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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-21-0002
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, January 8, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			   THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2020


Total nonfarm payroll employment declined by 140,000 in December, and the unemployment rate
was unchanged at 6.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The 
decline in payroll employment reflects the recent increase in coronavirus (COVID-19) cases 
and efforts to contain the pandemic. In December, job losses in leisure and hospitality and
in private education were partially offset by gains in professional and business services,
retail trade, and construction. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For 
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		   Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data		|
|											|
| Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using updated seasonal 	|
| adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each calendar year. Seasonally 	|
| adjusted estimates back to January 2016 were subject to revision. The unemployment	|
| rates for January 2020 through November 2020 (as originally published and as revised) |
| appear in table A at the end of this news release, along with additional information  |
| about the revisions.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

In December, both the unemployment rate, at 6.7 percent, and the number of unemployed 
persons, at 10.7 million, were unchanged. Although both measures are much lower than their
April highs, they are nearly twice their pre-pandemic levels in February (3.5 percent and 
5.7 million, respectively). (See table A-1. For more information about how the household
survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic, see the box note at the
end of this news release.) 

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for teenagers (16.0 percent) and 
Hispanics (9.3 percent) increased in December. The jobless rates for adult men (6.4 
percent), adult women (6.3 percent), Whites (6.0 percent), Blacks (9.9 percent), and 
Asians (5.9 percent) showed little change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

Among the unemployed, the number of persons on temporary layoff increased by 277,000 in 
December to 3.0 million. This measure is down considerably from the high of 18.0 million 
in April but is 2.3 million higher than in February. The number of permanent job losers 
declined by 348,000 to 3.4 million in December but is up by 2.1 million since February. 
The number of unemployed reentrants increased by 282,000 to 2.3 million over the month, 
452,000 higher than in February. (See table A-11.) 

In December, the number of persons jobless less than 5 weeks increased by 449,000 to 2.9
million, while the number of persons jobless 15 to 26 weeks declined by 303,000 to 1.6 
million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 4.0
million, was essentially unchanged in December but has increased by 2.8 million since 
February. The number of those jobless for 27 weeks or more accounted for 37.1 percent of
total unemployed in December. (See table A-12.) 

The labor force participation rate and the employment-population ratio were both 
unchanged over the month, at 61.5 percent and 57.4 percent, respectively. These measures 
are up from their recent April lows but are lower than in February by 1.8 percentage
points and 3.7 percentage points, respectively. (See table A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 6.2 million, decreased
by 471,000 over the month. This measure is down from its April high of 10.9 million but
is 1.8 million higher than the February level. These individuals, who would have 
preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been 
reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.) 

In December, the number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 
7.3 million, was little changed over the month but is 2.3 million higher than in 
February. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not 
actively looking for work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. 
(See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who currently want a job, the number of persons 
marginally attached to the labor force, at 2.2 million, changed little in December but
is up by 749,000 since February. These individuals wanted and were available for work
and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in
the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the 
marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, was essentially 
unchanged at 663,000 in December but is up by 262,000 since February. (See Summary 
table A.)  

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In December, 23.7 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus 
pandemic, up from 21.8 percent in November. These data refer to employed persons who 
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically 
because of the pandemic. 

In December, 15.8 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because 
their employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work
at all or worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. 
This measure is 1.0 million higher than in November. Among those who reported in 
December that they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost 
business, 12.8 percent received at least some pay from their employer for the hours 
not worked, little changed from November.  

Among those not in the labor force in December, 4.6 million persons were prevented 
from looking for work due to the pandemic. This measure is up from 3.9 million in
November. (To be counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either 
actively looking for work or on temporary layoff.)  
 
These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning
in May to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are 
not seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for
all months are available online at 
www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm. 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment declined by 140,000 in December. Employment declines
in leisure and hospitality, private education, and government were partially offset by
gains in professional and business services, retail trade, construction, and 
transportation and warehousing. In December, nonfarm employment was below its February
level by 9.8 million, or 6.5 percent. (See table B-1. For more information about how 
the establishment survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic,
see the box note at the end of this news release.)

In December, employment in leisure and hospitality declined by 498,000, with three-
quarters of the decrease in food services and drinking places (-372,000). Employment
also fell in the amusements, gambling, and recreation industry (-92,000) and in the 
accommodation industry (-24,000). Since February, employment in leisure and 
hospitality is down by 3.9 million, or 23.2 percent. 

Employment in private education decreased by 63,000 in December. Employment in the
industry is down by 450,000 since February.

Government employment declined by 45,000 in December. Employment in the component of 
local government that excludes education declined by 32,000, and state government 
education lost 20,000 jobs. Federal government employment increased by 6,000. Since 
February, government employment overall is down by 1.3 million. 

Other services lost 22,000 jobs in December, with over half of the loss in personal
and laundry services (-12,000). Employment in the other services industry is down by 
453,000 since February.

In December, employment in professional and business services increased by 161,000,
with a large gain in temporary help services (+68,000). Job growth also occurred in 
computer systems design and related services (+20,000), other professional and technical
services (+11,000), management of companies and enterprises (+11,000), and business 
support services (+7,000). Employment in professional and business services is down by
858,000 since February.

Retail trade added 121,000 jobs in December, with nearly half of the growth occurring
in the component of general merchandise stores that includes warehouse clubs and 
supercenters (+59,000). Job gains also occurred in nonstore retailers (+14,000), 
automobile dealers (+13,000), health and personal care stores (+10,000), and food and
beverage stores (+8,000). Employment in retail trade is 411,000 lower than in February.

Construction added 51,000 jobs in December, but employment in the industry is 226,000 
below its February level. In December, employment rose in residential specialty trade 
contractors (+14,000) and residential building (+9,000), two industries that have 
gained back the jobs lost in March and April. In December, employment also increased 
in nonresidential specialty trade contractors (+18,000) and in heavy and civil 
engineering construction (+15,000).

Employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 47,000 in December, largely in 
couriers and messengers (+37,000). While employment in transportation and warehousing
overall is 89,000 lower than in February, employment in couriers and messengers has
increased by 222,000 over the same period. In December, employment also grew in 
warehousing and storage (+8,000) and in truck transportation (+7,000), while transit
and ground passenger transportation lost 9,000 jobs. 

In December, health care added 39,000 jobs. Employment growth in hospitals (+32,000)
and ambulatory health care services (+21,000) was partially offset by declines in 
nursing care facilities (-6,000) and community care facilities for the elderly (-5,000).
Health care employment is 502,000 lower than in February.

In December, manufacturing employment increased by 38,000, with gains in motor vehicles
and parts (+7,000), plastics and rubber products (+7,000), and nonmetallic mineral 
products (+6,000). By contrast, miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing lost 
11,000 jobs over the month. Despite gains over the past 8 months, employment in 
manufacturing is 543,000 below its February level.

Wholesale trade employment rose by 25,000 in December but is down by 251,000 since 
February. In December, job gains occurred in durable goods (+11,000) and nondurable
goods (+11,000).

In December, employment changed little in other major industries, including mining,
information, and financial activities.

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
increased by 23 cents to $29.81. Average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 20 cents to $25.09. These 
increases largely reflect the disproportionate number of lower-paid workers in 
leisure and hospitality who went off payrolls, which put upward pressure on the 
average hourly earnings estimates. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls declined by 0.1
hour to 34.7 hours in December. In manufacturing, the workweek was unchanged at 
40.2 hours, and overtime increased by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average workweek
for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 
unchanged at 34.2 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised up by 
44,000, from +610,000 to +654,000, and the change for November was revised up by 
91,000, from +245,000 to +336,000. With these revisions, employment in October 
and November combined was 135,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly 
revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government
agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of 
seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
February 5, 2021, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on December 2020 			|
|			  Establishment and Household Survey Data			|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. |
| In the establishment survey, approximately one-fifth of the establishments are 	|
| assigned to four regional data collection centers for collection. Although these 	|
| centers were closed, interviewers at these centers worked remotely to collect data by |
| telephone. Additionally, BLS encouraged businesses to report electronically. The 	|
| collection rate for the establishment survey was 76 percent in December, about the 	|
| same as the average for the 12 months ending in February 2020. The household survey 	|
| is generally conducted through in-person and telephone interviews. However, for the 	|
| safety of both interviewers and respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only |
| when telephone interviews could not be done. The household survey response rate was 	|
| 77 percent in December, considerably higher than the low of 65 percent in June but 	|
| below the average of 83 percent for the 12 months ending in February 2020. 		|
|											|
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any 	|
| part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even 	|
| if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently 	|
| absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if 	|
| they continue to receive benefits. 							|
|											|
| In the household survey, individuals are classified as employed, unemployed, or not 	|
| in the labor force based on their answers to a series of questions about their 	|
| activities during the survey reference week (December 6th through December 12th). 	|
| Workers who indicate they were not working during the entire survey reference week 	|
| and expect to be recalled to their jobs should be classified as unemployed on 	|
| temporary layoff. As in recent months, a large number of persons were classified as 	|
| unemployed on temporary layoff in December.     					|
|											|
| Since March, household survey interviewers have been instructed to classify employed 	|
| persons absent from work due to temporary, coronavirus-related business closures or	|
| cutbacks as unemployed on temporary layoff. As in earlier months, some workers 	|
| affected by the pandemic who should have been classified as unemployed on temporary 	|
| layoff were instead misclassified as employed but not at work. However, the share of 	|
| responses that may have been misclassified was highest in the early months of the 	|
| pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent months.     			|
|											|
| For March through November, BLS published an estimate of what the unemployment rate 	|
| would have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed. 	|
| Repeating this same approach, the overall December unemployment rate would have been	|
| 0.6 percentage point higher than reported. However, this represents the upper bound 	|
| of our estimate of misclassification and probably overstates the size of the 		|
| misclassification error.   								|
|											|
| According to usual practice, the data from the household survey are accepted as 	|
| recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify 	|
| survey responses.									|
|											|
| More information is available at 							|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-december-2020.htm.  		|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|			Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data			|
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2021 on February	|
| 5, 2021, new population controls will be used in the household survey estimation 	|
| process. These new controls reflect the annual update of intercensal population 	|
| estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual practice, historical 	|
| data will not be revised to incorporate the new controls; consequently, household 	|
| survey data for January 2021 will not be directly comparable with data for December 	|
| 2020 or earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the new controls on the major |
| labor force series will be included in the January 2021 news release. In addition, 	|
| the population controls for veterans, which are derived from a Department of Veterans |
| Affairs population model and are updated periodically, will also be updated with the 	|
| release of January data.								|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		     Upcoming Revisions to Establishment Survey Data 			|
|											|
| Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January 2021 on February 	|
| 5, 2021, the establishment survey will revise nonfarm payroll employment, hours, and 	|
| earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark process and updated seasonal adjustment |
| factors. Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with April 2019 and seasonally 	|
| adjusted data beginning with January 2016 are subject to revision. Consistent with 	|
| standard practice, additional historical data may be revised as a result of the	|
| benchmark process.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


		  Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data

At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment factors 
for the national labor force series derived from the household survey. As a result of 
this process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2016 through November 2020 were 
subject to revision. (Not seasonally adjusted data were not subject to revision.) 

Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2020 through November 2020, as first 
published and as revised. The rates changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in 3 of 
the 11 months and were unchanged in the remaining 8 months. Revised seasonally adjusted
data for other major labor force series beginning in December 2019 appear in table B. 

More information on this year's revisions to seasonally adjusted household series is 
available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-seas-adjustment-methodology.pdf. Detailed 
information on the seasonal adjustment methodology is found at 
www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology.htm.

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables of this news release
can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Revised historical seasonally adjusted
data are available at www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and 
https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.


Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2020 and changes due to revision
January - November 2020


Month                  As First Computed          As Revised              Change

January.............                 3.6                 3.5                -0.1
February............                 3.5                 3.5                 0.0
March...............                 4.4                 4.4                 0.0
April...............                14.7                14.8                 0.1
May.................                13.3                13.3                 0.0
June................                11.1                11.1                 0.0
July................                10.2                10.2                 0.0
August..............                 8.4                 8.4                 0.0
September...........                 7.9                 7.8                -0.1
October.............                 6.9                 6.9                 0.0
November............                 6.7                 6.7                 0.0




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2019 2020
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

260,181 259,502 259,628 259,758 259,896 260,047 260,204 260,373 260,558 260,742 260,925 261,085 261,230

Civilian labor force

164,579 164,455 164,448 162,721 156,478 158,200 159,797 160,085 160,818 160,078 160,718 160,536 160,567

Participation rate

63.3 63.4 63.3 62.6 60.2 60.8 61.4 61.5 61.7 61.4 61.6 61.5 61.5

Employed

158,735 158,659 158,732 155,536 133,370 137,224 142,100 143,777 147,276 147,543 149,669 149,809 149,830

Employment-population ratio

61.0 61.1 61.1 59.9 51.3 52.8 54.6 55.2 56.5 56.6 57.4 57.4 57.4

Unemployed

5,844 5,796 5,717 7,185 23,109 20,975 17,697 16,308 13,542 12,535 11,049 10,728 10,736

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.5 4.4 14.8 13.3 11.1 10.2 8.4 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.7

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

117,413 117,110 117,181 117,254 117,330 117,410 117,492 117,580 117,672 117,763 117,854 117,936 118,010

Civilian labor force

83,996 83,970 83,930 83,171 80,490 81,073 81,922 81,861 82,461 82,293 82,505 82,226 82,244

Participation rate

71.5 71.7 71.6 70.9 68.6 69.1 69.7 69.6 70.1 69.9 70.0 69.7 69.7

Employed

81,373 81,329 81,235 79,785 69,975 71,668 73,605 74,173 75,903 76,258 77,013 76,777 77,004

Employment-population ratio

69.3 69.4 69.3 68.0 59.6 61.0 62.6 63.1 64.5 64.8 65.3 65.1 65.3

Unemployed

2,623 2,641 2,695 3,385 10,515 9,405 8,317 7,688 6,558 6,036 5,492 5,449 5,240

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.1 3.2 4.1 13.1 11.6 10.2 9.4 8.0 7.3 6.7 6.6 6.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

126,082 125,770 125,841 125,915 125,991 126,072 126,155 126,243 126,336 126,429 126,520 126,604 126,681

Civilian labor force

74,616 74,502 74,501 73,657 70,896 71,548 72,479 72,866 72,728 71,865 72,255 72,395 72,422

Participation rate

59.2 59.2 59.2 58.5 56.3 56.8 57.5 57.7 57.6 56.8 57.1 57.2 57.2

Employed

72,172 72,099 72,171 70,691 59,938 61,630 64,321 65,270 66,667 66,328 67,534 67,941 67,872

Employment-population ratio

57.2 57.3 57.4 56.1 47.6 48.9 51.0 51.7 52.8 52.5 53.4 53.7 53.6

Unemployed

2,443 2,404 2,330 2,966 10,958 9,918 8,158 7,596 6,061 5,537 4,721 4,453 4,551

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.2 3.1 4.0 15.5 13.9 11.3 10.4 8.3 7.7 6.5 6.2 6.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,686 16,622 16,606 16,590 16,574 16,566 16,557 16,550 16,550 16,551 16,551 16,545 16,538

Civilian labor force

5,967 5,982 6,017 5,894 5,093 5,579 5,396 5,358 5,630 5,920 5,958 5,915 5,900

Participation rate

35.8 36.0 36.2 35.5 30.7 33.7 32.6 32.4 34.0 35.8 36.0 35.8 35.7

Employed

5,190 5,231 5,326 5,060 3,457 3,926 4,174 4,333 4,706 4,957 5,122 5,091 4,955

Employment-population ratio

31.1 31.5 32.1 30.5 20.9 23.7 25.2 26.2 28.4 29.9 30.9 30.8 30.0

Unemployed

778 751 691 834 1,636 1,653 1,222 1,024 924 963 836 825 946

Unemployment rate

13.0 12.6 11.5 14.1 32.1 29.6 22.6 19.1 16.4 16.3 14.0 13.9 16.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Change from:
Nov.
2020-
Dec.
2020

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,181 260,925 261,085 261,230 145

Civilian labor force

164,579 160,718 160,536 160,567 31

Participation rate

63.3 61.6 61.5 61.5 0.0

Employed

158,735 149,669 149,809 149,830 21

Employment-population ratio

61.0 57.4 57.4 57.4 0.0

Unemployed

5,844 11,049 10,728 10,736 8

Unemployment rate

3.6 6.9 6.7 6.7 0.0

Not in labor force

95,602 100,207 100,548 100,663 115

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 6.9 6.7 6.7 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.1 6.7 6.6 6.4 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 6.5 6.2 6.3 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.0 14.0 13.9 16.0 2.1

White

3.1 6.0 5.9 6.0 0.1

Black or African American

6.2 10.8 10.3 9.9 -0.4

Asian

2.6 7.6 6.7 5.9 -0.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.3 8.8 8.4 9.3 0.9

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 6.2 6.0 5.8 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

5.3 9.9 9.2 9.8 0.6

High school graduates, no college

3.7 8.1 7.8 7.8 0.0

Some college or associate degree

2.8 6.6 6.3 6.3 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

1.9 4.2 4.2 3.8 -0.4

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,703 7,685 7,468 7,210 -258

Job leavers

814 763 698 743 45

Reentrants

1,734 2,017 1,968 2,250 282

New entrants

574 526 551 509 -42

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,098 2,494 2,455 2,904 449

5 to 14 weeks

1,682 2,341 2,404 2,222 -182

15 to 26 weeks

821 2,651 1,875 1,572 -303

27 weeks and over

1,177 3,534 3,929 3,956 27

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,172 6,668 6,641 6,170 -471

Slack work or business conditions

2,634 5,298 5,223 4,891 -332

Could only find part-time work

1,259 1,135 1,167 1,045 -122

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,649 19,465 18,580 18,237 -343

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,233 1,958 2,083 2,186 103

Discouraged workers

279 590 657 663 6

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

184 654 336 -140

Total private

164 925 417 -95

Goods-producing

5 117 67 93

Mining and logging

-9 2 3 4

Construction

16 72 29 51

Manufacturing

-2 43 35 38

Durable goods(1)

0 19 25 25

Motor vehicles and parts

2.0 4.1 10.9 6.7

Nondurable goods

-2 24 10 13

Private service-providing

159 808 350 -188

Wholesale trade

6.9 8.7 11.8 25.1

Retail trade

41.4 100.3 -21.2 120.5

Transportation and warehousing

-2.1 65.8 128.0 46.6

Utilities

0.7 -1.3 -0.5 -0.4

Information

9 -16 2 -1

Financial activities

10 30 16 12

Professional and business services(1)

22 245 88 161

Temporary help services

4.5 125.5 41.8 67.6

Education and health services(1)

29 65 44 -31

Health care and social assistance

25.3 90.8 48.5 32.0

Leisure and hospitality

40 265 75 -498

Other services

2 46 6 -22

Government

20 -271 -81 -45

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

210 953 567 283

Total private

200 961 757 416

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

50.0 49.8 49.8 49.7

Total private women employees

48.7 48.4 48.4 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.2 81.5 81.5 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.3 34.8 34.8 34.7

Average hourly earnings

$28.37 $29.49 $29.58 $29.81

Average weekly earnings

$973.09 $1,026.25 $1,029.38 $1,034.41

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

111.4 105.6 106.0 105.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.8 0.4 -0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

151.0 148.9 149.9 150.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.8 0.7 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

58.1 74.8 62.8 61.0

Manufacturing (76 industries)

50.7 67.1 61.2 71.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,181 261,085 261,230 260,181 260,558 260,742 260,925 261,085 261,230

Civilian labor force

164,007 160,468 160,017 164,579 160,818 160,078 160,718 160,536 160,567

Participation rate

63.0 61.5 61.3 63.3 61.7 61.4 61.6 61.5 61.5

Employed

158,504 150,203 149,613 158,735 147,276 147,543 149,669 149,809 149,830

Employment-population ratio

60.9 57.5 57.3 61.0 56.5 56.6 57.4 57.4 57.4

Unemployed

5,503 10,264 10,404 5,844 13,542 12,535 11,049 10,728 10,736

Unemployment rate

3.4 6.4 6.5 3.6 8.4 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.7

Not in labor force

96,174 100,617 101,213 95,602 99,740 100,664 100,207 100,548 100,663

Persons who currently want a job

4,643 6,791 7,088 4,888 7,049 7,184 6,682 7,127 7,331

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,852 126,296 126,367 125,852 126,036 126,127 126,218 126,296 126,367

Civilian labor force

86,500 84,934 84,644 87,034 85,270 85,199 85,495 85,161 85,175

Participation rate

68.7 67.2 67.0 69.2 67.7 67.6 67.7 67.4 67.4

Employed

83,467 79,291 78,955 83,995 78,213 78,663 79,537 79,267 79,481

Employment-population ratio

66.3 62.8 62.5 66.7 62.1 62.4 63.0 62.8 62.9

Unemployed

3,033 5,643 5,689 3,039 7,057 6,537 5,958 5,894 5,694

Unemployment rate

3.5 6.6 6.7 3.5 8.3 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.7

Not in labor force

39,352 41,363 41,723 38,818 40,765 40,928 40,722 41,135 41,192

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,413 117,936 118,010 117,413 117,672 117,763 117,854 117,936 118,010

Civilian labor force

83,628 82,134 81,877 83,996 82,461 82,293 82,505 82,226 82,244

Participation rate

71.2 69.6 69.4 71.5 70.1 69.9 70.0 69.7 69.7

Employed

80,940 76,904 76,572 81,373 75,903 76,258 77,013 76,777 77,004

Employment-population ratio

68.9 65.2 64.9 69.3 64.5 64.8 65.3 65.1 65.3

Unemployed

2,688 5,230 5,305 2,623 6,558 6,036 5,492 5,449 5,240

Unemployment rate

3.2 6.4 6.5 3.1 8.0 7.3 6.7 6.6 6.4

Not in labor force

33,785 35,802 36,134 33,417 35,211 35,470 35,349 35,710 35,767

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,329 134,788 134,862 134,329 134,523 134,615 134,707 134,788 134,862

Civilian labor force

77,507 75,534 75,373 77,545 75,548 74,879 75,222 75,376 75,392

Participation rate

57.7 56.0 55.9 57.7 56.2 55.6 55.8 55.9 55.9

Employed

75,036 70,913 70,658 74,740 69,063 68,880 70,131 70,542 70,350

Employment-population ratio

55.9 52.6 52.4 55.6 51.3 51.2 52.1 52.3 52.2

Unemployed

2,471 4,621 4,715 2,805 6,485 5,998 5,091 4,834 5,042

Unemployment rate

3.2 6.1 6.3 3.6 8.6 8.0 6.8 6.4 6.7

Not in labor force

56,822 59,254 59,490 56,784 58,975 59,737 59,485 59,413 59,471

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,082 126,604 126,681 126,082 126,336 126,429 126,520 126,604 126,681

Civilian labor force

74,730 72,695 72,558 74,616 72,728 71,865 72,255 72,395 72,422

Participation rate

59.3 57.4 57.3 59.2 57.6 56.8 57.1 57.2 57.2

Employed

72,534 68,407 68,248 72,172 66,667 66,328 67,534 67,941 67,872

Employment-population ratio

57.5 54.0 53.9 57.2 52.8 52.5 53.4 53.7 53.6

Unemployed

2,196 4,289 4,309 2,443 6,061 5,537 4,721 4,453 4,551

Unemployment rate

2.9 5.9 5.9 3.3 8.3 7.7 6.5 6.2 6.3

Not in labor force

51,352 53,909 54,124 51,466 53,608 54,563 54,265 54,209 54,259

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,686 16,545 16,538 16,686 16,550 16,551 16,551 16,545 16,538

Civilian labor force

5,649 5,639 5,582 5,967 5,630 5,920 5,958 5,915 5,900

Participation rate

33.9 34.1 33.8 35.8 34.0 35.8 36.0 35.8 35.7

Employed

5,029 4,893 4,793 5,190 4,706 4,957 5,122 5,091 4,955

Employment-population ratio

30.1 29.6 29.0 31.1 28.4 29.9 30.9 30.8 30.0

Unemployed

619 745 789 778 924 963 836 825 946

Unemployment rate

11.0 13.2 14.1 13.0 16.4 16.3 14.0 13.9 16.0

Not in labor force

11,038 10,906 10,956 10,719 10,920 10,631 10,593 10,630 10,638

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,326 201,685 201,749 201,326 201,417 201,515 201,610 201,685 201,749

Civilian labor force

126,758 124,065 123,828 127,160 124,512 124,202 124,672 124,038 124,208

Participation rate

63.0 61.5 61.4 63.2 61.8 61.6 61.8 61.5 61.6

Employed

122,919 117,041 116,479 123,164 115,342 115,510 117,146 116,665 116,703

Employment-population ratio

61.1 58.0 57.7 61.2 57.3 57.3 58.1 57.8 57.8

Unemployed

3,839 7,024 7,348 3,997 9,170 8,691 7,525 7,373 7,505

Unemployment rate

3.0 5.7 5.9 3.1 7.4 7.0 6.0 5.9 6.0

Not in labor force

74,568 77,620 77,921 74,166 76,906 77,313 76,939 77,647 77,541

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,827 64,598 64,407 66,022 64,946 65,001 65,123 64,648 64,593

Participation rate

71.4 69.8 69.6 71.6 70.3 70.4 70.4 69.9 69.8

Employed

63,897 60,953 60,561 64,219 60,459 60,780 61,314 60,844 60,872

Employment-population ratio

69.3 65.9 65.5 69.6 65.5 65.8 66.3 65.8 65.8

Unemployed

1,930 3,645 3,847 1,803 4,487 4,220 3,808 3,804 3,721

Unemployment rate

2.9 5.6 6.0 2.7 6.9 6.5 5.8 5.9 5.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

56,509 55,014 55,048 56,454 55,140 54,568 54,866 54,717 54,980

Participation rate

58.4 56.7 56.7 58.3 56.9 56.3 56.5 56.4 56.6

Employed

55,086 52,200 52,116 54,854 51,111 50,813 51,761 51,765 51,871

Employment-population ratio

56.9 53.8 53.7 56.6 52.7 52.4 53.3 53.3 53.4

Unemployed

1,423 2,814 2,932 1,600 4,029 3,755 3,105 2,953 3,109

Unemployment rate

2.5 5.1 5.3 2.8 7.3 6.9 5.7 5.4 5.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,423 4,453 4,372 4,684 4,425 4,633 4,683 4,673 4,635

Participation rate

36.2 36.7 36.1 38.3 36.5 38.2 38.6 38.5 38.2

Employed

3,936 3,887 3,802 4,090 3,771 3,917 4,071 4,056 3,960

Employment-population ratio

32.2 32.1 31.4 33.4 31.1 32.3 33.5 33.4 32.7

Unemployed

486 565 570 594 654 716 612 616 675

Unemployment rate

11.0 12.7 13.0 12.7 14.8 15.5 13.1 13.2 14.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,215 33,486 33,516 33,215 33,386 33,420 33,453 33,486 33,516

Civilian labor force

20,855 20,166 19,919 20,989 20,112 19,942 20,123 20,165 20,055

Participation rate

62.8 60.2 59.4 63.2 60.2 59.7 60.2 60.2 59.8

Employed

19,692 18,184 18,066 19,687 17,530 17,558 17,955 18,087 18,061

Employment-population ratio

59.3 54.3 53.9 59.3 52.5 52.5 53.7 54.0 53.9

Unemployed

1,163 1,982 1,853 1,302 2,582 2,385 2,169 2,077 1,994

Unemployment rate

5.6 9.8 9.3 6.2 12.8 12.0 10.8 10.3 9.9

Not in labor force

12,360 13,320 13,597 12,226 13,274 13,478 13,330 13,321 13,461

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,500 9,197 9,166 9,555 9,281 9,124 9,224 9,217 9,222

Participation rate

68.0 65.1 64.8 68.4 65.9 64.7 65.4 65.2 65.2

Employed

8,965 8,217 8,245 8,988 8,059 7,975 8,166 8,184 8,265

Employment-population ratio

64.1 58.2 58.3 64.3 57.3 56.6 57.9 57.9 58.4

Unemployed

535 980 921 567 1,222 1,149 1,058 1,033 956

Unemployment rate

5.6 10.7 10.0 5.9 13.2 12.6 11.5 11.2 10.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,646 10,295 10,041 10,693 10,140 10,093 10,169 10,242 10,088

Participation rate

63.4 60.7 59.2 63.7 60.0 59.7 60.1 60.4 59.5

Employed

10,139 9,395 9,264 10,111 8,945 8,999 9,230 9,320 9,238

Employment-population ratio

60.4 55.4 54.6 60.2 52.9 53.2 54.5 55.0 54.5

Unemployed

507 900 778 582 1,195 1,093 939 921 849

Unemployment rate

4.8 8.7 7.7 5.4 11.8 10.8 9.2 9.0 8.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

709 674 712 742 691 726 731 706 746

Participation rate

28.9 28.0 29.6 30.3 28.6 30.1 30.3 29.3 31.0

Employed

588 572 557 588 525 584 559 583 558

Employment-population ratio

24.0 23.8 23.2 24.0 21.8 24.2 23.2 24.2 23.2

Unemployed

121 102 154 154 166 142 172 123 188

Unemployment rate

17.1 15.1 21.7 20.7 24.0 19.6 23.5 17.4 25.2

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,482 16,558 16,583 16,482 16,597 16,668 16,542 16,558 16,583

Civilian labor force

10,443 10,366 10,259 10,439 10,582 10,480 10,382 10,380 10,253

Participation rate

63.4 62.6 61.9 63.3 63.8 62.9 62.8 62.7 61.8

Employed

10,189 9,675 9,664 10,172 9,461 9,553 9,598 9,685 9,645

Employment-population ratio

61.8 58.4 58.3 61.7 57.0 57.3 58.0 58.5 58.2

Unemployed

254 691 595 267 1,121 926 784 695 608

Unemployment rate

2.4 6.7 5.8 2.6 10.6 8.8 7.6 6.7 5.9

Not in labor force

6,040 6,192 6,324 6,043 6,015 6,188 6,160 6,179 6,329

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,986 44,559 44,639 43,986 44,300 44,388 44,475 44,559 44,639

Civilian labor force

29,493 29,240 29,129 29,530 28,940 28,804 29,156 29,152 29,150

Participation rate

67.1 65.6 65.3 67.1 65.3 64.9 65.6 65.4 65.3

Employed

28,275 26,821 26,442 28,269 25,897 25,834 26,582 26,688 26,436

Employment-population ratio

64.3 60.2 59.2 64.3 58.5 58.2 59.8 59.9 59.2

Unemployed

1,218 2,419 2,688 1,260 3,042 2,969 2,575 2,463 2,714

Unemployment rate

4.1 8.3 9.2 4.3 10.5 10.3 8.8 8.4 9.3

Not in labor force

14,493 15,319 15,510 14,456 15,361 15,584 15,318 15,407 15,489

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,878 15,971 15,854 15,897 15,760 15,859 16,080 15,951 15,856

Participation rate

79.9 79.4 78.6 80.0 78.8 79.1 80.1 79.3 78.6

Employed

15,352 14,753 14,423 15,391 14,218 14,463 14,767 14,700 14,462

Employment-population ratio

77.3 73.3 71.5 77.5 71.1 72.1 73.5 73.0 71.7

Unemployed

526 1,218 1,431 505 1,542 1,397 1,313 1,251 1,395

Unemployment rate

3.3 7.6 9.0 3.2 9.8 8.8 8.2 7.8 8.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,310 11,910 11,929 12,288 11,912 11,575 11,746 11,821 11,906

Participation rate

61.2 58.4 58.4 61.1 58.8 57.0 57.7 58.0 58.3

Employed

11,779 10,946 10,874 11,725 10,652 10,306 10,688 10,851 10,820

Employment-population ratio

58.6 53.7 53.2 58.3 52.5 50.7 52.5 53.2 52.9

Unemployed

531 964 1,055 562 1,260 1,270 1,058 970 1,086

Unemployment rate

4.3 8.1 8.8 4.6 10.6 11.0 9.0 8.2 9.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,305 1,358 1,346 1,346 1,267 1,370 1,331 1,380 1,388

Participation rate

32.5 33.6 33.3 33.5 31.5 34.0 33.0 34.2 34.3

Employed

1,143 1,121 1,145 1,153 1,027 1,066 1,127 1,137 1,155

Employment-population ratio

28.5 27.8 28.3 28.7 25.5 26.5 27.9 28.2 28.6

Unemployed

161 237 202 193 240 303 203 243 234

Unemployment rate

12.4 17.5 15.0 14.3 18.9 22.1 15.3 17.6 16.8

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,918 9,418 9,246 9,833 8,528 8,811 9,169 9,276 9,147

Participation rate

46.6 46.4 45.5 46.2 45.0 43.5 46.0 45.7 45.0

Employed

9,330 8,585 8,288 9,309 7,455 7,872 8,258 8,418 8,254

Employment-population ratio

43.8 42.3 40.8 43.7 39.3 38.9 41.5 41.4 40.7

Unemployed

588 833 958 524 1,073 939 911 858 893

Unemployment rate

5.9 8.8 10.4 5.3 12.6 10.7 9.9 9.2 9.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,923 35,246 34,751 36,100 34,228 34,974 35,479 35,163 34,925

Participation rate

58.2 55.5 55.2 58.5 55.1 55.0 55.8 55.4 55.5

Employed

34,585 32,622 32,006 34,781 30,875 31,835 32,607 32,435 32,198

Employment-population ratio

56.0 51.4 50.8 56.3 49.7 50.1 51.3 51.1 51.1

Unemployed

1,337 2,624 2,745 1,320 3,354 3,139 2,873 2,728 2,726

Unemployment rate

3.7 7.4 7.9 3.7 9.8 9.0 8.1 7.8 7.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,499 35,833 35,714 37,474 36,558 35,969 35,762 35,644 35,676

Participation rate

64.7 62.6 62.6 64.7 64.2 63.6 62.4 62.3 62.5

Employed

36,516 33,647 33,538 36,418 33,642 33,056 33,409 33,387 33,430

Employment-population ratio

63.0 58.8 58.8 62.9 59.1 58.4 58.3 58.4 58.6

Unemployed

983 2,185 2,175 1,056 2,916 2,912 2,354 2,257 2,246

Unemployment rate

2.6 6.1 6.1 2.8 8.0 8.1 6.6 6.3 6.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,174 59,719 60,174 59,947 61,815 59,861 59,530 59,620 59,940

Participation rate

73.8 72.3 72.1 73.5 72.7 72.2 72.0 72.2 71.9

Employed

59,096 57,287 57,985 58,783 58,563 57,024 57,041 57,095 57,665

Employment-population ratio

72.5 69.3 69.5 72.1 68.8 68.8 69.0 69.1 69.1

Unemployed

1,079 2,432 2,190 1,164 3,252 2,837 2,488 2,524 2,274

Unemployment rate

1.8 4.1 3.6 1.9 5.3 4.7 4.2 4.2 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,649 18,283 16,756 16,375 1,893 1,908

Civilian labor force

9,272 8,693 8,151 7,578 1,121 1,115

Participation rate

49.7 47.5 48.6 46.3 59.2 58.5

Employed

9,009 8,231 7,909 7,158 1,100 1,074

Employment-population ratio

48.3 45.0 47.2 43.7 58.1 56.3

Unemployed

264 462 242 420 22 42

Unemployment rate

2.8 5.3 3.0 5.5 1.9 3.7

Not in labor force

9,377 9,590 8,605 8,797 772 793

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,344 4,536 3,580 3,728 764 808

Civilian labor force

3,494 3,476 2,963 2,939 531 537

Participation rate

80.4 76.6 82.7 78.8 69.5 66.4

Employed

3,387 3,298 2,873 2,788 514 510

Employment-population ratio

78.0 72.7 80.2 74.8 67.3 63.1

Unemployed

107 178 90 151 17 27

Unemployment rate

3.1 5.1 3.0 5.1 3.1 5.0

Not in labor force

851 1,060 618 789 233 271

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,126 3,079 2,646 2,609 480 470

Civilian labor force

2,360 2,263 2,035 1,930 325 333

Participation rate

75.5 73.5 76.9 74.0 67.8 70.9

Employed

2,302 2,163 1,980 1,841 322 322

Employment-population ratio

73.7 70.3 74.8 70.5 67.1 68.6

Unemployed

58 100 55 89 3 11

Unemployment rate

2.5 4.4 2.7 4.6 1.0 3.3

Not in labor force

766 816 611 679 155 137

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,028 6,644 6,784 6,412 244 232

Civilian labor force

1,466 1,171 1,419 1,141 46 30

Participation rate

20.9 17.6 20.9 17.8 19.0 13.0

Employed

1,418 1,117 1,372 1,087 46 30

Employment-population ratio

20.2 16.8 20.2 17.0 18.9 13.0

Unemployed

48 54 48 54 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.6 3.4 4.8 - -

Not in labor force

5,562 5,473 5,365 5,271 198 202

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,151 4,024 3,746 3,626 405 398

Civilian labor force

1,953 1,783 1,734 1,568 219 215

Participation rate

47.0 44.3 46.3 43.2 54.0 54.0

Employed

1,902 1,653 1,685 1,442 217 211

Employment-population ratio

45.8 41.1 45.0 39.8 53.6 53.0

Unemployed

51 129 49 125 2 4

Unemployment rate

2.6 7.3 2.8 8.0 0.7 1.9

Not in labor force

2,198 2,241 2,012 2,058 186 183

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

232,695 234,071 104,710 105,479 127,985 128,593

Civilian labor force

152,699 149,403 77,424 76,127 75,275 73,276

Participation rate

65.6 63.8 73.9 72.2 58.8 57.0

Employed

147,702 139,689 74,761 70,985 72,940 68,704

Employment-population ratio

63.5 59.7 71.4 67.3 57.0 53.4

Unemployed

4,997 9,714 2,662 5,142 2,335 4,572

Unemployment rate

3.3 6.5 3.4 6.8 3.1 6.2

Not in labor force

79,996 84,668 27,286 29,351 52,710 55,317

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,705 29,887 229,476 231,342

Civilian labor force

6,281 5,979 157,726 154,038

Participation rate

20.5 20.0 68.7 66.6

Employed

5,840 5,320 152,663 144,293

Employment-population ratio

19.0 17.8 66.5 62.4

Unemployed

440 659 5,063 9,745

Unemployment rate

7.0 11.0 3.2 6.3

Not in labor force

24,425 23,908 71,749 77,305

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,657 2,603 77,840 76,174

Participation rate

34.9 34.4 82.7 81.2

Employed

2,445 2,304 75,176 71,108

Employment-population ratio

32.2 30.5 79.9 75.8

Unemployed

211 299 2,664 5,067

Unemployment rate

7.9 11.5 3.4 6.7

Not in labor force

4,948 4,962 16,268 17,676

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,389 2,348 70,052 68,288

Participation rate

31.6 31.9 72.1 70.4

Employed

2,201 2,079 67,898 64,145

Employment-population ratio

29.1 28.3 69.9 66.1

Unemployed

188 269 2,154 4,143

Unemployment rate

7.9 11.4 3.1 6.1

Not in labor force

5,165 5,009 27,105 28,717

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,235 1,028 9,834 9,575

Participation rate

7.9 6.9 25.7 23.7

Employed

1,193 937 9,589 9,041

Employment-population ratio

7.7 6.3 25.1 22.3

Unemployed

42 92 245 535

Unemployment rate

3.4 8.9 2.5 5.6

Not in labor force

14,312 13,938 28,376 30,911

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,438 42,947 20,625 20,728 21,813 22,219

Civilian labor force

28,086 27,529 15,936 15,818 12,150 11,711

Participation rate

66.2 64.1 77.3 76.3 55.7 52.7

Employed

27,223 25,512 15,513 14,808 11,709 10,704

Employment-population ratio

64.1 59.4 75.2 71.4 53.7 48.2

Unemployed

863 2,017 422 1,010 441 1,007

Unemployment rate

3.1 7.3 2.7 6.4 3.6 8.6

Not in labor force

14,352 15,418 4,689 4,910 9,663 10,508

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

217,743 218,283 105,228 105,640 112,516 112,643

Civilian labor force

135,921 132,487 70,564 68,826 65,357 63,661

Participation rate

62.4 60.7 67.1 65.2 58.1 56.5

Employed

131,281 124,101 67,954 64,147 63,327 59,954

Employment-population ratio

60.3 56.9 64.6 60.7 56.3 53.2

Unemployed

4,640 8,387 2,610 4,679 2,030 3,708

Unemployment rate

3.4 6.3 3.7 6.8 3.1 5.8

Not in labor force

81,822 85,795 34,663 36,814 47,159 48,981

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,449 2,441 2,390 2,531 2,194 2,270 2,515 2,432 2,461

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,795 1,590 1,578 1,801 1,461 1,482 1,570 1,553 1,569

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

637 820 782 679 754 799 881 837 823

Unpaid family workers

17 30 30 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,055 147,763 147,223 156,189 145,216 145,454 147,255 147,314 147,351

Wage and salary workers(1)

147,176 139,095 138,617 147,501 136,168 136,493 138,539 138,891 138,971

Government

21,367 20,637 20,762 21,307 20,988 20,466 20,678 20,418 20,709

Private industries

125,808 118,458 117,856 126,081 115,141 116,299 117,939 118,525 118,123

Private households

841 626 636 - - - - - -

Other industries

124,968 117,832 117,220 125,239 114,440 115,601 117,304 117,902 117,472

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,809 8,622 8,540 8,916 8,788 8,675 8,690 8,570 8,638

Unpaid family workers

70 45 66 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,247 6,492 6,245 4,172 7,533 6,283 6,668 6,641 6,170

Slack work or business conditions

2,742 5,131 5,003 2,634 6,181 4,881 5,298 5,223 4,891

Could only find part-time work

1,190 1,151 972 1,259 1,120 1,120 1,135 1,167 1,045

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,086 19,449 18,678 21,649 18,630 18,990 19,465 18,580 18,237

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,170 6,423 6,133 4,119 7,439 6,197 6,552 6,582 6,082

Slack work or business conditions

2,685 5,087 4,919 2,587 6,110 4,823 5,227 5,176 4,819

Could only find part-time work

1,186 1,142 967 1,252 1,107 1,112 1,113 1,163 1,037

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,685 19,043 18,283 21,248 18,257 18,589 19,029 18,182 17,846

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,504 150,203 149,613 158,735 147,276 147,543 149,669 149,809 149,830

16 to 19 years

5,029 4,893 4,793 5,190 4,706 4,957 5,122 5,091 4,955

16 to 17 years

1,793 1,748 1,693 1,881 1,816 1,786 1,824 1,797 1,785

18 to 19 years

3,236 3,146 3,100 3,329 2,851 3,162 3,295 3,277 3,192

20 years and over

153,474 145,310 144,820 153,545 142,571 142,586 144,547 144,718 144,876

20 to 24 years

13,947 13,169 13,002 14,112 12,281 12,641 13,212 13,203 13,167

25 years and over

139,527 132,142 131,817 139,380 130,340 130,040 131,566 131,461 131,637

25 to 54 years

101,783 96,394 96,427 101,609 94,986 94,738 95,875 95,861 96,225

25 to 34 years

36,263 33,767 33,993 36,191 32,953 33,293 33,836 33,581 33,913

35 to 44 years

33,432 32,290 32,052 33,400 31,978 31,687 31,903 32,098 32,011

45 to 54 years

32,088 30,337 30,382 32,017 30,055 29,758 30,136 30,182 30,300

55 years and over

37,744 35,748 35,391 37,771 35,354 35,302 35,692 35,600 35,412

Men, 16 years and over

83,467 79,291 78,955 83,995 78,213 78,663 79,537 79,267 79,481

16 to 19 years

2,527 2,387 2,384 2,622 2,310 2,405 2,524 2,490 2,477

16 to 17 years

797 809 812 863 845 849 878 863 881

18 to 19 years

1,730 1,578 1,571 1,766 1,442 1,546 1,647 1,630 1,603

20 years and over

80,940 76,904 76,572 81,373 75,903 76,258 77,013 76,777 77,004

20 to 24 years

7,001 6,662 6,527 7,142 6,339 6,512 6,749 6,722 6,672

25 years and over

73,940 70,241 70,044 74,130 69,559 69,718 70,291 70,040 70,220

25 to 54 years

53,863 51,207 51,177 53,945 50,741 50,723 51,140 51,025 51,246

25 to 34 years

19,295 17,984 18,177 19,296 17,595 17,808 18,056 17,889 18,172

35 to 44 years

17,819 17,334 17,154 17,871 17,197 17,146 17,209 17,288 17,201

45 to 54 years

16,748 15,889 15,846 16,778 15,950 15,769 15,876 15,848 15,873

55 years and over

20,077 19,034 18,867 20,184 18,818 18,996 19,151 19,015 18,974

Women, 16 years and over

75,036 70,913 70,658 74,740 69,063 68,880 70,131 70,542 70,350

16 to 19 years

2,502 2,506 2,410 2,568 2,396 2,552 2,598 2,600 2,478

16 to 17 years

996 939 880 1,019 970 937 946 934 904

18 to 19 years

1,506 1,567 1,529 1,562 1,409 1,616 1,648 1,647 1,589

20 years and over

72,534 68,407 68,248 72,172 66,667 66,328 67,534 67,941 67,872

20 to 24 years

6,947 6,506 6,475 6,970 5,943 6,129 6,463 6,481 6,495

25 years and over

65,587 61,900 61,773 65,250 60,781 60,322 61,275 61,422 61,417

25 to 54 years

47,921 45,187 45,250 47,664 44,245 44,016 44,735 44,836 44,979

25 to 34 years

16,969 15,783 15,816 16,895 15,359 15,485 15,781 15,692 15,741

35 to 44 years

15,613 14,956 14,898 15,529 14,781 14,541 14,694 14,810 14,810

45 to 54 years

15,339 14,448 14,535 15,240 14,105 13,989 14,260 14,334 14,428

55 years and over

17,666 16,714 16,523 17,587 16,536 16,306 16,540 16,586 16,438

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,969 43,753 43,499 46,184 44,404 43,598 43,761 43,754 43,720

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,913 35,165 35,109 36,631 35,262 34,321 34,685 34,795 34,817

Women who maintain families(2)

9,757 9,541 9,490 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

131,142 124,325 124,415 131,477 122,461 122,569 123,646 124,292 124,689

Part-time workers(4)

27,362 25,879 25,197 27,072 24,896 25,067 26,139 25,373 24,917

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,058 6,690 6,496 8,024 6,802 6,491 6,669 6,559 6,460

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.5 4.3 5.1 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.3

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,554 6,236 5,859 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,446 9,443 9,322 9,596 9,541 9,473 9,571 9,408 9,461

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,844 10,728 10,736 3.6 8.4 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.7

16 to 19 years

778 825 946 13.0 16.4 16.3 14.0 13.9 16.0

16 to 17 years

317 314 302 14.4 14.8 17.2 14.1 14.9 14.5

18 to 19 years

469 507 655 12.4 17.6 15.8 14.1 13.4 17.0

20 years and over

5,067 9,903 9,790 3.2 8.1 7.5 6.6 6.4 6.3

20 to 24 years

1,001 1,580 1,653 6.6 14.1 12.5 10.9 10.7 11.2

25 years and over

4,093 8,409 8,170 2.9 7.5 7.0 6.2 6.0 5.8

25 to 54 years

3,173 6,193 5,946 3.0 7.5 7.1 6.4 6.1 5.8

25 to 34 years

1,379 2,530 2,397 3.7 9.6 8.6 7.3 7.0 6.6

35 to 44 years

962 1,910 1,857 2.8 6.4 6.2 5.8 5.6 5.5

45 to 54 years

833 1,753 1,693 2.5 6.2 6.4 6.0 5.5 5.3

55 years and over

948 2,202 2,259 2.4 7.6 6.6 5.5 5.8 6.0

Men, 16 years and over

3,039 5,894 5,694 3.5 8.3 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.7

16 to 19 years

416 444 455 13.7 17.8 17.3 15.6 15.1 15.5

16 to 17 years

161 146 159 15.7 14.5 18.3 16.1 14.5 15.3

18 to 19 years

259 299 301 12.8 19.9 16.8 15.4 15.5 15.8

20 years and over

2,623 5,449 5,240 3.1 8.0 7.3 6.7 6.6 6.4

20 to 24 years

567 904 922 7.4 14.3 12.9 11.8 11.9 12.1

25 years and over

2,085 4,617 4,353 2.7 7.3 6.8 6.2 6.2 5.8

25 to 54 years

1,618 3,433 3,167 2.9 7.4 7.0 6.5 6.3 5.8

25 to 34 years

739 1,491 1,291 3.7 9.7 8.7 7.8 7.7 6.6

35 to 44 years

463 1,028 1,049 2.5 6.3 6.1 5.7 5.6 5.7

45 to 54 years

417 914 827 2.4 5.7 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0

55 years and over

467 1,183 1,186 2.3 7.2 6.2 5.2 5.9 5.9

Women, 16 years and over

2,805 4,834 5,042 3.6 8.6 8.0 6.8 6.4 6.7

16 to 19 years

362 380 491 12.3 15.0 15.3 12.5 12.8 16.5

16 to 17 years

157 168 143 13.3 14.9 16.2 12.1 15.2 13.7

18 to 19 years

210 208 354 11.8 15.2 14.8 12.8 11.2 18.2

20 years and over

2,443 4,453 4,551 3.3 8.3 7.7 6.5 6.2 6.3

20 to 24 years

434 676 732 5.9 13.9 12.1 10.0 9.4 10.1

25 years and over

2,008 3,792 3,817 3.0 7.7 7.3 6.1 5.8 5.9

25 to 54 years

1,555 2,759 2,780 3.2 7.6 7.3 6.3 5.8 5.8

25 to 34 years

640 1,039 1,106 3.7 9.4 8.6 6.9 6.2 6.6

35 to 44 years

499 882 808 3.1 6.5 6.3 6.0 5.6 5.2

45 to 54 years

416 839 865 2.7 6.8 6.8 5.9 5.5 5.7

55 years and over

475 1,020 1,065 2.6 8.0 7.2 5.8 5.8 6.1

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

758 1,854 1,841 1.6 5.0 4.8 4.1 4.1 4.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

819 1,644 1,705 2.2 6.4 5.9 4.8 4.5 4.7

Women who maintain families(2)

425 798 734 4.2 10.4 10.0 8.6 7.7 7.2

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,769 9,145 8,911 3.5 8.3 7.8 6.9 6.9 6.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,118 1,610 1,871 4.0 9.0 8.4 6.7 6.0 7.0

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,752 7,219 7,264 2,703 10,248 9,039 7,685 7,468 7,210

On temporary layoff

873 2,615 3,124 788 6,175 4,624 3,231 2,762 3,039

Not on temporary layoff

1,879 4,603 4,141 1,914 4,074 4,415 4,454 4,705 4,171

Permanent job losers

1,296 3,647 3,342 1,325 3,326 3,661 3,620 3,718 3,370

Persons who completed temporary jobs

583 956 798 590 747 754 834 987 802

Job leavers

776 680 706 814 595 808 763 698 743

Reentrants

1,524 1,855 2,044 1,734 2,104 2,123 2,017 1,968 2,250

New entrants

452 511 389 574 549 535 526 551 509

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

50.0 70.3 69.8 46.4 75.9 72.3 69.9 69.9 67.3

On temporary layoff

15.9 25.5 30.0 13.5 45.8 37.0 29.4 25.9 28.4

Not on temporary layoff

34.1 44.8 39.8 32.9 30.2 35.3 40.5 44.0 38.9

Job leavers

14.1 6.6 6.8 14.0 4.4 6.5 6.9 6.5 6.9

Reentrants

27.7 18.1 19.7 29.8 15.6 17.0 18.3 18.4 21.0

New entrants

8.2 5.0 3.7 9.9 4.1 4.3 4.8 5.2 4.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.7 4.5 4.5 1.6 6.4 5.6 4.8 4.7 4.5

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

Reentrants

0.9 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,001 2,291 2,813 2,098 2,312 2,552 2,494 2,455 2,904

5 to 14 weeks

1,651 2,293 2,211 1,682 3,213 2,754 2,341 2,404 2,222

15 weeks and over

1,852 5,681 5,380 1,997 8,129 7,339 6,185 5,804 5,529

15 to 26 weeks

755 1,807 1,502 821 6,536 4,934 2,651 1,875 1,572

27 weeks and over

1,097 3,873 3,878 1,177 1,593 2,405 3,534 3,929 3,956

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

20.3 24.0 22.8 20.8 20.0 21.0 21.4 23.0 23.4

Median duration, in weeks

8.4 18.8 16.1 9.1 16.7 17.8 19.0 18.9 16.8

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

36.4 22.3 27.0 36.3 16.9 20.2 22.6 23.0 27.3

5 to 14 weeks

30.0 22.3 21.3 29.1 23.5 21.8 21.2 22.5 20.9

15 weeks and over

33.6 55.3 51.7 34.6 59.5 58.0 56.1 54.4 51.9

15 to 26 weeks

13.7 17.6 14.4 14.2 47.9 39.0 24.1 17.6 14.8

27 weeks and over

19.9 37.7 37.3 20.4 11.7 19.0 32.1 36.8 37.1

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,504 149,613 5,503 10,404 3.4 6.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

65,682 64,007 1,171 2,235 1.8 3.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,748 27,141 533 1,016 1.9 3.6

Professional and related occupations

37,935 36,866 638 1,219 1.7 3.2

Service occupations

26,487 22,490 1,198 2,824 4.3 11.2

Sales and office occupations

33,441 30,712 1,062 1,859 3.1 5.7

Sales and related occupations

15,672 14,809 528 825 3.3 5.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,769 15,904 533 1,035 2.9 6.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,329 13,191 782 1,449 5.2 9.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,171 1,019 130 178 10.0 14.8

Construction and extraction occupations

8,143 7,580 547 1,000 6.3 11.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,016 4,593 105 272 2.0 5.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,564 19,212 826 1,630 4.3 7.8

Production occupations

8,229 8,039 372 547 4.3 6.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,335 11,174 454 1,084 4.2 8.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,503 10,404 3.4 6.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,207 8,460 3.2 6.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

31 89 3.8 13.1

Construction

489 930 5.0 9.6

Manufacturing

422 640 2.7 4.3

Durable goods

246 337 2.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

175 304 3.1 5.5

Wholesale and retail trade

726 1,125 3.6 5.5

Transportation and utilities

196 627 2.6 8.4

Information

48 158 1.9 6.4

Financial activities

236 313 2.3 3.1

Professional and business services

546 1,071 3.1 6.1

Education and health services

604 1,013 2.4 4.1

Leisure and hospitality

685 2,042 5.0 16.7

Other services

225 453 3.2 7.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

185 189 9.6 11.0

Government workers

393 692 1.8 3.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

266 674 2.7 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2019
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.1 3.5 3.4 1.2 5.1 4.6 3.8 3.6 3.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.7 4.5 4.5 1.6 6.4 5.6 4.8 4.7 4.5

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.4 6.4 6.5 3.6 8.4 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.5 6.8 6.9 3.7 8.7 8.2 7.2 7.1 7.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.1 7.6 7.8 4.3 9.6 8.9 8.0 7.9 7.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.7 11.6 11.6 6.8 14.2 12.8 12.1 12.0 11.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,174 101,213 39,352 41,723 56,822 59,490

Persons who currently want a job

4,643 7,088 2,336 3,388 2,307 3,699

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,246 2,197 688 1,151 558 1,046

Discouraged workers(2)

277 661 172 418 105 243

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

969 1,536 516 733 452 803

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,058 6,496 3,972 3,092 4,086 3,404

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.3 4.8 3.9 5.4 4.8

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,419 3,721 2,377 1,926 2,041 1,795

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,072 1,590 727 563 1,344 1,027

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

336 287 221 156 115 130

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,165 832 606 414 560 418

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)
Change from:
Nov.2020 - Dec.2020(p)

Total nonfarm

152,929 143,502 144,105 143,777 151,998 142,428 142,764 142,624 -140

Total private

129,918 121,571 122,162 122,027 129,319 120,901 121,318 121,223 -95

Goods-producing

21,037 20,361 20,320 20,283 21,136 20,192 20,259 20,352 93

Mining and logging

714 629 629 630 715 623 626 630 4

Logging

53.7 52.4 51.8 53.0 53.2 51.0 50.9 52.2 1.3

Mining

659.9 576.7 577.3 577.0 661.3 572.4 575.2 577.3 2.1

Oil and gas extraction

158.0 160.4 161.6 164.4 157.9 159.7 161.4 163.7 2.3

Mining, except oil and gas

187.2 182.0 181.1 179.1 189.3 180.1 179.9 179.9 0.0

Coal mining

51.2 44.8 44.7 44.7 51.1 44.6 44.2 44.1 -0.1

Metal ore mining

40.6 40.5 40.4 40.0 40.7 40.6 40.6 40.3 -0.3

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

95.4 96.7 96.0 94.4 97.5 94.9 95.1 95.5 0.4

Support activities for mining

314.7 234.3 234.6 233.5 314.1 232.6 233.9 233.7 -0.2

Construction

7,447 7,507 7,425 7,322 7,555 7,333 7,362 7,413 51

Construction of buildings

1,666.4 1,667.9 1,655.3 1,649.9 1,675.9 1,645.9 1,650.7 1,655.3 4.6

Residential building

827.7 849.9 844.6 849.3 829.5 836.6 838.8 847.7 8.9

Nonresidential building

838.7 818.0 810.7 800.6 846.4 809.3 811.9 807.6 -4.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,042.4 1,080.4 1,050.6 997.2 1,087.6 1,015.7 1,025.4 1,040.4 15.0

Specialty trade contractors

4,738.5 4,758.9 4,718.6 4,674.8 4,791.9 4,671.5 4,685.4 4,717.5 32.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,066.7 2,138.3 2,131.5 2,120.1 2,095.0 2,106.6 2,120.2 2,134.0 13.8

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,671.8 2,620.6 2,587.1 2,554.7 2,696.9 2,564.9 2,565.2 2,583.5 18.3

Manufacturing

12,876 12,225 12,266 12,331 12,866 12,236 12,271 12,309 38

Durable goods

8,072 7,599 7,637 7,685 8,064 7,623 7,648 7,673 25

Wood products

411.1 397.3 398.9 401.1 411.0 398.3 399.1 400.8 1.7

Nonmetallic mineral products

419.8 407.2 406.8 407.9 422.3 402.5 404.1 410.2 6.1

Primary metals

377.6 339.7 341.7 342.4 375.9 343.6 342.9 340.8 -2.1

Fabricated metal products

1,485.7 1,393.4 1,394.1 1,406.8 1,485.1 1,402.2 1,401.9 1,404.6 2.7

Machinery

1,117.4 1,047.5 1,050.8 1,058.0 1,117.3 1,052.6 1,055.1 1,057.9 2.8

Computer and electronic products

1,096.4 1,087.6 1,090.9 1,095.4 1,095.3 1,090.4 1,091.6 1,093.2 1.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

167.8 170.6 169.8 170.3 167.5 170.2 169.9 170.1 0.2

Communications equipment

84.4 81.6 83.5 83.5 84.2 82.3 83.2 83.1 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

378.8 372.8 371.7 373.4 379.1 373.5 372.9 373.7 0.8

Electronic instruments

431.8 427.2 429.8 430.7 431.3 428.9 429.7 429.6 -0.1

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.6 35.4 36.1 37.5 33.2 35.5 35.9 36.7 0.8

Electrical equipment and appliances

407.1 378.7 378.3 381.8 405.6 378.9 378.2 380.1 1.9

Transportation equipment(1)

1,747.2 1,593.3 1,614.2 1,623.6 1,743.7 1,599.8 1,614.0 1,619.2 5.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,001.7 904.0 924.1 934.0 997.9 914.6 925.5 932.2 6.7

Furniture and related products

387.8 353.9 357.8 360.5 386.8 355.0 358.6 359.8 1.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

621.9 600.6 603.1 607.4 620.7 599.2 602.2 606.0 3.8

Nondurable goods

4,804 4,626 4,629 4,646 4,802 4,613 4,623 4,636 13

Food manufacturing

1,662.8 1,630.4 1,631.7 1,639.7 1,661.1 1,622.0 1,626.3 1,631.8 5.5

Textile mills

106.7 96.3 96.5 96.5 106.7 96.8 96.5 96.4 -0.1

Textile product mills

112.7 104.2 104.2 105.1 112.0 103.7 103.9 104.5 0.6

Apparel

106.2 89.1 87.0 90.8 106.3 88.8 86.9 90.9 4.0

Paper and paper products

365.6 353.5 355.0 357.7 365.0 355.2 356.1 356.8 0.7

Printing and related support activities

421.2 368.5 371.1 373.6 419.3 367.5 368.9 371.7 2.8

Petroleum and coal products

111.9 106.7 104.9 106.1 113.9 105.5 105.1 108.3 3.2

Chemicals

855.3 834.6 834.9 838.4 853.3 836.5 835.2 835.8 0.6

Plastics and rubber products

743.8 729.1 732.7 742.6 743.0 730.7 734.7 741.6 6.9

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

317.5 313.7 310.9 295.7 320.9 306.7 309.6 298.4 -11.2

Private service-providing

108,881 101,210 101,842 101,744 108,183 100,709 101,059 100,871 -188

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,582 26,830 27,410 27,896 27,809 26,761 26,880 27,071 191

Wholesale trade

5,947.8 5,654.7 5,672.8 5,699.6 5,933.2 5,646.6 5,658.4 5,683.5 25.1

Durable goods

3,224.5 3,066.2 3,078.1 3,094.8 3,218.2 3,062.0 3,077.0 3,088.4 11.4

Nondurable goods

2,185.3 2,084.9 2,089.3 2,096.2 2,179.5 2,082.1 2,078.0 2,088.8 10.8

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

538.0 503.6 505.4 508.6 535.5 502.5 503.4 506.3 2.9

Retail trade

16,159.7 15,183.7 15,500.8 15,730.5 15,672.2 15,162.0 15,140.8 15,261.3 120.5

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,049.0 1,962.0 1,965.3 1,974.5 2,057.1 1,961.6 1,965.7 1,980.8 15.1

Automobile dealers

1,304.0 1,226.2 1,227.4 1,239.2 1,306.5 1,223.3 1,226.3 1,239.7 13.4

Other motor vehicle dealers

159.2 156.8 154.8 153.6 166.3 159.0 159.0 160.3 1.3

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

585.8 579.0 583.1 581.7 584.3 579.3 580.4 580.8 0.4

Furniture and home furnishings stores

491.8 428.9 444.6 457.7 470.2 429.3 433.6 435.9 2.3

Electronics and appliance stores

495.9 458.0 465.8 465.7 479.8 454.2 446.4 445.9 -0.5

Building material and garden supply stores

1,269.9 1,383.1 1,376.2 1,369.9 1,305.8 1,402.3 1,405.5 1,407.3 1.8

Food and beverage stores

3,119.7 3,152.2 3,182.5 3,198.4 3,088.3 3,148.8 3,155.9 3,163.8 7.9

Health and personal care stores

1,082.8 986.0 997.0 1,014.0 1,055.8 985.9 978.1 987.9 9.8

Gasoline stations

949.1 928.5 930.5 930.6 951.5 929.1 929.7 931.3 1.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,410.5 958.7 1,022.2 1,069.7 1,286.9 970.0 966.2 973.9 7.7

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

589.4 459.1 476.5 492.1 543.1 459.4 450.8 453.5 2.7

General merchandise stores

3,291.9 3,148.5 3,318.7 3,411.6 3,060.7 3,126.5 3,115.9 3,172.6 56.7

Department stores

1,231.3 1,054.7 1,128.1 1,166.1 1,090.6 1,042.3 1,032.4 1,030.4 -2.0

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,060.6 2,093.8 2,190.6 2,245.5 1,970.1 2,084.2 2,083.5 2,142.2 58.7

Miscellaneous store retailers

834.3 750.3 745.6 750.0 821.5 732.4 735.1 736.2 1.1

Nonstore retailers

575.4 568.4 575.9 596.3 551.5 562.5 557.9 572.2 14.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,925.3 5,454.3 5,697.9 5,926.3 5,655.9 5,414.2 5,542.2 5,588.8 46.6

Air transportation

506.3 386.2 387.4 390.3 508.2 385.9 388.9 391.7 2.8

Rail transportation

163.7 145.2 145.2 145.2 163.8 145.1 144.9 144.9 0.0

Water transportation

64.3 56.6 55.9 55.7 65.2 56.7 57.4 56.8 -0.6

Truck transportation

1,525.2 1,478.3 1,484.9 1,482.4 1,526.4 1,465.2 1,477.0 1,484.3 7.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

522.0 402.7 403.8 394.6 506.1 384.6 387.0 378.4 -8.6

Pipeline transportation

51.4 49.3 49.3 49.3 51.2 49.3 49.3 49.3 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

30.0 24.1 21.8 20.6 35.9 23.6 25.7 24.5 -1.2

Support activities for transportation

765.9 688.8 696.3 700.1 760.7 687.9 692.5 693.8 1.3

Couriers and messengers

1,073.1 942.6 1,134.3 1,361.8 846.4 948.0 1,032.2 1,069.6 37.4

Warehousing and storage

1,223.4 1,280.5 1,319.0 1,326.3 1,192.0 1,267.9 1,287.3 1,295.5 8.2

Utilities

549.3 537.5 538.5 539.6 547.9 538.6 538.1 537.7 -0.4

Information

2,895 2,631 2,642 2,640 2,883 2,625 2,627 2,626 -1

Publishing industries, except Internet

765.9 739.8 743.1 744.6 764.4 739.1 740.4 743.8 3.4

Motion picture and sound recording industries

459.5 272.9 272.1 270.5 454.4 266.8 267.6 264.2 -3.4

Broadcasting, except Internet

265.6 246.2 247.5 246.3 264.0 246.0 246.6 245.0 -1.6

Telecommunications

708.1 676.9 679.6 677.0 704.3 675.6 674.8 672.3 -2.5

Data processing, hosting and related services

345.2 338.8 339.4 340.9 346.4 339.1 338.8 341.4 2.6

Other information services

351.0 356.4 359.9 360.2 349.5 358.0 359.2 359.4 0.2

Financial activities

8,819 8,723 8,737 8,758 8,814 8,715 8,731 8,743 12

Finance and insurance

6,475.4 6,496.9 6,515.7 6,530.2 6,464.4 6,498.7 6,507.7 6,514.6 6.9

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.1 19.9 19.8 19.9 19.2 20.0 20.0 20.1 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,672.7 2,663.9 2,677.5 2,681.5 2,669.1 2,670.2 2,677.3 2,677.1 -0.2

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,782.0 1,749.0 1,751.8 1,750.3 1,783.4 1,757.8 1,755.3 1,750.9 -4.4

Commercial banking

1,390.9 1,361.2 1,362.2 1,359.8 1,392.8 1,368.7 1,365.7 1,361.8 -3.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

582.9 597.7 604.2 609.1 580.2 595.3 603.2 606.5 3.3

Activities related to credit intermediation

307.8 317.2 321.5 322.1 305.5 317.1 318.8 319.7 0.9

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

971.0 979.6 974.6 980.3 968.6 976.3 974.9 977.0 2.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,812.6 2,833.5 2,843.8 2,848.5 2,807.5 2,832.2 2,835.5 2,840.4 4.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,344.0 2,225.9 2,220.8 2,228.2 2,349.1 2,216.6 2,223.4 2,228.2 4.8

Real estate

1,747.9 1,713.7 1,718.0 1,724.0 1,743.5 1,705.2 1,716.5 1,717.0 0.5

Rental and leasing services

572.4 488.9 479.5 481.0 582.0 488.3 483.8 488.2 4.4

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.7 23.3 23.3 23.2 23.6 23.1 23.1 23.0 -0.1

Professional and business services

21,600 20,670 20,748 20,800 21,503 20,443 20,531 20,692 161

Professional and technical services

9,693.5 9,441.3 9,469.6 9,540.8 9,667.4 9,449.4 9,455.6 9,508.1 52.5

Legal services

1,162.3 1,121.3 1,125.7 1,129.0 1,156.3 1,119.2 1,122.8 1,122.6 -0.2

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,039.4 963.6 980.8 1,019.8 1,037.1 1,012.9 1,011.7 1,014.0 2.3

Architectural and engineering services

1,528.5 1,512.3 1,512.2 1,513.4 1,530.2 1,504.2 1,510.1 1,514.5 4.4

Specialized design services

146.7 138.2 137.8 138.5 144.4 137.6 136.8 136.4 -0.4

Computer systems design and related services

2,233.6 2,204.6 2,203.6 2,203.9 2,238.9 2,193.6 2,188.6 2,208.9 20.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,570.2 1,534.4 1,536.7 1,543.4 1,557.2 1,518.2 1,519.6 1,528.8 9.2

Scientific research and development services

745.7 761.8 765.8 770.8 744.8 764.7 766.5 770.2 3.7

Advertising and related services

497.1 447.4 447.6 452.0 495.1 445.4 446.8 449.2 2.4

Other professional and technical services

770.0 757.7 759.4 770.0 763.4 753.6 752.7 763.5 10.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,451.5 2,356.1 2,357.8 2,373.1 2,447.7 2,358.6 2,357.4 2,368.1 10.7

Administrative and waste services

9,455.0 8,872.3 8,920.6 8,886.4 9,387.4 8,634.5 8,717.9 8,815.3 97.4

Administrative and support services

8,991.2 8,412.9 8,459.6 8,425.5 8,922.2 8,175.8 8,257.0 8,352.8 95.8

Office administrative services

529.6 512.1 512.9 514.4 530.1 509.6 511.1 514.6 3.5

Facilities support services

167.0 155.7 154.5 154.4 166.7 154.3 154.3 154.1 -0.2

Employment services(1)

3,797.9 3,418.1 3,486.2 3,553.1 3,653.4 3,267.7 3,317.5 3,405.9 88.4

Temporary help services

3,086.3 2,751.2 2,813.5 2,866.1 2,950.0 2,616.9 2,658.7 2,726.3 67.6

Business support services

892.4 793.1 807.8 816.2 869.5 781.7 788.0 795.2 7.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

220.1 154.3 152.0 149.2 222.5 154.3 152.3 150.6 -1.7

Investigation and security services

966.4 921.1 926.1 917.1 962.9 917.4 919.5 913.0 -6.5

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,075.4 2,156.2 2,117.2 2,017.4 2,170.0 2,094.8 2,110.4 2,112.0 1.6

Other support services

342.4 302.3 302.9 303.7 347.1 296.0 303.9 307.4 3.5

Waste management and remediation services

463.8 459.4 461.0 460.9 465.2 458.7 460.9 462.5 1.6

Education and health services

24,633 23,487 23,581 23,470 24,465 23,279 23,323 23,292 -31

Educational services

3,909.2 3,610.3 3,629.9 3,483.0 3,810.3 3,445.6 3,441.0 3,378.5 -62.5

Health care and social assistance

20,724.0 19,876.2 19,950.6 19,987.3 20,654.2 19,833.3 19,881.8 19,913.8 32.0

Health care(3)

16,497.8 15,963.2 16,011.1 16,066.3 16,438.6 15,935.4 15,966.4 16,005.2 38.8

Ambulatory health care services

7,842.8 7,641.8 7,687.8 7,716.2 7,811.1 7,627.0 7,661.4 7,682.1 20.7

Offices of physicians

2,726.5 2,663.4 2,673.2 2,679.9 2,709.2 2,659.2 2,662.5 2,662.7 0.2

Offices of dentists

977.8 957.4 963.7 969.3 974.0 957.9 960.8 965.4 4.6

Offices of other health practitioners

985.4 925.6 932.5 937.1 982.0 923.4 929.8 933.7 3.9

Outpatient care centers

980.9 973.5 982.4 992.0 977.4 976.1 983.3 987.6 4.3

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

289.0 281.8 283.6 284.4 288.2 282.7 282.9 283.5 0.6

Home health care services

1,564.2 1,534.3 1,546.4 1,545.2 1,560.1 1,525.6 1,538.4 1,539.9 1.5

Other ambulatory health care services

319.0 305.8 306.0 308.3 320.3 302.1 303.7 309.3 5.6

Hospitals

5,255.3 5,166.1 5,177.9 5,208.8 5,242.1 5,156.8 5,164.4 5,195.9 31.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,399.7 3,155.3 3,145.4 3,141.3 3,385.4 3,151.6 3,140.6 3,127.2 -13.4

Nursing care facilities

1,594.8 1,459.6 1,450.1 1,445.2 1,588.2 1,457.6 1,445.4 1,439.3 -6.1

Residential mental health facilities

652.2 622.6 621.3 620.4 650.7 622.6 620.6 619.2 -1.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

985.6 915.0 916.6 918.7 979.7 913.3 917.2 912.2 -5.0

Other residential care facilities

167.1 158.1 157.4 157.0 166.8 158.1 157.4 156.5 -0.9

Social assistance

4,226.2 3,913.0 3,939.5 3,921.0 4,215.6 3,897.9 3,915.4 3,908.6 -6.8

Individual and family services

2,672.0 2,570.6 2,594.1 2,581.9 2,670.2 2,567.2 2,585.7 2,578.7 -7.0

Emergency and other relief services

188.4 180.6 184.0 185.5 186.2 181.4 183.6 183.1 -0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

325.2 284.4 281.9 279.6 325.2 285.7 282.8 279.6 -3.2

Child day care services

1,040.6 877.4 879.5 874.0 1,034.0 863.6 863.3 867.2 3.9

Leisure and hospitality

16,450 13,365 13,225 12,712 16,784 13,382 13,457 12,959 -498

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,311.7 1,718.7 1,676.2 1,584.0 2,481.5 1,738.1 1,786.6 1,684.0 -102.6

Performing arts and spectator sports

493.7 304.3 312.5 300.1 514.3 297.2 321.0 310.5 -10.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

171.1 134.0 130.7 129.6 178.5 133.6 134.8 134.6 -0.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,646.9 1,280.4 1,233.0 1,154.3 1,788.7 1,307.3 1,330.8 1,238.9 -91.9

Accommodation and food services

14,138.5 11,646.2 11,549.0 11,127.7 14,302.9 11,643.7 11,670.2 11,274.6 -395.6

Accommodation

2,032.6 1,422.2 1,387.5 1,358.9 2,099.6 1,436.2 1,449.1 1,425.5 -23.6

Food services and drinking places

12,105.9 10,224.0 10,161.5 9,768.8 12,203.3 10,207.5 10,221.1 9,849.1 -372.0

Other services

5,902 5,504 5,499 5,468 5,925 5,504 5,510 5,488 -22

Repair and maintenance

1,357.8 1,329.4 1,328.8 1,323.3 1,365.4 1,326.4 1,331.2 1,330.2 -1.0

Personal and laundry services

1,533.7 1,290.2 1,291.4 1,279.7 1,533.0 1,288.8 1,291.7 1,279.3 -12.4

Membership associations and organizations

3,010.5 2,884.3 2,879.1 2,864.9 3,026.3 2,889.1 2,887.2 2,878.7 -8.5

Government

23,011 21,931 21,943 21,750 22,679 21,527 21,446 21,401 -45

Federal

2,859.0 2,988 2,906 2,922 2,847.0 2,988 2,902 2,908 6

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,237.8 2,385.6 2,291.9 2,296.9 2,243.7 2,383.4 2,296.8 2,301.9 5.1

U.S. Postal Service

620.7 602.0 613.9 624.7 603.1 604.4 605.3 605.9 0.6

State government

5,291.0 5,031 5,028 4,939 5,184.0 4,850 4,845 4,826 -19

State government education

2,600.1 2,336.8 2,347.4 2,262.9 2,481.3 2,156.3 2,156.9 2,137.0 -19.9

State government, excluding education

2,690.6 2,694.6 2,680.3 2,676.5 2,702.4 2,693.3 2,688.0 2,688.8 0.8

Local government

14,861.0 13,912 14,009 13,889 14,648.0 13,689 13,699 13,667 -32

Local government education

8,340.4 7,636.1 7,703.9 7,669.7 8,039.2 7,371.6 7,363.4 7,363.1 -0.3

Local government, excluding education

6,520.2 6,276.3 6,305.4 6,218.8 6,609.2 6,317.8 6,335.4 6,303.9 -31.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.3 34.8 34.8 34.7

Goods-producing

40.1 40.0 39.9 39.9

Mining and logging

45.8 44.4 44.7 44.6

Construction

39.0 38.9 39.0 39.1

Manufacturing

40.4 40.4 40.2 40.2

Durable goods

40.9 40.6 40.5 40.4

Nondurable goods

39.7 40.2 39.7 39.9

Private service-providing

33.2 33.8 33.8 33.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.5 34.5 34.1

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.7 38.6 38.6

Retail trade

30.6 31.0 31.0 30.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.9 38.9 38.8

Utilities

42.4 42.9 43.0 42.9

Information

36.3 36.8 36.9 36.9

Financial activities

37.5 37.7 37.7 37.7

Professional and business services

36.1 36.6 36.7 36.7

Education and health services

33.0 33.5 33.5 33.7

Leisure and hospitality

25.8 26.0 25.7 25.2

Other services

31.8 32.5 32.4 32.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3

Durable goods

3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.3 3.3 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)

Total private

$28.37 $29.49 $29.58 $29.81 $973.09 $1,026.25 $1,029.38 $1,034.41

Goods-producing

29.43 30.12 30.23 30.24 1,180.14 1,204.80 1,206.18 1,206.58

Mining and logging

34.57 35.24 34.95 35.14 1,583.31 1,564.66 1,562.27 1,567.24

Construction

31.15 31.87 31.96 32.02 1,214.85 1,239.74 1,246.44 1,251.98

Manufacturing

28.14 28.82 28.96 28.92 1,136.86 1,164.33 1,164.19 1,162.58

Durable goods

29.62 30.33 30.45 30.40 1,211.46 1,231.40 1,233.23 1,228.16

Nondurable goods

25.58 26.29 26.45 26.42 1,015.53 1,056.86 1,050.07 1,054.16

Private service-providing

28.12 29.35 29.42 29.71 933.58 992.03 994.40 1,001.23

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.50 25.46 25.49 25.64 835.45 878.37 879.41 874.32

Wholesale trade

31.61 32.70 32.74 32.84 1,226.47 1,265.49 1,263.76 1,267.62

Retail trade

20.04 21.11 21.15 21.31 613.22 654.41 655.65 647.82

Transportation and warehousing

24.92 25.57 25.54 25.64 954.44 994.67 993.51 994.83

Utilities

42.14 44.32 44.52 44.38 1,786.74 1,901.33 1,914.36 1,903.90

Information

42.57 44.68 44.37 44.37 1,545.29 1,644.22 1,637.25 1,637.25

Financial activities

36.53 38.64 38.78 38.99 1,369.88 1,456.73 1,462.01 1,469.92

Professional and business services

34.23 35.29 35.37 35.60 1,235.70 1,291.61 1,298.08 1,306.52

Education and health services

27.86 28.61 28.72 29.05 919.38 958.44 962.12 978.99

Leisure and hospitality

16.77 17.05 17.02 17.04 432.67 443.30 437.41 429.41

Other services

25.55 26.34 26.50 26.63 812.49 856.05 858.60 862.81

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2020 - Dec.
2020(p)
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2020 - Dec.
2020(p)

Total private

111.4 105.6 106.0 105.6 -0.4 151.0 148.9 149.9 150.5 0.4

Goods-producing

96.6 92.0 92.1 92.5 0.4 128.4 125.3 125.8 126.4 0.5

Mining and logging

102.9 86.9 87.9 88.3 0.5 142.8 123.0 123.4 124.6 1.0

Construction

101.6 98.3 99.0 99.9 0.9 137.5 136.2 137.4 139.0 1.2

Manufacturing

93.5 88.9 88.7 89.0 0.3 122.4 119.2 119.5 119.7 0.2

Durable goods

92.9 87.1 87.2 87.3 0.1 122.2 117.4 117.9 117.8 -0.1

Nondurable goods

95.2 92.6 91.6 92.3 0.8 123.5 123.5 122.9 123.8 0.7

Private service-providing

115.6 109.6 110.0 109.4 -0.5 158.0 156.3 157.3 158.0 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.5 100.7 101.2 100.7 -0.5 136.7 138.3 139.1 139.3 0.1

Wholesale trade

101.5 96.4 96.3 96.8 0.5 134.3 131.8 131.9 132.9 0.8

Retail trade

97.4 95.4 95.3 94.2 -1.2 129.0 133.2 133.2 132.7 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

124.5 121.0 123.9 124.6 0.6 157.8 157.4 161.0 162.5 0.9

Utilities

100.5 100.0 100.1 99.8 -0.3 139.9 146.4 147.3 146.3 -0.7

Information

95.6 88.2 88.5 88.5 0.0 144.9 140.3 139.9 139.8 -0.1

Financial activities

108.3 107.7 107.9 108.0 0.1 154.3 162.3 163.1 164.2 0.7

Professional and business services

121.7 117.3 118.1 119.1 0.8 168.7 167.6 169.2 171.6 1.4

Education and health services

131.8 127.3 127.6 128.2 0.5 176.7 175.3 176.3 179.1 1.6

Leisure and hospitality

123.6 99.3 98.7 93.2 -5.6 167.2 136.6 135.5 128.1 -5.5

Other services

108.6 103.1 102.9 102.5 -0.4 152.1 148.9 149.5 149.6 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)
Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)

Total nonfarm

76,047 70,859 71,038 70,882 50.0 49.8 49.8 49.7

Total private

62,936 58,481 58,684 58,569 48.7 48.4 48.4 48.3

Goods-producing

4,762 4,569 4,581 4,601 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.6

Mining and logging

97 92 89 90 13.6 14.8 14.2 14.3

Construction

987 975 979 984 13.1 13.3 13.3 13.3

Manufacturing

3,678 3,502 3,513 3,527 28.6 28.6 28.6 28.7

Durable goods

1,953 1,862 1,869 1,876 24.2 24.4 24.4 24.4

Nondurable goods

1,725 1,640 1,644 1,651 35.9 35.6 35.6 35.6

Private service-providing

58,174 53,912 54,103 53,968 53.8 53.5 53.5 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,148 10,517 10,577 10,660 40.1 39.3 39.3 39.4

Wholesale trade

1,792.9 1,694.7 1,696.0 1,700.6 30.2 30.0 30.0 29.9

Retail trade

7,756.0 7,353.4 7,354.4 7,407.7 49.5 48.5 48.6 48.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,466.1 1,335.4 1,393.3 1,418.2 25.9 24.7 25.1 25.4

Utilities

133.3 133.5 133.5 133.5 24.3 24.8 24.8 24.8

Information

1,146 1,052 1,051 1,052 39.8 40.1 40.0 40.1

Financial activities

4,993 4,931 4,939 4,936 56.6 56.6 56.6 56.5

Professional and business services

9,853 9,399 9,446 9,542 45.8 46.0 46.0 46.1

Education and health services

18,940 17,966 18,022 18,013 77.4 77.2 77.3 77.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,937 7,141 7,168 6,886 53.2 53.4 53.3 53.1

Other services

3,157 2,906 2,900 2,879 53.3 52.8 52.6 52.5

Government

13,111 12,378 12,354 12,313 57.8 57.5 57.6 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2019
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020(p)
Dec.
2020(p)

Total private

106,300 98,538 98,907 98,771

Goods-producing

15,119 14,327 14,383