Support activities for transportation

658.1 657.5 656.5 659.0 654.5 653.6 654.1 657.9 3.8

Couriers and messengers

792.3 610.6 688.2 821.2 623.7 635.8 642.3 654.0 11.7

Warehousing and storage

864.3 887.0 901.3 897.8 840.7 874.9 877.5 879.1 1.6

Utilities

563.1 564.4 564.8 565.0 563.7 565.5 565.3 565.5 0.2

Information

2,768 2,776 2,778 2,768 2,763 2,779 2,767 2,761 -6

Publishing industries, except Internet

727.0 726.0 727.0 727.9 724.0 724.6 724.9 724.4 -0.5

Motion picture and sound recording industries

401.5 425.3 429.0 415.5 406.2 430.4 424.8 417.7 -7.1

Broadcasting, except Internet

281.3 277.6 274.8 273.4 279.7 276.9 273.9 273.5 -0.4

Telecommunications

807.5 782.5 785.0 783.8 804.0 783.4 782.0 779.9 -2.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

300.0 300.7 297.9 301.8 298.9 300.1 297.6 299.2 1.6

Other information services

250.2 263.5 263.9 266.0 249.7 263.5 263.7 266.1 2.4

Financial activities

8,201 8,335 8,336 8,359 8,190 8,328 8,336 8,349 13

Finance and insurance

6,101.2 6,180.1 6,191.2 6,211.6 6,084.7 6,179.8 6,182.6 6,195.4 12.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

17.9 17.9 17.9 18.2 17.9 17.9 18.0 18.3 0.3

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,579.1 2,611.2 2,618.4 2,632.1 2,572.7 2,614.7 2,618.6 2,625.5 6.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,677.8 1,685.8 1,689.6 1,697.2 1,676.2 1,691.2 1,691.9 1,695.5 3.6

Commercial banking

1,265.0 1,263.3 1,265.8 1,272.0 1,264.0 1,267.7 1,267.8 1,269.4 1.6

Nondepository credit intermediation

602.0 613.9 616.0 620.3 599.1 612.6 614.5 617.4 2.9

Activities related to credit intermediation

299.3 311.5 312.8 314.6 297.4 310.9 312.1 312.7 0.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

922.9 930.9 930.1 932.6 920.7 928.8 929.7 931.2 1.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,581.3 2,620.1 2,624.8 2,628.7 2,573.4 2,618.4 2,616.3 2,620.4 4.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,099.5 2,154.5 2,144.6 2,147.4 2,104.8 2,148.4 2,152.9 2,153.3 0.4

Real estate

1,540.9 1,583.5 1,580.5 1,583.5 1,537.7 1,577.7 1,582.6 1,582.5 -0.1

Rental and leasing services

534.7 547.5 540.6 540.5 543.5 547.4 547.0 547.6 0.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.9 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.6 23.3 23.3 23.2 -0.1

Professional and business services

20,079 20,604 20,673 20,624 19,981 20,423 20,488 20,503 15

Professional and technical services

8,787.6 8,990.7 9,034.4 9,070.2 8,756.5 9,013.0 9,030.8 9,037.4 6.6

Legal services

1,130.0 1,128.2 1,127.7 1,131.9 1,124.2 1,126.1 1,125.6 1,127.6 2.0

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,000.8 972.9 1,015.8 1,038.2 1,004.1 1,037.0 1,053.7 1,040.5 -13.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,423.3 1,459.5 1,453.1 1,454.1 1,425.3 1,451.2 1,450.1 1,453.8 3.7

Specialized design services

141.9 146.0 144.1 145.6 139.6 144.0 142.8 143.4 0.6

Computer systems design and related services

1,953.8 2,033.3 2,038.4 2,031.7 1,950.8 2,022.9 2,026.0 2,030.1 4.1

Management and technical consulting services

1,314.4 1,382.3 1,384.2 1,390.9 1,299.7 1,371.0 1,372.5 1,378.0 5.5

Scientific research and development services

662.2 676.2 682.0 684.0 662.1 678.9 682.3 684.0 1.7

Advertising and related services

493.5 499.1 495.5 493.8 490.9 495.6 493.3 490.7 -2.6

Other professional and technical services

667.7 693.2 693.6 700.0 659.7 686.2 684.7 689.2 4.5

Management of companies and enterprises

2,251.1 2,277.6 2,282.1 2,295.4 2,246.8 2,280.3 2,282.6 2,288.3 5.7

Administrative and waste services

9,039.9 9,336.0 9,356.6 9,258.5 8,977.6 9,129.6 9,174.9 9,177.1 2.2

Administrative and support services

8,639.6 8,923.0 8,942.4 8,844.3 8,573.8 8,717.2 8,760.7 8,761.1 0.4

Office administrative services

482.0 500.9 503.7 503.9 482.3 500.1 502.3 504.0 1.7

Facilities support services

143.5 144.4 144.0 142.7 143.9 143.7 143.8 143.1 -0.7

Employment services(1)

3,744.3 3,766.9 3,813.8 3,809.5 3,619.5 3,637.9 3,670.3 3,659.2 -11.1

Temporary help services

3,057.3 3,077.3 3,113.8 3,106.2 2,944.1 2,958.9 2,982.7 2,967.2 -15.5

Business support services

921.9 937.6 947.5 947.3 897.3 924.5 925.5 926.1 0.6

Travel arrangement and reservation services

201.0 204.1 203.3 201.2 202.4 204.3 203.4 201.8 -1.6

Investigation and security services

887.6 906.8 910.3 907.3 882.6 898.0 899.6 900.9 1.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,948.9 2,130.2 2,094.7 2,010.6 2,029.7 2,081.9 2,088.2 2,098.8 10.6

Other support services

310.4 332.1 325.1 321.8 316.0 326.8 327.6 327.2 -0.4

Waste management and remediation services

400.3 413.0 414.2 414.2 403.8 412.4 414.2 416.0 1.8

Education and health services

22,559 23,051 23,144 23,105 22,378 22,858 22,901 22,971 70

Educational services

3,614.2 3,727.1 3,760.0 3,683.5 3,501.8 3,566.2 3,574.1 3,580.4 6.3

Health care and social assistance

18,945.0 19,324.0 19,383.9 19,421.3 18,876.0 19,292.2 19,326.8 19,390.1 63.3

Health care(3)

15,354.5 15,676.8 15,720.8 15,761.1 15,302.5 15,650.1 15,681.0 15,724.2 43.2

Ambulatory health care services

7,020.4 7,224.4 7,247.5 7,277.4 6,991.9 7,201.4 7,222.3 7,252.0 29.7

Offices of physicians

2,582.9 2,639.5 2,646.2 2,660.5 2,568.7 2,631.0 2,637.1 2,645.3 8.2

Offices of dentists

927.6 947.4 951.2 950.5 926.4 945.4 947.3 949.8 2.5

Offices of other health practitioners

829.7 876.9 880.9 884.8 827.3 874.3 879.7 884.1 4.4

Outpatient care centers

763.0 793.7 799.8 810.0 760.8 794.4 798.3 805.3 7.0

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

260.8 260.7 259.9 261.0 259.7 260.6 260.3 260.5 0.2

Home health care services

1,363.2 1,410.5 1,412.3 1,413.1 1,355.5 1,402.7 1,404.4 1,410.2 5.8

Other ambulatory health care services

293.2 295.7 297.2 297.5 293.5 292.9 295.2 296.9 1.7

Hospitals

5,009.3 5,121.2 5,137.7 5,143.1 4,998.5 5,117.5 5,127.3 5,138.0 10.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,324.8 3,331.2 3,335.6 3,340.6 3,312.1 3,331.2 3,331.4 3,334.2 2.8

Nursing care facilities

1,664.8 1,658.9 1,661.5 1,664.4 1,659.7 1,657.8 1,657.5 1,659.7 2.2

Residential mental health facilities

609.8 613.0 614.5 615.2 608.8 613.7 613.9 614.1 0.2

Community care facilities for the elderly

887.1 894.2 894.4 897.2 880.9 895.0 895.4 896.9 1.5

Other residential care facilities

163.1 165.1 165.2 163.8 162.7 164.7 164.7 163.5 -1.2

Social assistance

3,590.5 3,647.2 3,663.1 3,660.2 3,573.5 3,642.1 3,645.8 3,665.9 20.1

Individual and family services

2,198.6 2,241.9 2,252.8 2,254.5 2,193.2 2,247.4 2,250.6 2,271.7 21.1

Emergency and other relief services

157.0 159.1 159.3 162.8 155.7 159.6 160.0 161.0 1.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

334.7 333.7 332.7 333.1 335.7 334.5 333.3 332.3 -1.0

Child day care services

900.2 912.5 918.3 909.8 888.9 900.7 902.0 900.8 -1.2

Leisure and hospitality

15,000 15,520 15,338 15,279 15,342 15,576 15,613 15,637 24

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,029.7 2,188.5 2,091.5 2,048.2 2,195.5 2,233.5 2,245.1 2,235.2 -9.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

446.7 470.9 445.6 436.3 464.3 465.6 462.6 462.8 0.2

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

145.6 159.4 151.6 151.5 152.5 158.4 157.1 158.5 1.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,437.4 1,558.2 1,494.3 1,460.4 1,578.7 1,609.5 1,625.4 1,613.9 -11.5

Accommodation and food services

12,969.8 13,331.7 13,246.7 13,231.0 13,146.4 13,342.4 13,367.5 13,402.0 34.5

Accommodation

1,859.2 1,912.2 1,869.8 1,866.9 1,926.4 1,926.2 1,930.5 1,935.4 4.9

Food services and drinking places

11,110.6 11,419.5 11,376.9 11,364.1 11,220.0 11,416.2 11,437.0 11,466.6 29.6

Other services

5,641 5,712 5,713 5,696 5,660 5,716 5,725 5,717 -8

Repair and maintenance

1,283.3 1,285.0 1,281.6 1,271.3 1,290.9 1,284.4 1,284.9 1,281.1 -3.8

Personal and laundry services

1,417.4 1,446.7 1,445.7 1,452.5 1,417.2 1,446.6 1,447.9 1,451.6 3.7

Membership associations and organizations

2,940.6 2,980.0 2,985.3 2,972.0 2,952.3 2,984.7 2,991.9 2,984.2 -7.7

Government

22,406 22,569 22,698 22,565 22,040 22,205 22,211 22,223 12

Federal

2,785.0 2,793.0 2,794.0 2,824.0 2,768.0 2,801.0 2,799.0 2,804.0 5.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,163.2 2,183.6 2,182.0 2,186.4 2,164.3 2,186.0 2,185.4 2,185.0 -0.4

U.S. Postal Service

621.6 609.7 611.8 637.3 603.6 614.5 613.4 619.4 6.0

State government

5,231.0 5,273.0 5,293.0 5,223.0 5,108.0 5,113.0 5,114.0 5,110.0 -4.0

State government education

2,568.6 2,607.5 2,627.8 2,566.7 2,435.2 2,442.2 2,441.6 2,448.2 6.6

State government, excluding education

2,662.6 2,665.0 2,664.7 2,655.9 2,672.5 2,670.5 2,672.1 2,662.2 -9.9

Local government

14,390.0 14,503.0 14,611.0 14,518.0 14,164.0 14,291.0 14,298.0 14,309.0 11.0

Local government education

8,123.6 8,111.0 8,193.0 8,166.8 7,813.5 7,861.9 7,855.4 7,862.3 6.9

Local government, excluding education

6,265.9 6,392.3 6,417.7 6,351.6 6,350.3 6,429.0 6,442.8 6,447.1 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.3 34.3

Goods-producing

40.4 40.4 40.2 40.1

Mining and logging

44.0 44.3 43.4 43.8

Construction

39.6 39.2 39.1 38.7

Manufacturing

40.6 40.8 40.6 40.7

Durable goods

41.0 41.3 41.1 41.1

Nondurable goods

39.8 40.0 39.7 39.8

Private service-providing

33.4 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.2 34.2 34.1

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.9 38.9 38.9

Retail trade

31.3 30.8 30.8 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

39.1 38.6 38.7 38.6

Utilities

42.4 43.1 42.0 42.6

Information

36.0 36.0 35.8 36.0

Financial activities

37.7 37.3 37.5 37.6

Professional and business services

36.2 36.1 36.0 36.1

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 32.9 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.2 26.1 26.2 25.9

Other services

31.9 31.9 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3

Durable goods

3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)

Total private

$25.26 $25.92 $25.90 $26.00 $871.47 $891.65 $888.37 $891.80

Goods-producing

26.44 27.25 27.14 27.26 1,068.18 1,100.90 1,091.03 1,093.13

Mining and logging

31.30 32.21 31.90 32.15 1,377.20 1,426.90 1,384.46 1,408.17

Construction

27.60 28.38 28.31 28.42 1,092.96 1,112.50 1,106.92 1,099.85

Manufacturing

25.51 26.36 26.24 26.37 1,035.71 1,075.49 1,065.34 1,073.26

Durable goods

26.83 27.64 27.49 27.63 1,100.03 1,141.53 1,129.84 1,135.59

Nondurable goods

23.21 24.16 24.08 24.18 923.76 966.40 955.98 962.36

Private service-providing

24.99 25.62 25.61 25.71 834.67 850.58 850.25 853.57

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.03 22.55 22.58 22.69 762.24 771.21 772.24 773.73

Wholesale trade

28.80 29.77 29.79 29.87 1,120.32 1,158.05 1,158.83 1,161.94

Retail trade

17.73 17.98 18.07 18.18 554.95 553.78 556.56 558.13

Transportation and warehousing

23.06 23.52 23.54 23.60 901.65 907.87 911.00 910.96

Utilities

37.66 38.94 38.30 38.61 1,596.78 1,678.31 1,608.60 1,644.79

Information

35.90 37.38 37.33 37.49 1,292.40 1,345.68 1,336.41 1,349.64

Financial activities

31.87 32.57 32.64 32.62 1,201.50 1,214.86 1,224.00 1,226.51

Professional and business services

30.26 31.11 31.11 31.17 1,095.41 1,123.07 1,119.96 1,125.24

Education and health services

25.51 25.92 25.86 25.96 839.28 852.77 850.79 856.68

Leisure and hospitality

14.49 15.07 15.07 15.13 379.64 393.33 394.83 391.87

Other services

22.70 23.16 23.14 23.20 724.13 738.80 735.85 737.76

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2016 - Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2016 - Dec.
2016(p)

Total private

104.9 106.0 105.8 106.0 0.2 126.6 131.3 131.0 131.7 0.5

Goods-producing

90.6 90.4 90.0 89.8 -0.2 108.2 111.3 110.4 110.6 0.2

Mining and logging

105.2 94.7 93.1 93.7 0.6 132.2 122.4 119.3 121.0 1.4

Construction

90.1 90.3 90.3 89.4 -1.0 108.0 111.4 111.1 110.4 -0.6

Manufacturing

90.0 90.0 89.5 89.9 0.4 106.8 110.4 109.3 110.2 0.8

Durable goods

89.2 89.1 88.7 88.8 0.1 106.3 109.4 108.3 109.0 0.6

Nondurable goods

91.1 91.8 91.0 91.3 0.3 107.3 112.5 111.2 112.0 0.7

Private service-providing

109.0 110.1 110.3 110.5 0.2 132.4 137.1 137.3 138.0 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.0 102.0 102.2 101.9 -0.3 121.0 123.8 124.1 124.5 0.3

Wholesale trade

100.2 100.9 101.0 101.0 0.0 120.4 125.4 125.6 125.9 0.2

Retail trade

100.2 100.1 100.2 99.9 -0.3 117.5 118.9 119.7 120.1 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

109.4 108.8 109.3 109.4 0.1 128.0 129.9 130.6 131.0 0.3

Utilities

103.4 105.5 102.7 104.2 1.5 128.7 135.7 130.0 133.0 2.3

Information

90.8 91.4 90.5 90.8 0.3 116.1 121.6 120.2 121.2 0.8

Financial activities

101.1 101.7 102.4 102.8 0.4 125.7 129.2 130.3 130.8 0.4

Professional and business services

113.8 116.0 116.0 116.4 0.3 139.5 146.1 146.2 147.0 0.5

Education and health services

120.2 122.8 123.0 123.8 0.7 147.5 153.0 153.0 154.5 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

114.7 116.0 116.7 115.6 -0.9 134.1 141.0 141.9 141.1 -0.6

Other services

104.1 105.1 105.0 104.8 -0.2 129.5 133.4 133.1 133.3 0.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)

Total nonfarm

70,682 71,934 71,999 72,086 49.4 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private

58,060 59,195 59,262 59,336 47.9 48.2 48.2 48.2

Goods-producing

4,281 4,305 4,310 4,318 21.8 21.9 21.9 22.0

Mining and logging

108 100 100 100 14.2 14.7 14.6 14.7

Construction

815 840 841 847 12.4 12.6 12.5 12.6

Manufacturing

3,358 3,365 3,369 3,371 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.5

Durable goods

1,798 1,799 1,801 1,804 23.3 23.5 23.5 23.5

Nondurable goods

1,560 1,566 1,568 1,567 34.0 34.1 34.1 34.1

Private service-providing

53,779 54,890 54,952 55,018 53.0 53.2 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,972 11,155 11,154 11,147 40.5 40.7 40.6 40.6

Wholesale trade

1,735.2 1,755.4 1,754.0 1,754.8 29.4 29.5 29.5 29.5

Retail trade

7,928.8 8,067.2 8,063.9 8,050.0 50.3 50.4 50.4 50.3

Transportation and warehousing

1,172.9 1,200.7 1,204.4 1,210.3 24.0 24.4 24.4 24.4

Utilities

135.1 131.9 132.1 131.5 24.0 23.3 23.4 23.3

Information

1,106 1,115 1,110 1,106 40.0 40.1 40.1 40.1

Financial activities

4,672 4,740 4,745 4,746 57.0 56.9 56.9 56.8

Professional and business services

8,912 9,168 9,184 9,198 44.6 44.9 44.8 44.9

Education and health services

17,229 17,614 17,644 17,680 77.0 77.1 77.0 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

7,936 8,096 8,108 8,130 51.7 52.0 51.9 52.0

Other services

2,952 3,002 3,007 3,011 52.2 52.5 52.5 52.7

Government

12,622 12,739 12,737 12,750 57.3 57.4 57.3 57.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)

Total private

99,812 101,042 101,187 101,340

Goods-producing

14,212 14,104 14,114 14,127

Mining and logging

554 474 481 479

Construction

4,990 5,043 5,050 5,049

Manufacturing

8,668 8,587 8,583 8,599

Durable goods

5,330 5,261 5,260 5,277

Nondurable goods

3,338 3,326 3,323 3,322

Private service-providing

85,600 86,938 87,073 87,213

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,812 23,035 23,059 23,077

Wholesale trade

4,730.5 4,759.8 4,765.7 4,765.0

Retail trade

13,384.7 13,556.7 13,559.3 13,553.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,244.1 4,263.1 4,279.0 4,304.3

Utilities

452.5 455.2 454.6 454.7

Information

2,234 2,241 2,228 2,222

Financial activities

6,335 6,469 6,482 6,505

Professional and business services

16,385 16,700 16,734 16,750

Education and health services

19,636 20,057 20,089 20,152

Leisure and hospitality

13,489 13,696 13,734 13,766

Other services

4,709 4,740 4,747 4,741

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.6 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

41.3 41.2 41.2 41.0

Mining and logging

45.8 45.9 45.8 46.0

Construction

40.2 39.6 39.7 39.2

Manufacturing

41.7 42.0 41.8 41.8

Durable goods

42.2 42.4 42.2 42.3

Nondurable goods

41.0 41.3 41.1 41.1

Private service-providing

32.5 32.4 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.7 33.5 33.5 33.5

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.8 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

30.0 29.7 29.7 29.6

Transportation and warehousing

39.2 38.6 38.6 38.7

Utilities

42.5 43.4 42.1 43.0

Information

35.5 35.6 35.3 35.6

Financial activities

37.2 36.9 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.6 35.4 35.3 35.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.3 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

25.1 24.9 25.1 24.8

Other services

30.8 30.8 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 4.4 4.3 4.3

Durable goods

4.3 4.5 4.4 4.4

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.2 4.1 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)

Total private

$21.26 $21.72 $21.73 $21.80 $718.59 $729.79 $730.13 $732.48

Goods-producing

22.21 22.80 22.79 22.83 917.27 939.36 938.95 936.03

Mining and logging

26.55 27.13 26.87 27.15 1,215.99 1,245.27 1,230.65 1,248.90

Construction

25.43 26.23 26.24 26.26 1,022.29 1,038.71 1,041.73 1,029.39

Manufacturing

20.12 20.63 20.62 20.68 839.00 866.46 861.92 864.42

Durable goods

21.16 21.62 21.60 21.66 892.95 916.69 911.52 916.22

Nondurable goods

18.41 19.02 19.02 19.08 754.81 785.53 781.72 784.19

Private service-providing

21.06 21.49 21.51 21.58 684.45 696.28 696.92 699.19

Trade, transportation, and utilities

18.84 19.10 19.13 19.19 634.91 639.85 640.86 642.87

Wholesale trade

23.85 24.41 24.40 24.50 920.61 947.11 946.72 950.60

Retail trade

14.96 15.05 15.18 15.32 448.80 446.99 450.85 453.47

Transportation and warehousing

20.88 21.03 20.96 20.71 818.50 811.76 809.06 801.48

Utilities

34.58 35.86 35.48 35.57 1,469.65 1,556.32 1,493.71 1,529.51

Information

29.62 30.36 30.38 30.53 1,051.51 1,080.82 1,072.41 1,086.87

Financial activities

25.65 26.37 26.32 26.47 954.18 973.05 973.84 979.39

Professional and business services

25.02 25.64 25.71 25.77 890.71 907.66 907.56 909.68

Education and health services

22.31 22.64 22.67 22.70 718.38 729.01 732.24 733.21

Leisure and hospitality

12.57 12.98 13.01 13.05 315.51 323.20 326.55 323.64

Other services

19.18 19.38 19.37 19.37 590.74 596.90 596.60 596.60

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2016 - Dec.
2016(p)
Dec.
2015
Oct.
2016
Nov.
2016(p)
Dec.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2016 - Dec.
2016(p)

Total private

112.4 113.1 113.3 113.4 0.1 159.7 164.2 164.5 165.3 0.5

Goods-producing

89.7 88.8 88.9 88.5 -0.4 122.0 124.0 124.0 123.7 -0.2

Mining and logging

134.8 115.6 117.1 117.1 0.0 208.2 182.4 182.9 184.9 1.1

Construction

100.4 100.0 100.4 99.1 -1.3 137.9 141.6 142.2 140.5 -1.2

Manufacturing

83.0 82.8 82.4 82.5 0.1 109.2 111.7 111.1 111.6 0.5

Durable goods

84.5 83.8 83.4 83.9 0.6 111.6 113.1 112.5 113.4 0.8

Nondurable goods

80.6 80.9 80.5 80.4 -0.1 104.9 108.8 108.2 108.5 0.3

Private service-providing

118.5 120.0 120.1 120.3 0.2 171.1 176.8 177.2 178.1 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.2 107.6 107.7 107.8 0.1 144.0 146.6 147.0 147.5 0.3

Wholesale trade

107.5 108.8 108.9 108.9 0.0 151.1 156.4 156.5 157.1 0.4

Retail trade

101.6 101.9 101.9 101.5 -0.4 130.3 131.5 132.6 133.3 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

125.2 123.9 124.3 125.4 0.9 165.9 165.2 165.3 164.7 -0.4

Utilities

98.3 101.0 97.9 100.0 2.1 142.0 151.2 145.0 148.5 2.4

Information

90.5 91.1 89.8 90.3 0.6 132.7 136.9 135.0 136.5 1.1

Financial activities

110.9 112.4 112.9 113.3 0.4 175.1 182.3 182.8 184.5 0.9

Professional and business services

130.7 132.5 132.4 132.5 0.1 194.6 202.2 202.5 203.2 0.3

Education and health services

134.8 137.7 138.3 138.7 0.3 198.5 205.7 207.0 207.9 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

124.0 124.9 126.3 125.1 -1.0 177.0 184.1 186.6 185.3 -0.7

Other services

101.7 102.4 102.5 102.4 -0.1 142.1 144.6 144.7 144.5 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: January 06, 2017