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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-22-0015
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, January 7, 2022

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			  THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 199,000 in December, and the unemployment rate
declined to 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment
continued to trend up in leisure and hospitality, in professional and business services,
in manufacturing, in construction, and in transportation and warehousing.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                 Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data                 |
|											|
| Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal 	|
| adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally 	|
| adjusted estimates back to January 2017 were subject to revision. The unemployment 	|
| rates for January 2021 through November 2021 (as originally published and as revised) |
| appear in table A at the end of this news release, along with additional information	|
| about the revisions.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate declined by 0.3 percentage point to 3.9 percent in December, and the
number of unemployed persons decreased by 483,000 to 6.3 million. Over the year, these 
measures are down by 2.8 percentage points and 4.5 million, respectively. In February 2020,
prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the unemployment rate was 3.5 percent, and 
unemployed persons numbered 5.7 million. (See table A-1. See the box note at the end of 
this news release for more information about how the household survey and its measures were
affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.6 percent), adult
women (3.6 percent), and Whites (3.2 percent) declined in December. The jobless rates for 
teenagers (10.9 percent), Blacks (7.1 percent), Asians (3.8 percent), and Hispanics (4.9 
percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers, at 1.7 million in December, 
declined by 202,000 over the month and is down by 1.8 million over the year. The number of
persons on temporary layoff was little changed at 812,000 in December but is down by 2.3
million over the year. The number of permanent job losers in December is 408,000 higher 
than in February 2020, while the number on temporary layoff has essentially returned to 
its February 2020 level. (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) declined by 
185,000 to 2.0 million in December. This measure is down from 4.0 million a year earlier 
but is 887,000 higher than in February 2020. The long-term unemployed accounted for 31.7 
percent of the total unemployed in December. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was unchanged at 61.9 percent in December but remains 
1.5 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The employment-population ratio 
increased by 0.2 percentage point to 59.5 percent in December but is 1.7 percentage points
below its February 2020 level. Over the year, these measures have increased by 0.4 
percentage point and 2.1 percentage points, respectively. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 3.9 million in December,
decreased by 337,000 over the month. The over-the-year decline of 2.2 million brings this
measure to 461,000 below its February 2020 level. These individuals, who would have 
preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been 
reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was little changed at
5.7 million in December. This measure decreased by 1.6 million over the year but is 717,000
higher than in February 2020. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they
were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were 
unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force was essentially unchanged at 1.6 million in December. These 
individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the 
prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number
of discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were
available for them, was also essentially unchanged over the month, at 463,000. (See Summary
table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In December, the share of employed persons who teleworked because of the coronavirus 
pandemic was 11.1 percent, little different from November. These data refer to employed 
persons who teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey specifically because of the pandemic.

In December, 3.1 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all 
or worked fewer hours at some point in the 4 weeks preceding the survey due to the 
pandemic. This measure was down from the level of 3.6 million in November. Among those who
reported in December that they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or
lost business, 15.9 percent received at least some pay from their employer for the hours
not worked, little changed from the prior month.

Among those not in the labor force in December, 1.1 million persons were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic, little changed from November. (To be counted as 
unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively looking for work or on 
temporary layoff.)

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in
May 2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 199,000 in December. Job growth averaged 537,000
per month in 2021. Nonfarm employment has increased by 18.8 million since April 2020 but
is down by 3.6 million, or 2.3 percent, from its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. In
December, employment continued to trend up in leisure and hospitality, in professional 
and business services, in manufacturing, in construction, and in transportation and 
warehousing. (See table B-1. See the box note at the end of this news release for more 
information about how the establishment survey and its measures were affected by the 
coronavirus pandemic.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to trend up in December (+53,000). Leisure
and hospitality has added 2.6 million jobs in 2021, but employment in the industry is down
by 1.2 million, or 7.2 percent, since February 2020. Employment in food services and
drinking places rose by 43,000 in December but is down by 653,000 since February 2020.

Employment in professional and business services continued its upward trend in December 
(+43,000). Over the month, job gains occurred in computer systems design and related 
services (+10,000), in architectural and engineering services (+9,000), and in scientific 
research and development services (+6,000). Employment in professional and business 
services overall is slightly below (-35,000) its level in February 2020. 

Manufacturing added 26,000 jobs in December, primarily in durable goods industries. A job
gain in machinery (+8,000) reflected the return of workers from a strike. Manufacturing 
employment is down by 219,000 since February 2020. 

Construction employment rose by 22,000 in December, following monthly gains averaging 
38,000 over the prior 3 months. In December, job gains occurred in nonresidential 
specialty trade contractors (+13,000) and in heavy and civil engineering construction 
(+10,000). Construction employment is 88,000 below its February 2020 level.

Employment in transportation and warehousing increased by 19,000 in December. Job gains 
occurred in support activities for transportation (+7,000), in air transportation (+6,000),
and in warehousing and storage (+5,000). Employment in couriers and messengers was 
essentially unchanged. Since February 2020, employment in transportation and warehousing is
up by 218,000, reflecting job growth in couriers and messengers (+202,000) and in 
warehousing and storage (+181,000).

Employment in wholesale trade increased by 14,000 in December but is 129,000 lower than in
February 2020.

Mining employment rose by 7,000 in December. Employment in the industry is down by 81,000
from a peak in January 2019. 

In December, employment showed little or no change in other major industries, including 
retail trade, information, financial activities, health care, other services, and 
government. 

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
increased by 19 cents to $31.31. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have 
increased by 4.7 percent. In December, average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 18 cents to $26.61. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.7
hours in December. In manufacturing, the average workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.3
hours, and overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek for 
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1 hour
to 34.2 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised up by 102,000, 
from +546,000 to +648,000, and the change for November was revised up by 39,000, from 
+210,000 to +249,000. With these revisions, employment in October and November combined
is 141,000 higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional 
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published 
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) 

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, February 4,
2022, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|               Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on December 2021 Household                |
|		             and Establishment Survey Data             			|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been 	|
| classified in the household survey as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead 	|
| misclassified as employed but not at work. Since March 2020, BLS has published an 	|
| upper-bound estimate of what the unemployment rate might have been had misclassified  |
| workers been included among the unemployed. The degree of misclassification was 	|
| highest in the early months of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent |
| months. In April 2020, this exercise suggested the unemployment rate would have been  |
| 4.8 percentage points higher than reported. Repeating this exercise, the unemployment |
| rates for October 2021 through December 2021 would have been 0.1 percentage point 	|
| higher than reported. For details on how to perform this calculation, see 		|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-	|
| situation-news-release.htm#ques12.  							|
|											|
| For each month from March 2020 to December 2021, BLS has published a summary of the 	|
| impact of the pandemic on The Employment Situation news release and data. The impact 	|
| summary for December is available at 							|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-december-2021.htm. Beginning 	|
| with publication of January 2022 data in February 2022, this month-specific impact 	|
| summary will be discontinued. However, information related to the impact of the 	|
| pandemic will continue to be available at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-	|
| pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                       Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data                       |
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2022 on February 	|
| 4, 2022, new population controls will be used in the household survey estimation 	|
| process. These new controls will reflect a "blended base," which is 2010 Census-based |
| and controlled to elements from the 2020 Census and other sources. In accordance with |
| usual practice, historical data will not be revised to incorporate the new controls; 	|
| consequently, household survey data for January 2022 will not be directly comparable  |
| with data for December 2021 or earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the 	|
| new controls on the major labor force series will be included in the January 2022 	|
| news release. 									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                    Upcoming Revisions to Establishment Survey Data                    |
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2022 on February 	|
| 4, 2022, the establishment survey will revise nonfarm payroll employment, hours, and 	|
| earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark process and updated seasonal adjustment |
| factors. Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with April 2020 and seasonally 	|
| adjusted data beginning with January 2017 are subject to revision. Consistent with 	|
| standard practice, additional historical data may be revised as a result of the 	|
| benchmark process.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


                  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data                 


At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment factors 
for the national labor force series derived from the household survey. As a result of 
this process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2017 through November 2021 were 
subject to revision. (Not seasonally adjusted data were not subject to revision.) 

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2021 through November 2021, as first 
published and as revised. The rate changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 3 of the
11 months and was unchanged in the remaining 8 months. Revised seasonally adjusted data
for other major labor force series beginning in December 2020 appear in table B. 

More information on this year's revisions to seasonally adjusted household series is 
available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf. Detailed 
information on the seasonal adjustment methodology is found at 
www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology.htm. 

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables of this news release
can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical seasonally adjusted
data are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and 
https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.


Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2021 and change due to revision,
January  November 2021


Month                  As First Computed          As Revised              Change

January.............                 6.3                 6.4                 0.1
February............                 6.2                 6.2                 0.0
March...............                 6.0                 6.0                 0.0
April...............                 6.1                 6.0                -0.1
May.................                 5.8                 5.8                 0.0
June................                 5.9                 5.9                 0.0
July................                 5.4                 5.4                 0.0
August..............                 5.2                 5.2                 0.0
September...........                 4.8                 4.7                -0.1
October.............                 4.6                 4.6                 0.0
November............                 4.2                 4.2                 0.0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2020 2021
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

261,230 260,851 260,918 261,003 261,103 261,210 261,338 261,469 261,611 261,766 261,908 262,029 262,136

Civilian labor force

160,671 160,184 160,359 160,631 160,978 160,801 161,114 161,375 161,505 161,471 161,610 162,126 162,294

Participation rate

61.5 61.4 61.5 61.5 61.7 61.6 61.6 61.7 61.7 61.7 61.7 61.9 61.9

Employed

149,883 150,004 150,367 150,940 151,259 151,550 151,612 152,704 153,167 153,806 154,234 155,324 155,975

Employment-population ratio

57.4 57.5 57.6 57.8 57.9 58.0 58.0 58.4 58.5 58.8 58.9 59.3 59.5

Unemployed

10,789 10,180 9,992 9,691 9,719 9,251 9,502 8,671 8,339 7,666 7,375 6,802 6,319

Unemployment rate

6.7 6.4 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.2 3.9

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

118,010 117,864 117,902 117,949 118,003 118,059 118,125 118,192 118,261 118,337 118,406 118,466 118,520

Civilian labor force

82,236 82,191 82,114 82,048 82,384 82,297 82,499 82,544 82,672 82,851 82,703 83,007 82,902

Participation rate

69.7 69.7 69.6 69.6 69.8 69.7 69.8 69.8 69.9 70.0 69.8 70.1 69.9

Employed

76,949 77,185 77,203 77,262 77,423 77,489 77,665 78,135 78,480 78,952 79,164 79,736 79,892

Employment-population ratio

65.2 65.5 65.5 65.5 65.6 65.6 65.7 66.1 66.4 66.7 66.9 67.3 67.4

Unemployed

5,287 5,006 4,911 4,786 4,961 4,808 4,834 4,410 4,192 3,899 3,539 3,272 3,010

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.1 6.0 5.8 6.0 5.8 5.9 5.3 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

126,681 126,507 126,546 126,594 126,648 126,704 126,770 126,837 126,906 126,982 127,051 127,112 127,167

Civilian labor force

72,494 72,087 72,255 72,635 72,486 72,499 72,756 72,934 72,862 72,644 72,929 73,134 73,455

Participation rate

57.2 57.0 57.1 57.4 57.2 57.2 57.4 57.5 57.4 57.2 57.4 57.5 57.8

Employed

67,933 67,776 68,005 68,486 68,436 68,633 68,747 69,306 69,390 69,555 69,790 70,257 70,795

Employment-population ratio

53.6 53.6 53.7 54.1 54.0 54.2 54.2 54.6 54.7 54.8 54.9 55.3 55.7

Unemployed

4,561 4,311 4,250 4,149 4,050 3,866 4,008 3,628 3,472 3,089 3,139 2,876 2,660

Unemployment rate

6.3 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.3 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,538 16,481 16,470 16,460 16,451 16,446 16,443 16,440 16,443 16,447 16,451 16,450 16,449

Civilian labor force

5,940 5,906 5,989 5,948 6,107 6,005 5,859 5,897 5,971 5,976 5,978 5,985 5,936

Participation rate

35.9 35.8 36.4 36.1 37.1 36.5 35.6 35.9 36.3 36.3 36.3 36.4 36.1

Employed

5,000 5,043 5,158 5,192 5,399 5,428 5,200 5,264 5,297 5,298 5,281 5,331 5,287

Employment-population ratio

30.2 30.6 31.3 31.5 32.8 33.0 31.6 32.0 32.2 32.2 32.1 32.4 32.1

Unemployed

940 863 831 756 708 578 660 633 675 678 697 654 649

Unemployment rate

15.8 14.6 13.9 12.7 11.6 9.6 11.3 10.7 11.3 11.3 11.7 10.9 10.9

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Change from:
Nov.
2021-
Dec.
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,230 261,908 262,029 262,136 107

Civilian labor force

160,671 161,610 162,126 162,294 168

Participation rate

61.5 61.7 61.9 61.9 0.0

Employed

149,883 154,234 155,324 155,975 651

Employment-population ratio

57.4 58.9 59.3 59.5 0.2

Unemployed

10,789 7,375 6,802 6,319 -483

Unemployment rate

6.7 4.6 4.2 3.9 -0.3

Not in labor force

100,559 100,298 99,902 99,842 -60

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

6.7 4.6 4.2 3.9 -0.3

Adult men (20 years and over)

6.4 4.3 3.9 3.6 -0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

6.3 4.3 3.9 3.6 -0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

15.8 11.7 10.9 10.9 0.0

White

6.1 3.9 3.7 3.2 -0.5

Black or African American

10.0 7.8 6.5 7.1 0.6

Asian

6.1 4.2 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9.4 5.7 5.2 4.9 -0.3

Total, 25 years and over

5.9 4.0 3.6 3.3 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

9.8 7.3 5.5 5.2 -0.3

High school graduates, no college

7.9 5.4 5.2 4.6 -0.6

Some college or associate degree

6.5 4.3 3.7 3.6 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

3.8 2.4 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

7,348 3,700 3,369 3,095 -274

Job leavers

756 845 837 724 -113

Reentrants

2,249 2,206 2,154 2,038 -116

New entrants

508 537 452 513 61

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,906 2,051 1,985 1,977 -8

5 to 14 weeks

2,344 1,876 1,703 1,571 -132

15 to 26 weeks

1,563 1,001 870 780 -90

27 weeks and over

3,979 2,339 2,193 2,008 -185

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,126 4,398 4,266 3,929 -337

Slack work or business conditions

4,915 3,108 2,903 2,594 -309

Could only find part-time work

1,017 961 1,059 1,082 23

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,290 20,539 20,440 20,315 -125

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,157 1,685 1,610 1,639 29

Discouraged workers

657 455 451 463 12

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-306 648 249 199

Total private

-274 714 270 211

Goods-producing

82 100 72 54

Mining and logging

0 4 2 6

Construction

47 44 35 22

Manufacturing

35 52 35 26

Durable goods(1)

18 36 17 20

Motor vehicles and parts

3.9 21.3 -5.9 4.2

Nondurable goods

17 16 18 6

Private service-providing

-356 614 198 157

Wholesale trade

14.8 14.3 11.2 13.7

Retail trade

30.1 50.6 -13.3 -2.1

Transportation and warehousing

-43.2 56.8 42.2 18.7

Utilities

-1.0 0.1 -0.1 -0.2

Information

9 12 1 0

Financial activities

18 28 17 8

Professional and business services(1)

159 130 72 43

Temporary help services

62.1 49.6 0.5 -1.6

Education and health services(1)

-29 71 14 10

Health care and social assistance

38.9 51.8 8.0 6.1

Leisure and hospitality

-498 211 41 53

Other services

-16 40 13 13

Government

-32 -66 -21 -12

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

213 503 425 365

Total private

346 547 469 398

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.3 48.5 48.5 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.6 81.6 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7

Average hourly earnings

$29.91 $31.01 $31.12 $31.31

Average weekly earnings

$1,037.88 $1,076.05 $1,079.86 $1,086.46

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

105.4 110.2 110.5 110.7

Over-the-month percent change

-0.6 0.3 0.3 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

150.8 163.5 164.4 165.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.9 0.6 0.8

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

61.7 71.6 69.6 59.5

Manufacturing (75 industries)

70.0 65.3 69.3 57.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,230 262,029 262,136 261,230 261,611 261,766 261,908 262,029 262,136

Civilian labor force

160,017 162,099 161,696 160,671 161,505 161,471 161,610 162,126 162,294

Participation rate

61.3 61.9 61.7 61.5 61.7 61.7 61.7 61.9 61.9

Employed

149,613 155,797 155,732 149,883 153,167 153,806 154,234 155,324 155,975

Employment-population ratio

57.3 59.5 59.4 57.4 58.5 58.8 58.9 59.3 59.5

Unemployed

10,404 6,302 5,964 10,789 8,339 7,666 7,375 6,802 6,319

Unemployment rate

6.5 3.9 3.7 6.7 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.2 3.9

Not in labor force

101,213 99,930 100,440 100,559 100,106 100,294 100,298 99,902 99,842

Persons who currently want a job

7,088 5,491 5,524 7,277 5,701 5,918 5,935 5,819 5,713

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,367 126,779 126,832 126,367 126,570 126,648 126,719 126,779 126,832

Civilian labor force

84,644 85,793 85,339 85,186 85,656 85,801 85,735 86,017 85,857

Participation rate

67.0 67.7 67.3 67.4 67.7 67.7 67.7 67.8 67.7

Employed

78,955 82,474 82,024 79,443 81,102 81,533 81,835 82,432 82,508

Employment-population ratio

62.5 65.1 64.7 62.9 64.1 64.4 64.6 65.0 65.1

Unemployed

5,689 3,318 3,314 5,743 4,554 4,268 3,900 3,585 3,349

Unemployment rate

6.7 3.9 3.9 6.7 5.3 5.0 4.5 4.2 3.9

Not in labor force

41,723 40,986 41,493 41,181 40,914 40,846 40,983 40,762 40,975

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

118,010 118,466 118,520 118,010 118,261 118,337 118,406 118,466 118,520

Civilian labor force

81,877 82,929 82,547 82,236 82,672 82,851 82,703 83,007 82,902

Participation rate

69.4 70.0 69.6 69.7 69.9 70.0 69.8 70.1 69.9

Employed

76,572 79,904 79,525 76,949 78,480 78,952 79,164 79,736 79,892

Employment-population ratio

64.9 67.4 67.1 65.2 66.4 66.7 66.9 67.3 67.4

Unemployed

5,305 3,025 3,022 5,287 4,192 3,899 3,539 3,272 3,010

Unemployment rate

6.5 3.6 3.7 6.4 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.6

Not in labor force

36,134 35,537 35,973 35,774 35,590 35,486 35,703 35,459 35,618

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,862 135,250 135,304 134,862 135,041 135,118 135,189 135,250 135,304

Civilian labor force

75,373 76,306 76,357 75,485 75,849 75,670 75,874 76,109 76,437

Participation rate

55.9 56.4 56.4 56.0 56.2 56.0 56.1 56.3 56.5

Employed

70,658 73,323 73,708 70,439 72,065 72,273 72,399 72,892 73,467

Employment-population ratio

52.4 54.2 54.5 52.2 53.4 53.5 53.6 53.9 54.3

Unemployed

4,715 2,984 2,649 5,046 3,784 3,398 3,475 3,217 2,970

Unemployment rate

6.3 3.9 3.5 6.7 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.2 3.9

Not in labor force

59,490 58,944 58,947 59,377 59,191 59,448 59,315 59,141 58,867

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,681 127,112 127,167 126,681 126,906 126,982 127,051 127,112 127,167

Civilian labor force

72,558 73,463 73,546 72,494 72,862 72,644 72,929 73,134 73,455

Participation rate

57.3 57.8 57.8 57.2 57.4 57.2 57.4 57.5 57.8

Employed

68,248 70,786 71,140 67,933 69,390 69,555 69,790 70,257 70,795

Employment-population ratio

53.9 55.7 55.9 53.6 54.7 54.8 54.9 55.3 55.7

Unemployed

4,309 2,677 2,406 4,561 3,472 3,089 3,139 2,876 2,660

Unemployment rate

5.9 3.6 3.3 6.3 4.8 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.6

Not in labor force

54,124 53,649 53,621 54,187 54,044 54,337 54,122 53,978 53,712

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,538 16,450 16,449 16,538 16,443 16,447 16,451 16,450 16,449

Civilian labor force

5,582 5,707 5,602 5,940 5,971 5,976 5,978 5,985 5,936

Participation rate

33.8 34.7 34.1 35.9 36.3 36.3 36.3 36.4 36.1

Employed

4,793 5,107 5,068 5,000 5,297 5,298 5,281 5,331 5,287

Employment-population ratio

29.0 31.0 30.8 30.2 32.2 32.2 32.1 32.4 32.1

Unemployed

789 600 535 940 675 678 697 654 649

Unemployment rate

14.1 10.5 9.5 15.8 11.3 11.3 11.7 10.9 10.9

Not in labor force

10,956 10,743 10,847 10,598 10,472 10,471 10,473 10,465 10,512

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,749 202,199 202,250 201,749 201,968 202,057 202,138 202,199 202,250

Civilian labor force

123,828 124,666 124,427 124,224 124,207 124,204 124,279 124,677 124,780

Participation rate

61.4 61.7 61.5 61.6 61.5 61.5 61.5 61.7 61.7

Employed

116,479 120,431 120,536 116,707 118,557 119,009 119,376 120,084 120,749

Employment-population ratio

57.7 59.6 59.6 57.8 58.7 58.9 59.1 59.4 59.7

Unemployed

7,348 4,234 3,891 7,517 5,650 5,194 4,903 4,593 4,032

Unemployment rate

5.9 3.4 3.1 6.1 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.2

Not in labor force

77,921 77,533 77,823 77,525 77,760 77,853 77,859 77,521 77,469

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,407 64,941 64,784 64,629 64,814 64,957 64,693 64,973 65,000

Participation rate

69.6 70.0 69.8 69.9 69.9 70.1 69.8 70.0 70.0

Employed

60,561 62,962 62,745 60,871 61,944 62,257 62,374 62,835 63,047

Employment-population ratio

65.5 67.9 67.6 65.8 66.9 67.2 67.3 67.7 67.9

Unemployed

3,847 1,979 2,039 3,758 2,870 2,699 2,320 2,138 1,953

Unemployment rate

6.0 3.0 3.1 5.8 4.4 4.2 3.6 3.3 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,048 55,310 55,289 54,950 54,764 54,574 54,901 55,069 55,177

Participation rate

56.7 56.8 56.8 56.6 56.3 56.1 56.4 56.6 56.7

Employed

52,116 53,435 53,765 51,858 52,432 52,574 52,800 53,030 53,493

Employment-population ratio

53.7 54.9 55.2 53.4 53.9 54.0 54.2 54.5 54.9

Unemployed

2,932 1,875 1,524 3,092 2,332 2,000 2,101 2,039 1,684

Unemployment rate

5.3 3.4 2.8 5.6 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,372 4,415 4,354 4,645 4,629 4,673 4,684 4,635 4,603

Participation rate

36.1 36.6 36.1 38.3 38.4 38.7 38.8 38.4 38.2

Employed

3,802 4,035 4,025 3,978 4,181 4,178 4,202 4,219 4,209

Employment-population ratio

31.4 33.5 33.4 32.8 34.7 34.6 34.8 35.0 34.9

Unemployed

570 380 329 667 448 495 482 415 395

Unemployment rate

13.0 8.6 7.5 14.4 9.7 10.6 10.3 9.0 8.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,516 33,725 33,749 33,516 33,645 33,673 33,699 33,725 33,749

Civilian labor force

19,919 20,478 20,364 20,087 20,681 20,626 20,565 20,477 20,506

Participation rate

59.4 60.7 60.3 59.9 61.5 61.3 61.0 60.7 60.8

Employed

18,066 19,232 19,045 18,076 18,879 19,017 18,962 19,143 19,057

Employment-population ratio

53.9 57.0 56.4 53.9 56.1 56.5 56.3 56.8 56.5

Unemployed

1,853 1,246 1,319 2,011 1,803 1,608 1,603 1,335 1,449

Unemployment rate

9.3 6.1 6.5 10.0 8.7 7.8 7.8 6.5 7.1

Not in labor force

13,597 13,247 13,385 13,429 12,964 13,047 13,135 13,248 13,243

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,166 9,450 9,320 9,237 9,471 9,389 9,479 9,466 9,378

Participation rate

64.8 66.3 65.3 65.3 66.6 65.9 66.5 66.4 65.7

Employed

8,245 8,823 8,697 8,270 8,616 8,644 8,699 8,787 8,723

Employment-population ratio

58.3 61.9 60.9 58.5 60.6 60.7 61.0 61.6 61.1

Unemployed

921 626 623 967 855 745 780 679 655

Unemployment rate

10.0 6.6 6.7 10.5 9.0 7.9 8.2 7.2 7.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,041 10,352 10,391 10,108 10,472 10,450 10,383 10,301 10,445

Participation rate

59.2 60.6 60.8 59.6 61.5 61.3 60.9 60.3 61.1

Employed

9,264 9,874 9,814 9,244 9,653 9,702 9,673 9,802 9,794

Employment-population ratio

54.6 57.8 57.4 54.5 56.7 56.9 56.7 57.4 57.3

Unemployed

778 478 577 864 819 748 710 500 651

Unemployment rate

7.7 4.6 5.6 8.5 7.8 7.2 6.8 4.9 6.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

712 677 653 743 738 787 703 711 683

Participation rate

29.6 28.4 27.4 30.9 30.9 33.0 29.5 29.8 28.6

Employed

557 535 535 563 609 671 590 554 540

Employment-population ratio

23.2 22.4 22.4 23.4 25.5 28.1 24.7 23.2 22.6

Unemployed

154 142 118 180 129 115 113 157 143

Unemployment rate

21.7 20.9 18.1 24.2 17.4 14.6 16.0 22.0 21.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,583 16,513 16,612 16,583 16,555 16,540 16,485 16,513 16,612

Civilian labor force

10,259 10,767 10,727 10,271 10,610 10,652 10,767 10,781 10,739

Participation rate

61.9 65.2 64.6 61.9 64.1 64.4 65.3 65.3 64.6

Employed

9,664 10,365 10,344 9,647 10,135 10,207 10,310 10,362 10,326

Employment-population ratio

58.3 62.8 62.3 58.2 61.2 61.7 62.5 62.8 62.2

Unemployed

595 402 383 624 476 445 457 419 413

Unemployment rate

5.8 3.7 3.6 6.1 4.5 4.2 4.2 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

6,324 5,746 5,885 6,312 5,945 5,889 5,718 5,731 5,873

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,639 45,232 45,303 44,639 45,004 45,083 45,159 45,232 45,303

Civilian labor force

29,129 30,079 29,800 29,167 29,481 29,566 29,663 29,979 29,883

Participation rate

65.3 66.5 65.8 65.3 65.5 65.6 65.7 66.3 66.0

Employed

26,442 28,648 28,443 26,436 27,666 27,758 27,962 28,432 28,427

Employment-population ratio

59.2 63.3 62.8 59.2 61.5 61.6 61.9 62.9 62.7

Unemployed

2,688 1,431 1,357 2,731 1,815 1,808 1,701 1,547 1,456

Unemployment rate

9.2 4.8 4.6 9.4 6.2 6.1 5.7 5.2 4.9

Not in labor force

15,510 15,153 15,503 15,472 15,523 15,518 15,496 15,253 15,420

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,854 16,411 16,167 15,899 16,230 16,326 16,213 16,422 16,266

Participation rate

78.6 80.3 79.0 78.9 79.8 80.1 79.4 80.3 79.4

Employed

14,423 15,766 15,518 14,485 15,327 15,408 15,410 15,681 15,580

Employment-population ratio

71.5 77.1 75.8 71.8 75.4 75.6 75.5 76.7 76.1

Unemployed

1,431 645 649 1,413 904 918 803 741 687

Unemployment rate

9.0 3.9 4.0 8.9 5.6 5.6 5.0 4.5 4.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,929 12,296 12,340 11,887 11,977 11,932 12,054 12,170 12,288

Participation rate

58.4 59.4 59.5 58.2 58.1 57.8 58.3 58.7 59.2

Employed

10,874 11,666 11,763 10,802 11,255 11,272 11,374 11,531 11,682

Employment-population ratio

53.2 56.3 56.7 52.9 54.6 54.6 55.0 55.7 56.3

Unemployed

1,055 629 577 1,084 722 661 680 639 606

Unemployment rate

8.8 5.1 4.7 9.1 6.0 5.5 5.6 5.3 4.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,346 1,373 1,293 1,382 1,273 1,307 1,396 1,387 1,328

Participation rate

33.3 33.7 31.7 34.2 31.4 32.2 34.3 34.1 32.6

Employed

1,145 1,216 1,162 1,148 1,084 1,078 1,178 1,220 1,165

Employment-population ratio

28.3 29.9 28.5 28.4 26.7 26.5 29.0 30.0 28.6

Unemployed

202 157 131 233 190 229 218 167 163

Unemployment rate

15.0 11.4 10.1 16.9 14.9 17.5 15.6 12.1 12.2

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,246 8,915 8,786 9,172 9,185 9,128 9,025 8,791 8,712

Participation rate

45.5 45.8 45.2 45.2 45.9 45.3 46.4 45.1 44.8

Employed

8,288 8,462 8,271 8,272 8,469 8,428 8,368 8,304 8,255

Employment-population ratio

40.8 43.5 42.5 40.7 42.3 41.8 43.1 42.6 42.5

Unemployed

958 452 515 900 716 700 657 487 457

Unemployment rate

10.4 5.1 5.9 9.8 7.8 7.7 7.3 5.5 5.2

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

34,751 35,562 35,778 34,819 35,409 34,994 35,282 35,444 35,828

Participation rate

55.2 55.9 55.6 55.3 55.4 55.3 55.0 55.7 55.7

Employed

32,006 33,831 34,154 32,053 33,337 32,991 33,395 33,615 34,188

Employment-population ratio

50.8 53.2 53.1 50.9 52.2 52.1 52.1 52.9 53.1

Unemployed

2,745 1,731 1,624 2,766 2,072 2,004 1,888 1,829 1,640

Unemployment rate

7.9 4.9 4.5 7.9 5.9 5.7 5.4 5.2 4.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,714 35,605 35,525 35,745 35,757 35,794 35,394 35,417 35,477

Participation rate

62.6 62.9 62.8 62.6 63.5 63.0 62.8 62.6 62.7

Employed

33,538 34,374 34,335 33,421 34,000 34,196 33,863 34,105 34,204

Employment-population ratio

58.8 60.7 60.7 58.6 60.4 60.2 60.1 60.2 60.4

Unemployed

2,175 1,231 1,190 2,324 1,757 1,598 1,531 1,312 1,274

Unemployment rate

6.1 3.5 3.3 6.5 4.9 4.5 4.3 3.7 3.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,174 61,484 61,300 60,014 60,736 60,772 60,951 61,317 61,134

Participation rate

72.1 72.2 72.5 71.9 72.2 72.1 71.9 72.0 72.3

Employed

57,985 60,181 60,147 57,709 59,074 59,258 59,477 59,937 59,860

Employment-population ratio

69.5 70.7 71.1 69.2 70.2 70.3 70.1 70.4 70.8

Unemployed

2,190 1,303 1,153 2,306 1,662 1,514 1,473 1,380 1,274

Unemployment rate

3.6 2.1 1.9 3.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,283 17,921 16,375 16,000 1,908 1,921

Civilian labor force

8,693 8,366 7,578 7,198 1,115 1,168

Participation rate

47.5 46.7 46.3 45.0 58.5 60.8

Employed

8,231 8,100 7,158 6,978 1,074 1,121

Employment-population ratio

45.0 45.2 43.7 43.6 56.3 58.4

Unemployed

462 267 420 220 42 47

Unemployment rate

5.3 3.2 5.5 3.1 3.7 4.0

Not in labor force

9,590 9,555 8,797 8,802 793 753

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,536 4,596 3,728 3,745 808 851

Civilian labor force

3,476 3,591 2,939 3,013 537 578

Participation rate

76.6 78.1 78.8 80.4 66.4 67.9

Employed

3,298 3,437 2,788 2,882 510 555

Employment-population ratio

72.7 74.8 74.8 77.0 63.1 65.2

Unemployed

178 153 151 130 27 23

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.3 5.1 4.3 5.0 4.0

Not in labor force

1,060 1,006 789 733 271 273

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,079 3,160 2,609 2,704 470 456

Civilian labor force

2,263 2,270 1,930 1,929 333 342

Participation rate

73.5 71.9 74.0 71.3 70.9 75.0

Employed

2,163 2,236 1,841 1,901 322 335

Employment-population ratio

70.3 70.8 70.5 70.3 68.6 73.4

Unemployed

100 34 89 27 11 7

Unemployment rate

4.4 1.5 4.6 1.4 3.3 2.1

Not in labor force

816 889 679 775 137 114

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,644 6,266 6,412 6,045 232 221

Civilian labor force

1,171 1,010 1,141 957 30 53

Participation rate

17.6 16.1 17.8 15.8 13.0 24.1

Employed

1,117 977 1,087 928 30 48

Employment-population ratio

16.8 15.6 17.0 15.4 13.0 21.9

Unemployed

54 33 54 28 0 5

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.3 4.8 3.0 - -

Not in labor force

5,473 5,256 5,271 5,088 202 168

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,024 3,899 3,626 3,506 398 393

Civilian labor force

1,783 1,495 1,568 1,301 215 195

Participation rate

44.3 38.4 43.2 37.1 54.0 49.6

Employed

1,653 1,450 1,442 1,266 211 183

Employment-population ratio

41.1 37.2 39.8 36.1 53.0 46.7

Unemployed

129 46 125 34 4 12

Unemployment rate

7.3 3.1 8.0 2.6 1.9 5.9

Not in labor force

2,241 2,404 2,058 2,205 183 198

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

234,071 235,089 105,479 106,253 128,593 128,837

Civilian labor force

149,403 151,162 76,127 77,150 73,276 74,011

Participation rate

63.8 64.3 72.2 72.6 57.0 57.4

Employed

139,689 145,667 70,985 74,154 68,704 71,513

Employment-population ratio

59.7 62.0 67.3 69.8 53.4 55.5

Unemployed

9,714 5,495 5,142 2,996 4,572 2,499

Unemployment rate

6.5 3.6 6.8 3.9 6.2 3.4

Not in labor force

84,668 83,928 29,351 29,102 55,317 54,825

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,887 32,420 231,342 229,716

Civilian labor force

5,979 7,244 154,038 154,452

Participation rate

20.0 22.3 66.6 67.2

Employed

5,320 6,671 144,293 149,061

Employment-population ratio

17.8 20.6 62.4 64.9

Unemployed

659 573 9,745 5,391

Unemployment rate

11.0 7.9 6.3 3.5

Not in labor force

23,908 25,177 77,305 75,264

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,603 3,050 76,174 76,205

Participation rate

34.4 37.9 81.2 81.8

Employed

2,304 2,777 71,108 73,340

Employment-population ratio

30.5 34.5 75.8 78.8

Unemployed

299 273 5,067 2,865

Unemployment rate

11.5 9.0 6.7 3.8

Not in labor force

4,962 4,989 17,676 16,899

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,348 2,929 68,288 68,453

Participation rate

31.9 35.6 70.4 71.5

Employed

2,079 2,696 64,145 66,151

Employment-population ratio

28.3 32.7 66.1 69.1

Unemployed

269 233 4,143 2,302

Unemployment rate

11.4 8.0 6.1 3.4

Not in labor force

5,009 5,310 28,717 27,283

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,028 1,264 9,575 9,794

Participation rate

6.9 7.8 23.7 24.0

Employed

937 1,198 9,041 9,571

Employment-population ratio

6.3 7.4 22.3 23.4

Unemployed

92 66 535 223

Unemployment rate

8.9 5.2 5.6 2.3

Not in labor force

13,938 14,878 30,911 31,082

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,947 44,172 20,728 21,413 22,219 22,758

Civilian labor force

27,529 28,760 15,818 16,469 11,711 12,291

Participation rate

64.1 65.1 76.3 76.9 52.7 54.0

Employed

25,512 27,691 14,808 15,925 10,704 11,766

Employment-population ratio

59.4 62.7 71.4 74.4 48.2 51.7

Unemployed

2,017 1,069 1,010 544 1,007 525

Unemployment rate

7.3 3.7 6.4 3.3 8.6 4.3

Not in labor force

15,418 15,412 4,910 4,944 10,508 10,467

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,283 217,964 105,640 105,418 112,643 112,545

Civilian labor force

132,487 132,935 68,826 68,870 63,661 64,066

Participation rate

60.7 61.0 65.2 65.3 56.5 56.9

Employed

124,101 128,041 64,147 66,100 59,954 61,941

Employment-population ratio

56.9 58.7 60.7 62.7 53.2 55.0

Unemployed

8,387 4,894 4,679 2,770 3,708 2,124

Unemployment rate

6.3 3.7 6.8 4.0 5.8 3.3

Not in labor force

85,795 85,029 36,814 36,549 48,981 48,480

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,390 2,194 2,253 2,448 2,307 2,247 2,296 2,212 2,308

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,578 1,429 1,473 1,575 1,575 1,508 1,501 1,434 1,477

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

782 727 746 821 712 733 769 744 785

Unpaid family workers

30 38 33 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

147,223 153,603 153,479 147,199 151,146 151,686 152,070 152,933 153,409

Wage and salary workers(1)

138,617 144,279 144,275 138,856 141,225 141,756 142,194 143,816 144,474

Government

20,762 20,936 21,239 20,636 20,762 20,514 20,511 20,750 21,097

Private industries

117,856 123,343 123,036 118,018 120,347 121,909 122,175 123,416 123,172

Private households

636 654 585 - - - - - -

Other industries

117,220 122,689 122,450 117,327 119,652 121,226 121,460 122,796 122,484

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,540 9,277 9,161 8,651 9,496 9,424 9,465 9,256 9,282

Unpaid family workers

66 47 43 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,245 4,163 4,049 6,126 4,481 4,450 4,398 4,266 3,929

Slack work or business conditions

5,003 2,819 2,679 4,915 3,187 3,142 3,108 2,903 2,594

Could only find part-time work

972 1,085 1,040 1,017 1,017 988 961 1,059 1,082

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,678 21,322 20,694 18,290 20,330 20,335 20,539 20,440 20,315

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,133 4,121 3,994 6,036 4,395 4,360 4,273 4,244 3,898

Slack work or business conditions

4,919 2,789 2,649 4,845 3,131 3,094 3,032 2,869 2,578

Could only find part-time work

967 1,085 1,040 1,010 1,006 976 962 1,056 1,079

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,283 20,948 20,308 17,916 19,986 19,952 20,200 20,075 19,951

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

149,613 155,797 155,732 149,883 153,167 153,806 154,234 155,324 155,975

16 to 19 years

4,793 5,107 5,068 5,000 5,297 5,298 5,281 5,331 5,287

16 to 17 years

1,693 2,026 1,966 1,790 2,006 2,021 1,992 2,087 2,075

18 to 19 years

3,100 3,081 3,102 3,211 3,248 3,261 3,289 3,243 3,214

20 years and over

144,820 150,690 150,664 144,883 147,870 148,508 148,953 149,993 150,688

20 to 24 years

13,002 13,842 13,758 13,110 13,265 13,529 13,718 13,824 13,870

25 years and over

131,817 136,848 136,907 131,547 134,693 135,072 135,282 136,065 136,605

25 to 54 years

96,427 100,032 100,016 96,175 98,298 98,460 98,795 99,396 99,740

25 to 34 years

33,993 35,622 35,464 33,891 34,753 34,713 35,029 35,347 35,352

35 to 44 years

32,052 33,354 33,521 31,995 32,919 32,945 33,042 33,174 33,454

45 to 54 years

30,382 31,056 31,031 30,290 30,626 30,802 30,723 30,875 30,934

55 years and over

35,391 36,815 36,891 35,371 36,395 36,612 36,487 36,669 36,865

Men, 16 years and over

78,955 82,474 82,024 79,443 81,102 81,533 81,835 82,432 82,508

16 to 19 years

2,384 2,571 2,499 2,494 2,622 2,581 2,672 2,696 2,616

16 to 17 years

812 958 892 883 940 974 984 1,017 970

18 to 19 years

1,571 1,613 1,608 1,617 1,653 1,590 1,691 1,686 1,655

20 years and over

76,572 79,904 79,525 76,949 78,480 78,952 79,164 79,736 79,892

20 to 24 years

6,527 7,074 6,952 6,639 6,793 6,882 6,972 7,100 7,070

25 years and over

70,044 72,830 72,573 70,182 71,699 72,081 72,181 72,535 72,702

25 to 54 years

51,177 53,157 52,948 51,228 52,342 52,462 52,717 52,894 52,992

25 to 34 years

18,177 18,945 18,816 18,158 18,539 18,540 18,715 18,797 18,793

35 to 44 years

17,154 17,899 17,849 17,204 17,693 17,802 17,784 17,845 17,899

45 to 54 years

15,846 16,313 16,283 15,866 16,110 16,120 16,218 16,252 16,300

55 years and over

18,867 19,673 19,625 18,954 19,357 19,619 19,464 19,641 19,710

Women, 16 years and over

70,658 73,323 73,708 70,439 72,065 72,273 72,399 72,892 73,467

16 to 19 years

2,410 2,537 2,568 2,506 2,675 2,717 2,609 2,635 2,671

16 to 17 years

880 1,068 1,074 906 1,066 1,046 1,008 1,070 1,105

18 to 19 years

1,529 1,469 1,494 1,594 1,595 1,671 1,598 1,557 1,558

20 years and over

68,248 70,786 71,140 67,933 69,390 69,555 69,790 70,257 70,795

20 to 24 years

6,475 6,768 6,806 6,471 6,472 6,646 6,746 6,724 6,799

25 years and over

61,773 64,018 64,334 61,364 62,993 62,991 63,101 63,530 63,904

25 to 54 years

45,250 46,875 47,068 44,947 45,956 45,998 46,078 46,502 46,748

25 to 34 years

15,816 16,677 16,648 15,733 16,215 16,174 16,314 16,550 16,559

35 to 44 years

14,898 15,455 15,672 14,790 15,225 15,143 15,258 15,329 15,555

45 to 54 years

14,535 14,743 14,748 14,424 14,516 14,681 14,505 14,623 14,635

55 years and over

16,523 17,142 17,266 16,418 17,038 16,993 17,023 17,029 17,156

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

43,499 44,274 44,351 43,597 43,681 43,671 43,794 44,209 44,437

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,109 35,700 35,909 34,774 35,068 35,029 34,988 35,328 35,557

Women who maintain families(2)

9,490 9,738 9,726 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

124,415 129,322 129,824 124,794 127,340 128,076 128,409 129,388 130,191

Part-time workers(4)

25,197 26,475 25,908 24,976 25,739 25,772 25,903 25,956 25,681

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,496 7,180 7,461 6,438 7,035 7,038 6,984 7,065 7,395

Percent of total employed

4.3 4.6 4.8 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.7

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,859 6,363 6,213 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,322 10,004 9,908 9,473 10,207 10,157 10,234 10,000 10,067

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

10,789 6,802 6,319 6.7 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.2 3.9

16 to 19 years

940 654 649 15.8 11.3 11.3 11.7 10.9 10.9

16 to 17 years

287 241 251 13.8 11.4 10.8 10.1 10.4 10.8

18 to 19 years

659 425 416 17.0 11.2 11.7 12.6 11.6 11.5

20 years and over

9,848 6,148 5,670 6.4 4.9 4.5 4.3 3.9 3.6

20 to 24 years

1,666 1,100 1,058 11.3 9.2 7.8 7.2 7.4 7.1

25 years and over

8,234 5,062 4,660 5.9 4.5 4.1 4.0 3.6 3.3

25 to 54 years

6,006 3,872 3,583 5.9 4.7 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.5

25 to 34 years

2,437 1,573 1,580 6.7 5.5 5.2 4.8 4.3 4.3

35 to 44 years

1,859 1,321 1,124 5.5 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.3

45 to 54 years

1,709 977 879 5.3 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.1 2.8

55 years and over

2,280 1,224 1,133 6.1 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.0

Men, 16 years and over

5,743 3,585 3,349 6.7 5.3 5.0 4.5 4.2 3.9

16 to 19 years

456 314 339 15.5 12.1 12.5 11.9 10.4 11.5

16 to 17 years

150 127 117 14.5 10.8 11.5 9.8 11.1 10.7

18 to 19 years

302 198 238 15.7 12.9 13.2 13.2 10.5 12.6

20 years and over

5,287 3,272 3,010 6.4 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.6

20 to 24 years

926 620 586 12.2 9.4 9.1 8.2 8.0 7.7

25 years and over

4,395 2,677 2,455 5.9 4.6 4.3 3.9 3.6 3.3

25 to 54 years

3,211 2,077 1,903 5.9 4.9 4.5 4.0 3.8 3.5

25 to 34 years

1,317 870 879 6.8 5.8 5.6 5.0 4.4 4.5

35 to 44 years

1,051 716 607 5.8 4.5 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.3

45 to 54 years

842 492 417 5.0 4.2 3.7 3.2 2.9 2.5

55 years and over

1,184 599 552 5.9 4.0 3.6 3.5 3.0 2.7

Women, 16 years and over

5,046 3,217 2,970 6.7 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.2 3.9

16 to 19 years

485 340 311 16.2 10.4 10.2 11.4 11.4 10.4

16 to 17 years

138 115 134 13.2 11.9 10.1 10.4 9.7 10.8

18 to 19 years

357 227 178 18.3 9.3 10.2 12.0 12.7 10.2

20 years and over

4,561 2,876 2,660 6.3 4.8 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.6

20 to 24 years

740 480 472 10.3 8.9 6.4 6.3 6.7 6.5

25 years and over

3,839 2,386 2,205 5.9 4.3 4.0 4.1 3.6 3.3

25 to 54 years

2,795 1,795 1,680 5.9 4.5 4.2 4.3 3.7 3.5

25 to 34 years

1,120 703 700 6.6 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.1 4.1

35 to 44 years

808 606 517 5.2 4.2 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.2

45 to 54 years

867 485 462 5.7 3.9 4.0 4.3 3.2 3.1

55 years and over

1,082 620 565 6.2 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.2

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,884 1,030 870 4.1 3.2 2.8 2.5 2.3 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,704 1,012 896 4.7 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.5

Women who maintain families(2)

734 493 577 7.2 7.9 6.8 5.9 4.8 5.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

8,951 5,713 5,228 6.7 5.2 4.8 4.6 4.2 3.9

Part-time workers(4)

1,862 1,098 1,123 6.9 5.2 4.2 4.7 4.1 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

7,264 3,079 3,044 7,348 4,441 4,002 3,700 3,369 3,095

On temporary layoff

3,124 673 834 3,091 1,206 1,083 1,041 875 812

Not on temporary layoff

4,141 2,406 2,210 4,257 3,234 2,919 2,659 2,493 2,283

Permanent job losers

3,342 1,839 1,622 3,467 2,509 2,243 2,102 1,905 1,703

Persons who completed temporary jobs

798 567 588 790 725 676 557 589 580

Job leavers

706 828 676 756 830 792 845 837 724

Reentrants

2,044 2,010 1,849 2,249 2,446 2,275 2,206 2,154 2,038

New entrants

389 385 395 508 514 491 537 452 513

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

69.8 48.9 51.0 67.7 54.0 52.9 50.8 49.4 48.6

On temporary layoff

30.0 10.7 14.0 28.5 14.7 14.3 14.3 12.8 12.8

Not on temporary layoff

39.8 38.2 37.1 39.2 39.3 38.6 36.5 36.6 35.8

Job leavers

6.8 13.1 11.3 7.0 10.1 10.5 11.6 12.3 11.4

Reentrants

19.7 31.9 31.0 20.7 29.7 30.1 30.3 31.6 32.0

New entrants

3.7 6.1 6.6 4.7 6.2 6.5 7.4 6.6 8.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4.5 1.9 1.9 4.6 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9

Job leavers

0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

Reentrants

1.3 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

New entrants

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,813 1,791 1,884 2,906 2,110 2,227 2,051 1,985 1,977

5 to 14 weeks

2,211 1,575 1,453 2,344 1,927 1,727 1,876 1,703 1,571

15 weeks and over

5,380 2,936 2,626 5,542 4,353 3,711 3,340 3,063 2,788

15 to 26 weeks

1,502 805 722 1,563 1,248 1,047 1,001 870 780

27 weeks and over

3,878 2,131 1,905 3,979 3,105 2,664 2,339 2,193 2,008

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.8 29.6 27.6 23.7 29.4 28.3 26.9 29.1 28.6

Median duration, in weeks

16.1 12.8 10.8 17.9 14.2 13.7 13.0 13.4 12.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

27.0 28.4 31.6 26.9 25.1 29.1 28.2 29.4 31.2

5 to 14 weeks

21.3 25.0 24.4 21.7 23.0 22.5 25.8 25.2 24.8

15 weeks and over

51.7 46.6 44.0 51.4 51.9 48.4 46.0 45.4 44.0

15 to 26 weeks

14.4 12.8 12.1 14.5 14.9 13.7 13.8 12.9 12.3

27 weeks and over

37.3 33.8 31.9 36.9 37.0 34.8 32.2 32.5 31.7

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

149,613 155,732 10,404 5,964 6.5 3.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,007 66,366 2,235 1,146 3.4 1.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,141 28,264 1,016 526 3.6 1.8

Professional and related occupations

36,866 38,103 1,219 621 3.2 1.6

Service occupations

22,490 24,821 2,824 1,462 11.2 5.6

Sales and office occupations

30,712 30,949 1,859 1,137 5.7 3.5

Sales and related occupations

14,809 14,527 825 535 5.3 3.6

Office and administrative support occupations

15,904 16,422 1,035 602 6.1 3.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,191 13,774 1,449 851 9.9 5.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,019 961 178 118 14.8 10.9

Construction and extraction occupations

7,580 8,158 1,000 567 11.7 6.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,593 4,655 272 167 5.6 3.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,212 19,821 1,630 954 7.8 4.6

Production occupations

8,039 8,066 547 290 6.4 3.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,174 11,755 1,084 664 8.8 5.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

10,404 5,964 6.5 3.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

8,460 4,739 6.7 3.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

89 34 13.1 5.8

Construction

930 497 9.6 5.0

Manufacturing

640 435 4.3 2.8

Durable goods

337 282 3.5 2.8

Nondurable goods

304 154 5.5 2.8

Wholesale and retail trade

1,125 843 5.5 4.2

Transportation and utilities

627 264 8.4 3.3

Information

158 115 6.4 4.9

Financial activities

313 241 3.1 2.4

Professional and business services

1,071 707 6.1 3.8

Education and health services

1,013 505 4.1 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

2,042 861 16.7 6.7

Other services

453 237 7.4 3.7

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

189 155 11.0 9.8

Government workers

692 325 3.2 1.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

674 349 6.7 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2020
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021
Dec.
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

3.4 1.8 1.6 3.4 2.7 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.7

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

4.5 1.9 1.9 4.6 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

6.5 3.9 3.7 6.7 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.2 3.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

6.9 4.2 4.0 7.1 5.4 5.0 4.8 4.5 4.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.8 4.8 4.7 8.0 6.1 5.8 5.5 5.1 4.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

11.6 7.4 7.2 11.7 8.8 8.5 8.2 7.7 7.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

101,213 100,440 41,723 41,493 59,490 58,947

Persons who currently want a job

7,088 5,524 3,388 2,759 3,699 2,765

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,197 1,671 1,151 924 1,046 747

Discouraged workers(2)

661 468 418 279 243 189

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,536 1,203 733 645 803 558

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,496 7,461 3,092 3,741 3,404 3,720

Percent of total employed

4.3 4.8 3.9 4.6 4.8 5.0

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,721 4,062 1,926 2,235 1,795 1,827

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,590 1,825 563 622 1,027 1,203

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

287 406 156 255 130 150

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

832 1,094 414 588 418 507

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)
Change from:
Nov.2021 - Dec.2021(p)

Total nonfarm

143,602 149,245 150,098 150,170 142,503 148,503 148,752 148,951 199

Total private

121,802 127,039 127,796 127,963 121,047 126,562 126,832 127,043 211

Goods-producing

20,165 20,836 20,820 20,730 20,228 20,670 20,742 20,796 54

Mining and logging

602 652 652 655 597 648 650 656 6

Logging

46.6 43.4 43.2 42.5 45.9 42.7 42.6 42.3 -0.3

Mining

555.4 608.9 608.5 612.2 550.6 605.4 607.5 614.1 6.6

Oil and gas extraction

141.9 143.3 144.4 147.9 139.5 141.6 142.7 145.0 2.3

Mining, except oil and gas

178.0 184.9 184.2 181.9 178.7 183.3 183.5 184.2 0.7

Coal mining

42.5 42.5 42.2 42.5 42.2 42.5 42.4 42.8 0.4

Metal ore mining

41.3 42.8 42.9 43.1 41.5 43.0 43.1 43.3 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

94.2 99.6 99.1 96.3 95.0 97.8 98.0 98.1 0.1

Support activities for mining

235.5 280.7 279.9 282.4 232.4 280.5 281.3 284.9 3.6

Construction

7,312 7,666 7,604 7,465 7,400 7,503 7,538 7,560 22

Construction of buildings

1,652.3 1,725.9 1,722.0 1,708.1 1,658.2 1,704.4 1,713.1 1,717.5 4.4

Residential building

847.4 895.7 892.6 885.5 847.7 883.2 885.7 886.4 0.7

Nonresidential building

804.9 830.2 829.4 822.6 810.5 821.2 827.4 831.1 3.7

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,008.6 1,115.0 1,087.1 1,029.2 1,051.0 1,057.7 1,065.1 1,075.5 10.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,651.4 4,824.6 4,794.4 4,727.3 4,690.7 4,740.6 4,759.3 4,767.4 8.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,127.2 2,212.4 2,200.9 2,165.8 2,140.3 2,174.5 2,181.1 2,176.3 -4.8

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,524.2 2,612.2 2,593.5 2,561.5 2,550.4 2,566.1 2,578.2 2,591.1 12.9

Manufacturing

12,251 12,518 12,564 12,610 12,231 12,519 12,554 12,580 26

Durable goods

7,609 7,778 7,803 7,834 7,598 7,789 7,806 7,826 20

Wood products

403.0 413.3 414.9 417.0 402.5 412.4 414.2 415.5 1.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

397.9 401.4 403.4 400.2 400.3 398.4 401.0 403.1 2.1

Primary metals

348.9 355.1 358.3 361.7 348.4 358.2 359.9 361.8 1.9

Fabricated metal products

1,388.1 1,424.6 1,432.3 1,435.0 1,385.8 1,429.6 1,437.2 1,436.6 -0.6

Machinery

1,055.9 1,080.1 1,076.0 1,087.1 1,055.9 1,086.6 1,079.6 1,087.3 7.7

Computer and electronic products

1,074.2 1,092.6 1,092.4 1,094.0 1,072.2 1,093.6 1,092.8 1,091.9 -0.9

Computer and peripheral equipment

162.5 167.2 167.7 167.4 162.6 167.2 167.6 167.0 -0.6

Communications equipment

85.3 84.8 84.6 83.7 85.0 85.2 84.6 84.2 -0.4

Semiconductors and electronic components

368.3 374.6 375.2 374.8 368.2 375.4 375.2 374.4 -0.8

Electronic instruments

422.9 431.2 430.0 432.8 422.0 431.3 430.9 431.6 0.7

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

35.2 34.8 34.9 35.3 34.4 34.5 34.5 34.7 0.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

375.1 382.1 384.8 385.3 373.5 382.5 385.1 386.1 1.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,601.4 1,633.6 1,634.5 1,642.1 1,596.5 1,632.0 1,632.0 1,635.9 3.9

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

913.3 936.3 934.0 942.7 910.8 935.8 929.9 934.1 4.2

Furniture and related products

356.9 362.8 364.5 367.7 356.2 363.7 364.2 365.8 1.6

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

608.0 632.0 641.4 643.7 607.0 631.5 639.9 641.9 2.0

Nondurable goods

4,642 4,740 4,761 4,776 4,633 4,730 4,748 4,754 6

Food manufacturing

1,643.1 1,660.9 1,668.5 1,674.8 1,634.1 1,650.7 1,657.9 1,657.7 -0.2

Textile mills

96.1 99.2 99.9 100.3 96.1 99.1 99.8 100.5 0.7

Textile product mills

105.7 108.7 109.0 110.0 105.2 108.6 108.6 109.5 0.9

Apparel

92.7 93.5 94.6 95.5 92.8 93.1 94.2 94.8 0.6

Paper and paper products

356.7 353.9 358.3 358.5 356.0 355.4 358.2 356.7 -1.5

Printing and related support activities

374.9 380.4 383.1 385.3 373.1 381.0 381.3 382.3 1.0

Petroleum and coal products

105.0 103.7 102.7 101.5 106.9 101.6 101.8 101.7 -0.1

Chemicals

844.9 858.7 860.1 868.3 842.7 863.4 863.8 866.1 2.3

Plastics and rubber products

725.4 736.6 742.8 747.0 724.7 740.4 742.8 744.8 2.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

297.9 343.9 342.2 334.8 301.0 336.5 339.5 339.6 0.1

Private service-providing

101,637 106,203 106,976 107,233 100,819 105,892 106,090 106,247 157

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,799 27,765 28,377 28,651 26,984 27,725 27,765 27,795 30

Wholesale trade

5,632.3 5,745.1 5,767.0 5,786.8 5,617.2 5,741.1 5,752.3 5,766.0 13.7

Durable goods

3,080.5 3,155.6 3,162.5 3,176.4 3,073.8 3,155.3 3,162.1 3,170.9 8.8

Nondurable goods

2,069.7 2,110.5 2,122.9 2,126.4 2,062.9 2,107.1 2,110.7 2,113.9 3.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

482.1 479.0 481.6 484.0 480.5 478.7 479.5 481.2 1.7

Retail trade

15,628.2 15,504.3 15,860.0 15,963.7 15,159.8 15,467.2 15,453.9 15,451.8 -2.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,947.8 1,986.6 1,986.2 1,978.7 1,953.3 1,987.0 1,986.8 1,984.2 -2.6

Automobile dealers

1,239.4 1,250.5 1,253.3 1,249.9 1,239.6 1,252.5 1,252.9 1,250.8 -2.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

148.7 166.6 161.4 158.7 155.4 166.9 165.8 165.9 0.1

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

559.7 569.5 571.5 570.1 558.3 567.5 568.0 567.5 -0.5

Furniture and home furnishings stores

455.3 448.2 460.1 461.5 435.2 446.9 447.3 445.3 -2.0

Electronics and appliance stores

453.9 438.2 451.5 453.7 431.2 429.3 428.9 427.5 -1.4

Building material and garden supply stores

1,395.0 1,343.1 1,336.3 1,333.1 1,426.6 1,364.9 1,367.7 1,365.7 -2.0

Food and beverage stores

3,177.0 3,104.4 3,144.0 3,146.9 3,145.1 3,108.2 3,119.6 3,117.8 -1.8

Health and personal care stores

987.5 1,033.0 1,056.4 1,067.0 960.8 1,027.8 1,032.2 1,036.8 4.6

Gasoline stations

938.6 960.5 960.6 959.3 939.3 957.9 958.8 960.3 1.5

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,075.7 1,060.0 1,116.1 1,154.8 979.0 1,064.0 1,047.6 1,039.6 -8.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

499.5 495.0 523.3 519.5 460.4 494.0 488.6 476.1 -12.5

General merchandise stores

3,278.6 3,153.0 3,323.4 3,384.9 3,048.1 3,118.6 3,103.3 3,119.1 15.8

Department stores

1,110.1 1,015.2 1,111.8 1,147.0 976.8 1,007.9 1,002.4 1,003.1 0.7

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,168.5 2,137.8 2,211.6 2,237.9 2,071.3 2,110.7 2,100.9 2,115.9 15.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

782.2 834.4 833.7 840.9 770.0 830.6 830.4 836.2 5.8

Nonstore retailers

637.1 647.9 668.4 663.4 610.8 638.0 642.7 643.2 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

5,998.4 5,979.8 6,213.0 6,363.2 5,668.1 5,980.4 6,022.6 6,041.3 18.7

Air transportation

396.8 465.2 468.4 474.0 398.3 467.3 471.0 476.8 5.8

Rail transportation

145.4 142.3 142.5 142.5 144.5 142.1 142.4 142.3 -0.1

Water transportation

58.2 59.0 57.6 58.4 59.2 58.8 59.3 60.0 0.7

Truck transportation

1,477.6 1,530.9 1,533.2 1,523.2 1,478.9 1,515.3 1,523.0 1,523.3 0.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

379.2 418.9 420.0 422.1 363.0 404.4 404.4 404.3 -0.1

Pipeline transportation

49.6 49.8 50.0 50.5 49.4 49.7 50.0 50.5 0.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

20.6 35.9 32.2 30.3 24.6 35.0 37.1 36.4 -0.7

Support activities for transportation

700.4 741.9 752.2 762.5 694.7 741.6 747.5 754.9 7.4

Couriers and messengers

1,305.0 1,014.0 1,205.8 1,344.8 1,034.3 1,067.2 1,084.4 1,084.3 -0.1

Warehousing and storage

1,465.6 1,521.9 1,551.1 1,554.9 1,421.2 1,499.0 1,503.5 1,508.5 5.0

Utilities

540.2 535.8 536.7 536.8 538.5 536.5 536.4 536.2 -0.2

Information

2,668 2,790 2,802 2,812 2,659 2,794 2,795 2,795 0

Publishing industries, except Internet

761.7 772.5 777.8 786.5 761.6 775.0 777.3 781.3 4.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

262.4 347.8 350.3 344.2 258.7 348.4 346.9 340.7 -6.2

Broadcasting, except Internet

247.4 238.5 238.1 238.1 246.3 237.6 237.6 237.7 0.1

Telecommunications

683.3 671.0 669.1 674.3 679.5 672.3 667.9 666.1 -1.8

Data processing, hosting and related services

354.9 381.5 381.2 382.7 355.8 380.4 380.3 381.9 1.6

Other information services

358.0 379.0 385.5 386.2 357.2 380.6 385.1 387.0 1.9

Financial activities

8,788 8,907 8,920 8,942 8,774 8,894 8,911 8,919 8

Finance and insurance

6,554.8 6,564.9 6,581.9 6,597.0 6,539.4 6,562.3 6,572.7 6,576.3 3.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.3 20.1 20.1 20.1 20.3 20.1 20.2 20.3 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,673.4 2,660.3 2,662.6 2,666.2 2,670.4 2,664.8 2,663.6 2,662.7 -0.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,749.6 1,716.1 1,717.5 1,720.3 1,749.9 1,722.3 1,720.4 1,718.5 -1.9

Commercial banking

1,362.9 1,324.4 1,324.0 1,325.8 1,364.1 1,329.9 1,327.5 1,325.7 -1.8

Nondepository credit intermediation

607.4 620.9 620.5 620.8 605.7 620.4 620.7 622.0 1.3

Activities related to credit intermediation

316.4 323.3 324.6 325.1 314.8 322.1 322.5 322.2 -0.3

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

975.6 1,010.4 1,018.2 1,021.7 973.0 1,008.4 1,017.1 1,018.4 1.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,885.5 2,874.1 2,881.0 2,889.0 2,875.7 2,869.0 2,871.8 2,874.9 3.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,233.6 2,342.3 2,337.9 2,344.6 2,234.7 2,331.6 2,337.8 2,343.1 5.3

Real estate

1,726.5 1,792.2 1,791.3 1,795.1 1,720.4 1,780.8 1,785.5 1,789.1 3.6

Rental and leasing services

484.5 527.9 524.3 527.0 491.9 528.6 530.2 531.8 1.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.6 22.2 22.3 22.5 22.4 22.2 22.1 22.2 0.1

Professional and business services

20,638 21,598 21,714 21,650 20,550 21,319 21,391 21,434 43

Professional and technical services

9,554.8 10,034.6 10,111.6 10,150.0 9,526.0 10,033.4 10,084.2 10,120.9 36.7

Legal services

1,128.0 1,157.0 1,161.0 1,163.2 1,121.9 1,153.6 1,156.6 1,156.3 -0.3

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,001.2 1,023.8 1,050.0 1,075.1 996.5 1,074.9 1,079.7 1,083.1 3.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,524.4 1,606.0 1,606.2 1,610.5 1,525.7 1,596.0 1,601.1 1,609.7 8.6

Specialized design services

135.4 145.4 147.8 150.2 133.6 144.3 146.7 149.0 2.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,204.6 2,313.0 2,333.7 2,323.3 2,211.7 2,301.4 2,314.3 2,324.5 10.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,568.7 1,694.5 1,705.7 1,715.6 1,554.2 1,671.5 1,685.3 1,692.8 7.5

Scientific research and development services

784.8 836.3 839.7 848.6 784.1 840.0 842.1 848.5 6.4

Advertising and related services

443.3 454.8 458.1 460.4 440.6 454.2 456.2 457.2 1.0

Other professional and technical services

764.4 803.8 809.4 803.1 757.7 797.7 802.2 799.8 -2.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,354.6 2,343.1 2,350.0 2,357.2 2,351.7 2,345.1 2,350.2 2,351.4 1.2

Administrative and waste services

8,728.3 9,220.7 9,252.1 9,142.5 8,671.8 8,940.4 8,956.8 8,961.2 4.4

Administrative and support services

8,279.9 8,756.8 8,790.2 8,681.0 8,222.4 8,480.5 8,497.0 8,500.6 3.6

Office administrative services

527.8 570.7 572.6 571.7 528.4 567.8 569.6 570.5 0.9

Facilities support services

153.3 153.5 151.7 150.6 152.8 152.1 151.3 150.3 -1.0

Employment services(1)

3,389.3 3,645.1 3,684.7 3,684.2 3,256.5 3,443.8 3,443.9 3,449.2 5.3

Temporary help services

2,762.4 2,964.2 2,998.3 2,987.5 2,620.6 2,788.8 2,789.3 2,787.7 -1.6

Business support services

825.4 788.3 806.2 796.2 804.1 780.3 783.6 777.2 -6.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

145.5 165.1 162.7 161.7 147.0 166.2 164.2 162.9 -1.3

Investigation and security services

899.8 899.3 906.1 908.5 895.9 898.1 898.6 897.2 -1.4

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,038.3 2,210.9 2,182.5 2,090.9 2,133.6 2,152.9 2,163.5 2,171.3 7.8

Other support services

300.5 323.9 323.7 317.2 304.1 319.3 322.3 322.0 -0.3

Waste management and remediation services

448.4 463.9 461.9 461.5 449.4 459.9 459.8 460.6 0.8

Education and health services

23,400 23,922 24,017 23,954 23,249 23,780 23,794 23,804 10

Educational services

3,404.1 3,769.5 3,816.2 3,749.8 3,321.0 3,632.7 3,638.8 3,642.2 3.4

Health care and social assistance

19,996.1 20,152.5 20,200.5 20,203.7 19,928.3 20,147.5 20,155.5 20,161.6 6.1

Health care(3)

16,036.3 16,049.4 16,078.9 16,085.9 15,979.3 16,042.1 16,045.7 16,042.6 -3.1

Ambulatory health care services

7,733.8 7,939.1 7,960.8 7,968.8 7,700.2 7,924.7 7,933.9 7,942.0 8.1

Offices of physicians

2,680.1 2,735.8 2,738.3 2,750.1 2,662.9 2,730.2 2,728.3 2,732.3 4.0

Offices of dentists

987.9 1,030.9 1,038.7 1,034.2 983.5 1,028.7 1,032.8 1,033.2 0.4

Offices of other health practitioners

951.3 1,014.0 1,021.7 1,021.4 948.4 1,012.9 1,018.2 1,017.7 -0.5

Outpatient care centers

1,002.9 1,012.8 1,017.8 1,018.8 998.4 1,012.3 1,015.3 1,015.9 0.6

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

288.9 300.3 300.3 302.3 288.0 299.9 300.6 301.5 0.9

Home health care services

1,514.0 1,529.8 1,526.9 1,523.8 1,508.7 1,525.2 1,522.6 1,523.8 1.2

Other ambulatory health care services

308.7 315.5 317.1 318.2 310.3 315.3 316.1 317.6 1.5

Hospitals

5,183.9 5,148.5 5,158.0 5,152.5 5,174.8 5,145.1 5,147.0 5,141.9 -5.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,118.6 2,961.8 2,960.1 2,964.6 3,104.3 2,972.3 2,964.8 2,958.7 -6.1

Nursing care facilities

1,439.5 1,353.5 1,348.9 1,347.9 1,433.4 1,359.1 1,350.9 1,345.7 -5.2

Residential mental health facilities

612.2 590.9 593.1 595.6 611.0 592.0 592.8 594.5 1.7

Community care facilities for the elderly

912.5 867.8 867.8 872.3 906.0 871.5 870.9 868.7 -2.2

Other residential care facilities

154.4 149.6 150.3 148.8 153.9 149.8 150.1 149.7 -0.4

Social assistance

3,959.8 4,103.1 4,121.6 4,117.8 3,949.0 4,105.4 4,109.8 4,119.0 9.2

Individual and family services

2,616.3 2,690.5 2,696.3 2,694.8 2,614.4 2,692.8 2,697.1 2,709.9 12.8

Emergency and other relief services

186.5 184.6 188.1 188.5 184.0 185.5 187.0 186.4 -0.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

276.6 285.9 285.3 286.8 277.1 286.5 287.0 287.6 0.6

Child day care services

880.4 942.1 951.9 947.7 873.5 940.6 938.8 935.1 -3.7

Leisure and hospitality

12,896 15,448 15,362 15,429 13,134 15,599 15,640 15,693 53

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,605.6 2,164.0 2,105.4 2,095.4 1,715.9 2,225.8 2,236.0 2,236.7 0.7

Performing arts and spectator sports

311.1 484.7 483.3 478.6 321.9 480.8 490.6 497.6 7.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

128.2 147.2 145.3 146.5 133.0 148.7 149.1 149.4 0.3

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,166.3 1,532.1 1,476.8 1,470.3 1,261.0 1,596.3 1,596.3 1,589.7 -6.6

Accommodation and food services

11,289.9 13,284.4 13,256.5 13,333.7 11,418.1 13,372.9 13,403.9 13,456.5 52.6

Accommodation

1,376.4 1,777.1 1,728.7 1,747.9 1,421.2 1,793.6 1,791.0 1,801.0 10.0

Food services and drinking places

9,913.5 11,507.3 11,527.8 11,585.8 9,996.9 11,579.3 11,612.9 11,655.5 42.6

Other services

5,448 5,773 5,784 5,795 5,469 5,781 5,794 5,807 13

Repair and maintenance

1,304.8 1,392.1 1,402.1 1,396.4 1,312.2 1,386.7 1,396.1 1,400.9 4.8

Personal and laundry services

1,298.5 1,446.4 1,443.1 1,458.3 1,298.3 1,452.8 1,450.3 1,453.9 3.6

Membership associations and organizations

2,845.0 2,934.7 2,939.0 2,939.8 2,858.5 2,941.6 2,947.2 2,952.0 4.8

Government

21,800 22,206 22,302 22,207 21,456 21,941 21,920 21,908 -12

Federal

2,905 2,875 2,892 2,898 2,892 2,878 2,882 2,880 -2

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,279.8 2,277.6 2,274.2 2,273.2 2,285.3 2,273.7 2,273.6 2,272.4 -1.2

U.S. Postal Service

624.7 597.6 617.9 625.2 606.7 604.0 608.6 608.0 -0.6

State government

5,039 5,186 5,193 5,135 4,930 5,042 5,032 5,032 0

State government education

2,361.1 2,551.7 2,569.3 2,516.5 2,243.7 2,403.5 2,400.1 2,405.1 5.0

State government, excluding education

2,677.6 2,633.9 2,623.7 2,618.5 2,686.4 2,638.5 2,632.3 2,627.2 -5.1

Local government

13,856 14,145 14,217 14,174 13,634 14,021 14,006 13,996 -10

Local government education

7,634.1 7,853.5 7,931.0 7,923.9 7,326.4 7,666.9 7,655.1 7,653.3 -1.8

Local government, excluding education

6,222.1 6,291.3 6,286.2 6,250.5 6,307.3 6,354.0 6,350.5 6,342.7 -7.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7

Goods-producing

39.9 39.9 40.0 40.1

Mining and logging

45.0 44.9 45.1 44.9

Construction

39.2 38.8 39.0 39.3

Manufacturing

40.0 40.3 40.4 40.3

Durable goods

40.3 40.4 40.5 40.4

Nondurable goods

39.7 40.1 40.1 40.0

Private service-providing

33.6 33.7 33.7 33.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.5 34.6 34.7

Wholesale trade

38.6 39.4 39.2 39.2

Retail trade

30.4 30.9 31.2 31.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.6 38.1 38.0

Utilities

42.8 42.2 41.8 43.0

Information

37.1 37.0 37.0 37.1

Financial activities

37.7 37.6 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.7 36.7 36.7 36.6

Education and health services

33.5 33.3 33.3 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

25.2 26.3 26.3 26.3

Other services

32.4 32.2 32.2 32.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2

Durable goods

3.1 3.0 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)

Total private

$29.91 $31.01 $31.12 $31.31 $1,037.88 $1,076.05 $1,079.86 $1,086.46

Goods-producing

30.30 31.48 31.55 31.65 1,208.97 1,256.05 1,262.00 1,269.17

Mining and logging

34.67 35.56 35.66 35.82 1,560.15 1,596.64 1,608.27 1,608.32

Construction

32.09 33.43 33.45 33.57 1,257.93 1,297.08 1,304.55 1,319.30

Manufacturing

29.00 30.12 30.21 30.28 1,160.00 1,213.84 1,220.48 1,220.28

Durable goods

30.49 31.63 31.75 31.82 1,228.75 1,277.85 1,285.88 1,285.53

Nondurable goods

26.54 27.61 27.64 27.70 1,053.64 1,107.16 1,108.36 1,108.00

Private service-providing

29.82 30.90 31.02 31.23 1,001.95 1,041.33 1,045.37 1,052.45

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.67 26.73 26.79 26.97 875.35 922.19 926.93 935.86

Wholesale trade

32.87 34.15 34.11 34.44 1,268.78 1,345.51 1,337.11 1,350.05

Retail trade

21.33 22.28 22.37 22.48 648.43 688.45 697.94 705.87

Transportation and warehousing

25.72 26.86 27.08 27.16 1,000.51 1,036.80 1,031.75 1,032.08

Utilities

44.13 45.27 45.36 46.17 1,888.76 1,910.39 1,896.05 1,985.31

Information

44.28 44.74 44.66 45.36 1,642.79 1,655.38 1,652.42 1,682.86

Financial activities

39.06 40.52 40.71 40.98 1,472.56 1,523.55 1,526.63 1,536.75

Professional and business services

35.59 37.40 37.56 37.81 1,306.15 1,372.58 1,378.45 1,383.85

Education and health services

29.45 30.46 30.58 30.83 986.58 1,014.32 1,018.31 1,026.64

Leisure and hospitality

17.15 19.23 19.41 19.57 432.18 505.75 510.48 514.69

Other services

26.85 27.63 27.71 27.78 869.94 889.69 892.26 894.52

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2021 - Dec.
2021(p)
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2021 - Dec.
2021(p)

Total private

105.4 110.2 110.5 110.7 0.2 150.8 163.5 164.4 165.7 0.8

Goods-producing

92.0 94.0 94.5 95.0 0.5 125.9 133.7 134.8 135.9 0.8

Mining and logging

84.4 91.4 92.1 92.6 0.5 117.5 130.5 131.9 133.1 0.9

Construction

100.0 100.4 101.3 102.4 1.1 139.4 145.8 147.3 149.4 1.4

Manufacturing

88.0 90.8 91.2 91.2 0.0 118.7 127.1 128.2 128.4 0.2

Durable goods

86.2 88.6 89.0 89.0 0.0 116.7 124.5 125.5 125.8 0.2

Nondurable goods

91.8 94.7 95.0 94.9 -0.1 123.6 132.6 133.3 133.4 0.1

Private service-providing

109.1 114.9 115.1 115.3 0.2 158.1 172.6 173.6 175.0 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

100.4 104.4 104.8 105.2 0.4 139.0 150.5 151.4 153.1 1.1

Wholesale trade

95.6 99.8 99.5 99.7 0.2 131.5 142.5 141.9 143.6 1.2

Retail trade

93.6 97.0 97.9 98.5 0.6 131.9 142.9 144.7 146.4 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

126.7 132.6 131.8 131.9 0.1 165.8 181.2 181.6 182.3 0.4

Utilities

99.7 98.0 97.0 99.8 2.9 145.4 146.5 145.4 152.2 4.7

Information

90.1 94.4 94.4 94.7 0.3 142.0 150.4 150.2 152.9 1.8

Financial activities

108.4 109.6 109.5 109.6 0.1 165.1 173.2 173.9 175.2 0.7

Professional and business services

118.3 122.7 123.1 123.0 -0.1 170.4 185.8 187.2 188.3 0.6

Education and health services

127.2 129.3 129.4 129.4 0.0 180.2 189.5 190.3 192.0 0.9

Leisure and hospitality

94.4 117.1 117.4 117.8 0.3 130.7 181.6 183.8 185.9 1.1

Other services

102.2 107.3 107.6 107.8 0.2 150.3 162.5 163.4 164.1 0.4

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)
Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

70,852 74,022 74,149 74,196 49.7 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

58,520 61,323 61,464 61,509 48.3 48.5 48.5 48.4

Goods-producing

4,581 4,709 4,725 4,740 22.6 22.8 22.8 22.8

Mining and logging

84 82 84 86 14.1 12.7 12.9 13.1

Construction

983 1,038 1,038 1,040 13.3 13.8 13.8 13.8

Manufacturing

3,514 3,589 3,603 3,614 28.7 28.7 28.7 28.7

Durable goods

1,861 1,904 1,913 1,917 24.5 24.4 24.5 24.5

Nondurable goods

1,653 1,685 1,690 1,697 35.7 35.6 35.6 35.7

Private service-providing

53,939 56,614 56,739 56,769 53.5 53.5 53.5 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,617 10,960 10,995 10,993 39.3 39.5 39.6 39.6

Wholesale trade

1,678.0 1,726.3 1,734.3 1,737.8 29.9 30.1 30.1 30.1

Retail trade

7,352.9 7,537.0 7,547.2 7,544.4 48.5 48.7 48.8 48.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,452.8 1,561.8 1,578.8 1,576.0 25.6 26.1 26.2 26.1

Utilities

133.6 134.6 134.7 134.3 24.8 25.1 25.1 25.0

Information

1,062 1,097 1,105 1,104 39.9 39.3 39.5 39.5

Financial activities

4,961 4,983 4,988 4,988 56.5 56.0 56.0 55.9

Professional and business services

9,451 9,916 9,946 9,955 46.0 46.5 46.5 46.4

Education and health services

17,978 18,309 18,332 18,351 77.3 77.0 77.0 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

6,972 8,265 8,287 8,283 53.1 53.0 53.0 52.8

Other services

2,898 3,084 3,086 3,095 53.0 53.3 53.3 53.3

Government

12,332 12,699 12,685 12,687 57.5 57.9 57.9 57.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2020
Oct.
2021
Nov.
2021(p)
Dec.
2021(p)

Total private

98,617 103,266 103,474 103,567

Goods-producing

14,360 14,733 14,789 14,837

Mining and logging

426 485 488 493

Construction

5,463 5,535 5,556 5,570

Manufacturing

8,471 8,713 8,745 8,774

Durable goods

5,149 5,342 5,352 5,374

Nondurable goods

3,322 3,371 3,393 3,400

Private service-providing

84,257 88,533 88,685 88,730