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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-23-0002
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, January 6, 2023

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			    THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2022


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 223,000 in December, and the unemployment rate
edged down to 3.5 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Notable job
gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, health care, construction, and social assistance.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see
the Technical Note.

 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data 		|
|											|
| Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal 	|
| adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally 	|
| adjusted estimates back to January 2018 were subject to revision. The unemployment 	|
| rates for January 2022 through November 2022 (as originally published and as revised) |
| appear in table A at the end of this news release, along with additional information  |
| about the revisions.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate edged down to 3.5 percent in December and has remained in a narrow 
range of 3.5 percent to 3.7 percent since March. The number of unemployed persons edged 
down to 5.7 million in December. (See table A-1.) 

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Whites fell to 3.0 percent in 
December. The jobless rates for adult men (3.1 percent), adult women (3.2 percent), 
teenagers (10.4 percent), Blacks (5.7 percent), Asians (2.4 percent), and Hispanics (4.1 
percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) declined by 146,000
to 1.1 million in December. This measure is down from 2.0 million a year earlier. The long-
term unemployed accounted for 18.5 percent of all unemployed persons. (See table A-12.) 

The employment-population ratio increased by 0.2 percentage point over the month to 60.1 
percent. The labor force participation rate was little changed at 62.3 percent. Both measures
have shown little net change since early 2022. These measures are each 1.0 percentage point
below their values in February 2020, prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. 
(See table A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 3.9 million, changed little
in December. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working 
part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. 
(See table A-8.) 

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job fell by 352,000 to 5.2
million in December and is little different from its February 2020 level of 5.1 million. 
These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for
work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job. 
(See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force declined by 231,000 to 1.3 million in December. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months
but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged 
workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for 
them, numbered 410,000 in December, essentially unchanged from the previous month. 
(See Summary table A.) 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 223,000 in December. Notable job gains occurred
in leisure and hospitality, health care, construction, and social assistance. Payroll 
employment rose by 4.5 million in 2022 (an average monthly gain of 375,000), less than the 
increase of 6.7 million in 2021 (an average monthly gain of 562,000). (See table B-1.)

In December, employment in leisure and hospitality rose by 67,000. Employment continued to 
trend up in food services and drinking places (+26,000); amusements, gambling, and recreation
(+25,000); and accommodation (+10,000). Leisure and hospitality added an average of 79,000
jobs per month in 2022, substantially less than the average gain of 196,000 jobs per month in
2021. Employment in the industry remains below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level by 
932,000, or 5.5 percent.

Health care employment increased by 55,000 in December, with gains in ambulatory health care
services (+30,000), hospitals (+16,000), and nursing and residential care facilities (+9,000).
Job growth in health care averaged 49,000 per month in 2022, considerably above the 2021
average monthly gain of 9,000.

Employment in construction increased by 28,000 in December, as specialty trade contractors
added 17,000 jobs. Construction employment increased by an average of 19,000 per month in 
2022, little different than the average of 16,000 per month in 2021.

Social assistance added 20,000 jobs in December. Employment in individual and family services
continued to trend up over the month (+10,000). Job growth in social assistance averaged 
17,000 per month in 2022, compared with the 2021 average of 13,000 per month.

Employment in the other services industry continued to trend up in December (+14,000). 
Monthly job growth in other services averaged 14,000 in 2022, lower than the average of 
24,000 per month in 2021. Employment in other services is below its February 2020 level by 
174,000, or 2.9 percent. 

In December, mining employment increased by 4,000, reflecting job growth in support
activities for mining (+5,000). Since a recent low in February 2021, mining employment has 
grown by 104,000.

Employment in retail trade changed little in December (+9,000). Job growth in retail trade 
averaged 16,000 per month in 2022, less than half the average growth of 35,000 per month in 
2021.

Over the month, employment in manufacturing changed little (+8,000), as job gains in durable
goods (+24,000) were partially offset by losses in nondurable goods (-16,000). In 2022, 
manufacturing added an average of 32,000 jobs per month, little different than the average 
of 30,000 jobs per month in 2021.

In December, employment in transportation and warehousing changed little (+5,000). Air 
transportation (+3,000) added jobs over the month, while employment continued to trend down 
in couriers and messengers (-4,000) and in warehousing and storage (-3,000). In 2022, average
job growth in transportation and warehousing (+17,000) was about half the average job growth
in 2021 (+36,000).

In December, government employment was essentially unchanged (+3,000). Employment in state 
government education declined by 24,000, reflecting strike activity among university 
employees.

Employment in professional and business services remained little changed in December 
(-6,000). Employment in temporary help services declined by 35,000 over the month and has 
fallen by 111,000 since July. Job growth in professional and business services averaged 
50,000 per month in 2022, roughly half of the average of 94,000 per month in 2021.

Over the month, employment showed little change in other major industries, including 
wholesale trade, information, and financial activities.

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 
9 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $32.82. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have
increased by 4.6 percent. In December, average hourly earnings of private-sector production
and nonsupervisory employees rose by 6 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $28.07. (See tables B-3 
and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls declined by 0.1 hour to
34.3 hours in December. In manufacturing, the average workweek for all employees was little
changed at 40.1 hours, and overtime declined by 0.2 hour to 2.9 hours. The average workweek
for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1 
hour to 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised down by 21,000, from
+284,000 to +263,000, and the change for November was revised down by 7,000, from +263,000 
to +256,000. With these revisions, employment gains in October and November combined were 
28,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports 
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and 
from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
February 3, 2023, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|			Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data			|
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2023 on February 	|
| 3, 2023, new population controls will be used in the household survey estimation 	|
| process. These new controls reflect the annual update of population estimates by the  |
| U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual practice, historical data will not be 	|
| revised to incorporate the new controls. Consequently, household survey data for 	|
| January 2023 will not be directly comparable with data for December 2022 or earlier 	|
| periods. A table showing the effects of the new controls on the major labor force 	|
| series will be included in The Employment Situation for January 2023. 		|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		     Upcoming Changes to Establishment Survey Data      		|
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2023 on February 	|
| 3, 2023, nonfarm payroll employment, hours, and earnings data from the establishment  |
| survey will be revised to reflect the annual benchmark process and updated seasonal 	|
| adjustment factors. 									|
|											|
| In addition, the basis for industry classification in the establishment survey will 	|
| be revised from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to 	|
| NAICS 2022. Approximately 10 percent of employment will be reclassified into 		|
| different industries as a result of the NAICS revision. The conversion to NAICS 2022  |
| will result in major revisions reflecting content and coding changes in the retail 	|
| trade and information sectors, as well as minor revisions reflecting content and 	|
| coding changes within the mining and logging, manufacturing, wholesale trade, 	|
| financial activities, and other services sectors. Many industry titles and 		|
| descriptions will also be updated to better reflect official NAICS titles. 		|
|											|
| Revisions due to both the NAICS 2022 conversion and the benchmark process will affect |
| more historical data than is typical in the annual benchmark process. The NAICS 	|
| revisions will be reflected in the entire time series of affected industries for both |
| seasonally adjusted and not adjusted data. Details of updated titles and new, 	|
| discontinued, and collapsed industries are available at 				|
| www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm.						|
|											|
| For more information on NAICS 2022, visit www.census.gov/naics.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		Upcoming Changes to The Employment Situation News Release		|
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2023 on February 	|
| 3, 2023, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics will introduce changes to The Employment |
| Situation news release establishment survey data tables (Summary table B and tables 	|
| B-1 through B-9). A listing of all series changes resulting from the NAICS update, 	|
| including the industries published in these news release tables, is available on the  |
| BLS website at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm. 				|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


	         Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data          	


At the end of each calendar year, BLS updates the seasonal adjustment factors for the 
national labor force series derived from the household survey. As a result of this process,
seasonally adjusted data for January 2018 through November 2022 were subject to revision.
(Not seasonally adjusted data were not subject to revision.) 

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2022 through November 2022, as first 
published and as revised. The rate changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 1 of the
11 months and was unchanged in the remaining 10 months. Revised seasonally adjusted data
for other major labor force series back to December 2021 appear in table B. 

More information on this year's revisions to seasonally adjusted household series is 
available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf. Detailed 
information on the seasonal adjustment methodology is found at 
www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology.htm. 

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables (A-1 through A-16)
of this news release can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical
seasonally adjusted data are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and
https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.


Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2022 and change due to revision,
January  November 2022


Month                 As First Published          As Revised              Change

January.............                 4.0                 4.0                 0.0
February............                 3.8                 3.8                 0.0
March...............                 3.6                 3.6                 0.0
April...............                 3.6                 3.6                 0.0
May.................                 3.6                 3.6                 0.0
June................                 3.6                 3.6                 0.0
July................                 3.5                 3.5                 0.0
August..............                 3.7                 3.7                 0.0
September...........                 3.5                 3.5                 0.0
October.............                 3.7                 3.7                 0.0
November............                 3.7                 3.6                -0.1




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2021 2022
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

262,136 263,202 263,324 263,444 263,559 263,679 263,835 264,012 264,184 264,356 264,535 264,708 264,844

Civilian labor force

162,410 163,633 163,862 164,301 163,950 164,278 164,002 163,990 164,714 164,619 164,646 164,527 164,966

Participation rate

62.0 62.2 62.2 62.4 62.2 62.3 62.2 62.1 62.3 62.3 62.2 62.2 62.3

Employed

156,081 157,122 157,590 158,328 157,982 158,299 158,057 158,272 158,694 158,850 158,593 158,527 159,244

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.7 59.8 60.1 59.9 60.0 59.9 59.9 60.1 60.1 60.0 59.9 60.1

Unemployed

6,329 6,511 6,272 5,972 5,968 5,979 5,945 5,718 6,021 5,770 6,053 6,000 5,722

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

118,520 119,612 119,669 119,726 119,780 119,831 119,899 119,977 120,058 120,140 120,225 120,301 120,360

Civilian labor force

82,968 83,885 84,264 84,266 84,200 84,165 84,029 83,905 84,192 84,602 84,606 84,525 84,694

Participation rate

70.0 70.1 70.4 70.4 70.3 70.2 70.1 69.9 70.1 70.4 70.4 70.3 70.4

Employed

79,958 80,695 81,293 81,389 81,236 81,331 81,210 81,185 81,263 81,816 81,776 81,698 82,033

Employment-population ratio

67.5 67.5 67.9 68.0 67.8 67.9 67.7 67.7 67.7 68.1 68.0 67.9 68.2

Unemployed

3,010 3,190 2,971 2,877 2,963 2,834 2,818 2,720 2,929 2,786 2,829 2,827 2,661

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

127,167 126,570 126,631 126,691 126,749 126,802 126,872 126,951 127,034 127,117 127,204 127,283 127,345

Civilian labor force

73,498 73,517 73,482 73,736 73,508 73,877 73,721 73,956 74,098 73,729 73,752 73,532 73,930

Participation rate

57.8 58.1 58.0 58.2 58.0 58.3 58.1 58.3 58.3 58.0 58.0 57.8 58.1

Employed

70,831 70,872 70,810 71,275 71,144 71,388 71,280 71,659 71,676 71,457 71,218 71,088 71,531

Employment-population ratio

55.7 56.0 55.9 56.3 56.1 56.3 56.2 56.4 56.4 56.2 56.0 55.9 56.2

Unemployed

2,667 2,645 2,672 2,462 2,365 2,489 2,441 2,297 2,422 2,272 2,534 2,444 2,398

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,449 17,020 17,024 17,027 17,030 17,046 17,064 17,084 17,091 17,099 17,107 17,124 17,139

Civilian labor force

5,944 6,231 6,116 6,298 6,242 6,235 6,252 6,129 6,424 6,288 6,288 6,469 6,343

Participation rate

36.1 36.6 35.9 37.0 36.7 36.6 36.6 35.9 37.6 36.8 36.8 37.8 37.0

Employed

5,292 5,555 5,487 5,665 5,603 5,579 5,566 5,428 5,754 5,576 5,598 5,740 5,680

Employment-population ratio

32.2 32.6 32.2 33.3 32.9 32.7 32.6 31.8 33.7 32.6 32.7 33.5 33.1

Unemployed

652 676 628 634 640 656 686 701 670 712 690 729 662

Unemployment rate

11.0 10.9 10.3 10.1 10.2 10.5 11.0 11.4 10.4 11.3 11.0 11.3 10.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Change from:
Nov.
2022-
Dec.
2022

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

262,136 264,535 264,708 264,844 136

Civilian labor force

162,410 164,646 164,527 164,966 439

Participation rate

62.0 62.2 62.2 62.3 0.1

Employed

156,081 158,593 158,527 159,244 717

Employment-population ratio

59.5 60.0 59.9 60.1 0.2

Unemployed

6,329 6,053 6,000 5,722 -278

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Not in labor force

99,726 99,890 100,181 99,878 -303

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.6 3.3 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

11.0 11.0 11.3 10.4 -0.9

White

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.0 -0.3

Black or African American

7.0 5.9 5.7 5.7 0.0

Asian

3.8 2.9 2.6 2.4 -0.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.8 4.2 4.0 4.1 0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.3 3.0 3.0 2.8 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

5.3 6.2 4.4 5.0 0.6

High school graduates, no college

4.5 3.9 3.9 3.6 -0.3

Some college or associate degree

3.5 3.0 3.2 2.9 -0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.1 1.9 2.0 1.9 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,089 2,695 2,761 2,629 -132

Job leavers

725 861 829 825 -4

Reentrants

2,024 1,873 1,798 1,767 -31

New entrants

508 494 558 497 -61

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

1,989 2,215 2,244 2,233 -11

5 to 14 weeks

1,593 1,774 1,694 1,639 -55

15 to 26 weeks

799 817 821 826 5

27 weeks and over

1,989 1,169 1,215 1,069 -146

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

3,936 3,664 3,688 3,878 190

Slack work or business conditions

2,573 2,535 2,546 2,648 102

Could only find part-time work

1,067 867 826 911 85

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,251 21,297 21,226 21,628 402

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,665 1,493 1,491 1,260 -231

Discouraged workers

458 373 406 410 4

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

588 263 256 223

Total private

561 219 202 220

Goods-producing

93 49 27 40

Mining and logging

8 2 4 4

Construction

44 13 15 28

Manufacturing

41 34 8 8

Durable goods(1)

31 29 8 24

Motor vehicles and parts

1.2 9.0 2.3 7.4

Nondurable goods

10 5 0 -16

Private service-providing

468 170 175 180

Wholesale trade

18.5 11.2 -1.3 12.1

Retail trade

38.2 -2.3 -16.8 9.0

Transportation and warehousing

22.3 -7.5 -21.7 4.7

Utilities

-0.6 1.2 -0.9 1.6

Information

9 4 22 -5

Financial activities

14 11 11 5

Professional and business services(1)

91 13 -8 -6

Temporary help services

40.9 -22.3 -30.3 -35.0

Education and health services(1)

65 77 90 78

Health care and social assistance

40.1 73.1 73.3 74.4

Leisure and hospitality

186 50 79 67

Other services

24 12 22 14

Government

27 44 54 3

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

637 275 263 247

Total private

627 236 225 214

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.5 48.5 48.5

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.5 81.5 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.8 34.5 34.4 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$31.38 $32.60 $32.73 $32.82

Average weekly earnings

$1,092.02 $1,124.70 $1,125.91 $1,125.73

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

111.0 113.4 113.2 113.1

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.2 -0.2 -0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

166.6 176.7 177.1 177.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.9 0.5 0.2 0.2

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (256 industries)

73.0 62.9 63.9 60.7

Manufacturing (74 industries)

64.2 61.5 56.1 55.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 131,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 670,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

262,136 264,708 264,844 262,136 264,184 264,356 264,535 264,708 264,844

Civilian labor force

161,696 164,272 164,224 162,410 164,714 164,619 164,646 164,527 164,966

Participation rate

61.7 62.1 62.0 62.0 62.3 62.3 62.2 62.2 62.3

Employed

155,732 158,749 158,872 156,081 158,694 158,850 158,593 158,527 159,244

Employment-population ratio

59.4 60.0 60.0 59.5 60.1 60.1 60.0 59.9 60.1

Unemployed

5,964 5,523 5,352 6,329 6,021 5,770 6,053 6,000 5,722

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.4 3.3 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

100,440 100,436 100,621 99,726 99,469 99,736 99,890 100,181 99,878

Persons who currently want a job

5,524 5,211 4,948 5,747 5,534 5,813 5,681 5,528 5,176

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,832 128,983 129,050 126,832 128,722 128,807 128,897 128,983 129,050

Civilian labor force

85,339 87,441 87,251 85,934 87,366 87,659 87,772 87,793 87,864

Participation rate

67.3 67.8 67.6 67.8 67.9 68.1 68.1 68.1 68.1

Employed

82,024 84,455 84,304 82,580 84,081 84,532 84,559 84,557 84,880

Employment-population ratio

64.7 65.5 65.3 65.1 65.3 65.6 65.6 65.6 65.8

Unemployed

3,314 2,986 2,947 3,354 3,284 3,127 3,212 3,236 2,984

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.4

Not in labor force

41,493 41,542 41,799 40,898 41,356 41,148 41,126 41,189 41,186

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

118,520 120,301 120,360 118,520 120,058 120,140 120,225 120,301 120,360

Civilian labor force

82,547 84,329 84,262 82,968 84,192 84,602 84,606 84,525 84,694

Participation rate

69.6 70.1 70.0 70.0 70.1 70.4 70.4 70.3 70.4

Employed

79,525 81,731 81,589 79,958 81,263 81,816 81,776 81,698 82,033

Employment-population ratio

67.1 67.9 67.8 67.5 67.7 68.1 68.0 67.9 68.2

Unemployed

3,022 2,598 2,673 3,010 2,929 2,786 2,829 2,827 2,661

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.1 3.2 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

35,973 35,972 36,098 35,552 35,867 35,537 35,619 35,776 35,666

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,304 135,725 135,795 135,304 135,462 135,548 135,638 135,725 135,795

Civilian labor force

76,357 76,831 76,973 76,476 77,349 76,960 76,874 76,734 77,102

Participation rate

56.4 56.6 56.7 56.5 57.1 56.8 56.7 56.5 56.8

Employed

73,708 74,294 74,568 73,501 74,613 74,318 74,033 73,970 74,364

Employment-population ratio

54.5 54.7 54.9 54.3 55.1 54.8 54.6 54.5 54.8

Unemployed

2,649 2,537 2,405 2,975 2,736 2,642 2,841 2,764 2,738

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.1 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

58,947 58,894 58,821 58,828 58,113 58,588 58,764 58,991 58,692

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,167 127,283 127,345 127,167 127,034 127,117 127,204 127,283 127,345

Civilian labor force

73,546 73,766 73,981 73,498 74,098 73,729 73,752 73,532 73,930

Participation rate

57.8 58.0 58.1 57.8 58.3 58.0 58.0 57.8 58.1

Employed

71,140 71,516 71,843 70,831 71,676 71,457 71,218 71,088 71,531

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.2 56.4 55.7 56.4 56.2 56.0 55.9 56.2

Unemployed

2,406 2,250 2,138 2,667 2,422 2,272 2,534 2,444 2,398

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.1 2.9 3.6 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

53,621 53,517 53,365 53,669 52,936 53,388 53,452 53,750 53,416

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,449 17,124 17,139 16,449 17,091 17,099 17,107 17,124 17,139

Civilian labor force

5,602 6,177 5,981 5,944 6,424 6,288 6,288 6,469 6,343

Participation rate

34.1 36.1 34.9 36.1 37.6 36.8 36.8 37.8 37.0

Employed

5,068 5,502 5,439 5,292 5,754 5,576 5,598 5,740 5,680

Employment-population ratio

30.8 32.1 31.7 32.2 33.7 32.6 32.7 33.5 33.1

Unemployed

535 675 541 652 670 712 690 729 662

Unemployment rate

9.5 10.9 9.1 11.0 10.4 11.3 11.0 11.3 10.4

Not in labor force

10,847 10,947 11,158 10,505 10,667 10,811 10,819 10,655 10,796

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

202,250 203,617 203,684 202,250 203,324 203,420 203,522 203,617 203,684

Civilian labor force

124,427 125,707 125,934 124,871 126,147 126,117 126,180 125,902 126,408

Participation rate

61.5 61.7 61.8 61.7 62.0 62.0 62.0 61.8 62.1

Employed

120,536 121,967 122,301 120,775 122,125 122,261 122,063 121,807 122,556

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.9 60.0 59.7 60.1 60.1 60.0 59.8 60.2

Unemployed

3,891 3,741 3,633 4,096 4,022 3,856 4,117 4,094 3,852

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.0 2.9 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.0

Not in labor force

77,823 77,910 77,750 77,379 77,177 77,303 77,342 77,716 77,276

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,784 65,590 65,789 65,036 65,616 65,884 66,032 65,759 66,045

Participation rate

69.8 69.8 70.0 70.1 69.9 70.2 70.3 70.0 70.3

Employed

62,745 63,771 63,876 63,055 63,592 64,012 64,026 63,767 64,189

Employment-population ratio

67.6 67.9 68.0 67.9 67.8 68.2 68.2 67.9 68.3

Unemployed

2,039 1,819 1,912 1,982 2,024 1,871 2,006 1,992 1,856

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,289 55,381 55,533 55,219 55,625 55,348 55,340 55,174 55,461

Participation rate

56.8 57.0 57.1 56.7 57.3 57.0 57.0 56.8 57.1

Employed

53,765 53,910 54,181 53,506 54,087 53,885 53,691 53,562 53,918

Employment-population ratio

55.2 55.5 55.7 54.9 55.7 55.5 55.3 55.1 55.5

Unemployed

1,524 1,471 1,353 1,714 1,538 1,463 1,649 1,611 1,543

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.7 2.4 3.1 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,354 4,736 4,612 4,615 4,907 4,885 4,807 4,969 4,902

Participation rate

36.1 37.9 36.8 38.3 39.3 39.1 38.5 39.7 39.2

Employed

4,025 4,286 4,244 4,215 4,446 4,364 4,346 4,478 4,449

Employment-population ratio

33.4 34.3 33.9 35.0 35.6 34.9 34.8 35.8 35.5

Unemployed

329 450 369 400 460 521 462 491 453

Unemployment rate

7.5 9.5 8.0 8.7 9.4 10.7 9.6 9.9 9.2

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,749 34,272 34,301 33,749 34,171 34,204 34,237 34,272 34,301

Civilian labor force

20,364 21,354 21,278 20,514 21,129 21,260 21,247 21,365 21,418

Participation rate

60.3 62.3 62.0 60.8 61.8 62.2 62.1 62.3 62.4

Employed

19,045 20,203 20,146 19,086 19,785 20,016 19,988 20,139 20,189

Employment-population ratio

56.4 59.0 58.7 56.6 57.9 58.5 58.4 58.8 58.9

Unemployed

1,319 1,151 1,132 1,428 1,344 1,244 1,259 1,226 1,229

Unemployment rate

6.5 5.4 5.3 7.0 6.4 5.9 5.9 5.7 5.7

Not in labor force

13,385 12,917 13,023 13,234 13,042 12,944 12,990 12,907 12,883

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,320 9,935 9,886 9,393 9,714 9,892 9,783 9,947 9,956

Participation rate

65.3 68.2 67.8 65.8 66.9 68.0 67.2 68.3 68.3

Employed

8,697 9,433 9,399 8,740 9,133 9,322 9,269 9,408 9,446

Employment-population ratio

60.9 64.7 64.5 61.2 62.9 64.1 63.7 64.6 64.8

Unemployed

623 502 487 652 582 570 514 539 510

Unemployment rate

6.7 5.1 4.9 6.9 6.0 5.8 5.3 5.4 5.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,391 10,660 10,631 10,443 10,640 10,637 10,696 10,633 10,679

Participation rate

60.8 62.0 61.7 61.1 62.0 61.9 62.2 61.8 62.0

Employed

9,814 10,133 10,100 9,806 10,017 10,057 10,080 10,077 10,093

Employment-population ratio

57.4 58.9 58.7 57.4 58.4 58.6 58.6 58.6 58.6

Unemployed

577 527 531 637 624 579 616 556 586

Unemployment rate

5.6 4.9 5.0 6.1 5.9 5.4 5.8 5.2 5.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

653 759 761 678 774 731 768 785 784

Participation rate

27.4 30.4 30.4 28.4 31.2 29.4 30.8 31.4 31.4

Employed

535 637 646 540 635 636 639 654 650

Employment-population ratio

22.4 25.5 25.9 22.6 25.6 25.6 25.7 26.2 26.0

Unemployed

118 122 114 139 139 95 128 131 134

Unemployment rate

18.1 16.0 15.0 20.4 18.0 12.9 16.7 16.7 17.1

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,612 16,980 17,005 16,612 16,989 17,132 17,129 16,980 17,005

Civilian labor force

10,727 10,968 10,890 10,752 11,084 11,106 11,106 10,995 10,918

Participation rate

64.6 64.6 64.0 64.7 65.2 64.8 64.8 64.8 64.2

Employed

10,344 10,686 10,650 10,346 10,778 10,832 10,781 10,704 10,654

Employment-population ratio

62.3 62.9 62.6 62.3 63.4 63.2 62.9 63.0 62.7

Unemployed

383 282 241 406 305 274 325 291 265

Unemployment rate

3.6 2.6 2.2 3.8 2.8 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.4

Not in labor force

5,885 6,011 6,115 5,860 5,906 6,025 6,023 5,984 6,086

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,303 46,545 46,624 45,303 46,287 46,373 46,459 46,545 46,624

Civilian labor force

29,800 30,694 30,872 29,900 30,920 30,673 30,725 30,600 30,893

Participation rate

65.8 65.9 66.2 66.0 66.8 66.1 66.1 65.7 66.3

Employed

28,443 29,555 29,594 28,463 29,526 29,462 29,430 29,382 29,611

Employment-population ratio

62.8 63.5 63.5 62.8 63.8 63.5 63.3 63.1 63.5

Unemployed

1,357 1,139 1,278 1,436 1,395 1,211 1,295 1,218 1,281

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.7 4.1 4.8 4.5 3.9 4.2 4.0 4.1

Not in labor force

15,503 15,850 15,752 15,403 15,367 15,700 15,734 15,944 15,731

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,167 16,530 16,691 16,275 16,633 16,536 16,653 16,526 16,725

Participation rate

79.0 78.4 79.0 79.5 79.3 78.7 79.1 78.4 79.2

Employed

15,518 15,982 15,958 15,606 15,967 15,967 16,000 15,925 16,047

Employment-population ratio

75.8 75.8 75.6 76.2 76.1 76.0 76.0 75.5 76.0

Unemployed

649 547 734 669 666 569 653 601 677

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.3 4.4 4.1 4.0 3.4 3.9 3.6 4.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,340 12,743 12,837 12,291 12,807 12,771 12,655 12,637 12,785

Participation rate

59.5 60.2 60.6 59.2 60.9 60.6 59.9 59.7 60.3

Employed

11,763 12,301 12,385 11,689 12,260 12,314 12,185 12,179 12,307

Employment-population ratio

56.7 58.2 58.5 56.3 58.3 58.4 57.7 57.6 58.1

Unemployed

577 442 453 602 546 457 469 458 478

Unemployment rate

4.7 3.5 3.5 4.9 4.3 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,293 1,422 1,343 1,333 1,481 1,366 1,417 1,438 1,383

Participation rate

31.7 33.0 31.1 32.7 34.6 31.8 33.0 33.4 32.0

Employed

1,162 1,272 1,252 1,168 1,299 1,181 1,245 1,279 1,257

Employment-population ratio

28.5 29.5 29.0 28.6 30.3 27.5 29.0 29.7 29.1

Unemployed

131 150 92 165 182 185 173 159 126

Unemployment rate

10.1 10.6 6.8 12.4 12.3 13.6 12.2 11.0 9.1

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,786 8,944 8,918 8,752 8,654 8,990 9,141 8,901 8,885

Participation rate

45.2 45.8 45.8 45.0 45.4 45.7 46.6 45.6 45.6

Employed

8,271 8,603 8,428 8,285 8,124 8,491 8,574 8,506 8,443

Employment-population ratio

42.5 44.0 43.3 42.6 42.6 43.1 43.7 43.5 43.4

Unemployed

515 341 490 467 530 499 567 395 442

Unemployment rate

5.9 3.8 5.5 5.3 6.1 5.5 6.2 4.4 5.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,778 35,227 35,532 35,852 35,819 35,282 35,070 35,192 35,605

Participation rate

55.6 55.8 56.1 55.7 56.4 56.2 55.9 55.7 56.2

Employed

34,154 33,902 34,270 34,223 34,259 33,975 33,692 33,816 34,339

Employment-population ratio

53.1 53.7 54.1 53.2 54.0 54.1 53.7 53.5 54.2

Unemployed

1,624 1,325 1,262 1,629 1,560 1,307 1,378 1,377 1,266

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.8 3.6 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,525 36,113 35,849 35,480 35,606 35,575 35,806 35,880 35,789

Participation rate

62.8 63.3 62.8 62.7 63.0 62.7 62.7 62.9 62.7

Employed

34,335 35,029 34,851 34,222 34,559 34,558 34,734 34,748 34,735

Employment-population ratio

60.7 61.4 61.0 60.5 61.2 60.9 60.8 60.9 60.8

Unemployed

1,190 1,084 998 1,257 1,046 1,017 1,071 1,133 1,054

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.0 2.8 3.5 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.2 2.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

61,300 63,142 63,241 61,205 63,609 63,519 63,312 63,041 63,150

Participation rate

72.5 72.6 72.8 72.4 72.9 72.9 72.7 72.5 72.7

Employed

60,147 61,944 62,156 59,934 62,426 62,381 62,089 61,781 61,947

Employment-population ratio

71.1 71.3 71.5 70.9 71.6 71.6 71.3 71.1 71.3

Unemployed

1,153 1,198 1,085 1,271 1,183 1,138 1,223 1,260 1,203

Unemployment rate

1.9 1.9 1.7 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,921 18,237 16,000 16,203 1,921 2,034

Civilian labor force

8,366 8,770 7,198 7,592 1,168 1,177

Participation rate

46.7 48.1 45.0 46.9 60.8 57.9

Employed

8,100 8,487 6,978 7,329 1,121 1,158

Employment-population ratio

45.2 46.5 43.6 45.2 58.4 56.9

Unemployed

267 283 220 263 47 20

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.2 3.1 3.5 4.0 1.7

Not in labor force

9,555 9,467 8,802 8,611 753 857

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,596 5,021 3,745 4,098 851 923

Civilian labor force

3,591 4,029 3,013 3,349 578 680

Participation rate

78.1 80.2 80.4 81.7 67.9 73.6

Employed

3,437 3,907 2,882 3,240 555 666

Employment-population ratio

74.8 77.8 77.0 79.1 65.2 72.2

Unemployed

153 122 130 109 23 13

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.0 4.3 3.3 4.0 1.9

Not in labor force

1,006 992 733 749 273 244

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,160 3,185 2,704 2,724 456 461

Civilian labor force

2,270 2,185 1,929 1,880 342 305

Participation rate

71.9 68.6 71.3 69.0 75.0 66.1

Employed

2,236 2,117 1,901 1,812 335 305

Employment-population ratio

70.8 66.5 70.3 66.5 73.4 66.1

Unemployed

34 68 27 68 7 0

Unemployment rate

1.5 3.1 1.4 3.6 2.1 0.0

Not in labor force

889 1,000 775 844 114 156

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,266 6,100 6,045 5,857 221 243

Civilian labor force

1,010 964 957 932 53 33

Participation rate

16.1 15.8 15.8 15.9 24.1 13.4

Employed

977 929 928 897 48 33

Employment-population ratio

15.6 15.2 15.4 15.3 21.9 13.4

Unemployed

33 35 28 35 5 0

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.6 3.0 3.8 - -

Not in labor force

5,256 5,136 5,088 4,925 168 210

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,899 3,931 3,506 3,524 393 407

Civilian labor force

1,495 1,592 1,301 1,431 195 160

Participation rate

38.4 40.5 37.1 40.6 49.6 39.4

Employed

1,450 1,534 1,266 1,380 183 154

Employment-population ratio

37.2 39.0 36.1 39.2 46.7 37.8

Unemployed

46 58 34 51 12 7

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.6 2.6 3.6 5.9 4.1

Not in labor force

2,404 2,339 2,205 2,093 198 247

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

235,089 237,329 106,253 108,183 128,837 129,146

Civilian labor force

151,162 153,028 77,150 78,544 74,011 74,484

Participation rate

64.3 64.5 72.6 72.6 57.4 57.7

Employed

145,667 148,134 74,154 75,956 71,513 72,178

Employment-population ratio

62.0 62.4 69.8 70.2 55.5 55.9

Unemployed

5,495 4,894 2,996 2,588 2,499 2,306

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.2 3.9 3.3 3.4 3.1

Not in labor force

83,928 84,301 29,102 29,639 54,825 54,662

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,420 32,874 229,716 231,970

Civilian labor force

7,244 7,761 154,452 156,463

Participation rate

22.3 23.6 67.2 67.4

Employed

6,671 7,370 149,061 151,501

Employment-population ratio

20.6 22.4 64.9 65.3

Unemployed

573 390 5,391 4,962

Unemployment rate

7.9 5.0 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

25,177 25,114 75,264 75,507

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,050 3,208 76,205 77,843

Participation rate

37.9 40.0 81.8 82.1

Employed

2,777 3,052 73,340 75,240

Employment-population ratio

34.5 38.0 78.8 79.4

Unemployed

273 156 2,865 2,603

Unemployment rate

9.0 4.9 3.8 3.3

Not in labor force

4,989 4,819 16,899 16,924

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,929 3,184 68,453 68,853

Participation rate

35.6 38.2 71.5 71.7

Employed

2,696 2,998 66,151 66,762

Employment-population ratio

32.7 35.9 69.1 69.5

Unemployed

233 186 2,302 2,090

Unemployment rate

8.0 5.8 3.4 3.0

Not in labor force

5,310 5,160 27,283 27,235

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,264 1,368 9,794 9,768

Participation rate

7.8 8.3 24.0 23.8

Employed

1,198 1,320 9,571 9,499

Employment-population ratio

7.4 8.0 23.4 23.1

Unemployed

66 49 223 269

Unemployment rate

5.2 3.6 2.3 2.8

Not in labor force

14,878 15,135 31,082 31,348

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,172 45,736 21,413 22,302 22,758 23,434

Civilian labor force

28,760 30,077 16,469 17,165 12,291 12,912

Participation rate

65.1 65.8 76.9 77.0 54.0 55.1

Employed

27,691 29,130 15,925 16,610 11,766 12,520

Employment-population ratio

62.7 63.7 74.4 74.5 51.7 53.4

Unemployed

1,069 947 544 554 525 393

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.1 3.3 3.2 4.3 3.0

Not in labor force

15,412 15,659 4,944 5,137 10,467 10,522

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

217,964 219,109 105,418 106,748 112,545 112,361

Civilian labor force

132,935 134,147 68,870 70,086 64,066 64,061

Participation rate

61.0 61.2 65.3 65.7 56.9 57.0

Employed

128,041 129,742 66,100 67,693 61,941 62,049

Employment-population ratio

58.7 59.2 62.7 63.4 55.0 55.2

Unemployed

4,894 4,405 2,770 2,393 2,124 2,012

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.3 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

85,029 84,962 36,549 36,662 48,480 48,300

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,253 2,191 2,267 2,297 2,173 2,178 2,206 2,228 2,311

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,473 1,472 1,482 1,485 1,486 1,473 1,495 1,492 1,496

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

746 695 755 783 648 696 692 715 791

Unpaid family workers

33 24 31 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

153,479 156,558 156,604 153,650 156,699 156,762 156,570 156,344 156,818

Wage and salary workers(1)

144,275 147,532 147,639 144,514 147,381 147,291 147,109 147,381 147,886

Government

21,239 21,189 21,943 21,006 21,216 21,331 21,211 21,084 21,683

Private industries

123,036 126,344 125,696 123,468 126,048 126,371 126,102 126,468 126,169

Private households

585 671 692 - - - - - -

Other industries

122,450 125,673 125,003 122,915 125,357 125,712 125,460 125,819 125,538

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,161 8,979 8,923 9,277 8,992 9,155 9,261 8,970 9,036

Unpaid family workers

43 46 43 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,049 3,580 3,991 3,936 4,140 3,843 3,664 3,688 3,878

Slack work or business conditions

2,679 2,463 2,755 2,573 2,767 2,576 2,535 2,546 2,648

Could only find part-time work

1,040 815 893 1,067 971 942 867 826 911

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,694 22,062 22,084 20,251 21,085 21,260 21,297 21,226 21,628

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,994 3,498 3,903 3,901 4,063 3,762 3,578 3,623 3,810

Slack work or business conditions

2,649 2,415 2,703 2,558 2,724 2,526 2,487 2,497 2,611

Could only find part-time work

1,040 812 873 1,067 958 940 862 819 892

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,308 21,671 21,640 19,891 20,754 20,912 20,950 20,844 21,211

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

155,732 158,749 158,872 156,081 158,694 158,850 158,593 158,527 159,244

16 to 19 years

5,068 5,502 5,439 5,292 5,754 5,576 5,598 5,740 5,680

16 to 17 years

1,966 2,164 2,251 2,072 2,257 2,100 2,200 2,241 2,371

18 to 19 years

3,102 3,338 3,188 3,223 3,483 3,462 3,387 3,500 3,312

20 years and over

150,664 153,247 153,433 150,789 152,939 153,274 152,994 152,787 153,564

20 to 24 years

13,758 13,769 13,728 13,864 13,668 13,752 13,780 13,759 13,834

25 years and over

136,907 139,478 139,705 136,682 139,231 139,503 139,160 138,845 139,477

25 to 54 years

100,016 101,922 102,069 99,798 102,028 101,954 101,509 101,400 101,848

25 to 34 years

35,464 35,304 35,152 35,374 35,509 35,349 35,296 35,073 35,066

35 to 44 years

33,521 34,919 35,029 33,481 34,689 34,619 34,611 34,777 34,983

45 to 54 years

31,031 31,699 31,888 30,943 31,830 31,986 31,601 31,550 31,799

55 years and over

36,891 37,555 37,636 36,884 37,204 37,550 37,651 37,446 37,630

Men, 16 years and over

82,024 84,455 84,304 82,580 84,081 84,532 84,559 84,557 84,880

16 to 19 years

2,499 2,724 2,714 2,622 2,818 2,716 2,783 2,859 2,847

16 to 17 years

892 991 1,018 972 1,037 962 1,034 1,059 1,109

18 to 19 years

1,608 1,734 1,696 1,658 1,760 1,750 1,752 1,809 1,748

20 years and over

79,525 81,731 81,589 79,958 81,263 81,816 81,776 81,698 82,033

20 to 24 years

6,952 7,049 6,967 7,065 6,912 7,040 7,144 7,071 7,080

25 years and over

72,573 74,682 74,623 72,716 74,252 74,703 74,548 74,451 74,767

25 to 54 years

52,948 54,331 54,325 52,993 54,199 54,325 54,106 54,119 54,370

25 to 34 years

18,816 18,655 18,644 18,799 18,735 18,829 18,701 18,548 18,629

35 to 44 years

17,849 18,813 18,743 17,906 18,647 18,579 18,649 18,761 18,798

45 to 54 years

16,283 16,863 16,938 16,289 16,817 16,917 16,756 16,810 16,943

55 years and over

19,625 20,351 20,298 19,723 20,053 20,378 20,442 20,332 20,396

Women, 16 years and over

73,708 74,294 74,568 73,501 74,613 74,318 74,033 73,970 74,364

16 to 19 years

2,568 2,778 2,725 2,670 2,936 2,861 2,815 2,881 2,833

16 to 17 years

1,074 1,173 1,233 1,101 1,221 1,138 1,167 1,182 1,262

18 to 19 years

1,494 1,605 1,492 1,565 1,723 1,712 1,635 1,691 1,564

20 years and over

71,140 71,516 71,843 70,831 71,676 71,457 71,218 71,088 71,531

20 to 24 years

6,806 6,721 6,761 6,799 6,756 6,712 6,636 6,688 6,755

25 years and over

64,334 64,795 65,082 63,966 64,979 64,801 64,612 64,394 64,711

25 to 54 years

47,068 47,591 47,744 46,805 47,828 47,628 47,403 47,281 47,477

25 to 34 years

16,648 16,649 16,508 16,575 16,773 16,519 16,596 16,525 16,436

35 to 44 years

15,672 16,106 16,286 15,575 16,042 16,040 15,963 16,016 16,185

45 to 54 years

14,748 14,836 14,950 14,654 15,013 15,069 14,845 14,740 14,857

55 years and over

17,266 17,204 17,338 17,161 17,151 17,172 17,209 17,113 17,233

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

44,351 46,014 46,099 44,463 45,488 45,920 45,624 45,988 46,209

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,909 36,617 36,763 35,621 36,778 36,582 36,179 36,322 36,472

Women who maintain families(2)

9,726 9,832 10,150 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,824 132,154 131,812 130,278 132,336 132,575 132,179 132,300 132,299

Part-time workers(4)

25,908 26,595 27,060 25,657 26,250 26,249 26,413 26,115 26,794

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,461 7,782 8,140 7,377 7,747 7,755 7,519 7,676 8,046

Percent of total employed

4.8 4.9 5.1 4.7 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.8 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,213 7,028 6,811 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,908 9,674 9,678 10,060 9,640 9,851 9,953 9,686 9,827

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,329 6,000 5,722 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5

16 to 19 years

652 729 662 11.0 10.4 11.3 11.0 11.3 10.4

16 to 17 years

252 290 217 10.8 9.7 12.2 9.8 11.5 8.4

18 to 19 years

414 447 461 11.4 10.9 11.0 11.9 11.3 12.2

20 years and over

5,677 5,271 5,059 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.2

20 to 24 years

1,058 1,011 1,085 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.8 7.3

25 years and over

4,668 4,250 4,025 3.3 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.8

25 to 54 years

3,571 3,318 3,008 3.5 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.2 2.9

25 to 34 years

1,564 1,507 1,400 4.2 3.8 3.6 4.0 4.1 3.8

35 to 44 years

1,132 945 862 3.3 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.4

45 to 54 years

875 865 746 2.8 2.6 2.1 2.8 2.7 2.3

55 years and over

1,114 947 1,032 2.9 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,354 3,236 2,984 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.4

16 to 19 years

344 409 323 11.6 11.2 11.2 12.1 12.5 10.2

16 to 17 years

116 195 114 10.7 11.5 13.1 11.7 15.6 9.3

18 to 19 years

239 222 223 12.6 11.2 10.3 12.6 10.9 11.3

20 years and over

3,010 2,827 2,661 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1

20 to 24 years

590 588 555 7.7 8.1 7.9 7.2 7.7 7.3

25 years and over

2,452 2,243 2,139 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.8

25 to 54 years

1,897 1,701 1,564 3.5 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.8

25 to 34 years

865 795 763 4.4 3.7 3.6 3.9 4.1 3.9

35 to 44 years

614 459 441 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.3

45 to 54 years

418 447 360 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.8 2.6 2.1

55 years and over

555 542 575 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.7

Women, 16 years and over

2,975 2,764 2,738 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.6

16 to 19 years

308 320 339 10.4 9.7 11.5 9.8 10.0 10.7

16 to 17 years

135 95 103 11.0 8.1 11.3 8.0 7.4 7.6

18 to 19 years

176 225 238 10.1 10.6 11.6 11.1 11.7 13.2

20 years and over

2,667 2,444 2,398 3.6 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.2

20 to 24 years

468 423 530 6.4 5.8 6.0 6.6 5.9 7.3

25 years and over

2,216 2,007 1,886 3.3 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.0 2.8

25 to 54 years

1,675 1,617 1,444 3.5 3.1 2.9 3.3 3.3 3.0

25 to 34 years

699 712 637 4.0 3.8 3.6 4.0 4.1 3.7

35 to 44 years

519 486 421 3.2 2.8 3.1 3.2 2.9 2.5

45 to 54 years

457 419 386 3.0 2.7 1.9 2.7 2.8 2.5

55 years and over

552 400 452 3.1 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

869 921 844 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.8

Married women, spouse present(1)

892 752 764 2.4 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.1

Women who maintain families(2)

577 507 383 5.6 5.1 4.7 5.7 4.9 3.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,216 4,801 4,661 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.4

Part-time workers(4)

1,130 1,200 1,079 4.2 4.1 3.7 3.9 4.4 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,044 2,487 2,583 3,089 2,693 2,530 2,695 2,761 2,629

On temporary layoff

834 608 848 801 796 772 853 806 814

Not on temporary layoff

2,210 1,879 1,735 2,288 1,898 1,758 1,842 1,956 1,815

Permanent job losers

1,622 1,293 1,255 1,705 1,314 1,202 1,267 1,351 1,339

Persons who completed temporary jobs

588 585 480 584 584 555 575 605 476

Job leavers

676 818 768 725 897 904 861 829 825

Reentrants

1,849 1,688 1,613 2,024 1,833 1,834 1,873 1,798 1,767

New entrants

395 530 388 508 451 460 494 558 497

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

51.0 45.0 48.3 48.7 45.8 44.2 45.5 46.4 46.0

On temporary layoff

14.0 11.0 15.8 12.6 13.5 13.5 14.4 13.5 14.2

Not on temporary layoff

37.1 34.0 32.4 36.1 32.3 30.7 31.1 32.9 31.7

Job leavers

11.3 14.8 14.4 11.4 15.3 15.8 14.5 13.9 14.4

Reentrants

31.0 30.6 30.1 31.9 31.2 32.0 31.6 30.2 30.9

New entrants

6.6 9.6 7.3 8.0 7.7 8.0 8.3 9.4 8.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.9 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6

Job leavers

0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,884 2,051 2,128 1,989 2,227 2,158 2,215 2,244 2,233

5 to 14 weeks

1,453 1,562 1,490 1,593 1,797 1,643 1,774 1,694 1,639

15 weeks and over

2,626 1,910 1,733 2,788 2,052 1,990 1,987 2,036 1,895

15 to 26 weeks

722 716 749 799 887 901 817 821 826

27 weeks and over

1,905 1,194 984 1,989 1,165 1,089 1,169 1,215 1,069

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.6 22.0 19.1 28.1 22.3 20.3 20.8 21.4 19.5

Median duration, in weeks

10.8 8.7 7.5 12.3 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.8 8.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

31.6 37.1 39.8 31.2 36.6 37.3 37.1 37.6 38.7

5 to 14 weeks

24.4 28.3 27.8 25.0 29.6 28.4 29.7 28.4 28.4

15 weeks and over

44.0 34.6 32.4 43.8 33.8 34.4 33.2 34.1 32.9

15 to 26 weeks

12.1 13.0 14.0 12.5 14.6 15.6 13.7 13.7 14.3

27 weeks and over

31.9 21.6 18.4 31.2 19.2 18.8 19.6 20.3 18.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

155,732 158,872 5,964 5,352 3.7 3.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

66,366 69,297 1,146 1,198 1.7 1.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

28,264 29,725 526 537 1.8 1.8

Professional and related occupations

38,103 39,572 621 661 1.6 1.6

Service occupations

24,821 25,334 1,462 1,225 5.6 4.6

Sales and office occupations

30,949 30,185 1,137 1,008 3.5 3.2

Sales and related occupations

14,527 14,053 535 488 3.6 3.4

Office and administrative support occupations

16,422 16,133 602 520 3.5 3.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,774 14,295 851 689 5.8 4.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

961 945 118 69 10.9 6.8

Construction and extraction occupations

8,158 8,491 567 510 6.5 5.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,655 4,860 167 110 3.5 2.2

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,821 19,760 954 829 4.6 4.0

Production occupations

8,066 8,152 290 223 3.5 2.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,755 11,608 664 606 5.3 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,964 5,352 3.7 3.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,739 4,117 3.7 3.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

34 12 5.8 1.9

Construction

497 443 5.0 4.4

Manufacturing

435 271 2.8 1.8

Durable goods

282 175 2.8 1.8

Nondurable goods

154 95 2.8 1.8

Wholesale and retail trade

843 688 4.2 3.6

Transportation and utilities

264 349 3.3 4.0

Information

115 67 4.9 2.4

Financial activities

241 271 2.4 2.6

Professional and business services

707 668 3.8 3.5

Education and health services

505 483 2.1 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

861 694 6.7 5.4

Other services

237 170 3.7 2.7

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

155 75 9.8 5.0

Government workers

325 381 1.5 1.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

349 391 3.4 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2021
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Aug.
2022
Sept.
2022
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.6 1.2 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.7 3.4 3.3 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.0 3.6 3.5 4.2 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.7 4.2 4.0 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.2

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.2 6.4 6.4 7.3 7.0 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.5

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2022

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,440 100,621 41,493 41,799 58,947 58,821

Persons who currently want a job

5,524 4,948 2,759 2,349 2,765 2,600

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,671 1,260 924 673 747 587

Discouraged workers(2)

468 421 279 217 189 204

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,203 839 645 456 558 384

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,461 8,140 3,741 4,075 3,720 4,065

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.1 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,062 4,594 2,235 2,454 1,827 2,140

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,825 1,940 622 759 1,203 1,182

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

406 388 255 226 150 163

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,094 1,133 588 589 507 544

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)
Change from:
Nov.2022 - Dec.2022(p)

Total nonfarm

150,352 154,401 155,015 154,771 149,240 153,264 153,520 153,743 223

Total private

127,922 131,678 132,115 132,006 127,099 130,880 131,082 131,302 220

Goods-producing

20,617 21,464 21,399 21,281 20,691 21,288 21,315 21,355 40

Mining and logging

589 641 641 643 590 636 640 644 4

Logging

44.7 45.4 45.7 45.7 44.6 44.6 45.3 45.5 0.2

Mining

544.5 595.9 595.3 597.2 545.3 591.5 594.2 598.3 4.1

Oil and gas extraction

125.5 135.3 135.4 136.2 124.6 135.7 136.0 136.1 0.1

Mining, except oil and gas

174.1 183.2 182.7 178.4 176.3 181.0 181.7 180.8 -0.9

Coal mining

36.4 38.2 38.0 38.3 36.5 38.2 38.2 38.5 0.3

Metal ore mining

42.2 43.6 43.6 43.7 42.3 43.8 43.8 43.8 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

95.5 101.4 101.1 96.4 97.6 99.1 99.7 98.5 -1.2

Support activities for mining

244.9 277.4 277.2 282.6 244.4 274.8 276.5 281.4 4.9

Construction

7,449 7,897 7,822 7,691 7,546 7,734 7,749 7,777 28

Construction of buildings

1,665.4 1,745.7 1,737.1 1,724.6 1,678.9 1,721.9 1,727.6 1,736.5 8.9

Residential building

874.8 919.1 909.7 902.8 880.1 906.3 905.5 908.6 3.1

Nonresidential building

790.6 826.6 827.4 821.8 798.8 815.6 822.1 827.9 5.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,018.1 1,124.9 1,101.4 1,041.0 1,060.7 1,073.7 1,079.0 1,080.9 1.9

Specialty trade contractors

4,765.8 5,026.2 4,983.2 4,925.4 4,806.8 4,938.4 4,942.6 4,959.2 16.6

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,191.4 2,308.9 2,294.9 2,267.3 2,217.2 2,277.5 2,280.6 2,287.0 6.4

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,574.4 2,717.3 2,688.3 2,658.1 2,589.6 2,660.9 2,662.0 2,672.2 10.2

Manufacturing

12,579 12,926 12,936 12,947 12,555 12,918 12,926 12,934 8

Durable goods

7,819 8,033 8,048 8,079 7,816 8,041 8,049 8,073 24

Wood products

418.5 428.5 429.8 429.4 418.7 428.7 430.0 430.7 0.7

Nonmetallic mineral products

402.7 424.5 421.2 419.2 408.4 419.3 418.5 423.0 4.5

Primary metals

358.1 365.8 366.1 368.2 356.7 367.0 366.1 366.6 0.5

Fabricated metal products

1,410.6 1,451.2 1,449.7 1,454.6 1,412.0 1,452.5 1,453.0 1,455.9 2.9

Machinery

1,068.2 1,097.2 1,103.7 1,109.1 1,068.5 1,102.0 1,106.2 1,109.5 3.3

Computer and electronic products

1,067.7 1,092.4 1,095.2 1,097.6 1,065.9 1,093.1 1,095.4 1,096.1 0.7

Computer and peripheral equipment

159.3 166.7 166.9 167.8 159.2 166.3 166.6 167.6 1.0

Communications equipment

83.9 83.7 83.6 83.2 84.8 84.1 83.9 84.0 0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

371.3 387.6 389.1 389.3 371.0 388.4 389.5 389.6 0.1

Electronic instruments

422.1 422.3 423.0 424.8 420.4 422.4 423.2 422.9 -0.3

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

31.1 32.1 32.6 32.5 30.5 31.8 32.2 32.0 -0.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

401.1 409.8 410.1 408.5 402.4 410.8 410.3 409.9 -0.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,678.3 1,741.5 1,751.1 1,772.2 1,672.7 1,743.8 1,748.3 1,763.5 15.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

994.8 1,029.0 1,035.9 1,051.4 984.6 1,029.1 1,031.4 1,038.8 7.4

Furniture and related products

385.3 379.9 378.1 376.3 383.6 380.7 378.8 375.6 -3.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

628.4 642.1 643.4 643.8 626.6 642.6 642.6 642.2 -0.4

Nondurable goods

4,760 4,893 4,888 4,868 4,739 4,877 4,877 4,861 -16

Food manufacturing

1,669.7 1,717.8 1,720.8 1,726.5 1,658.2 1,709.8 1,714.0 1,717.3 3.3

Textile mills

100.4 98.6 97.8 96.9 100.3 98.4 97.7 96.9 -0.8

Textile product mills

106.2 102.5 102.7 102.5 105.5 102.6 102.6 102.0 -0.6

Apparel

94.8 94.9 96.4 94.2 94.1 94.8 96.1 93.8 -2.3

Paper and paper products

351.7 358.8 358.0 355.5 351.4 360.1 358.3 356.6 -1.7

Printing and related support activities

377.9 376.8 378.0 377.8 373.5 375.2 374.6 373.8 -0.8

Petroleum and coal products

104.6 108.1 107.9 102.0 105.3 105.9 107.0 103.7 -3.3

Chemicals

880.6 908.4 913.1 908.5 878.0 911.1 914.7 909.0 -5.7

Plastics and rubber products

739.7 755.8 751.3 753.9 733.1 754.6 750.9 749.8 -1.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

333.9 371.5 362.1 349.9 339.7 364.3 361.0 358.1 -2.9

Private service-providing

107,305 110,214 110,716 110,725 106,408 109,592 109,767 109,947 180

Trade, transportation, and utilities

29,043 28,825 29,241 29,512 28,163 28,760 28,719 28,746 27

Wholesale trade

5,761.0 5,924.7 5,918.7 5,929.8 5,749.7 5,914.6 5,913.3 5,925.4 12.1

Durable goods

3,170.8 3,258.7 3,260.1 3,267.9 3,166.6 3,259.5 3,263.1 3,268.4 5.3

Nondurable goods

2,106.3 2,158.4 2,150.1 2,150.9 2,103.9 2,149.4 2,144.1 2,149.7 5.6

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

483.9 507.6 508.5 511.0 479.2 505.7 506.1 507.3 1.2

Retail trade

16,054.9 15,813.3 16,078.8 16,176.8 15,595.1 15,797.3 15,780.5 15,789.5 9.0

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,943.6 1,979.2 1,988.0 1,985.2 1,950.9 1,978.3 1,989.3 1,992.3 3.0

Automobile dealers

1,224.7 1,235.3 1,243.3 1,241.5 1,226.4 1,237.4 1,244.0 1,244.0 0.0

Other motor vehicle dealers

163.9 173.7 170.3 168.8 170.6 173.2 174.3 175.2 0.9

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

555.0 570.2 574.4 574.9 553.9 567.8 571.1 573.1 2.0

Furniture and home furnishings stores

460.4 429.6 437.3 440.8 445.8 429.3 427.1 426.5 -0.6

Electronics and appliance stores

454.8 419.8 419.5 416.9 432.2 410.9 404.1 401.2 -2.9

Building material and garden supply stores

1,353.3 1,375.5 1,377.9 1,361.9 1,392.0 1,396.8 1,406.0 1,402.4 -3.6

Food and beverage stores

3,159.6 3,192.7 3,223.9 3,239.4 3,120.9 3,197.8 3,200.7 3,206.4 5.7

Health and personal care stores

1,084.2 1,079.4 1,097.0 1,103.8 1,064.3 1,075.5 1,079.2 1,082.7 3.5

Gasoline stations

952.4 982.3 978.8 978.1 952.2 977.7 977.2 979.2 2.0

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,161.3 1,092.1 1,137.5 1,172.0 1,068.1 1,088.9 1,084.3 1,081.9 -2.4

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

559.4 534.5 571.0 579.6 527.7 539.8 543.5 547.2 3.7

General merchandise stores

3,409.5 3,200.4 3,313.7 3,355.0 3,158.4 3,189.2 3,162.4 3,155.5 -6.9

Department stores

1,078.7 955.1 1,015.9 1,044.5 952.6 949.6 933.1 932.6 -0.5

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,330.8 2,245.3 2,297.8 2,310.5 2,205.8 2,239.6 2,229.3 2,222.9 -6.4

Miscellaneous store retailers

834.1 865.1 864.5 869.9 831.2 864.4 862.4 869.2 6.8

Nonstore retailers

682.3 662.7 669.7 674.2 651.4 648.7 644.3 645.0 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

6,689.0 6,543.7 6,700.8 6,861.0 6,279.7 6,503.9 6,482.2 6,486.9 4.7

Air transportation

514.1 570.7 572.0 573.0 517.2 570.5 573.7 576.9 3.2

Rail transportation

145.7 147.8 147.8 147.8 146.1 147.6 147.8 147.7 -0.1

Water transportation

56.4 61.6 59.4 59.9 57.2 61.1 60.6 61.0 0.4

Truck transportation

1,545.2 1,615.5 1,612.1 1,604.1 1,538.9 1,598.8 1,599.4 1,601.5 2.1

Transit and ground passenger transportation

404.4 428.9 428.3 434.4 387.4 409.5 411.5 416.2 4.7

Pipeline transportation

51.1 47.2 47.4 47.1 51.2 47.3 47.3 47.2 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

22.1 32.3 26.2 24.8 25.7 30.6 29.2 29.1 -0.1

Support activities for transportation

763.3 795.3 798.7 801.0 754.6 789.5 789.3 791.3 2.0

Couriers and messengers

1,414.9 1,077.2 1,236.1 1,404.7 1,087.5 1,108.2 1,095.2 1,090.8 -4.4

Warehousing and storage

1,771.8 1,767.2 1,772.8 1,764.2 1,713.9 1,740.8 1,728.2 1,725.2 -3.0

Utilities

538.0 543.5 542.7 544.8 538.1 543.7 542.8 544.4 1.6

Information

2,925 3,053 3,081 3,066 2,913 3,044 3,066 3,061 -5

Publishing industries, except Internet

806.8 838.4 846.9 844.4 803.0 841.0 846.4 843.6 -2.8

Motion picture and sound recording industries

429.3 446.5 464.5 441.5 427.1 437.3 453.3 440.3 -13.0

Broadcasting, except Internet

234.2 234.9 236.8 235.7 233.8 234.0 234.6 235.1 0.5

Telecommunications

661.2 661.4 660.2 659.9 655.3 661.3 659.5 657.0 -2.5

Data processing, hosting and related services

405.1 432.2 434.6 443.3 402.6 430.7 434.3 439.9 5.6

Other information services

388.5 439.6 438.0 441.5 390.9 440.1 438.3 444.9 6.6

Financial activities

8,893 9,009 9,012 9,029 8,863 8,981 8,992 8,997 5

Finance and insurance

6,572.1 6,624.2 6,630.6 6,636.5 6,547.9 6,615.8 6,615.9 6,613.0 -2.9

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.8 21.2 21.3 21.3 20.7 21.1 21.3 21.2 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,710.5 2,699.2 2,694.4 2,689.8 2,706.4 2,700.8 2,694.8 2,687.3 -7.5

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,730.7 1,748.6 1,756.4 1,758.2 1,732.0 1,753.2 1,758.2 1,758.3 0.1

Commercial banking

1,342.1 1,344.8 1,349.8 1,351.5 1,344.3 1,348.8 1,350.9 1,351.2 0.3

Nondepository credit intermediation

643.7 622.6 612.1 608.0 639.5 619.8 611.0 605.4 -5.6

Activities related to credit intermediation

336.1 328.0 325.9 323.6 334.9 327.8 325.6 323.6 -2.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

1,016.9 1,054.5 1,060.6 1,061.1 1,011.0 1,049.8 1,054.2 1,055.1 0.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,823.9 2,849.3 2,854.3 2,864.3 2,809.8 2,844.1 2,845.6 2,849.4 3.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,320.9 2,384.6 2,381.8 2,392.8 2,314.8 2,365.0 2,376.1 2,383.8 7.7

Real estate

1,793.5 1,835.6 1,831.8 1,838.7 1,783.2 1,817.9 1,821.7 1,825.7 4.0

Rental and leasing services

506.7 528.3 529.3 533.3 511.2 526.5 533.9 537.6 3.7

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

20.7 20.7 20.7 20.8 20.4 20.6 20.5 20.5 0.0

Professional and business services

21,964 22,700 22,700 22,541 21,821 22,440 22,432 22,426 -6

Professional and technical services

10,214.7 10,595.9 10,635.4 10,642.8 10,173.4 10,571.1 10,596.2 10,612.8 16.6

Legal services

1,182.7 1,187.0 1,188.7 1,190.1 1,173.8 1,182.1 1,182.8 1,182.4 -0.4

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,075.1 1,085.3 1,110.5 1,127.8 1,069.7 1,124.5 1,128.9 1,127.8 -1.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,589.6 1,672.8 1,672.5 1,667.4 1,590.4 1,661.1 1,666.3 1,668.7 2.4

Specialized design services

149.7 154.5 156.5 158.5 147.7 153.3 154.5 156.2 1.7

Computer systems design and related services

2,368.3 2,459.8 2,467.3 2,457.7 2,368.5 2,448.8 2,454.6 2,461.8 7.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,721.0 1,802.6 1,808.0 1,816.2 1,702.0 1,780.1 1,788.6 1,796.9 8.3

Scientific research and development services

851.7 894.0 893.9 894.7 850.2 893.3 893.7 894.3 0.6

Advertising and related services

463.5 491.9 484.3 480.8 460.8 489.4 484.4 480.2 -4.2

Other professional and technical services

813.1 848.0 853.7 849.6 810.2 838.5 842.5 844.5 2.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,356.3 2,393.8 2,397.0 2,409.3 2,350.5 2,395.1 2,396.1 2,402.9 6.8

Administrative and waste services

9,392.5 9,710.1 9,667.8 9,488.5 9,297.1 9,473.9 9,439.3 9,410.0 -29.3

Administrative and support services

8,924.8 9,224.4 9,180.4 9,004.4 8,834.4 8,994.1 8,958.1 8,929.5 -28.6

Office administrative services

562.2 609.2 609.9 612.3 563.5 606.9 610.0 614.7 4.7

Facilities support services

154.7 157.6 158.3 157.9 154.4 156.7 157.4 157.6 0.2

Employment services(1)

3,917.3 3,987.1 3,972.7 3,892.7 3,776.7 3,843.0 3,806.8 3,767.1 -39.7

Temporary help services

3,207.1 3,244.9 3,229.0 3,149.1 3,077.3 3,110.2 3,079.9 3,044.9 -35.0

Business support services

825.2 767.4 769.4 767.2 800.0 758.7 748.2 745.6 -2.6

Travel arrangement and reservation services

143.5 157.9 157.2 157.7 146.0 156.4 157.6 159.7 2.1

Investigation and security services

918.1 942.4 949.0 948.9 910.3 937.7 940.1 940.7 0.6

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,101.1 2,273.5 2,238.5 2,142.1 2,176.3 2,210.2 2,212.5 2,214.5 2.0

Other support services

302.7 329.3 325.4 325.6 307.1 324.5 325.5 329.4 3.9

Waste management and remediation services

467.7 485.7 487.4 484.1 462.7 479.8 481.2 480.5 -0.7

Education and health services

24,090 24,949 25,102 25,052 23,939 24,721 24,811 24,889 78

Educational services

3,788.5 4,004.3 4,049.1 3,939.4 3,709.2 3,845.5 3,861.8 3,866.3 4.5

Health care and social assistance

20,301.9 20,945.0 21,052.6 21,112.1 20,230.0 20,875.4 20,948.7 21,023.1 74.4

Health care(3)

16,167.6 16,634.4 16,707.5 16,768.2 16,103.8 16,584.9 16,633.0 16,687.7 54.7

Ambulatory health care services

8,043.6 8,316.1 8,352.4 8,382.5 8,006.8 8,286.6 8,308.3 8,338.2 29.9

Offices of physicians

2,797.0 2,879.2 2,887.6 2,907.4 2,780.5 2,867.6 2,873.0 2,885.3 12.3

Offices of dentists

1,016.0 1,054.6 1,060.7 1,057.9 1,017.3 1,051.3 1,054.2 1,057.6 3.4

Offices of other health practitioners

1,057.3 1,112.7 1,112.4 1,115.7 1,052.6 1,108.1 1,108.3 1,111.1 2.8

Outpatient care centers

1,012.7 1,036.5 1,043.1 1,044.6 1,006.3 1,035.6 1,039.2 1,039.3 0.1

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

311.7 310.9 310.8 311.2 309.1 310.4 311.0 310.5 -0.5

Home health care services

1,534.7 1,596.1 1,607.4 1,613.2 1,527.8 1,587.0 1,593.0 1,603.8 10.8

Other ambulatory health care services

314.2 326.1 330.4 332.5 313.3 326.6 329.7 330.6 0.9

Hospitals

5,142.7 5,255.9 5,281.2 5,296.6 5,126.4 5,247.5 5,263.6 5,279.3 15.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

2,981.3 3,062.4 3,073.9 3,089.1 2,970.6 3,050.8 3,061.1 3,070.2 9.1

Nursing care facilities

1,352.4 1,376.6 1,377.7 1,385.6 1,346.2 1,366.9 1,369.1 1,374.8 5.7

Residential mental health facilities

599.8 618.8 620.7 625.4 598.2 618.4 619.6 622.6 3.0

Community care facilities for the elderly

875.0 909.1 916.0 918.8 871.1 907.5 913.5 913.2 -0.3

Other residential care facilities

154.1 157.9 159.5 159.3 155.0 158.0 158.9 159.7 0.8

Social assistance

4,134.3 4,310.6 4,345.1 4,343.9 4,126.2 4,290.5 4,315.7 4,335.4 19.7

Individual and family services

2,742.7 2,854.1 2,880.9 2,879.5 2,738.1 2,844.5 2,863.9 2,874.0 10.1

Emergency and other relief services

198.2 205.4 206.8 209.6 196.2 206.4 205.8 207.3 1.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

274.0 277.3 277.8 279.0 274.7 275.7 277.4 279.4 2.0

Child day care services

919.4 973.8 979.6 975.8 917.2 964.0 968.5 974.6 6.1

Leisure and hospitality

14,804 15,924 15,812 15,766 15,105 15,905 15,984 16,051 67

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,049.6 2,313.3 2,225.7 2,225.3 2,192.3 2,334.2 2,336.7 2,367.7 31.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

448.7 506.8 474.1 465.9 452.2 487.5 475.5 482.6 7.1

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

146.5 162.9 164.3 161.9 148.2 162.0 164.8 164.2 -0.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,454.4 1,643.6 1,587.3 1,597.5 1,591.9 1,684.7 1,696.4 1,720.9 24.5

Accommodation and food services

12,754.7 13,610.8 13,586.4 13,540.5 12,912.9 13,570.3 13,647.2 13,683.5 36.3

Accommodation

1,567.7 1,742.8 1,713.8 1,712.8 1,624.7 1,745.8 1,763.3 1,773.3 10.0

Food services and drinking places

11,187.0 11,868.0 11,872.6 11,827.7 11,288.2 11,824.5 11,883.9 11,910.2 26.3

Other services

5,586 5,754 5,768 5,759 5,604 5,741 5,763 5,777 14

Repair and maintenance

1,393.6 1,449.5 1,450.2 1,439.9 1,401.0 1,443.0 1,445.5 1,447.0 1.5

Personal and laundry services

1,420.4 1,484.1 1,490.2 1,498.2 1,416.8 1,474.4 1,485.0 1,494.2 9.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,772.3 2,820.6 2,827.9 2,821.0 2,786.0 2,823.2 2,832.4 2,835.4 3.0

Government

22,430 22,723 22,900 22,765 22,141 22,384 22,438 22,441 3

Federal

2,894 2,878 2,886 2,892 2,876 2,872 2,874 2,875 1

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,268.8 2,279.4 2,282.4 2,280.6 2,269.6 2,272.4 2,277.7 2,280.1 2.4

U.S. Postal Service

625.6 598.1 603.2 611.7 606.1 599.7 595.9 594.6 -1.3

State government

5,325 5,428 5,464 5,378 5,237 5,274 5,288 5,269 -19

State government education

2,692.8 2,784.2 2,821.4 2,729.1 2,595.7 2,627.2 2,637.9 2,614.1 -23.8

State government, excluding education

2,632.3 2,644.0 2,642.2 2,649.0 2,641.5 2,646.9 2,650.0 2,655.1 5.1

Local government

14,211 14,417 14,550 14,495 14,028 14,238 14,276 14,297 21

Local government education

7,934.1 7,994.5 8,094.6 8,082.3 7,677.0 7,781.0 7,804.2 7,816.7 12.5

Local government, excluding education

6,276.8 6,422.6 6,455.2 6,413.1 6,350.8 6,456.8 6,471.3 6,480.6 9.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.8 34.5 34.4 34.3

Goods-producing

40.1 40.0 39.7 39.7

Mining and logging

44.9 46.3 46.4 46.3

Construction

39.2 38.9 38.4 38.5

Manufacturing

40.4 40.3 40.2 40.1

Durable goods

40.6 40.7 40.5 40.6

Nondurable goods

40.0 39.7 39.6 39.4

Private service-providing

33.7 33.4 33.4 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.1 34.0 33.9

Wholesale trade

39.2 38.8 38.9 38.8

Retail trade

31.3 30.2 30.1 30.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.1 38.5 38.2 38.2

Utilities

42.5 42.8 42.1 42.3

Information

36.9 36.6 36.7 36.4

Financial activities

37.5 37.4 37.4 37.2

Professional and business services

36.7 36.7 36.6 36.6

Education and health services

33.4 33.3 33.3 33.2

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 25.5 25.5 25.3

Other services

32.3 32.2 32.1 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.2 3.1 2.9

Durable goods

3.2 3.3 3.2 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.0 2.9 2.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)

Total private

$31.38 $32.60 $32.73 $32.82 $1,092.02 $1,124.70 $1,125.91 $1,125.73

Goods-producing

31.69 32.88 32.98 33.10 1,270.77 1,315.20 1,309.31 1,314.07

Mining and logging

35.66 36.61 36.86 37.31 1,601.13 1,695.04 1,710.30 1,727.45

Construction

33.62 35.28 35.42 35.57 1,317.90 1,372.39 1,360.13 1,369.45

Manufacturing

30.35 31.29 31.36 31.44 1,226.14 1,260.99 1,260.67 1,260.74

Durable goods

31.88 32.88 32.93 32.90 1,294.33 1,338.22 1,333.67 1,335.74

Nondurable goods

27.79 28.60 28.71 28.93 1,111.60 1,135.42 1,136.92 1,139.84

Private service-providing

31.31 32.54 32.67 32.76 1,055.15 1,086.84 1,091.18 1,090.91

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27.00 28.06 28.17 28.21 934.20 956.85 957.78 956.32

Wholesale trade

34.42 35.67 35.71 35.93 1,349.26 1,384.00 1,389.12 1,394.08

Retail trade

22.50 23.25 23.44 23.42 704.25 702.15 705.54 702.60

Transportation and warehousing

27.36 28.39 28.42 28.37 1,042.42 1,093.02 1,085.64 1,083.73

Utilities

45.96 48.21 48.02 48.03 1,953.30 2,063.39 2,021.64 2,031.67

Information

44.96 47.52 47.62 47.80 1,659.02 1,739.23 1,747.65 1,739.92

Financial activities

40.65 42.06 42.12 42.45 1,524.38 1,573.04 1,575.29 1,579.14

Professional and business services

37.68 39.22 39.43 39.52 1,382.86 1,439.37 1,443.14 1,446.43

Education and health services

31.01 32.06 32.21 32.27 1,035.73 1,067.60 1,072.59 1,071.36

Leisure and hospitality

19.40 20.41 20.50 20.64 506.34 520.46 522.75 522.19

Other services

28.42 28.94 29.02 28.96 917.97 931.87 931.54 935.41

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2022 - Dec.
2022(p)
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2022 - Dec.
2022(p)

Total private

111.0 113.4 113.2 113.1 -0.1 166.6 176.7 177.1 177.4 0.2

Goods-producing

94.5 97.0 96.4 96.6 0.2 135.4 144.2 143.7 144.5 0.6

Mining and logging

83.2 92.5 93.3 93.7 0.4 119.2 136.0 138.1 140.3 1.6

Construction

102.0 103.7 102.6 103.2 0.6 149.0 159.0 157.9 159.5 1.0

Manufacturing

91.3 93.7 93.5 93.3 -0.2 128.8 136.3 136.3 136.4 0.1

Durable goods

89.3 92.1 91.8 92.3 0.5 126.5 134.5 134.2 134.8 0.4

Nondurable goods

94.6 96.6 96.4 95.6 -0.8 133.4 140.2 140.4 140.3 -0.1

Private service-providing

115.4 117.8 118.0 117.9 -0.1 175.7 186.4 187.4 187.7 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.3 107.0 106.5 106.3 -0.2 154.8 161.9 161.9 161.8 -0.1

Wholesale trade

99.4 101.2 101.5 101.4 -0.1 143.1 151.0 151.6 152.4 0.5

Retail trade

99.1 96.9 96.5 96.2 -0.3 147.4 148.9 149.4 148.9 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

137.5 143.9 142.3 142.4 0.1 191.3 207.8 205.7 205.5 -0.1

Utilities

98.9 100.7 98.9 99.6 0.7 150.2 160.4 156.9 158.1 0.8

Information

98.2 101.7 102.8 101.8 -1.0 157.1 172.2 174.2 173.2 -0.6

Financial activities

108.9 110.1 110.2 109.7 -0.5 172.7 180.6 181.0 181.6 0.3

Professional and business services

125.6 129.1 128.7 128.7 0.0 191.6 205.1 205.5 205.9 0.2

Education and health services

130.6 134.4 134.9 134.9 0.0 194.8 207.3 209.0 209.5 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

112.5 115.7 116.3 115.9 -0.3 176.1 190.6 192.3 192.9 0.3

Other services

104.4 106.6 106.7 107.6 0.8 162.6 169.1 169.6 170.8 0.7

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)
Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)

Total nonfarm

74,233 76,440 76,617 76,734 49.7 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

61,405 63,413 63,557 63,640 48.3 48.5 48.5 48.5

Goods-producing

4,719 4,922 4,946 4,949 22.8 23.1 23.2 23.2

Mining and logging

77 84 85 86 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

Construction

1,045 1,086 1,096 1,100 13.8 14.0 14.1 14.1

Manufacturing

3,597 3,752 3,765 3,763 28.6 29.0 29.1 29.1

Durable goods

1,907 2,005 2,013 2,018 24.4 24.9 25.0 25.0

Nondurable goods

1,690 1,747 1,752 1,745 35.7 35.8 35.9 35.9

Private service-providing

56,686 58,491 58,611 58,691 53.3 53.4 53.4 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,112 11,421 11,382 11,388 39.5 39.7 39.6 39.6

Wholesale trade

1,733.9 1,803.9 1,795.7 1,806.2 30.2 30.5 30.4 30.5

Retail trade

7,590.3 7,721.8 7,694.2 7,680.1 48.7 48.9 48.8 48.6

Transportation and warehousing

1,652.9 1,756.1 1,753.6 1,761.9 26.3 27.0 27.1 27.2

Utilities

135.1 139.3 138.6 139.7 25.1 25.6 25.5 25.7

Information

1,153 1,235 1,239 1,244 39.6 40.6 40.4 40.6

Financial activities

4,951 5,005 5,008 5,012 55.9 55.7 55.7 55.7

Professional and business services

10,101 10,313 10,336 10,319 46.3 46.0 46.1 46.0

Education and health services

18,415 19,059 19,116 19,167 76.9 77.1 77.0 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

7,980 8,406 8,462 8,484 52.8 52.9 52.9 52.9

Other services

2,974 3,052 3,068 3,077 53.1 53.2 53.2 53.3

Government

12,828 13,027 13,060 13,094 57.9 58.2 58.2 58.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2021
Oct.
2022
Nov.
2022(p)
Dec.
2022(p)

Total private

103,605 106,682 106,828 106,908

Goods-producing

14,803 15,286 15,295 15,325

Mining and logging

444 476 477 485

Construction

5,588 5,723 5,731 5,744

Manufacturing

8,771 9,087 9,087 9,096

Durable goods

5,386 5,583 5,590 5,603

Nondurable goods

3,385 3,504 3,497 3,493

Private service-providing

88,802 91,396 91,533 91,583

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,811 24,263 24,212 24,235

Wholesale trade

4,575.9 4,702.9 4,692.6 4,709.8

Retail trade

13,285.9 13,450.7 13,408.7 13,412.2

Transportation and warehousing

5,520.6 5,676.3 5,679.6 5,682.3

Utilities

428.9