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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until                       USDL-24-0148
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, February 2, 2024

Technical information: 
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                          THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JANUARY 2024


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 353,000 in January, and the unemployment rate 
remained at 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains 
occurred in professional and business services, health care, retail trade, and social 
assistance. Employment declined in the mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction
industry.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. 
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two 
surveys, see the Technical Note.

  _________________________________________________________________________________________ 
 |											   |
 |                        Changes to The Employment Situation Data                         |
 |                                                                                         |
 | Establishment survey data have been revised as a result of the annual benchmarking      |
 | process and the updating of seasonal adjustment factors. Also, household survey data    |
 | for January 2024 reflect updated population estimates. See the notes at the end of this |
 | news release for more information.                                                      |
 |_________________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

In January, the unemployment rate was 3.7 percent for the third month in a row, and 
the number of unemployed people was little changed at 6.1 million. (See table A-1. 
See the note at the end of this news release and tables B and C for more information
about annual population adjustments to the household survey estimates.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.6 percent),
adult women (3.2 percent), teenagers (10.6 percent), Whites (3.4 percent), Blacks 
(5.3 percent), Asians (2.9 percent), and Hispanics (5.0 percent) showed little or 
no change in January. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.3
million, was little changed in January. The long-term unemployed accounted for 
20.8 percent of all unemployed people. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.5 percent, was unchanged in January, and 
the employment-population ratio, at 60.2 percent, was little changed. These measures
showed little or no change over the year. (See table A-1.)

In January, the number of people employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.4 
million, changed little. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time 
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they 
were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of people not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 5.8 
million, was little changed in January. These individuals were not counted as 
unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks 
preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of people 
marginally attached to the labor force changed little at 1.7 million in January.
These individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job 
sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks 
preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the 
marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them,
increased to 452,000 in January. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 353,000 in January, similar to the gain 
of 333,000 in December. Payroll employment increased by an average of 255,000 
per month in 2023. In January, job gains occurred in professional and business 
services, health care, retail trade, and social assistance. Employment declined
in the mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction industry. (See table B-1. 
See the note at the end of this news release and table A for more information about
the annual benchmark process.)

Professional and business services added 74,000 jobs in January, considerably 
higher than the average monthly increase of 14,000 jobs in 2023. Over the 
month, professional, scientific, and technical services added 42,000 jobs. 
Employment in temporary help services changed little over the month (+4,000) 
but is down by 408,000 since reaching a peak in March 2022.

In January, employment in health care rose by 70,000, with gains in ambulatory
health care services (+33,000), hospitals (+20,000), and nursing and residential
care facilities (+17,000). Job growth in health care averaged 58,000 per month
in 2023.

Retail trade employment increased by 45,000 in January but has shown little net 
growth since early 2023. Over the month, general merchandise retailers added 
24,000 jobs, while electronics and appliance retailers lost 3,000 jobs.

Employment in social assistance rose by 30,000 in January, reflecting continued
growth in individual and family services (+22,000). Employment in social 
assistance grew by an average of 23,000 per month in 2023.

Employment in manufacturing edged up in January (+23,000), with job gains in 
chemical manufacturing (+7,000) and printing and related support activities 
(+5,000). Manufacturing experienced little net job growth in 2023.

Government employment continued to trend up in January (+36,000), below the 
average monthly gain of 57,000 in 2023. A job gain occurred in federal
government (+11,000), and employment continued to trend up in local government,
excluding education (+19,000). 

In January, employment in information continued its upward trend (+15,000). 
Employment in motion picture and sound recording industries increased by 
12,000, while employment in telecommunications decreased by 3,000. Overall, 
employment in the information industry is down by 76,000 since a recent peak
in November 2022.

Employment in the mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction industry 
declined by 5,000 in January, following little net change in 2023. Over the 
month, a job loss in support activities for mining (-7,000) was partially 
offset by a job gain in oil and gas extraction (+2,000).

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, 
including construction, wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, 
financial activities, leisure and hospitality, and other services.

In January, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls rose by 19 cents, or 0.6 percent, to $34.55. Over the past 12 months,
average hourly earnings have increased by 4.5 percent. In January, average 
hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose
by 13 cents, or 0.4 percent, to $29.66. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by
0.2 hour to 34.1 hours in January and is down by 0.5 hour over the year. In
manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 39.8 hours, and overtime 
edged down by 0.1 hour to 2.7 hours. The average workweek for production and 
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.2 hour to
33.5 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for November was revised up by 
9,000, from +173,000 to +182,000, and the change for December was revised up by 
117,000, from +216,000 to +333,000. With these revisions, employment in November
and December combined is 126,000 higher than previously reported. (Monthly 
revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government
agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of 
seasonal factors. The annual benchmark process also contributed to the November 
and December revisions.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for February is scheduled to be released on Friday,
March 8, 2024, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


                  Revisions to Establishment Survey Data


In accordance with annual practice, the establishment survey data released 
today have been benchmarked to reflect comprehensive counts of payroll jobs 
for March 2023. These counts are derived principally from the Quarterly 
Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), which counts jobs covered by the 
Unemployment Insurance (UI) tax system. The benchmark process results in 
revisions to not seasonally adjusted data from April 2022 forward; seasonally 
adjusted data from January 2019 forward are subject to revision. In addition, 
data for some series prior to 2019, both seasonally adjusted and unadjusted,
incorporate other revisions.

The seasonally adjusted total nonfarm employment level for March 2023 was 
revised downward by 266,000. On a not seasonally adjusted basis, the total 
nonfarm employment level for March 2023 was revised downward by 187,000, or 
-0.1 percent. Not seasonally adjusted, the absolute average benchmark revision
over the past 10 years is 0.1 percent. 

The over-the-year change in total nonfarm employment for March 2023 was revised 
from +4,048,000 to +3,836,000 (seasonally adjusted). Table A presents revised
total nonfarm employment data on a seasonally adjusted basis from January to 
December 2023.

All revised historical establishment survey data are available on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/ces/data/home.htm. In addition, an article that discusses the benchmark 
and post-benchmark revisions and other technical issues is available at 
www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm. 


Table A. Revisions to total nonfarm employment, January to December 2023, seasonally
adjusted
(Numbers in thousands)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 |                                   |                                
                 |                Level              |      Over-the-month change     
                 |---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Year and month  |           |    As     |           |           |    As    |           
                 |    As     |previously | Difference|    As     |previously| Difference
                 |  revised  |published  |           |  revised  |published |           
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 |           |           |           |           |          |           
       2023      |           |           |           |           |          |           
                 |           |           |           |           |          |           
January......... |  154,773  |  155,007  |    -234   |    482    |    472   |    10
February........ |  155,060  |  155,255  |    -195   |    287    |    248   |    39
March........... |  155,206  |  155,472  |    -266   |    146    |    217   |   -71
April........... |  155,484  |  155,689  |    -205   |    278    |    217   |    61
May............. |  155,787  |  155,970  |    -183   |    303    |    281   |    22
June............ |  156,027  |  156,075  |     -48   |    240    |    105   |   135
July............ |  156,211  |  156,311  |    -100   |    184    |    236   |   -52
August.......... |  156,421  |  156,476  |     -55   |    210    |    165   |    45
September....... |  156,667  |  156,738  |     -71   |    246    |    262   |   -16
October......... |  156,832  |  156,843  |     -11   |    165    |    105   |    60
November........ |  157,014  |  157,016  |      -2   |    182    |    173   |     9
December(p)..... |  157,347  |  157,232  |     115   |    333    |    216   |   117
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary


            Adjustments to Population Estimates for the Household Survey


Effective with data for January 2024, updated population estimates were incorporated
into the household survey. Population estimates for the household survey are developed
by the U.S. Census Bureau. Each year, the Census Bureau updates the estimates to reflect
new information and assumptions about the growth of the population since the population
base year, typically the last decennial census. The change in population reflected in 
the new estimates results from adjustments for net international migration, updated vital
statistics, and improvements in estimation methodology. 

In accordance with usual practice, BLS will not revise the official household survey
estimates for December 2023 and earlier months. However, to show the impact of the
population adjustments, table B displays differences in selected December labor force 
series based on the old and new population estimates. 

The adjustments decreased the estimated size of the civilian noninstitutional population
in December by 625,000, the civilian labor force by 299,000, employment by 270,000,
and unemployment by 28,000. The number of people not in the labor force decreased by 
326,000. The total unemployment rate, employment-population ratio, and labor force
participation rate were unaffected. 

Data users are cautioned that these annual population adjustments can affect the
comparability of household data series over time. Table C shows the effect of the
introduction of new population estimates on the change in selected labor force measures
between December 2023 and January 2024. 

Additional information on the population adjustments and their effects on national labor
force estimates is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-pop-control-adjustments.pdf. 

Population controls for veterans, which are derived from a Department of Veterans Affairs
population model and are updated periodically, did not change with the release of data
for January 2024. 


Table B. Effect of the updated population controls on December 2023 estimates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, not seasonally adjusted
(Numbers in thousands)
Category Total Men Women White Black or
African
Ameri-
can
Asian Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

-625 -633 9 -487 -74 -39 194

Civilian labor force

-299 -503 205 -198 -63 -13 101

Participation rate

0 0 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.1 -0.1

Employed

-270 -477 207 -179 -56 -13 102

Employment-population ratio

0 0 0.2 0 -0.1 0 -0.1

Unemployed

-28 -26 -2 -18 -7 -1 -1

Unemployment rate

0 -0.1 0 0 0 0 0

Not in labor force

-326 -130 -196 -290 -12 -25 92

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Table C. December 2023-January 2024 changes in selected labor force measures, with adjustments for population control effects
(Numbers in thousands)
Category Dec.-Jan.
change, as
published
2024
population
control effect
Dec.-Jan. change, after
removing the
population control
effect(1)

Civilian noninstitutional population

-451 -625 174

Civilian labor force

-175 -299 124

Participation rate

0 0 0

Employed

-31 -270 239

Employment-population ratio

0.1 0 0.1

Unemployed

-144 -28 -116

Unemployment rate

0 0 0

Not in labor force

-275 -326 51

(1) This Dec.-Jan. change is calculated by subtracting the population control effect from the over-the-month change in the published seasonally adjusted estimates.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Change from:
Dec.
2023-
Jan.
2024

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

265,962 267,822 267,991 267,540 -

Civilian labor force

165,871 168,127 167,451 167,276 -

Participation rate

62.4 62.8 62.5 62.5 -

Employed

160,152 161,866 161,183 161,152 -

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.4 60.1 60.2 -

Unemployed

5,719 6,262 6,268 6,124 -

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.7 3.7 3.7 -

Not in labor force

100,090 99,695 100,540 100,265 -

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.4 3.7 3.7 3.7 -

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.2 3.7 3.5 3.6 -

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.1 3.1 3.3 3.2 -

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

10.5 11.4 11.9 10.6 -

White

3.1 3.3 3.5 3.4 -

Black or African American

5.4 5.8 5.2 5.3 -

Asian

2.9 3.5 3.1 2.9 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.7 4.6 5.0 5.0 -

Total, 25 years and over

2.8 3.1 3.2 3.2 -

Less than a high school diploma

4.5 6.3 6.0 6.0 -

High school graduates, no college

3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 -

Some college or associate degree

2.9 2.8 3.1 3.3 -

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 -

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,568 3,058 3,058 3,028 -

Job leavers

883 821 833 794 -

Reentrants

1,799 1,771 1,741 1,834 -

New entrants

526 582 609 550 -

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

1,942 2,069 2,191 2,140 -

5 to 14 weeks

1,795 2,060 1,791 1,848 -

15 to 26 weeks

929 931 1,104 867 -

27 weeks and over

1,073 1,220 1,245 1,277 -

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,049 3,994 4,211 4,422 -

Slack work or business conditions

2,683 2,790 2,960 2,994 -

Could only find part-time work

993 934 964 1,026 -

Part time for noneconomic reasons

22,016 21,879 22,458 22,156 -

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,369 1,583 1,562 1,654 -

Discouraged workers

345 425 346 452 -

- December - January changes in household data are not shown due to the introduction of updated population controls.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

482 182 333 353

Total private

359 152 278 317

Goods-producing

46 36 33 28

Mining and logging

1 -4 1 -6

Construction

37 15 24 11

Manufacturing

8 25 8 23

Durable goods(1)

0 37 13 4

Motor vehicles and parts

-6.5 33.2 2.5 3.1

Nondurable goods

8 -12 -5 19

Private service-providing

313 116 245 289

Wholesale trade

11.2 6.9 10.7 2.1

Retail trade

33.6 -42.9 43.2 45.2

Transportation and warehousing

20.0 -10.5 1.6 15.5

Utilities

0.1 1.6 2.3 1.8

Information

-28 17 18 15

Financial activities

0 4 13 8

Professional and business services(1)

38 10 35 74

Temporary help services

-1.6 -13.6 -16.8 3.9

Private education and health services(1)

133 110 84 112

Health care and social assistance

85.9 106.6 79.3 100.4

Leisure and hospitality

90 10 38 11

Other services

15 10 -1 5

Government

123 30 55 36

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

292 198 227 289

Total private

229 149 176 249

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.4 81.3 81.3 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.6 34.4 34.3 34.1

Average hourly earnings

$33.07 $34.23 $34.36 $34.55

Average weekly earnings

$1,144.22 $1,177.51 $1,178.55 $1,178.16

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

114.9 115.7 115.6 115.2

Over-the-month percent change

0.9 0.3 -0.1 -0.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

181.7 189.4 190.0 190.3

Over-the-month percent change

1.3 0.8 0.3 0.2

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

68.0 52.4 64.0 65.6

Manufacturing (72 industries)

54.9 42.4 51.4 59.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes. About 45 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes. Monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed people limited to just those receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No. The estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All people who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes. However, there are separate estimates of people outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. People who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of people who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   people who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 119,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 629,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of the employed and unemployed.
Those people not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including people on paid leave. People are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable. The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. Benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of industries
when necessary. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

265,962 267,991 267,540 265,962 267,428 267,642 267,822 267,991 267,540

Civilian labor force

165,070 166,661 166,428 165,871 167,897 167,723 168,127 167,451 167,276

Participation rate

62.1 62.2 62.2 62.4 62.8 62.7 62.8 62.5 62.5

Employed

158,692 160,754 159,650 160,152 161,550 161,280 161,866 161,183 161,152

Employment-population ratio

59.7 60.0 59.7 60.2 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.1 60.2

Unemployed

6,378 5,907 6,778 5,719 6,347 6,443 6,262 6,268 6,124

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 4.1 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

100,892 101,330 101,113 100,090 99,531 99,919 99,695 100,540 100,265

Persons who currently want a job

5,466 5,465 5,964 5,318 5,424 5,376 5,343 5,671 5,793

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

129,998 130,985 130,436 129,998 130,713 130,816 130,903 130,985 130,436

Civilian labor force

87,842 88,610 88,014 88,270 89,335 88,968 89,555 89,250 88,507

Participation rate

67.6 67.6 67.5 67.9 68.3 68.0 68.4 68.1 67.9

Employed

84,120 85,198 83,959 85,129 85,657 85,327 85,981 85,794 85,034

Employment-population ratio

64.7 65.0 64.4 65.5 65.5 65.2 65.7 65.5 65.2

Unemployed

3,723 3,412 4,055 3,141 3,678 3,641 3,574 3,456 3,473

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 4.6 3.6 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9

Not in labor force

42,156 42,375 42,422 41,729 41,378 41,848 41,348 41,735 41,929

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,283 122,187 121,539 121,283 121,931 122,029 122,111 122,187 121,539

Civilian labor force

84,872 85,564 85,134 85,039 86,124 85,687 86,256 86,007 85,364

Participation rate

70.0 70.0 70.0 70.1 70.6 70.2 70.6 70.4 70.2

Employed

81,524 82,493 81,485 82,281 82,853 82,526 83,084 82,958 82,304

Employment-population ratio

67.2 67.5 67.0 67.8 68.0 67.6 68.0 67.9 67.7

Unemployed

3,348 3,071 3,650 2,759 3,271 3,161 3,172 3,050 3,060

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 4.3 3.2 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6

Not in labor force

36,412 36,623 36,405 36,244 35,807 36,343 35,854 36,180 36,175

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,963 137,006 137,104 135,963 136,715 136,826 136,919 137,006 137,104

Civilian labor force

77,228 78,051 78,413 77,602 78,562 78,755 78,572 78,201 78,768

Participation rate

56.8 57.0 57.2 57.1 57.5 57.6 57.4 57.1 57.5

Employed

74,572 75,556 75,691 75,023 75,893 75,953 75,885 75,389 76,118

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.1 55.2 55.2 55.5 55.5 55.4 55.0 55.5

Unemployed

2,656 2,495 2,723 2,578 2,669 2,801 2,688 2,811 2,650

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

58,736 58,955 58,691 58,362 58,153 58,071 58,346 58,805 58,336

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,546 128,513 128,503 127,546 128,237 128,342 128,430 128,513 128,503

Civilian labor force

74,308 75,079 75,382 74,472 75,453 75,487 75,399 75,047 75,529

Participation rate

58.3 58.4 58.7 58.4 58.8 58.8 58.7 58.4 58.8

Employed

71,921 72,862 72,909 72,176 73,119 73,066 73,049 72,587 73,144

Employment-population ratio

56.4 56.7 56.7 56.6 57.0 56.9 56.9 56.5 56.9

Unemployed

2,387 2,217 2,473 2,295 2,333 2,421 2,350 2,460 2,385

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

53,238 53,434 53,121 53,074 52,784 52,856 53,031 53,466 52,974

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,133 17,291 17,498 17,133 17,260 17,270 17,281 17,291 17,498

Civilian labor force

5,890 6,018 5,911 6,360 6,321 6,549 6,472 6,396 6,383

Participation rate

34.4 34.8 33.8 37.1 36.6 37.9 37.5 37.0 36.5

Employed

5,247 5,399 5,256 5,695 5,578 5,688 5,733 5,638 5,704

Employment-population ratio

30.6 31.2 30.0 33.2 32.3 32.9 33.2 32.6 32.6

Unemployed

643 619 655 665 743 861 739 758 679

Unemployment rate

10.9 10.3 11.1 10.5 11.8 13.1 11.4 11.9 10.6

Not in labor force

11,242 11,273 11,587 10,772 10,939 10,721 10,809 10,895 11,115

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

204,062 205,022 204,608 204,062 204,756 204,867 204,949 205,022 204,608

Civilian labor force

126,133 126,748 126,338 126,729 127,755 127,612 127,773 127,226 126,962

Participation rate

61.8 61.8 61.7 62.1 62.4 62.3 62.3 62.1 62.1

Employed

121,675 122,552 121,515 122,796 123,403 123,198 123,550 122,802 122,663

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.8 59.4 60.2 60.3 60.1 60.3 59.9 60.0

Unemployed

4,458 4,196 4,823 3,933 4,352 4,414 4,223 4,424 4,299

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.8 3.1 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

77,928 78,274 78,270 77,333 77,001 77,255 77,177 77,796 77,646

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,973 66,172 65,675 66,124 66,615 66,363 66,695 66,405 65,869

Participation rate

69.8 69.7 69.6 70.0 70.3 70.0 70.3 70.0 69.8

Employed

63,596 63,912 63,018 64,208 64,313 64,148 64,559 64,208 63,674

Employment-population ratio

67.3 67.3 66.8 68.0 67.9 67.6 68.1 67.7 67.5

Unemployed

2,377 2,260 2,657 1,916 2,302 2,215 2,136 2,197 2,195

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 4.0 2.9 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,601 55,902 56,154 55,684 56,349 56,209 56,130 55,844 56,219

Participation rate

57.2 57.3 57.6 57.3 57.8 57.6 57.5 57.2 57.6

Employed

53,977 54,419 54,474 54,137 54,767 54,621 54,609 54,175 54,615

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.8 55.8 55.7 56.2 56.0 56.0 55.5 56.0

Unemployed

1,624 1,483 1,679 1,547 1,583 1,588 1,521 1,669 1,604

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.7 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,559 4,674 4,510 4,921 4,790 5,040 4,947 4,976 4,874

Participation rate

36.5 37.3 35.6 39.4 38.2 40.2 39.5 39.7 38.4

Employed

4,101 4,221 4,022 4,451 4,323 4,430 4,382 4,418 4,374

Employment-population ratio

32.9 33.7 31.7 35.7 34.5 35.4 35.0 35.3 34.5

Unemployed

458 453 487 470 467 611 565 558 500

Unemployment rate

10.0 9.7 10.8 9.5 9.8 12.1 11.4 11.2 10.3

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,487 34,853 34,813 34,487 34,751 34,788 34,821 34,853 34,813

Civilian labor force

21,544 21,955 21,904 21,685 21,900 21,902 22,171 22,094 22,051

Participation rate

62.5 63.0 62.9 62.9 63.0 63.0 63.7 63.4 63.3

Employed

20,335 20,896 20,703 20,512 20,650 20,636 20,886 20,952 20,887

Employment-population ratio

59.0 60.0 59.5 59.5 59.4 59.3 60.0 60.1 60.0

Unemployed

1,209 1,059 1,201 1,173 1,251 1,266 1,285 1,143 1,164

Unemployment rate

5.6 4.8 5.5 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.2 5.3

Not in labor force

12,943 12,898 12,909 12,803 12,851 12,886 12,650 12,759 12,762

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,038 10,229 10,197 10,099 10,201 10,048 10,299 10,294 10,266

Participation rate

68.2 68.7 68.9 68.6 68.8 67.7 69.3 69.2 69.4

Employed

9,461 9,771 9,606 9,562 9,631 9,520 9,648 9,821 9,717

Employment-population ratio

64.2 65.7 64.9 64.9 64.9 64.1 64.9 66.0 65.7

Unemployed

577 459 590 537 570 528 651 473 548

Unemployment rate

5.8 4.5 5.8 5.3 5.6 5.3 6.3 4.6 5.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,790 10,964 10,940 10,811 10,890 11,065 11,067 11,014 10,967

Participation rate

62.6 63.0 62.8 62.7 62.7 63.6 63.6 63.2 62.9

Employed

10,276 10,483 10,416 10,303 10,403 10,475 10,533 10,486 10,445

Employment-population ratio

59.6 60.2 59.8 59.7 59.9 60.3 60.5 60.2 59.9

Unemployed

514 481 525 508 487 590 534 528 521

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.4 4.8 4.7 4.5 5.3 4.8 4.8 4.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

716 762 767 775 809 789 805 786 819

Participation rate

28.5 29.8 29.6 30.9 31.7 30.9 31.5 30.7 31.6

Employed

599 643 681 647 615 642 705 644 724

Employment-population ratio

23.9 25.1 26.3 25.8 24.2 25.1 27.6 25.2 27.9

Unemployed

118 120 86 128 193 147 100 142 95

Unemployment rate

16.4 15.7 11.3 16.5 23.9 18.7 12.4 18.0 11.6

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,541 17,896 17,930 17,541 17,633 17,593 17,769 17,896 17,930

Civilian labor force

11,196 11,384 11,495 11,261 11,587 11,490 11,548 11,436 11,559

Participation rate

63.8 63.6 64.1 64.2 65.7 65.3 65.0 63.9 64.5

Employed

10,856 11,054 11,146 10,936 11,255 11,134 11,144 11,084 11,223

Employment-population ratio

61.9 61.8 62.2 62.3 63.8 63.3 62.7 61.9 62.6

Unemployed

340 330 349 325 332 356 404 353 336

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.5 3.1 2.9

Not in labor force

6,345 6,511 6,435 6,281 6,047 6,103 6,221 6,459 6,372

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

47,010 48,068 48,364 47,010 47,774 47,877 47,974 48,068 48,364

Civilian labor force

31,131 31,996 32,260 31,210 32,115 32,056 32,101 32,081 32,318

Participation rate

66.2 66.6 66.7 66.4 67.2 67.0 66.9 66.7 66.8

Employed

29,430 30,418 30,389 29,755 30,637 30,525 30,636 30,480 30,700

Employment-population ratio

62.6 63.3 62.8 63.3 64.1 63.8 63.9 63.4 63.5

Unemployed

1,701 1,578 1,871 1,455 1,478 1,531 1,465 1,602 1,618

Unemployment rate

5.5 4.9 5.8 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.6 5.0 5.0

Not in labor force

15,879 16,072 16,104 15,800 15,659 15,822 15,873 15,986 16,046

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,834 17,199 17,372 16,842 17,256 17,128 17,267 17,261 17,372

Participation rate

78.8 78.8 79.5 78.8 79.5 78.7 79.2 79.1 79.5

Employed

15,875 16,340 16,315 16,082 16,520 16,409 16,537 16,438 16,519

Employment-population ratio

74.3 74.8 74.6 75.2 76.1 75.4 75.9 75.3 75.6

Unemployed

958 860 1,057 760 736 719 729 824 852

Unemployment rate

5.7 5.0 6.1 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.8 4.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,024 13,367 13,329 13,031 13,355 13,265 13,260 13,346 13,336

Participation rate

61.1 61.3 60.7 61.2 61.7 61.1 61.0 61.3 60.7

Employed

12,391 12,790 12,697 12,453 12,785 12,727 12,737 12,746 12,759

Employment-population ratio

58.1 58.7 57.8 58.4 59.0 58.6 58.6 58.5 58.1

Unemployed

633 577 632 578 570 537 523 601 577

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.3 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.5 4.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,274 1,430 1,558 1,336 1,504 1,664 1,574 1,474 1,610

Participation rate

29.4 32.2 34.3 30.9 34.1 37.6 35.5 33.2 35.5

Employed

1,164 1,288 1,377 1,219 1,332 1,389 1,361 1,296 1,422

Employment-population ratio

26.9 29.0 30.3 28.2 30.2 31.4 30.7 29.2 31.3

Unemployed

110 142 181 118 172 275 213 177 188

Unemployment rate

8.7 9.9 11.6 8.8 11.4 16.5 13.5 12.0 11.7

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,829 9,417 9,281 8,812 9,203 9,312 9,492 9,384 9,271

Participation rate

46.1 47.6 47.1 46.0 47.0 48.0 48.3 47.5 47.1

Employed

8,267 8,803 8,562 8,414 8,698 8,771 8,891 8,819 8,715

Employment-population ratio

43.1 44.5 43.5 43.9 44.4 45.2 45.2 44.6 44.3

Unemployed

562 613 719 398 506 542 601 564 556

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.5 7.7 4.5 5.5 5.8 6.3 6.0 6.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,983 35,662 35,853 36,095 36,198 35,637 35,790 35,748 35,927

Participation rate

56.1 57.0 56.9 56.2 56.8 56.9 57.3 57.1 57.0

Employed

34,457 34,167 34,116 34,737 34,708 34,195 34,327 34,247 34,385

Employment-population ratio

53.7 54.6 54.2 54.1 54.5 54.6 55.0 54.7 54.6

Unemployed

1,526 1,495 1,736 1,358 1,490 1,442 1,463 1,501 1,543

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.2 4.8 3.8 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,952 35,765 36,167 36,068 35,918 35,814 35,874 35,737 36,205

Participation rate

63.2 62.4 62.6 63.4 62.7 62.2 62.1 62.4 62.6

Employed

34,859 34,715 34,922 35,023 34,843 34,691 34,866 34,623 35,020

Employment-population ratio

61.3 60.6 60.4 61.6 60.8 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.6

Unemployed

1,093 1,050 1,245 1,045 1,076 1,123 1,009 1,114 1,184

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.9 3.4 2.9 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

62,863 64,293 64,039 62,975 64,234 64,504 64,452 64,297 64,195

Participation rate

72.7 72.3 72.6 72.8 73.4 72.8 72.7 72.3 72.7

Employed

61,526 63,053 62,621 61,697 62,851 63,133 63,091 62,933 62,836

Employment-population ratio

71.1 70.9 71.0 71.3 71.8 71.2 71.2 70.8 71.2

Unemployed

1,338 1,239 1,418 1,278 1,383 1,371 1,360 1,364 1,359

Unemployment rate

2.1 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,024 17,704 15,991 15,660 2,033 2,044

Civilian labor force

8,630 8,701 7,490 7,500 1,141 1,201

Participation rate

47.9 49.1 46.8 47.9 56.1 58.7

Employed

8,390 8,411 7,294 7,268 1,096 1,143

Employment-population ratio

46.5 47.5 45.6 46.4 53.9 55.9

Unemployed

240 290 196 232 44 58

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.3 2.6 3.1 3.9 4.8

Not in labor force

9,394 9,003 8,501 8,160 892 843

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,913 5,165 4,002 4,197 911 968

Civilian labor force

3,918 4,187 3,275 3,442 644 745

Participation rate

79.7 81.1 81.8 82.0 70.6 77.0

Employed

3,768 4,033 3,167 3,323 601 710

Employment-population ratio

76.7 78.1 79.1 79.2 66.0 73.4

Unemployed

150 154 108 120 42 34

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.3 3.5 6.6 4.6

Not in labor force

995 977 728 755 267 223

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,011 2,908 2,569 2,490 442 418

Civilian labor force

2,197 2,151 1,862 1,871 335 279

Participation rate

73.0 73.9 72.5 75.2 75.8 66.7

Employed

2,161 2,073 1,827 1,813 334 260

Employment-population ratio

71.8 71.3 71.1 72.8 75.5 62.1

Unemployed

36 78 35 59 1 19

Unemployment rate

1.7 3.6 1.9 3.1 0.4 6.9

Not in labor force

813 758 706 619 107 139

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,099 5,781 5,841 5,538 258 243

Civilian labor force

827 705 809 689 19 17

Participation rate

13.6 12.2 13.8 12.4 7.2 6.8

Employed

823 684 805 668 19 16

Employment-population ratio

13.5 11.8 13.8 12.1 7.2 6.4

Unemployed

4 21 4 20 0 1

Unemployment rate

0.5 3.0 0.5 3.0 - -

Not in labor force

5,272 5,076 5,032 4,849 239 226

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,001 3,850 3,579 3,435 422 415

Civilian labor force

1,687 1,658 1,544 1,498 143 160

Participation rate

42.2 43.1 43.1 43.6 34.0 38.6

Employed

1,638 1,622 1,495 1,465 143 157

Employment-population ratio

40.9 42.1 41.8 42.6 33.8 37.8

Unemployed

50 36 49 33 1 3

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.2 3.1 2.2 0.7 2.1

Not in labor force

2,314 2,192 2,035 1,937 279 255

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

238,664 240,502 109,368 110,037 129,296 130,465

Civilian labor force

154,167 155,431 79,289 79,412 74,877 76,018

Participation rate

64.6 64.6 72.5 72.2 57.9 58.3

Employed

148,269 149,168 75,919 75,757 72,350 73,411

Employment-population ratio

62.1 62.0 69.4 68.8 56.0 56.3

Unemployed

5,898 6,263 3,370 3,655 2,527 2,608

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 4.3 4.6 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

84,497 85,072 30,078 30,625 54,419 54,447

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,585 33,366 233,376 234,174

Civilian labor force

7,847 8,164 157,223 158,263

Participation rate

24.1 24.5 67.4 67.6

Employed

7,292 7,628 151,399 152,021

Employment-population ratio

22.4 22.9 64.9 64.9

Unemployed

554 536 5,824 6,242

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.6 3.7 3.9

Not in labor force

24,739 25,202 76,153 75,911

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,206 3,314 78,534 78,576

Participation rate

40.5 41.2 81.8 82.2

Employed

2,970 3,104 75,225 74,999

Employment-population ratio

37.5 38.6 78.3 78.5

Unemployed

236 211 3,309 3,578

Unemployment rate

7.4 6.4 4.2 4.6

Not in labor force

4,716 4,726 17,513 16,986

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,212 3,436 69,128 69,838

Participation rate

38.8 39.8 71.9 72.4

Employed

2,969 3,205 66,863 67,527

Employment-population ratio

35.9 37.1 69.5 70.1

Unemployed

243 231 2,265 2,311

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.7 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

5,066 5,197 27,040 26,558

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,428 1,414 9,561 9,849

Participation rate

8.7 8.5 23.2 23.3

Employed

1,353 1,319 9,311 9,496

Employment-population ratio

8.3 7.9 22.6 22.5

Unemployed

75 94 250 353

Unemployment rate

5.2 6.7 2.6 3.6

Not in labor force

14,957 15,279 31,599 32,367

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,899 47,544 22,530 23,400 23,369 24,143

Civilian labor force

29,945 31,244 17,243 18,004 12,702 13,240

Participation rate

65.2 65.7 76.5 76.9 54.4 54.8

Employed

28,692 29,842 16,491 17,163 12,201 12,679

Employment-population ratio

62.5 62.8 73.2 73.3 52.2 52.5

Unemployed

1,253 1,402 752 841 501 561

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.5 4.4 4.7 3.9 4.2

Not in labor force

15,954 16,300 5,287 5,397 10,667 10,903

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

220,063 219,996 107,468 107,036 112,595 112,960

Civilian labor force

135,125 135,184 70,599 70,011 64,526 65,173

Participation rate

61.4 61.4 65.7 65.4 57.3 57.7

Employed

130,000 129,807 67,629 66,796 62,371 63,011

Employment-population ratio

59.1 59.0 62.9 62.4 55.4 55.8

Unemployed

5,125 5,376 2,970 3,215 2,155 2,162

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 4.2 4.6 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

84,938 84,813 36,869 37,025 48,069 47,788

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,145 2,156 2,074 2,249 2,286 2,201 2,262 2,205 2,184

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,428 1,497 1,413 1,493 1,563 1,468 1,549 1,520 1,489

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

682 646 651 719 694 707 701 680 687

Unpaid family workers

35 14 10 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,547 158,598 157,575 157,663 159,306 159,166 159,578 158,993 158,735

Wage and salary workers(1)

147,532 149,325 148,684 148,583 150,134 150,170 150,505 149,702 149,741

Government

21,968 21,951 21,858 21,562 21,618 21,664 21,878 21,700 21,490

Private industries

125,564 127,373 126,826 127,127 128,558 128,454 128,612 128,086 128,407

Private households

669 787 773 - - - - - -

Other industries

124,895 126,586 126,053 126,327 127,958 127,800 127,889 127,414 127,521

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,952 9,242 8,841 9,191 9,043 8,957 9,014 9,335 9,087

Unpaid family workers

63 31 50 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,498 4,324 4,874 4,049 4,069 4,284 3,994 4,211 4,422

Slack work or business conditions

3,114 3,071 3,427 2,683 2,799 2,985 2,790 2,960 2,994

Could only find part-time work

993 940 1,046 993 940 1,000 934 964 1,026

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,096 23,020 22,238 22,016 22,177 21,576 21,879 22,458 22,156

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,401 4,229 4,803 3,973 3,988 4,205 3,931 4,138 4,371

Slack work or business conditions

3,057 3,019 3,390 2,628 2,753 2,941 2,735 2,913 2,959

Could only find part-time work

983 926 1,038 983 930 992 923 953 1,018

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,683 22,604 21,878 21,608 21,752 21,214 21,444 22,060 21,793

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,692 160,754 159,650 160,152 161,550 161,280 161,866 161,183 161,152

16 to 19 years

5,247 5,399 5,256 5,695 5,578 5,688 5,733 5,638 5,704

16 to 17 years

2,033 2,091 2,071 2,256 2,121 2,161 2,235 2,194 2,292

18 to 19 years

3,215 3,308 3,186 3,464 3,432 3,518 3,514 3,446 3,428

20 years and over

153,444 155,355 154,394 154,457 155,972 155,592 156,133 155,545 155,448

20 to 24 years

14,336 14,616 14,173 14,708 14,684 14,565 14,787 14,756 14,562

25 years and over

139,108 140,739 140,221 139,872 141,218 140,887 141,194 140,617 140,972

25 to 54 years

101,921 103,265 102,991 102,430 103,515 103,311 103,451 103,161 103,489

25 to 34 years

35,343 35,888 35,424 35,601 35,945 35,799 35,779 35,859 35,700

35 to 44 years

34,904 35,566 35,703 35,041 35,501 35,486 35,680 35,546 35,818

45 to 54 years

31,674 31,811 31,864 31,787 32,069 32,026 31,992 31,757 31,970

55 years and over

37,188 37,474 37,230 37,443 37,704 37,576 37,742 37,455 37,484

Men, 16 years and over

84,120 85,198 83,959 85,129 85,657 85,327 85,981 85,794 85,034

16 to 19 years

2,596 2,705 2,475 2,848 2,804 2,801 2,897 2,836 2,730

16 to 17 years

907 952 934 1,036 1,061 1,067 1,071 1,033 1,063

18 to 19 years

1,689 1,753 1,541 1,837 1,725 1,730 1,846 1,807 1,679

20 years and over

81,524 82,493 81,485 82,281 82,853 82,526 83,084 82,958 82,304

20 to 24 years

7,144 7,293 7,093 7,361 7,316 7,262 7,446 7,432 7,320

25 years and over

74,379 75,200 74,391 75,051 75,452 75,118 75,514 75,397 75,093

25 to 54 years

54,269 55,048 54,500 54,757 55,279 55,012 55,262 55,178 55,008

25 to 34 years

18,717 19,066 18,720 18,927 19,120 18,975 19,088 19,104 18,948

35 to 44 years

18,752 19,038 18,949 18,911 19,112 19,043 19,107 19,108 19,109

45 to 54 years

16,801 16,944 16,830 16,919 17,047 16,994 17,067 16,966 16,951

55 years and over

20,110 20,152 19,892 20,294 20,173 20,106 20,252 20,219 20,085

Women, 16 years and over

74,572 75,556 75,691 75,023 75,893 75,953 75,885 75,389 76,118

16 to 19 years

2,651 2,694 2,781 2,847 2,774 2,887 2,836 2,802 2,974

16 to 17 years

1,125 1,139 1,137 1,220 1,061 1,094 1,164 1,162 1,229

18 to 19 years

1,526 1,555 1,645 1,628 1,707 1,788 1,668 1,639 1,749

20 years and over

71,921 72,862 72,909 72,176 73,119 73,066 73,049 72,587 73,144

20 to 24 years

7,192 7,323 7,080 7,347 7,368 7,303 7,342 7,324 7,241

25 years and over

64,729 65,539 65,829 64,821 65,766 65,769 65,679 65,220 65,879

25 to 54 years

47,651 48,216 48,491 47,673 48,236 48,298 48,189 47,983 48,480

25 to 34 years

16,627 16,822 16,704 16,674 16,825 16,823 16,691 16,755 16,752

35 to 44 years

16,152 16,528 16,754 16,130 16,389 16,443 16,573 16,438 16,709

45 to 54 years

14,873 14,867 15,033 14,868 15,022 15,032 14,926 14,791 15,019

55 years and over

17,078 17,322 17,338 17,148 17,530 17,471 17,490 17,237 17,399

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,927 46,319 45,519 45,964 46,338 46,059 46,344 46,392 45,672

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,569 36,982 37,034 36,583 37,198 37,018 36,887 36,790 37,033

Women who maintain families(2)

10,154 9,718 9,897 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

131,175 132,585 131,549 132,700 134,145 134,502 134,727 133,196 133,133

Part-time workers(4)

27,516 28,169 28,101 27,331 27,348 26,702 27,032 27,794 27,890

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,877 8,696 8,133 7,984 8,173 8,360 8,343 8,565 8,272

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.4 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,560 6,637 6,656 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,635 9,888 9,492 9,910 9,737 9,664 9,715 10,014 9,774

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,719 6,268 6,124 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

665 758 679 10.5 11.8 13.1 11.4 11.9 10.6

16 to 17 years

275 331 254 10.9 12.8 14.7 11.4 13.1 10.0

18 to 19 years

385 433 415 10.0 11.1 12.5 11.5 11.2 10.8

20 years and over

5,054 5,510 5,445 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,122 1,006 921 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.6 6.4 5.9

25 years and over

4,035 4,574 4,602 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2

25 to 54 years

3,139 3,491 3,480 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.3

25 to 34 years

1,457 1,556 1,467 3.9 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.2 3.9

35 to 44 years

931 1,079 1,110 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0

45 to 54 years

751 856 903 2.3 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.7

55 years and over

884 1,089 1,110 2.3 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9

Men, 16 years and over

3,141 3,456 3,473 3.6 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9

16 to 19 years

382 407 413 11.8 12.7 14.6 12.2 12.5 13.2

16 to 17 years

180 185 190 14.8 15.4 16.3 13.3 15.2 15.1

18 to 19 years

210 229 230 10.3 11.4 14.2 11.7 11.3 12.1

20 years and over

2,759 3,050 3,060 3.2 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6

20 to 24 years

627 509 551 7.8 8.3 7.8 7.1 6.4 7.0

25 years and over

2,227 2,587 2,583 2.9 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.3

25 to 54 years

1,724 1,984 1,913 3.1 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

25 to 34 years

854 885 784 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.4 4.0

35 to 44 years

487 625 652 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.3

45 to 54 years

384 474 477 2.2 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7

55 years and over

503 603 669 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.3 2.9 3.2

Women, 16 years and over

2,578 2,811 2,650 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4

16 to 19 years

283 352 266 9.0 10.8 11.7 10.6 11.1 8.2

16 to 17 years

95 147 65 7.2 10.1 13.1 9.5 11.2 5.0

18 to 19 years

175 204 185 9.7 10.8 10.8 11.2 11.1 9.6

20 years and over

2,295 2,460 2,385 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.2

20 to 24 years

496 497 369 6.3 5.6 6.2 6.1 6.4 4.9

25 years and over

1,808 1,987 2,019 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,414 1,506 1,567 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

603 671 683 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.5 3.9 3.9

35 to 44 years

444 454 458 2.7 2.5 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.7

45 to 54 years

367 381 426 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.8

55 years and over

382 480 441 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.5

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

830 980 999 1.8 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

715 825 773 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.0

Women who maintain families(2)

403 475 567 3.8 4.0 4.6 4.8 4.7 5.4

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,648 5,228 4,936 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.6

Part-time workers(4)

1,088 1,084 1,212 3.8 4.3 4.6 3.9 3.8 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,226 3,048 3,680 2,568 2,869 3,120 3,058 3,058 3,028

On temporary layoff

1,238 981 1,345 763 813 904 889 917 876

Not on temporary layoff

1,987 2,067 2,335 1,804 2,056 2,217 2,169 2,140 2,151

Permanent job losers

1,330 1,466 1,621 1,265 1,421 1,636 1,589 1,543 1,556

Persons who completed temporary jobs

657 601 713 539 636 581 580 597 595

Job leavers

881 777 791 883 797 801 821 833 794

Reentrants

1,807 1,570 1,851 1,799 2,024 1,869 1,771 1,741 1,834

New entrants

465 512 456 526 586 603 582 609 550

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

50.6 51.6 54.3 44.4 45.7 48.8 49.1 49.0 48.8

On temporary layoff

19.4 16.6 19.8 13.2 13.0 14.1 14.3 14.7 14.1

Not on temporary layoff

31.2 35.0 34.4 31.2 32.8 34.7 34.8 34.3 34.7

Job leavers

13.8 13.2 11.7 15.3 12.7 12.5 13.2 13.4 12.8

Reentrants

28.3 26.6 27.3 31.2 32.3 29.2 28.4 27.9 29.5

New entrants

7.3 8.7 6.7 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.3 9.8 8.9

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.0 1.8 2.2 1.5 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,358 2,102 2,559 1,942 2,053 2,269 2,069 2,191 2,140

5 to 14 weeks

1,965 1,619 2,022 1,795 2,043 1,836 2,060 1,791 1,848

15 weeks and over

2,055 2,185 2,196 2,002 2,288 2,370 2,150 2,350 2,144

15 to 26 weeks

926 1,000 882 929 985 1,079 931 1,104 867

27 weeks and over

1,129 1,185 1,314 1,073 1,303 1,291 1,220 1,245 1,277

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

19.1 21.9 19.5 20.4 21.4 21.6 19.5 22.3 20.8

Median duration, in weeks

8.4 9.0 8.3 9.8 9.1 8.6 9.0 9.7 9.6

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

37.0 35.6 37.8 33.8 32.2 35.0 33.0 34.6 34.9

5 to 14 weeks

30.8 27.4 29.8 31.3 32.0 28.4 32.8 28.3 30.1

15 weeks and over

32.2 37.0 32.4 34.9 35.8 36.6 34.2 37.1 35.0

15 to 26 weeks

14.5 16.9 13.0 16.2 15.4 16.7 14.8 17.4 14.1

27 weeks and over

17.7 20.1 19.4 18.7 20.4 19.9 19.4 19.7 20.8

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,692 159,650 6,378 6,778 3.9 4.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

69,249 70,650 1,460 1,527 2.1 2.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

29,934 30,130 604 662 2.0 2.1

Professional and related occupations

39,315 40,520 856 866 2.1 2.1

Service occupations

25,244 25,341 1,401 1,400 5.3 5.2

Sales and office occupations

30,358 29,905 1,184 1,269 3.8 4.1

Sales and related occupations

14,185 14,195 645 676 4.4 4.5

Office and administrative support occupations

16,173 15,709 538 593 3.2 3.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,023 14,136 894 973 6.0 6.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

915 898 65 125 6.7 12.2

Construction and extraction occupations

8,399 8,286 709 695 7.8 7.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,709 4,952 120 153 2.5 3.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,817 19,618 968 1,126 4.7 5.4

Production occupations

8,292 8,020 260 402 3.0 4.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,526 11,598 708 724 5.8 5.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,378 6,778 3.9 4.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,061 5,450 3.9 4.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

2 16 0.3 3.0

Construction

720 699 6.9 6.9

Manufacturing

399 512 2.6 3.4

Durable goods

228 284 2.3 2.9

Nondurable goods

172 227 3.1 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

992 936 5.1 4.6

Transportation and utilities

345 351 4.2 4.3

Information

114 156 3.9 5.5

Financial activities

236 214 2.3 2.1

Professional and business services

649 816 3.5 4.3

Education and health services

599 667 2.4 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

797 814 6.0 6.0

Other services

209 269 3.3 4.0

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

70 120 4.9 8.0

Government workers

429 402 1.9 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

354 351 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Sept.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.0 1.8 2.2 1.5 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.9 3.5 4.1 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.1 3.7 4.3 3.6 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.7 4.4 5.1 4.2 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.4 7.0 8.0 6.7 7.0 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.2

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024
Jan.
2023
Jan.
2024

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,892 101,113 42,156 42,422 58,736 58,691

Persons who currently want a job

5,466 5,964 2,722 2,828 2,744 3,135

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,434 1,757 730 856 704 901

Discouraged workers(2)

349 466 233 284 117 182

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,085 1,292 498 572 587 719

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,877 8,133 3,847 3,957 4,030 4,176

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.1 4.6 4.7 5.4 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,418 4,602 2,367 2,496 2,051 2,106

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,862 2,048 634 729 1,228 1,319

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

343 416 214 245 129 171

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,212 1,011 610 466 602 545

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Change from:
Dec.2023 - Jan.2024(p)

Total nonfarm

152,688 158,347 158,261 155,626 154,773 157,014 157,347 157,700 353

Total private

130,313 134,881 134,900 132,650 132,283 134,014 134,292 134,609 317

Goods-producing

21,062 21,768 21,681 21,320 21,494 21,690 21,723 21,751 28

Mining and logging

622 642 641 627 631 640 641 635 -6

Logging

45.1 44.0 42.6 41.4 44.8 43.4 42.4 41.5 -0.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

576.7 597.7 598.1 585.1 585.7 596.2 598.1 593.2 -4.9

Oil and gas extraction

115.5 118.3 118.8 119.1 116.4 117.4 118.2 119.9 1.7

Mining (except oil and gas)

181.0 188.1 187.0 183.5 186.5 187.1 188.2 188.7 0.5

Coal mining

42.0 42.6 42.8 42.8 42.2 42.7 42.8 42.9 0.1

Metal ore mining

43.3 43.9 43.8 43.1 43.4 43.7 43.7 43.2 -0.5

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

95.7 101.6 100.4 97.6 100.9 100.7 101.7 102.7 1.0

Support activities for mining

280.2 291.3 292.3 282.5 282.8 291.7 291.7 284.6 -7.1

Construction

7,586 8,173 8,059 7,800 7,921 8,102 8,126 8,137 11

Construction of buildings

1,757.3 1,837.8 1,838.4 1,801.3 1,800.2 1,829.8 1,838.9 1,843.0 4.1

Residential building construction

906.8 934.5 936.1 915.9 929.9 931.4 935.9 938.4 2.5

Nonresidential building construction

850.5 903.3 902.3 885.4 870.3 898.4 903.0 904.6 1.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

988.3 1,155.3 1,098.4 1,023.1 1,089.2 1,131.5 1,132.9 1,125.2 -7.7

Specialty trade contractors

4,840.7 5,179.7 5,122.3 4,976.0 5,032.0 5,140.3 5,154.5 5,168.4 13.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,253.8 2,409.2 2,374.9 2,299.4 2,342.7 2,390.0 2,394.1 2,394.3 0.2

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,586.9 2,770.5 2,747.4 2,676.6 2,689.3 2,750.3 2,760.4 2,774.1 13.7

Manufacturing

12,854 12,953 12,981 12,893 12,942 12,948 12,956 12,979 23

Durable goods

8,034 8,133 8,162 8,105 8,075 8,129 8,142 8,146 4

Wood product manufacturing

422.6 415.4 414.2 409.9 424.0 415.1 413.4 412.5 -0.9

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

414.5 425.4 424.7 415.5 423.8 422.5 424.3 424.6 0.3

Primary metal manufacturing

369.1 371.3 373.8 370.6 370.7 372.1 372.1 372.3 0.2

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,444.1 1,459.9 1,464.8 1,459.2 1,450.0 1,460.0 1,462.7 1,464.6 1.9

Machinery manufacturing

1,124.7 1,136.0 1,142.1 1,140.9 1,127.2 1,138.0 1,142.1 1,143.0 0.9

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,101.7 1,103.7 1,107.5 1,102.8 1,107.1 1,106.5 1,107.0 1,108.4 1.4

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

163.5 161.9 163.9 163.2 163.8 162.2 163.3 163.4 0.1

Communications equipment manufacturing

84.5 86.9 86.5 86.2 84.8 87.0 86.6 86.8 0.2

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

397.7 390.3 392.7 391.6 400.4 392.1 393.1 394.0 0.9

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

425.3 433.9 434.0 431.6 426.9 434.6 433.9 433.6 -0.3

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

30.7 30.7 30.4 30.2 31.2 30.6 30.1 30.6 0.5

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

413.7 415.0 414.2 409.6 414.8 415.1 413.8 411.2 -2.6

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,750.1 1,827.7 1,841.3 1,827.9 1,758.0 1,822.1 1,829.4 1,835.0 5.6

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,019.4 1,061.9 1,071.2 1,059.2 1,024.2 1,058.5 1,061.0 1,064.1 3.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

365.4 352.2 351.4 344.9 366.4 352.0 349.6 346.7 -2.9

Miscellaneous manufacturing

628.5 626.0 627.9 623.5 632.7 625.5 627.1 627.4 0.3

Nondurable goods

4,820 4,820 4,819 4,788 4,867 4,819 4,814 4,833 19

Food manufacturing

1,710.3 1,731.4 1,741.2 1,723.0 1,724.8 1,729.3 1,732.9 1,736.4 3.5

Textile mills

93.2 90.5 89.1 88.0 93.9 90.0 89.0 88.8 -0.2

Textile product mills

102.6 96.1 95.6 95.1 102.8 96.1 95.3 95.3 0.0

Apparel manufacturing

89.9 87.9 88.0 87.6 91.2 88.6 88.4 88.5 0.1

Paper manufacturing

361.8 353.9 355.1 350.8 361.6 353.1 352.9 351.1 -1.8

Printing and related support activities

372.7 366.1 365.9 365.9 375.9 364.5 363.8 368.9 5.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

102.3 108.5 106.7 105.2 107.2 109.0 108.9 109.9 1.0

Chemical manufacturing

897.3 893.9 895.9 899.1 900.9 897.2 894.7 901.6 6.9

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

745.3 729.6 727.9 725.1 750.0 729.7 727.5 729.7 2.2

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

344.2 361.8 353.4 347.7 358.8 361.4 360.8 363.0 2.2

Private service-providing

109,251 113,113 113,219 111,330 110,789 112,324 112,569 112,858 289

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,730 29,407 29,653 28,927 28,771 28,843 28,901 28,965 64

Wholesale trade

6,032.1 6,157.4 6,178.8 6,121.0 6,074.5 6,152.1 6,162.8 6,164.9 2.1

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,349.9 3,421.3 3,434.2 3,410.6 3,365.7 3,420.5 3,425.8 3,427.2 1.4

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,171.2 2,216.5 2,227.2 2,202.4 2,195.5 2,215.8 2,222.4 2,226.4 4.0

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

511.0 519.6 517.4 508.0 513.3 515.8 514.6 511.3 -3.3

Retail trade

15,489.5 15,926.4 16,052.4 15,640.2 15,518.3 15,570.4 15,613.6 15,658.8 45.2

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,005.3 2,065.5 2,069.2 2,052.8 2,027.3 2,066.0 2,073.7 2,075.2 1.5

Automobile dealers

1,259.2 1,290.6 1,295.6 1,288.5 1,267.5 1,291.3 1,294.7 1,296.5 1.8

Other motor vehicle dealers

170.2 170.6 167.9 165.0 180.1 174.9 174.8 175.1 0.3

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

575.9 604.3 605.7 599.3 579.8 599.8 604.3 603.6 -0.7

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,378.9 1,369.4 1,394.2 1,368.9 1,427.9 1,398.9 1,409.0 1,410.4 1.4

Food and beverage retailers

3,225.4 3,275.7 3,283.9 3,242.9 3,236.2 3,247.5 3,248.0 3,252.6 4.6

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

877.1 850.8 867.6 835.4 869.1 832.0 828.8 826.8 -2.0

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

444.7 438.5 446.4 434.2 439.7 428.6 427.5 428.5 1.0

Electronics and appliance retailers

432.4 412.3 421.2 401.2 429.4 403.5 401.3 398.3 -3.0

General merchandise retailers

3,161.2 3,373.7 3,416.6 3,255.9 3,116.6 3,193.0 3,198.3 3,222.0 23.7

Department stores

961.9 1,024.6 1,048.1 967.5 931.5 937.7 927.8 945.3 17.5

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,199.3 2,349.1 2,368.5 2,288.4 2,185.1 2,255.3 2,270.5 2,276.7 6.2

Health and personal care retailers

1,113.0 1,115.5 1,120.9 1,109.3 1,100.5 1,093.6 1,092.5 1,096.2 3.7

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,042.9 1,071.6 1,070.2 1,062.5 1,051.9 1,066.9 1,070.7 1,071.3 0.6

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,169.7 1,216.8 1,242.8 1,167.9 1,155.1 1,132.7 1,147.3 1,148.6 1.3

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,516.0 1,587.4 1,587.0 1,544.6 1,533.7 1,539.8 1,545.3 1,555.7 10.4

Transportation and warehousing

6,641.7 6,742.1 6,837.0 6,581.6 6,609.4 6,538.9 6,540.5 6,556.0 15.5

Air transportation

529.3 564.8 568.6 563.0 534.0 566.0 569.5 568.0 -1.5

Rail transportation

150.7 152.7 152.7 152.7 150.7 152.8 153.0 152.6 -0.4

Water transportation

64.5 69.8 69.5 69.4 67.0 71.0 71.0 72.2 1.2

Truck transportation

1,563.6 1,565.1 1,558.4 1,532.1 1,587.0 1,550.1 1,553.3 1,555.7 2.4

Transit and ground passenger transportation

438.4 445.5 448.0 445.0 428.5 430.3 432.3 434.7 2.4

Pipeline transportation

50.8 52.1 51.7 52.7 51.2 52.1 51.8 53.0 1.2

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

23.0 28.4 28.8 25.4 29.2 31.0 32.3 30.9 -1.4

Support activities for transportation

819.7 830.9 840.6 833.3 821.6 826.9 831.4 834.7 3.3

Couriers and messengers

1,137.9 1,209.6 1,300.8 1,125.3 1,082.7 1,086.4 1,072.4 1,075.2 2.8

Warehousing and storage

1,863.8 1,823.2 1,817.9 1,782.7 1,857.5 1,772.3 1,773.5 1,779.0 5.5

Utilities

566.6 581.1 584.7 584.6 568.4 581.4 583.7 585.5 1.8

Information

3,020 3,015 3,030 2,988 3,067 2,999 3,017 3,032 15

Motion picture and sound recording industries

388.6 431.4 439.5 414.8 422.0 420.4 433.1 444.8 11.7

Publishing industries

951.5 933.8 937.1 934.2 955.1 933.0 935.1 938.0 2.9

Broadcasting and content providers

350.9 343.4 344.9 340.9 353.7 342.3 343.1 343.6 0.5

Telecommunications

655.3 636.6 634.8 625.4 658.6 635.0 633.2 629.8 -3.4

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

484.4 491.5 496.3 495.9 485.7 490.7 494.9 497.0 2.1

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

189.4 178.2 177.2 177.2 191.4 177.4 177.7 178.9 1.2

Financial activities

9,093 9,239 9,266 9,196 9,145 9,227 9,240 9,248 8

Finance and insurance

6,699.0 6,744.6 6,758.3 6,726.0 6,713.2 6,736.6 6,741.5 6,741.2 -0.3

Monetary authorities-central bank

22.3 22.6 22.5 22.5 22.4 22.6 22.5 22.6 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,653.3 2,602.2 2,605.5 2,599.0 2,654.7 2,607.2 2,604.2 2,600.1 -4.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,798.8 1,784.7 1,785.7 1,783.9 1,798.7 1,787.6 1,785.5 1,783.7 -1.8

Commercial banking

1,395.8 1,376.9 1,377.1 1,375.2 1,396.0 1,380.1 1,378.0 1,375.3 -2.7

Nondepository credit intermediation

551.8 529.9 532.6 530.3 553.6 531.9 531.9 531.7 -0.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

302.7 287.6 287.2 284.8 302.4 287.7 286.8 284.7 -2.1

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,078.8 1,115.6 1,123.0 1,109.3 1,084.7 1,113.4 1,117.3 1,116.2 -1.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,944.6 3,004.2 3,007.3 2,995.2 2,951.4 2,993.4 2,997.5 3,002.3 4.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,393.5 2,494.3 2,507.5 2,469.8 2,431.5 2,490.7 2,498.8 2,506.6 7.8

Real estate

1,826.4 1,876.6 1,891.3 1,864.9 1,846.5 1,868.9 1,875.2 1,882.5 7.3

Rental and leasing services

544.9 594.3 592.7 582.0 562.3 598.6 600.3 600.7 0.4

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.2 23.4 23.5 22.9 22.7 23.2 23.3 23.4 0.1

Professional and business services

22,374 23,067 22,960 22,596 22,771 22,869 22,904 22,978 74

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,651.0 10,941.8 10,981.6 10,936.8 10,694.4 10,907.2 10,941.1 10,983.0 41.9

Legal services

1,176.8 1,195.2 1,204.1 1,181.9 1,181.9 1,188.1 1,192.2 1,187.8 -4.4

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,163.8 1,125.7 1,155.3 1,186.6 1,135.1 1,151.0 1,155.1 1,159.2 4.1

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,614.9 1,677.6 1,672.9 1,661.7 1,637.3 1,673.4 1,674.5 1,684.4 9.9

Specialized design services

150.1 155.8 156.0 154.3 152.4 154.2 154.4 156.4 2.0

Computer systems design and related services

2,472.7 2,534.6 2,530.3 2,538.6 2,477.8 2,517.7 2,528.7 2,543.2 14.5

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,822.7 1,904.2 1,908.6 1,888.9 1,835.4 1,886.2 1,893.0 1,901.4 8.4

Scientific research and development services

908.1 949.1 950.1 942.9 916.6 948.5 950.4 952.3 1.9

Advertising, public relations, and related services

496.2 516.3 522.6 514.3 503.2 514.8 519.3 521.3 2.0

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

845.7 883.3 881.7 867.6 854.9 873.4 873.6 877.0 3.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,538.8 2,557.2 2,568.9 2,556.9 2,545.2 2,556.2 2,560.6 2,563.9 3.3

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,184.6 9,568.3 9,409.5 9,102.3 9,531.1 9,405.5 9,402.3 9,430.9 28.6

Administrative and support services

8,703.5 9,060.8 8,902.4 8,601.0 9,040.4 8,900.0 8,894.1 8,919.8 25.7

Office administrative services

602.6 635.9 631.7 632.1 609.0 632.9 634.8 638.8 4.0

Facilities support services

163.9 172.9 172.5 173.9 164.5 172.4 173.0 173.9 0.9

Employment services(1)

3,644.0 3,693.3 3,629.2 3,445.2 3,758.2 3,553.2 3,535.5 3,544.7 9.2

Temporary help services

2,876.2 2,911.8 2,853.6 2,680.6 2,980.3 2,785.8 2,769.0 2,772.9 3.9

Business support services

762.6 739.4 740.9 719.5 759.3 723.6 721.6 716.7 -4.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

184.0 197.1 196.5 197.2 187.0 197.5 198.4 200.2 1.8

Investigation and security services

989.3 1,017.2 1,015.3 1,004.0 1,001.4 1,012.9 1,013.0 1,016.0 3.0

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,031.2 2,262.2 2,174.9 2,094.2 2,225.7 2,266.4 2,275.3 2,285.7 10.4

Other support services

325.9 342.8 341.4 334.9 335.2 341.1 342.4 343.9 1.5

Waste management and remediation services

481.1 507.5 507.1 501.3 490.7 505.5 508.2 511.1 2.9

Private education and health services

24,712 26,023 25,980 25,757 24,906 25,747 25,831 25,943 112

Private educational services

3,679.8 4,013.4 3,908.4 3,736.6 3,797.0 3,835.0 3,839.3 3,851.1 11.8

Health care and social assistance

21,032.5 22,009.1 22,071.6 22,020.0 21,108.5 21,912.4 21,991.7 22,092.1 100.4

Health care(3)

16,604.3 17,314.3 17,369.4 17,310.7 16,661.4 17,241.4 17,295.3 17,365.6 70.3

Ambulatory health care services

8,279.6 8,649.8 8,685.0 8,635.1 8,317.7 8,604.5 8,637.7 8,671.1 33.4

Offices of physicians

2,862.2 2,995.1 3,010.5 2,994.7 2,872.7 2,977.2 2,989.0 3,003.5 14.5

Offices of dentists

1,019.7 1,033.3 1,036.5 1,030.0 1,022.2 1,031.1 1,031.9 1,032.7 0.8

Offices of other health practitioners

1,119.6 1,184.5 1,189.4 1,180.4 1,128.1 1,178.0 1,184.6 1,188.9 4.3

Outpatient care centers

1,055.1 1,078.6 1,083.5 1,078.4 1,055.2 1,074.0 1,077.3 1,078.4 1.1

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

318.6 323.9 326.4 323.5 318.5 323.6 325.4 323.9 -1.5

Home health care services

1,561.5 1,680.0 1,684.4 1,676.8 1,578.2 1,667.5 1,676.6 1,691.7 15.1

Other ambulatory health care services

342.9 354.4 354.3 351.3 342.8 353.1 352.8 352.0 -0.8

Hospitals

5,249.4 5,439.1 5,452.5 5,448.3 5,257.7 5,420.2 5,436.4 5,456.8 20.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,075.3 3,225.4 3,231.9 3,227.3 3,086.0 3,216.7 3,221.2 3,237.7 16.5

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,381.2 1,449.0 1,450.3 1,451.8 1,384.8 1,443.5 1,446.1 1,455.1 9.0

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

620.4 651.3 655.1 652.6 624.0 650.8 653.5 656.4 2.9

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

919.1 967.1 967.6 964.4 921.8 964.7 963.4 967.1 3.7

Other residential care facilities

154.6 158.0 158.9 158.5 155.4 157.7 158.2 159.1 0.9

Social assistance

4,428.2 4,694.8 4,702.2 4,709.3 4,447.1 4,671.0 4,696.4 4,726.5 30.1

Individual and family services

2,930.5 3,120.1 3,129.1 3,142.2 2,939.9 3,108.2 3,127.8 3,150.1 22.3

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

212.8 225.9 228.1 225.3 212.8 224.4 224.9 225.5 0.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

273.4 286.3 285.5 285.4 278.0 285.7 286.5 288.7 2.2

Child care services

1,011.5 1,062.5 1,059.5 1,056.4 1,016.3 1,052.6 1,057.1 1,062.2 5.1

Leisure and hospitality

15,616 16,496 16,484 16,078 16,345 16,775 16,813 16,824 11

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,174.1 2,435.6 2,438.7 2,360.1 2,420.4 2,577.8 2,595.6 2,611.8 16.2

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

462.6 594.9 593.9 545.2 527.0 604.3 612.4 613.7 1.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

152.6 173.4 170.2 164.4 166.3 176.1 176.2 178.3 2.1

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,558.9 1,667.3 1,674.6 1,650.5 1,727.1 1,797.4 1,807.0 1,819.8 12.8

Accommodation and food services

13,441.6 14,060.7 14,045.1 13,718.2 13,924.6 14,197.3 14,217.6 14,212.1 -5.5

Accommodation

1,764.2 1,849.5 1,855.4 1,819.6 1,872.2 1,910.6 1,926.0 1,922.9 -3.1

Food services and drinking places

11,677.4 12,211.2 12,189.7 11,898.6 12,052.4 12,286.7 12,291.6 12,289.2 -2.4

Other services

5,706 5,866 5,846 5,788 5,784 5,864 5,863 5,868 5

Repair and maintenance

1,409.0 1,472.8 1,469.6 1,457.0 1,427.3 1,470.4 1,474.0 1,475.7 1.7

Personal and laundry services

1,503.4 1,554.4 1,542.6 1,521.9 1,525.8 1,549.0 1,541.8 1,546.0 4.2

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,794.0 2,838.8 2,834.0 2,809.4 2,830.5 2,844.7 2,846.9 2,845.8 -1.1

Government

22,375 23,466 23,361 22,976 22,490 23,000 23,055 23,091 36

Federal

2,868 2,964 2,966 2,954 2,882 2,952 2,957 2,968 11

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,269.4 2,358.0 2,353.9 2,349.1 2,282.3 2,350.2 2,356.1 2,362.6 6.5

U.S. Postal Service

598.4 606.0 612.3 604.8 599.5 601.7 601.0 605.5 4.5

State government

5,108 5,569 5,493 5,311 5,206 5,383 5,398 5,408 10

State government education

2,439.1 2,814.5 2,737.4 2,558.3 2,521.8 2,624.6 2,633.2 2,638.8 5.6

State government, excluding education

2,668.6 2,754.9 2,755.5 2,752.9 2,684.3 2,758.5 2,764.5 2,769.5 5.0

Local government

14,399 14,933 14,902 14,711 14,402 14,665 14,700 14,715 15

Local government education

8,024.1 8,325.5 8,309.7 8,145.4 7,902.3 8,017.3 8,029.8 8,025.8 -4.0

Local government, excluding education

6,375.3 6,607.5 6,592.5 6,565.5 6,499.8 6,647.4 6,670.2 6,689.6 19.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.6 34.4 34.3 34.1

Goods-producing

40.2 39.8 39.7 39.5

Mining and logging

45.7 45.2 45.5 44.6

Construction

39.2 39.3 39.0 38.6

Manufacturing

40.5 39.9 39.8 39.8

Durable goods

40.9 40.3 40.3 40.1

Nondurable goods

39.8 39.2 39.0 39.2

Private service-providing

33.5 33.3 33.3 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 33.9 33.8 33.4

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.7 38.9 38.7

Retail trade

30.2 30.0 29.6 29.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 38.1 38.4 38.0

Utilities

42.1 41.9 41.7 42.1

Information

36.7 36.2 36.2 36.1

Financial activities

37.4 37.4 37.4 37.2

Professional and business services

36.6 36.5 36.4 36.3

Private education and health services

33.4 33.2 33.3 33.1

Leisure and hospitality

25.6 25.6 25.8 25.3

Other services

32.3 32.3 32.2 32.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 2.8 2.8 2.7

Durable goods

3.1 2.9 2.9 2.8

Nondurable goods

2.9 2.6 2.6 2.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)

Total private

$33.07 $34.23 $34.36 $34.55 $1,144.22 $1,177.51 $1,178.55 $1,178.16

Goods-producing

33.30 34.77 34.95 35.02 1,338.66 1,383.85 1,387.52 1,383.29

Mining and logging

36.96 38.63 38.78 39.10 1,689.07 1,746.08 1,764.49 1,743.86

Construction

35.70 37.21 37.34 37.55 1,399.44 1,462.35 1,456.26 1,449.43

Manufacturing

31.68 33.06 33.26 33.26 1,283.04 1,319.09 1,323.75 1,323.75

Durable goods

33.16 34.70 34.96 34.96 1,356.24 1,398.41 1,408.89 1,401.90

Nondurable goods

29.14 30.21 30.29 30.32 1,159.77 1,184.23 1,181.31 1,188.54

Private service-providing

33.01 34.10 34.23 34.45 1,105.84 1,135.53 1,139.86 1,136.85

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28.51 29.43 29.62 29.74 975.04 997.68 1,001.16 993.32

Wholesale trade

36.29 37.12 37.22 37.30 1,411.68 1,436.54 1,447.86 1,443.51

Retail trade

23.56 24.10 24.27 24.29 711.51 723.00 718.39 706.84

Transportation and warehousing

28.49 30.01 30.20 30.38 1,099.71 1,143.38 1,159.68 1,154.44

Utilities

48.88 50.43 50.50 50.77 2,057.85 2,113.02 2,105.85 2,137.42

Information

47.76 49.15 49.23 49.24 1,752.79 1,779.23 1,782.13 1,777.56

Financial activities

42.50 44.36 44.52 44.77 1,589.50 1,659.06 1,665.05 1,665.44

Professional and business services

39.72 41.12 41.29 41.56 1,453.75 1,500.88 1,502.96 1,508.63

Private education and health services

32.65 33.58 33.63 33.85 1,090.51 1,114.86 1,119.88 1,120.44

Leisure and hospitality

20.78 21.53 21.60 21.69 531.97 551.17 557.28 548.76

Other services

29.56 30.89 31.06 31.22 954.79 997.75 1,000.13 1,005.28

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2023 - Jan.
2024(p)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2023 - Jan.
2024(p)

Total private

114.9 115.7 115.6 115.2 -0.3 181.7 189.4 190.0 190.3 0.2

Goods-producing

98.4 98.4 98.3 97.9 -0.4 148.2 154.6 155.2 154.9 -0.2

Mining and logging

90.6 90.9 91.6 89.0 -2.8 134.5 141.0 142.7 139.7 -2.1

Construction

107.0 109.8 109.2 108.3 -0.8 166.0 177.5 177.2 176.6 -0.3

Manufacturing

94.3 92.9 92.8 92.9 0.1 138.9 142.9 143.5 143.7 0.1

Durable goods

93.0 92.2 92.4 92.0 -0.4 136.9 142.1 143.4 142.8 -0.4

Nondurable goods

96.7 94.3 93.7 94.6 1.0 143.0 144.5 144.0 145.5 1.0

Private service-providing

119.5 120.4 120.7 119.9 -0.7 191.7 199.6 200.8 200.8 0.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.5 106.8 106.7 105.7 -0.9 165.3 169.6 170.5 169.5 -0.6

Wholesale trade

104.2 105.0 105.7 105.2 -0.5 158.2 163.1 164.6 164.2 -0.2

Retail trade

95.4 95.1 94.1 92.7 -1.5 148.6 151.5 151.0 149.0 -1.3

Transportation and warehousing

146.6 143.1 144.3 143.1 -0.8 212.5 218.5 221.7 221.2 -0.2

Utilities

103.5 105.4 105.3 106.6 1.2 167.2 175.6 175.7 178.9 1.8

Information

102.8 99.2 99.8 100.0 0.2 174.8 173.5 174.9 175.3 0.2

Financial activities

112.0 113.0 113.2 112.7 -0.4 185.7 195.6 196.6 196.8 0.1

Professional and business services

130.4 130.6 130.4 130.5 0.1 209.8 217.5 218.2 219.7 0.7

Private education and health services

135.8 139.6 140.5 140.2 -0.2 213.4 225.5 227.2 228.3 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

119.4 122.5 123.8 121.4 -1.9 200.2 212.8 215.7 212.5 -1.5

Other services

107.7 109.2 108.8 108.9 0.1 174.5 184.9 185.3 186.4 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)

Total nonfarm

77,115 78,262 78,444 78,642 49.8 49.8 49.9 49.9

Total private

63,984 64,846 64,990 65,149 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,960 5,001 5,013 5,021 23.1 23.1 23.1 23.1

Mining and logging

81 84 84 85 12.8 13.1 13.1 13.4

Construction

1,116 1,155 1,159 1,164 14.1 14.3 14.3 14.3

Manufacturing

3,763 3,762 3,770 3,772 29.1 29.1 29.1 29.1

Durable goods

2,009 2,024 2,031 2,025 24.9 24.9 24.9 24.9

Nondurable goods

1,754 1,738 1,739 1,747 36.0 36.1 36.1 36.1

Private service-providing

59,024 59,845 59,977 60,128 53.3 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,337 11,258 11,291 11,308 39.4 39.0 39.1 39.0

Wholesale trade

1,859.4 1,871.8 1,878.3 1,878.2 30.6 30.4 30.5 30.5

Retail trade

7,534.3 7,492.7 7,520.1 7,541.7 48.6 48.1 48.2 48.2

Transportation and warehousing

1,794.9 1,739.2 1,737.8 1,732.3 27.2 26.6 26.6 26.4

Utilities

148.0 154.0 154.9 155.9 26.0 26.5 26.5 26.6

Information

1,239 1,211 1,219 1,226 40.4 40.4 40.4 40.4

Financial activities

5,095 5,131 5,136 5,144 55.7 55.6 55.6 55.6

Professional and business services

10,488 10,493 10,504 10,558 46.1 45.9 45.9 45.9

Private education and health services

19,145 19,809 19,863 19,933 76.9 76.9 76.9 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,638 8,816 8,834 8,833 52.8 52.6 52.5 52.5

Other services

3,082 3,127 3,130 3,126 53.3 53.3 53.4 53.3

Government

13,131 13,416 13,454 13,493 58.4 58.3 58.4 58.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)

Total private

107,736 109,018 109,217 109,564

Goods-producing

15,443 15,503 15,514 15,568

Mining and logging

481 496 498 500

Construction

5,852 5,941 5,952 5,970

Manufacturing

9,110 9,066 9,064 9,098

Durable goods

5,609 5,588 5,590 5,608

Nondurable goods

3,501 3,478 3,474 3,490

Private service-providing

92,293 93,515 93,703 93,996

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,266 24,340 24,392 24,446

Wholesale trade

4,826.8 4,855.5 4,854.5 4,862.0

Retail trade

13,242.6 13,312.4 13,365.1 13,403.1

Transportation and warehousing

5,744.2 5,709.2 5,707.6 5,712.9

Utilities

451.9 463.1 465.1 467.7

Information

2,445 2,399 2,413 2,435

Financial activities

6,885 6,935 6,948 6,958

Professional and business services

18,062 18,033 18,042 18,115

Private education and health services

21,690 22,414 22,500 22,601

Leisure and hospitality

14,246 14,620 14,645 14,671

Other services

4,699 4,774 4,763 4,770

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.0 33.7 33.7 33.5

Goods-producing

40.8 40.6 40.3 39.9

Mining and logging

47.7 48.1 47.9 46.8

Construction

40.1 40.2 39.8 39.1

Manufacturing

40.9 40.5 40.3 40.0

Durable goods

41.1 40.7 40.5 40.3

Nondurable goods

40.5 40.2 39.9 39.7

Private service-providing

32.9 32.6 32.6 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 33.9 33.9 33.7

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.7 38.6 38.6

Retail trade

30.5 30.3 30.1 30.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.0 37.6 37.9 37.4

Utilities

42.7 42.0 42.4 42.6

Information

36.3 35.8 35.7 35.8

Financial activities

37.1 36.7 36.8 36.8

Professional and business services

36.4 36.3 36.3 36.0

Private education and health services

32.6 32.3 32.4 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 24.2 24.4 24.1

Other services

31.3 31.2 31.3 31.0

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.9 3.4 3.5 3.4

Durable goods

3.9 3.4 3.5 3.4

Nondurable goods

3.8 3.3 3.4 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)

Total private

$28.31 $29.42 $29.53 $29.66 $962.54 $991.45 $995.16 $993.61

Goods-producing

28.95 30.26 30.45 30.56 1,181.16 1,228.56 1,227.14 1,219.34

Mining and logging

33.48 34.96 35.72 36.13 1,597.00 1,681.58 1,710.99 1,690.88

Construction

33.44 34.96 35.01 35.21 1,340.94 1,405.39 1,393.40 1,376.71

Manufacturing

25.85 26.89 27.14 27.22 1,057.27 1,089.05 1,093.74 1,088.80

Durable goods

26.96 28.07 28.37 28.54 1,108.06 1,142.45 1,148.99 1,150.16

Nondurable goods

24.04 24.98 25.13 25.05 973.62 1,004.20 1,002.69 994.49

Private service-providing

28.18 29.25 29.34 29.47 927.12 953.55 956.48 957.78

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.74 25.56 25.64 25.73 846.11 866.48 869.20 867.10

Wholesale trade

30.01 30.73 30.85 31.02 1,167.39 1,189.25 1,190.81 1,197.37

Retail trade

20.23 20.65 20.73 20.73 617.02 625.70 623.97 623.97

Transportation and warehousing

26.89 28.51 28.52 28.72 1,021.82 1,071.98 1,080.91 1,074.13

Utilities

43.51 44.88 44.87 45.23 1,857.88 1,884.96 1,902.49 1,926.80

Information

38.93 40.53 40.68 40.70 1,413.16 1,450.97 1,452.28 1,457.06

Financial activities

32.93 34.71 34.77 34.99 1,221.70 1,273.86 1,279.54 1,287.63

Professional and business services

33.47 34.69 34.84 35.09 1,218.31 1,259.25 1,264.69 1,263.24

Private education and health services

29.76 30.68 30.75 30.85 970.18 990.96 996.30 996.46

Leisure and hospitality

18.20 19.27 19.30 19.25 449.54 466.33 470.92 463.93

Other services

25.41 26.69 26.92 27.07 795.33 832.73 842.60 839.17

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


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ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2023 - Jan.
2024(p)
Jan.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023(p)
Jan.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2023 - Jan.
2024(p)