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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-21-0158
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, February 5, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902   *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JANUARY 2021


The unemployment rate fell by 0.4 percentage point to 6.3 percent in January, while 
nonfarm payroll employment changed little (+49,000), the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. The labor market continued to reflect the impact of the coronavirus 
(COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain it. In January, notable job gains in 
professional and business services and in both public and private education were offset 
by losses in leisure and hospitality, in retail trade, in health care, and in 
transportation and warehousing.


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|			Changes to The Employment Situation Data			|
|											|
| Establishment survey data have been revised as a result of the annual benchmarking 	|
| process and the updating of seasonal adjustment factors. Also, household survey data  |
| for January 2021 reflect updated population estimates. See the notes at the end of 	|
| this news release for more information about these changes.				|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two 
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In January, the unemployment rate fell by 0.4 percentage point to 6.3 percent, and the 
number of unemployed persons decreased to 10.1 million. Although both measures are much
lower than their April 2020 highs, they remain well above their pre-pandemic levels in 
February 2020 (3.5 percent and 5.7 million, respectively). (See table A-1. See the note
at the end of the news release and tables B and C for information about annual 
population adjustments to the household survey estimates. See the box note at the end 
of this news release for more information about how the household survey and its 
measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates declined over the month for adult
men (6.0 percent), adult women (6.0 percent), Whites (5.7 percent), and Hispanics (8.6
percent). The jobless rates changed little for teenagers (14.8 percent), Blacks (9.2 
percent), and Asians (6.6 percent). (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of persons on temporary layoff decreased in January 
to 2.7 million. This measure is down considerably from the recent high of 18.0 million
in April but is 2.0 million higher than its February level. The number of permanent 
job losers, at 3.5 million, changed little in January but is 2.2 million higher than 
in February. The number of reentrants to the labor force decreased in January to 2.0 
million. (Reentrants are persons who previously worked but were not in the labor force
prior to beginning their job search.) (See table A-11.)

In January, the number of persons jobless less than 5 weeks decreased to 2.3 million.
The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 4.0 
million, was about unchanged in January and accounted for 39.5 percent of the total 
unemployed. (See table A-12.)

After accounting for the annual adjustments to the population controls, both the 
civilian labor force and the number of employed persons changed little in January. At
61.4 percent, the labor force participation rate was about unchanged over the month 
but is 1.9 percentage points lower than its February level. The employment-population
ratio, at 57.5 percent in January, changed little over the month but is 3.6 percentage
points lower than in February. (See table A-1. For additional information about the
effects of the population adjustments, see table C.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 6.0 million, 
changed little in January. This measure is 1.6 million higher than the February level.
These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs.
(See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 7.0 million,
edged down in January but is 1.9 million higher than in February. These individuals 
were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during
the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons marginally attached to the labor force, at 1.9 million,
decreased in January. These individuals wanted and were available for work and had 
looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4
weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the 
marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, was little 
changed over the month at 624,000. (See Summary table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In January, the share of employed persons who teleworked because of the coronavirus 
pandemic edged down to 23.2 percent. These data refer to employed persons who 
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically 
because of the pandemic.

In January, 14.8 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because 
their employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not 
work at all or worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the 
pandemic. This measure is 1.1 million lower than in December. Among those who 
reported in January that they were unable to work because of pandemic-related 
closures or lost business, 12.7 percent received at least some pay from their 
employer for the hours not worked, little changed from the previous month.

Among those not in the labor force in January, 4.7 million persons were prevented 
from looking for work due to the pandemic; this measure is little changed from 
December. (To be counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either 
actively looking for work or on temporary layoff.)

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning 
in May 2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data 
are not seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions 
for all months are available online at 
www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment changed little in January (+49,000) but is below its
February 2020 level by 9.9 million, or 6.5 percent. In January, notable job gains in 
professional and business services and in both public and private education were 
offset by losses in leisure and hospitality, in retail trade, in health care, and in 
transportation and warehousing. (See table B-1. See the note at the end of this news 
release and table A for information about the annual benchmark process. See the box 
note at the end of this news release for more information about how the establishment
survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

In January, employment in professional and business services rose by 97,000, with 
temporary help services accounting for most of the gain (+81,000). Job growth also 
occurred in management and technical consulting services (+16,000), computer systems
design and related services (+11,000), and scientific research and development 
services (+10,000). These gains were partially offset by job losses in services to 
buildings and dwellings (-14,000) and in advertising and related services (-6,000). 
Since February, employment in professional and business services is down by 825,000.

In January, employment increased in local government education (+49,000), state 
government education (+36,000), and private education (+34,000). In both public and 
private education, pandemic-related employment declines in 2020 distorted the normal
seasonal buildup and layoff patterns. This likely contributed to the job gains in 
January (after seasonal adjustment). 

Wholesale trade continued to add jobs in January (+14,000). However, employment in
the industry is 263,000 below its February level.

In January, employment in mining increased by 9,000, with a gain of 8,000 in support
activities for mining. Mining employment is down by 133,000 since a recent peak in 
January 2019, though employment in the industry showed little change for several 
months prior to the uptick in January. 

In January, employment in leisure and hospitality declined by 61,000, following a 
steep decline in December (-536,000). In January, employment edged down in 
amusements, gambling, and recreation (-27,000) and in accommodation (-18,000). 
Employment in food services and drinking places continued to trend down (-19,000). 
Employment in leisure and hospitality fell by 8.2 million during March and April, 
increased by 4.9 million from May to November, and then declined by 597,000 over 
the past 2 months. Since February, employment in leisure and hospitality is down 
by 3.9 million, or 22.9 percent. 

Retail trade lost 38,000 jobs in January, after adding 135,000 jobs in December. Over 
the month, employment declined in general merchandise stores (-38,000), electronics 
and appliance stores (-29,000), and nonstore retailers (-15,000). These job losses
were partially offset by gains in food and beverage stores (+15,000), clothing and 
clothing accessories stores (+15,000), and health and personal care stores (+14,000).
Employment in retail trade is 383,000 lower than in February.

Employment in health care declined by 30,000 in January. Within the industry, job 
losses occurred in nursing care facilities (-19,000), home health care services 
(-13,000), and community care facilities for the elderly (-7,000). Since February, 
health care employment is down by 542,000.

Employment in transportation and warehousing declined by 28,000 in January and is 
164,000 lower than in February. In January, job losses occurred in warehousing and 
storage (-17,000) and in couriers and messengers (-14,000); however, employment in 
these industries is higher than in February by 97,000 and 137,000, respectively. 
Employment in air transportation increased by 15,000 over the month but is 105,000 
lower than in February.

Employment in manufacturing changed little over the month (-10,000), following 8 
months of growth. Within the industry, durable goods lost 17,000 jobs in January. 
Employment in manufacturing is up by 803,000 since April but is 582,000 lower than
in February.

Construction employment changed little over the month (-3,000), after increasing 
for 8 consecutive months. However, employment in the industry is down by 256,000 
since February.

In January, employment changed little in other major industries, including 
information, financial activities, and other services. 

In January, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
increased by 6 cents to $29.96. Average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees, at $25.18, changed little (+3 cents). The
large employment fluctuations over the past several months--especially in 
industries with lower-paid workers--complicate the analysis of recent trends in 
average hourly earnings. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 
0.3 hour to 35.0 hours in January. In manufacturing, the workweek also increased 
by 0.3 hour to 40.4 hours, and overtime was unchanged at 3.2 hours. The average 
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
increased by 0.2 hour to 34.4 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for November was revised down by 
72,000, from +336,000 to +264,000, and the change for December was revised down 
by 87,000, from -140,000 to -227,000. With these revisions, employment in November
and December combined was 159,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly 
revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government
agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal
factors. The annual benchmark process also contributed to the November and 
December revisions.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for February is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
March 5, 2021, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		     Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on January 2021     			|
|			Household and Establishment Survey Data				|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| Since March 2020, household survey interviewers have been instructed to classify 	|
| employed persons absent from work due to temporary, pandemic-related business 	|
| closures or cutbacks as unemployed on temporary layoff. As in earlier months, some 	|
| workers affected by the pandemic who should have been classified as unemployed on 	|
| temporary layoff were instead misclassified as employed but not at work. However, the |
| share of responses that may have been misclassified was highest in the early months 	|
| of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent months.			|
|											|
| For March through December, BLS published an estimate of what the unemployment rate 	|
| might have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed. 	|
| Repeating this same approach, the seasonally adjusted January unemployment rate would |
| have been 0.6 percentage point higher than reported. However, this represents the 	|
| upper bound of our estimate of misclassification and probably overstates the size of  |
| the misclassification error. According to usual practice, the data from the household |
| survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are 	|
| taken to reclassify survey responses.							|
|											|
| More information about the impact of the pandemic on the two surveys is available at  |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-january-2021.htm.		|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


			Revisions to Establishment Survey Data


In accordance with annual practice, the establishment survey data released today have 
been benchmarked to reflect comprehensive counts of payroll jobs for March 2020. These 
counts are derived principally from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW),
which counts jobs covered by the Unemployment Insurance (UI) tax system. The benchmark 
process results in revisions to not seasonally adjusted data from April 2019 forward. 
Seasonally adjusted data from January 2016 forward are subject to revision. In addition,
data for some series prior to 2016, both seasonally adjusted and unadjusted, incorporate
other revisions. 

The total nonfarm employment level for March 2020 was revised downward by 250,000 (on a
not seasonally adjusted basis, -121,000 or -0.1 percent). Not seasonally adjusted, the 
absolute average benchmark revision over the past 10 years is 0.2 percent. 

The over-the-year change in total nonfarm employment for March 2020 was revised from 
+808,000 to +577,000 (seasonally adjusted). Table A presents revised total nonfarm 
employment data on a seasonally adjusted basis from January to December 2020.

All revised historical establishment survey data are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/ces/data/home.htm. In addition, an article that discusses the benchmark 
and post-benchmark revisions and other technical issues is available at 
www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm. 


Table A. Revisions to total nonfarm employment, January to December 2020, seasonally
adjusted
(Numbers in thousands)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 |                                   |                                
                 |                Level              |      Over-the-month change     
                 |---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Year and month  |           |    As     |           |           |    As    |           
                 |    As     |previously | Difference|    As     |previously| Difference
                 |  revised  |published  |           |  revised  |published |           
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 |           |           |           |           |          |           
       2020      |           |           |           |           |          |           
                 |           |           |           |           |          |           
January......... |  152,234  |  152,212  |      22   |    315    |    214   |   101
February........ |  152,523  |  152,463  |      60   |    289    |    251   |    38
March........... |  150,840  |  151,090  |    -250   | -1,683    | -1,373   |  -310
April........... |  130,161  |  130,303  |    -142   |-20,679    |-20,787   |   108
May............. |  132,994  |  133,028  |     -34   |  2,833    |  2,725   |   108
June............ |  137,840  |  137,809  |      31   |  4,846    |  4,781   |    65
July............ |  139,566  |  139,570  |      -4   |  1,726    |  1,761   |   -35
August.......... |  141,149  |  141,063  |      86   |  1,583    |  1,493   |    90
September....... |  141,865  |  141,774  |      91   |    716    |    711   |     5
October......... |  142,545  |  142,428  |     117   |    680    |    654   |    26
November........ |  142,809  |  142,764  |      45   |    264    |    336   |   -72
December(p)..... |  142,582  |  142,624  |     -42   |   -227    |   -140   |   -87 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   (p) = preliminary.


	     Adjustments to Population Estimates for the Household Survey


Effective with data for January 2021, updated population estimates were incorporated
into the household survey. Population estimates for the household survey are developed
by the U.S. Census Bureau. Each year, the Census Bureau updates the estimates to 
reflect new information and assumptions about the growth of the population since the 
previous decennial census. The change in population reflected in the new estimates 
results from adjustments for net international migration, updated vital statistics, 
and estimation methodology improvements. 

In accordance with usual practice, BLS will not revise the official household survey 
estimates for December 2020 and earlier months. To show the impact of the population 
adjustments, however, differences in selected December 2020 labor force series based 
on the old and new population estimates are shown in table B.

The adjustments decreased the estimated size of the civilian noninstitutional 
population in December by 476,000, the civilian labor force by 200,000, employment by
180,000, and unemployment by 20,000. The number of persons not in the labor force was
decreased by 277,000. The total unemployment rate, employment-population ratio, and 
labor force participation rate were unaffected.

Data users are cautioned that these annual population adjustments can affect the 
comparability of household data series over time. Table C shows the effect of the 
introduction of new population estimates on the comparison of selected labor force 
measures between December 2020 and January 2021. Additional information on the 
population adjustments and their effect on national labor force estimates is 
available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cps-pop-control-adjustments.pdf. 

Population controls for veterans, which are derived from a Department of Veterans 
Affairs population model and are updated periodically, have also been updated with
the release of data for January 2021. Historical data have not been revised. 


Table B. Effect of the updated population controls on December 2020 estimates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, not seasonally adjusted
(Numbers in thousands)
Category Total Men Women White Black or
African
Ameri-
can
Asian Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

-476 -223 -252 -203 -45 -226 -187

Civilian labor force

-200 -100 -99 -46 -15 -135 -110

Participation rate

0 0 0 0 0.1 0 0

Employed

-180 -91 -89 -37 -14 -126 -99

Employment-population ratio

0 0 0 0.1 0 0 0.1

Unemployed

-20 -9 -10 -8 -1 -9 -12

Unemployment rate

0 0 -0.1 0 0 0 0

Not in labor force

-277 -123 -154 -157 -30 -91 -77

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Table C. December 2020-January 2021 changes in selected labor force measures, with adjustments for population control effects
(Numbers in thousands)
Category Dec.-Jan.
change, as
published
2021
population
control effect
Dec.-Jan. change, after
removing the
population control
effect(1)

Civilian noninstitutional population

-379 -476 97

Civilian labor force

-406 -200 -206

Participation rate

-0.1 0 -0.1

Employed

201 -180 381

Employment-population ratio

0.1 0 0.1

Unemployed

-606 -20 -586

Unemployment rate

-0.4 0 -0.4

Not in labor force

27 -277 304

(1) This Dec.-Jan. change is calculated by subtracting the population control effect from the over-the-month change in the published seasonally adjusted estimates.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Change from:
Dec.
2020-
Jan.
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,502 261,085 261,230 260,851 -

Civilian labor force

164,455 160,536 160,567 160,161 -

Participation rate

63.4 61.5 61.5 61.4 -

Employed

158,659 149,809 149,830 150,031 -

Employment-population ratio

61.1 57.4 57.4 57.5 -

Unemployed

5,796 10,728 10,736 10,130 -

Unemployment rate

3.5 6.7 6.7 6.3 -

Not in labor force

95,047 100,548 100,663 100,690 -

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.5 6.7 6.7 6.3 -

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.1 6.6 6.4 6.0 -

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.2 6.2 6.3 6.0 -

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.6 13.9 16.0 14.8 -

White

3.0 5.9 6.0 5.7 -

Black or African American

6.1 10.3 9.9 9.2 -

Asian

3.1 6.7 5.9 6.6 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.3 8.4 9.3 8.6 -

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 6.0 5.8 5.7 -

Less than a high school diploma

5.7 9.2 9.8 9.1 -

High school graduates, no college

3.7 7.8 7.8 7.1 -

Some college or associate degree

2.7 6.3 6.3 6.2 -

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 4.2 3.8 4.0 -

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,575 7,468 7,210 6,997 -

Job leavers

828 698 743 653 -

Reentrants

1,831 1,968 2,250 1,963 -

New entrants

560 551 509 542 -

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,071 2,455 2,904 2,278 -

5 to 14 weeks

1,752 2,404 2,222 2,528 -

15 to 26 weeks

881 1,875 1,572 1,346 -

27 weeks and over

1,163 3,929 3,956 4,023 -

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,269 6,641 6,170 5,954 -

Slack work or business conditions

2,627 5,223 4,891 4,756 -

Could only find part-time work

1,336 1,167 1,045 986 -

Part time for noneconomic reasons

22,027 18,580 18,237 18,519 -

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,323 2,083 2,186 1,917 -

Discouraged workers

335 657 663 624 -

- December - January changes in household data are not shown due to the introduction of updated population controls.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

315 264 -227 49

Total private

255 359 -204 6

Goods-producing

36 68 76 -4

Mining and logging

-5 3 3 9

Construction

58 24 42 -3

Manufacturing

-17 41 31 -10

Durable goods(1)

-14 30 18 -17

Motor vehicles and parts

-9.9 17.7 3.6 -5.3

Nondurable goods

-3 11 13 7

Private service-providing

219 291 -280 10

Wholesale trade

2.0 14.8 15.5 14.3

Retail trade

-13.9 -2.1 134.9 -37.8

Transportation and warehousing

37.1 123.6 -24.1 -27.8

Utilities

-1.0 -0.6 -1.0 0.6

Information

13 0 6 16

Financial activities

17 10 18 8

Professional and business services(1)

27 95 156 97

Temporary help services

-2.7 39.0 64.3 80.9

Education and health services(1)

80 43 -31 -7

Health care and social assistance

51.8 48.4 39.1 -40.8

Leisure and hospitality

47 10 -536 -61

Other services

11 -3 -18 7

Government

60 -95 -23 43

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

237 553 239 29

Total private

204 748 370 54

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

50.0 49.8 49.7 49.8

Total private women employees

48.7 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.2 81.5 81.5 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.3 34.8 34.7 35.0

Average hourly earnings

$28.43 $29.61 $29.90 $29.96

Average weekly earnings

$975.15 $1,030.43 $1,037.53 $1,048.60

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

111.5 106.0 105.5 106.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.3 -0.5 0.9

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

151.5 150.0 150.8 152.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.6 0.5 1.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

58.2 64.4 61.9 48.1

Manufacturing (75 industries)

40.0 59.3 69.3 43.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,502 261,230 260,851 259,502 260,742 260,925 261,085 261,230 260,851

Civilian labor force

163,497 160,017 159,234 164,455 160,078 160,718 160,536 160,567 160,161

Participation rate

63.0 61.3 61.0 63.4 61.4 61.6 61.5 61.5 61.4

Employed

156,994 149,613 148,383 158,659 147,543 149,669 149,809 149,830 150,031

Employment-population ratio

60.5 57.3 56.9 61.1 56.6 57.4 57.4 57.4 57.5

Unemployed

6,504 10,404 10,851 5,796 12,535 11,049 10,728 10,736 10,130

Unemployment rate

4.0 6.5 6.8 3.5 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.3

Not in labor force

96,004 101,213 101,618 95,047 100,664 100,207 100,548 100,663 100,690

Persons who currently want a job

5,107 7,088 7,129 4,948 7,184 6,682 7,127 7,331 6,957

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,513 126,367 126,192 125,513 126,127 126,218 126,296 126,367 126,192

Civilian labor force

86,331 84,644 84,537 86,954 85,199 85,495 85,161 85,175 85,149

Participation rate

68.8 67.0 67.0 69.3 67.6 67.7 67.4 67.4 67.5

Employed

82,701 78,955 78,535 83,897 78,663 79,537 79,267 79,481 79,714

Employment-population ratio

65.9 62.5 62.2 66.8 62.4 63.0 62.8 62.9 63.2

Unemployed

3,629 5,689 6,003 3,057 6,537 5,958 5,894 5,694 5,434

Unemployment rate

4.2 6.7 7.1 3.5 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.4

Not in labor force

39,183 41,723 41,655 38,559 40,928 40,722 41,135 41,192 41,043

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,110 118,010 117,864 117,110 117,763 117,854 117,936 118,010 117,864

Civilian labor force

83,600 81,877 81,801 83,970 82,293 82,505 82,226 82,244 82,173

Participation rate

71.4 69.4 69.4 71.7 69.9 70.0 69.7 69.7 69.7

Employed

80,358 76,572 76,239 81,329 76,258 77,013 76,777 77,004 77,204

Employment-population ratio

68.6 64.9 64.7 69.4 64.8 65.3 65.1 65.3 65.5

Unemployed

3,241 5,305 5,562 2,641 6,036 5,492 5,449 5,240 4,969

Unemployment rate

3.9 6.5 6.8 3.1 7.3 6.7 6.6 6.4 6.0

Not in labor force

33,511 36,134 36,063 33,140 35,470 35,349 35,710 35,767 35,691

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,988 134,862 134,660 133,988 134,615 134,707 134,788 134,862 134,660

Civilian labor force

77,167 75,373 74,696 77,500 74,879 75,222 75,376 75,392 75,012

Participation rate

57.6 55.9 55.5 57.8 55.6 55.8 55.9 55.9 55.7

Employed

74,292 70,658 69,848 74,762 68,880 70,131 70,542 70,350 70,316

Employment-population ratio

55.4 52.4 51.9 55.8 51.2 52.1 52.3 52.2 52.2

Unemployed

2,874 4,715 4,848 2,738 5,998 5,091 4,834 5,042 4,696

Unemployment rate

3.7 6.3 6.5 3.5 8.0 6.8 6.4 6.7 6.3

Not in labor force

56,822 59,490 59,963 56,488 59,737 59,485 59,413 59,471 59,648

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,770 126,681 126,507 125,770 126,429 126,520 126,604 126,681 126,507

Civilian labor force

74,320 72,558 71,975 74,502 71,865 72,255 72,395 72,422 72,147

Participation rate

59.1 57.3 56.9 59.2 56.8 57.1 57.2 57.2 57.0

Employed

71,785 68,248 67,538 72,099 66,328 67,534 67,941 67,872 67,851

Employment-population ratio

57.1 53.9 53.4 57.3 52.5 53.4 53.7 53.6 53.6

Unemployed

2,535 4,309 4,437 2,404 5,537 4,721 4,453 4,551 4,296

Unemployment rate

3.4 5.9 6.2 3.2 7.7 6.5 6.2 6.3 6.0

Not in labor force

51,450 54,124 54,532 51,267 54,563 54,265 54,209 54,259 54,360

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,622 16,538 16,481 16,622 16,551 16,551 16,545 16,538 16,481

Civilian labor force

5,578 5,582 5,458 5,982 5,920 5,958 5,915 5,900 5,841

Participation rate

33.6 33.8 33.1 36.0 35.8 36.0 35.8 35.7 35.4

Employed

4,851 4,793 4,606 5,231 4,957 5,122 5,091 4,955 4,975

Employment-population ratio

29.2 29.0 27.9 31.5 29.9 30.9 30.8 30.0 30.2

Unemployed

727 789 852 751 963 836 825 946 865

Unemployment rate

13.0 14.1 15.6 12.6 16.3 14.0 13.9 16.0 14.8

Not in labor force

11,044 10,956 11,023 10,640 10,631 10,593 10,630 10,638 10,640

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,918 201,749 201,588 200,918 201,515 201,610 201,685 201,749 201,588

Civilian labor force

126,487 123,828 123,054 127,121 124,202 124,672 124,038 124,208 123,727

Participation rate

63.0 61.4 61.0 63.3 61.6 61.8 61.5 61.6 61.4

Employed

122,058 116,479 115,454 123,258 115,510 117,146 116,665 116,703 116,699

Employment-population ratio

60.8 57.7 57.3 61.3 57.3 58.1 57.8 57.8 57.9

Unemployed

4,429 7,348 7,601 3,863 8,691 7,525 7,373 7,505 7,027

Unemployment rate

3.5 5.9 6.2 3.0 7.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 5.7

Not in labor force

74,431 77,921 78,534 73,797 77,313 76,939 77,647 77,541 77,862

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,925 64,407 64,287 66,146 65,001 65,123 64,648 64,593 64,550

Participation rate

71.6 69.6 69.5 71.8 70.4 70.4 69.9 69.8 69.8

Employed

63,599 60,561 60,252 64,299 60,780 61,314 60,844 60,872 60,988

Employment-population ratio

69.1 65.5 65.2 69.8 65.8 66.3 65.8 65.8 66.0

Unemployed

2,326 3,847 4,035 1,846 4,220 3,808 3,804 3,721 3,561

Unemployment rate

3.5 6.0 6.3 2.8 6.5 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

56,255 55,048 54,489 56,304 54,568 54,866 54,717 54,980 54,529

Participation rate

58.2 56.7 56.1 58.3 56.3 56.5 56.4 56.6 56.2

Employed

54,639 52,116 51,581 54,796 50,813 51,761 51,765 51,871 51,739

Employment-population ratio

56.5 53.7 53.2 56.7 52.4 53.3 53.3 53.4 53.3

Unemployed

1,616 2,932 2,908 1,508 3,755 3,105 2,953 3,109 2,790

Unemployment rate

2.9 5.3 5.3 2.7 6.9 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,308 4,372 4,278 4,671 4,633 4,683 4,673 4,635 4,648

Participation rate

35.3 36.1 35.4 38.3 38.2 38.6 38.5 38.2 38.4

Employed

3,821 3,802 3,620 4,163 3,917 4,071 4,056 3,960 3,972

Employment-population ratio

31.3 31.4 29.9 34.1 32.3 33.5 33.4 32.7 32.8

Unemployed

487 570 657 508 716 612 616 675 676

Unemployment rate

11.3 13.0 15.4 10.9 15.5 13.1 13.2 14.6 14.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,184 33,516 33,493 33,184 33,420 33,453 33,486 33,516 33,493

Civilian labor force

20,702 19,919 20,087 20,802 19,942 20,123 20,165 20,055 20,189

Participation rate

62.4 59.4 60.0 62.7 59.7 60.2 60.2 59.8 60.3

Employed

19,327 18,066 18,124 19,524 17,558 17,955 18,087 18,061 18,323

Employment-population ratio

58.2 53.9 54.1 58.8 52.5 53.7 54.0 53.9 54.7

Unemployed

1,375 1,853 1,963 1,278 2,385 2,169 2,077 1,994 1,866

Unemployment rate

6.6 9.3 9.8 6.1 12.0 10.8 10.3 9.9 9.2

Not in labor force

12,482 13,597 13,406 12,382 13,478 13,330 13,321 13,461 13,305

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,351 9,166 9,281 9,412 9,124 9,224 9,217 9,222 9,348

Participation rate

67.0 64.8 65.6 67.4 64.7 65.4 65.2 65.2 66.1

Employed

8,754 8,245 8,346 8,875 7,975 8,166 8,184 8,265 8,468

Employment-population ratio

62.7 58.3 59.0 63.6 56.6 57.9 57.9 58.4 59.9

Unemployed

597 921 935 537 1,149 1,058 1,033 956 880

Unemployment rate

6.4 10.0 10.1 5.7 12.6 11.5 11.2 10.4 9.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,662 10,041 10,152 10,652 10,093 10,169 10,242 10,088 10,138

Participation rate

63.5 59.2 59.9 63.5 59.7 60.1 60.4 59.5 59.8

Employed

10,049 9,264 9,236 10,081 8,999 9,230 9,320 9,238 9,274

Employment-population ratio

59.9 54.6 54.5 60.1 53.2 54.5 55.0 54.5 54.7

Unemployed

613 778 915 570 1,093 939 921 849 864

Unemployment rate

5.7 7.7 9.0 5.4 10.8 9.2 9.0 8.4 8.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

690 712 654 739 726 731 706 746 703

Participation rate

28.3 29.6 27.3 30.3 30.1 30.3 29.3 31.0 29.3

Employed

524 557 542 567 584 559 583 558 581

Employment-population ratio

21.5 23.2 22.6 23.3 24.2 23.2 24.2 23.2 24.2

Unemployed

166 154 113 171 142 172 123 188 122

Unemployment rate

24.0 21.7 17.2 23.2 19.6 23.5 17.4 25.2 17.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,178 16,583 16,423 16,178 16,668 16,542 16,558 16,583 16,423

Civilian labor force

10,259 10,259 10,231 10,331 10,480 10,382 10,380 10,253 10,317

Participation rate

63.4 61.9 62.3 63.9 62.9 62.8 62.7 61.8 62.8

Employed

9,932 9,664 9,533 10,016 9,553 9,598 9,685 9,645 9,631

Employment-population ratio

61.4 58.3 58.0 61.9 57.3 58.0 58.5 58.2 58.6

Unemployed

327 595 698 315 926 784 695 608 686

Unemployment rate

3.2 5.8 6.8 3.1 8.8 7.6 6.7 5.9 6.6

Not in labor force

5,920 6,324 6,192 5,848 6,188 6,160 6,179 6,329 6,106

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,742 44,639 44,521 43,742 44,388 44,475 44,559 44,639 44,521

Civilian labor force

29,572 29,129 28,831 29,646 28,804 29,156 29,152 29,150 28,920

Participation rate

67.6 65.3 64.8 67.8 64.9 65.6 65.4 65.3 65.0

Employed

28,066 26,442 26,120 28,364 25,834 26,582 26,688 26,436 26,437

Employment-population ratio

64.2 59.2 58.7 64.8 58.2 59.8 59.9 59.2 59.4

Unemployed

1,506 2,688 2,710 1,282 2,969 2,575 2,463 2,714 2,482

Unemployment rate

5.1 9.2 9.4 4.3 10.3 8.8 8.4 9.3 8.6

Not in labor force

14,170 15,510 15,690 14,096 15,584 15,318 15,407 15,489 15,601

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,096 15,854 15,765 16,109 15,859 16,080 15,951 15,856 15,789

Participation rate

81.5 78.6 78.4 81.6 79.1 80.1 79.3 78.6 78.5

Employed

15,362 14,423 14,363 15,565 14,463 14,767 14,700 14,462 14,578

Employment-population ratio

77.8 71.5 71.4 78.8 72.1 73.5 73.0 71.7 72.5

Unemployed

734 1,431 1,402 544 1,397 1,313 1,251 1,395 1,211

Unemployment rate

4.6 9.0 8.9 3.4 8.8 8.2 7.8 8.8 7.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,222 11,929 11,782 12,223 11,575 11,746 11,821 11,906 11,779

Participation rate

61.1 58.4 57.8 61.1 57.0 57.7 58.0 58.3 57.8

Employed

11,637 10,874 10,702 11,679 10,306 10,688 10,851 10,820 10,743

Employment-population ratio

58.2 53.2 52.5 58.4 50.7 52.5 53.2 52.9 52.7

Unemployed

585 1,055 1,079 545 1,270 1,058 970 1,086 1,036

Unemployment rate

4.8 8.8 9.2 4.5 11.0 9.0 8.2 9.1 8.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,253 1,346 1,284 1,314 1,370 1,331 1,380 1,388 1,352

Participation rate

31.4 33.3 31.9 32.9 34.0 33.0 34.2 34.3 33.6

Employed

1,066 1,145 1,055 1,121 1,066 1,127 1,137 1,155 1,116

Employment-population ratio

26.7 28.3 26.2 28.0 26.5 27.9 28.2 28.6 27.7

Unemployed

187 202 229 194 303 203 243 234 236

Unemployment rate

14.9 15.0 17.8 14.7 22.1 15.3 17.6 16.8 17.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,657 9,246 9,296 9,550 8,811 9,169 9,276 9,147 9,169

Participation rate

46.1 45.5 45.5 45.6 43.5 46.0 45.7 45.0 44.9

Employed

8,946 8,288 8,297 9,009 7,872 8,258 8,418 8,254 8,337

Employment-population ratio

42.7 40.8 40.6 43.0 38.9 41.5 41.4 40.7 40.8

Unemployed

711 958 999 540 939 911 858 893 832

Unemployment rate

7.4 10.4 10.7 5.7 10.7 9.9 9.2 9.8 9.1

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,878 34,751 34,169 36,189 34,974 35,479 35,163 34,925 34,506

Participation rate

58.1 55.2 54.7 58.6 55.0 55.8 55.4 55.5 55.2

Employed

34,299 32,006 31,482 34,861 31,835 32,607 32,435 32,198 32,051

Employment-population ratio

55.6 50.8 50.4 56.5 50.1 51.3 51.1 51.1 51.3

Unemployed

1,579 2,745 2,687 1,328 3,139 2,873 2,728 2,726 2,455

Unemployment rate

4.4 7.9 7.9 3.7 9.0 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.1

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,211 35,714 35,431 37,198 35,969 35,762 35,644 35,676 35,440

Participation rate

64.5 62.6 62.3 64.4 63.6 62.4 62.3 62.5 62.3

Employed

36,088 33,538 33,142 36,181 33,056 33,409 33,387 33,430 33,257

Employment-population ratio

62.5 58.8 58.2 62.7 58.4 58.3 58.4 58.6 58.4

Unemployed

1,124 2,175 2,289 1,017 2,912 2,354 2,257 2,246 2,183

Unemployment rate

3.0 6.1 6.5 2.7 8.1 6.6 6.3 6.3 6.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,237 60,174 60,473 60,192 59,861 59,530 59,620 59,940 60,391

Participation rate

73.8 72.1 72.3 73.8 72.2 72.0 72.2 71.9 72.2

Employed

59,015 57,985 58,001 59,018 57,024 57,041 57,095 57,665 57,969

Employment-population ratio

72.3 69.5 69.3 72.3 68.8 69.0 69.1 69.1 69.3

Unemployed

1,222 2,190 2,472 1,174 2,837 2,488 2,524 2,274 2,422

Unemployment rate

2.0 3.6 4.1 2.0 4.7 4.2 4.2 3.8 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,642 18,975 16,744 16,968 1,898 2,007

Civilian labor force

9,189 9,115 8,038 7,968 1,151 1,147

Participation rate

49.3 48.0 48.0 47.0 60.7 57.2

Employed

8,870 8,616 7,755 7,506 1,115 1,109

Employment-population ratio

47.6 45.4 46.3 44.2 58.7 55.3

Unemployed

319 500 282 461 36 38

Unemployment rate

3.5 5.5 3.5 5.8 3.2 3.3

Not in labor force

9,453 9,860 8,706 9,000 747 860

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,326 4,636 3,570 3,808 756 828

Civilian labor force

3,418 3,590 2,856 3,023 562 567

Participation rate

79.0 77.4 80.0 79.4 74.3 68.5

Employed

3,269 3,362 2,722 2,817 547 545

Employment-population ratio

75.6 72.5 76.2 74.0 72.4 65.9

Unemployed

149 228 134 206 15 22

Unemployment rate

4.4 6.3 4.7 6.8 2.6 3.8

Not in labor force

908 1,046 714 785 194 261

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,167 3,274 2,674 2,779 493 495

Civilian labor force

2,403 2,499 2,087 2,164 317 335

Participation rate

75.9 76.3 78.1 77.9 64.2 67.6

Employed

2,342 2,410 2,030 2,081 312 329

Employment-population ratio

74.0 73.6 75.9 74.9 63.2 66.4

Unemployed

61 89 56 83 5 6

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.6 2.7 3.8 1.6 1.8

Not in labor force

763 775 587 615 176 160

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,007 6,869 6,763 6,604 244 265

Civilian labor force

1,448 1,185 1,412 1,166 35 19

Participation rate

20.7 17.3 20.9 17.7 14.5 7.3

Employed

1,412 1,128 1,380 1,108 32 19

Employment-population ratio

20.1 16.4 20.4 16.8 13.0 7.3

Unemployed

36 58 32 58 4 0

Unemployment rate

2.5 4.9 2.3 5.0 - -

Not in labor force

5,559 5,684 5,351 5,438 209 246

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,142 4,196 3,737 3,777 405 419

Civilian labor force

1,920 1,841 1,682 1,615 238 226

Participation rate

46.4 43.9 45.0 42.8 58.7 53.9

Employed

1,847 1,716 1,623 1,500 224 215

Employment-population ratio

44.6 40.9 43.4 39.7 55.4 51.4

Unemployed

73 125 60 115 13 11

Unemployment rate

3.8 6.8 3.6 7.1 5.5 4.7

Not in labor force

2,222 2,355 2,055 2,162 167 193

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

232,099 233,094 104,393 104,699 127,706 128,395

Civilian labor force

152,311 148,213 77,416 75,652 74,895 72,562

Participation rate

65.6 63.6 74.2 72.3 58.6 56.5

Employed

146,350 138,151 74,189 70,229 72,161 67,922

Employment-population ratio

63.1 59.3 71.1 67.1 56.5 52.9

Unemployed

5,961 10,062 3,226 5,423 2,735 4,639

Unemployment rate

3.9 6.8 4.2 7.2 3.7 6.4

Not in labor force

79,788 84,881 26,977 29,048 52,811 55,834

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,504 29,851 228,998 231,001

Civilian labor force

6,227 5,846 157,270 153,387

Participation rate

20.4 19.6 68.7 66.4

Employed

5,741 5,144 151,253 143,239

Employment-population ratio

18.8 17.2 66.0 62.0

Unemployed

486 702 6,017 10,149

Unemployment rate

7.8 12.0 3.8 6.6

Not in labor force

24,277 24,005 71,727 77,613

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,664 2,595 77,639 76,189

Participation rate

35.6 34.3 82.7 81.3

Employed

2,408 2,237 74,462 70,857

Employment-population ratio

32.2 29.5 79.3 75.6

Unemployed

256 358 3,177 5,332

Unemployment rate

9.6 13.8 4.1 7.0

Not in labor force

4,817 4,979 16,207 17,501

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,394 2,302 69,853 67,741

Participation rate

31.5 31.4 72.2 69.9

Employed

2,220 2,042 67,277 63,405

Employment-population ratio

29.2 27.8 69.5 65.5

Unemployed

174 260 2,575 4,336

Unemployment rate

7.3 11.3 3.7 6.4

Not in labor force

5,196 5,034 26,919 29,111

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,169 949 9,779 9,457

Participation rate

7.6 6.4 25.5 23.4

Employed

1,113 865 9,514 8,977

Employment-population ratio

7.2 5.8 24.8 22.2

Unemployed

56 84 265 481

Unemployment rate

4.8 8.8 2.7 5.1

Not in labor force

14,263 13,991 28,601 31,000

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,362 43,086 20,658 20,793 21,704 22,293

Civilian labor force

28,189 27,549 16,241 15,932 11,948 11,617

Participation rate

66.5 63.9 78.6 76.6 55.1 52.1

Employed

27,066 25,318 15,659 14,777 11,407 10,542

Employment-population ratio

63.9 58.8 75.8 71.1 52.6 47.3

Unemployed

1,124 2,231 582 1,155 542 1,076

Unemployment rate

4.0 8.1 3.6 7.2 4.5 9.3

Not in labor force

14,173 15,537 4,417 4,861 9,756 10,676

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

217,139 217,765 104,855 105,399 112,284 112,367

Civilian labor force

135,308 131,685 70,089 68,605 65,218 63,079

Participation rate

62.3 60.5 66.8 65.1 58.1 56.1

Employed

129,928 123,065 67,042 63,758 62,886 59,307

Employment-population ratio

59.8 56.5 63.9 60.5 56.0 52.8

Unemployed

5,380 8,620 3,047 4,848 2,333 3,772

Unemployment rate

4.0 6.5 4.3 7.1 3.6 6.0

Not in labor force

81,831 86,081 34,765 36,793 47,066 49,287

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,273 2,390 2,346 2,405 2,270 2,515 2,432 2,461 2,466

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,656 1,578 1,517 1,699 1,482 1,570 1,553 1,569 1,552

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

592 782 778 649 799 881 837 823 827

Unpaid family workers

25 30 50 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

154,720 147,223 146,037 156,217 145,454 147,255 147,314 147,351 147,535

Wage and salary workers(1)

146,037 138,617 137,451 147,434 136,493 138,539 138,891 138,971 138,941

Government

21,694 20,762 20,914 21,460 20,466 20,678 20,418 20,709 20,689

Private industries

124,343 117,856 116,537 125,886 116,299 117,939 118,525 118,123 118,102

Private households

801 636 622 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,542 117,220 115,915 125,147 115,601 117,304 117,902 117,472 117,532

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,633 8,540 8,515 8,846 8,675 8,690 8,570 8,638 8,721

Unpaid family workers

50 66 71 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,732 6,245 6,404 4,269 6,283 6,668 6,641 6,170 5,954

Slack work or business conditions

3,057 5,003 5,185 2,627 4,881 5,298 5,223 4,891 4,756

Could only find part-time work

1,340 972 981 1,336 1,120 1,135 1,167 1,045 986

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,929 18,678 18,407 22,027 18,990 19,465 18,580 18,237 18,519

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,605 6,133 6,284 4,130 6,197 6,552 6,582 6,082 5,824

Slack work or business conditions

2,962 4,919 5,102 2,549 4,823 5,227 5,176 4,819 4,691

Could only find part-time work

1,337 967 980 1,333 1,112 1,113 1,163 1,037 986

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,564 18,283 17,993 21,669 18,589 19,029 18,182 17,846 18,112

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,994 149,613 148,383 158,659 147,543 149,669 149,809 149,830 150,031

16 to 19 years

4,851 4,793 4,606 5,231 4,957 5,122 5,091 4,955 4,975

16 to 17 years

1,774 1,693 1,616 1,936 1,786 1,824 1,797 1,785 1,784

18 to 19 years

3,077 3,100 2,990 3,314 3,162 3,295 3,277 3,192 3,222

20 years and over

152,143 144,820 143,777 153,428 142,586 144,547 144,718 144,876 145,055

20 to 24 years

13,795 13,002 12,856 14,162 12,641 13,212 13,203 13,167 13,216

25 years and over

138,348 131,817 130,921 139,095 130,040 131,566 131,461 131,637 131,689

25 to 54 years

101,005 96,427 95,871 101,423 94,738 95,875 95,861 96,225 96,307

25 to 34 years

35,915 33,993 33,687 36,092 33,293 33,836 33,581 33,913 33,884

35 to 44 years

33,255 32,052 32,046 33,376 31,687 31,903 32,098 32,011 32,162

45 to 54 years

31,835 30,382 30,137 31,955 29,758 30,136 30,182 30,300 30,261

55 years and over

37,343 35,391 35,050 37,672 35,302 35,692 35,600 35,412 35,382

Men, 16 years and over

82,701 78,955 78,535 83,897 78,663 79,537 79,267 79,481 79,714

16 to 19 years

2,343 2,384 2,295 2,567 2,405 2,524 2,490 2,477 2,510

16 to 17 years

757 812 799 852 849 878 863 881 892

18 to 19 years

1,586 1,571 1,496 1,730 1,546 1,647 1,630 1,603 1,634

20 years and over

80,358 76,572 76,239 81,329 76,258 77,013 76,777 77,004 77,204

20 to 24 years

7,045 6,527 6,591 7,279 6,512 6,749 6,722 6,672 6,810

25 years and over

73,313 70,044 69,648 73,989 69,718 70,291 70,040 70,220 70,317

25 to 54 years

53,412 51,177 50,957 53,825 50,723 51,140 51,025 51,246 51,368

25 to 34 years

18,973 18,177 17,967 19,127 17,808 18,056 17,889 18,172 18,133

35 to 44 years

17,713 17,154 17,211 17,873 17,146 17,209 17,288 17,201 17,358

45 to 54 years

16,726 15,846 15,779 16,826 15,769 15,876 15,848 15,873 15,876

55 years and over

19,901 18,867 18,691 20,164 18,996 19,151 19,015 18,974 18,950

Women, 16 years and over

74,292 70,658 69,848 74,762 68,880 70,131 70,542 70,350 70,316

16 to 19 years

2,508 2,410 2,310 2,663 2,552 2,598 2,600 2,478 2,465

16 to 17 years

1,017 880 817 1,083 937 946 934 904 892

18 to 19 years

1,491 1,529 1,494 1,584 1,616 1,648 1,647 1,589 1,588

20 years and over

71,785 68,248 67,538 72,099 66,328 67,534 67,941 67,872 67,851

20 to 24 years

6,750 6,475 6,266 6,883 6,129 6,463 6,481 6,495 6,406

25 years and over

65,035 61,773 61,272 65,106 60,322 61,275 61,422 61,417 61,371

25 to 54 years

47,593 45,250 44,914 47,598 44,016 44,735 44,836 44,979 44,939

25 to 34 years

16,942 15,816 15,720 16,965 15,485 15,781 15,692 15,741 15,751

35 to 44 years

15,542 14,898 14,836 15,503 14,541 14,694 14,810 14,810 14,804

45 to 54 years

15,109 14,535 14,358 15,129 13,989 14,260 14,334 14,428 14,384

55 years and over

17,442 16,523 16,358 17,508 16,306 16,540 16,586 16,438 16,432

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,949 43,499 43,547 46,229 43,598 43,761 43,754 43,720 43,819

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,926 35,109 34,698 36,875 34,321 34,685 34,795 34,817 34,668

Women who maintain families(2)

9,553 9,490 9,325 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,379 124,415 123,717 130,741 122,569 123,646 124,292 124,689 124,990

Part-time workers(4)

27,615 25,197 24,666 27,541 25,067 26,139 25,373 24,917 24,627

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,083 6,496 6,535 8,170 6,491 6,669 6,559 6,460 6,623

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.3 4.4 5.1 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.4

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,472 5,859 5,938 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,226 9,322 9,293 9,495 9,473 9,571 9,408 9,461 9,548

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,796 10,736 10,130 3.5 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.3

16 to 19 years

751 946 865 12.6 16.3 14.0 13.9 16.0 14.8

16 to 17 years

280 302 337 12.6 17.2 14.1 14.9 14.5 15.9

18 to 19 years

481 655 534 12.7 15.8 14.1 13.4 17.0 14.2

20 years and over

5,044 9,790 9,265 3.2 7.5 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.0

20 to 24 years

1,005 1,653 1,425 6.6 12.5 10.9 10.7 11.2 9.7

25 years and over

4,121 8,170 7,940 2.9 7.0 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.7

25 to 54 years

3,120 5,946 5,968 3.0 7.1 6.4 6.1 5.8 5.8

25 to 34 years

1,413 2,397 2,464 3.8 8.6 7.3 7.0 6.6 6.8

35 to 44 years

933 1,857 1,948 2.7 6.2 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.7

45 to 54 years

773 1,693 1,555 2.4 6.4 6.0 5.5 5.3 4.9

55 years and over

1,008 2,259 1,970 2.6 6.6 5.5 5.8 6.0 5.3

Men, 16 years and over

3,057 5,694 5,434 3.5 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.4

16 to 19 years

417 455 466 14.0 17.3 15.6 15.1 15.5 15.7

16 to 17 years

158 159 157 15.6 18.3 16.1 14.5 15.3 15.0

18 to 19 years

258 301 311 13.0 16.8 15.4 15.5 15.8 16.0

20 years and over

2,641 5,240 4,969 3.1 7.3 6.7 6.6 6.4 6.0

20 to 24 years

512 922 754 6.6 12.9 11.8 11.9 12.1 10.0

25 years and over

2,203 4,353 4,300 2.9 6.8 6.2 6.2 5.8 5.8

25 to 54 years

1,643 3,167 3,210 3.0 7.0 6.5 6.3 5.8 5.9

25 to 34 years

778 1,291 1,356 3.9 8.7 7.8 7.7 6.6 7.0

35 to 44 years

462 1,049 1,066 2.5 6.1 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8

45 to 54 years

403 827 788 2.3 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.7

55 years and over

560 1,186 1,090 2.7 6.2 5.2 5.9 5.9 5.4

Women, 16 years and over

2,738 5,042 4,696 3.5 8.0 6.8 6.4 6.7 6.3

16 to 19 years

335 491 400 11.2 15.3 12.5 12.8 16.5 14.0

16 to 17 years

122 143 180 10.1 16.2 12.1 15.2 13.7 16.8

18 to 19 years

223 354 223 12.4 14.8 12.8 11.2 18.2 12.3

20 years and over

2,404 4,551 4,296 3.2 7.7 6.5 6.2 6.3 6.0

20 to 24 years

493 732 670 6.7 12.1 10.0 9.4 10.1 9.5

25 years and over

1,918 3,817 3,640 2.9 7.3 6.1 5.8 5.9 5.6

25 to 54 years

1,477 2,780 2,758 3.0 7.3 6.3 5.8 5.8 5.8

25 to 34 years

635 1,106 1,108 3.6 8.6 6.9 6.2 6.6 6.6

35 to 44 years

471 808 882 3.0 6.3 6.0 5.6 5.2 5.6

45 to 54 years

370 865 767 2.4 6.8 5.9 5.5 5.7 5.1

55 years and over

441 1,065 882 2.5 7.2 5.8 5.8 6.1 5.1

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

786 1,841 1,795 1.7 4.8 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

784 1,705 1,593 2.1 5.9 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.4

Women who maintain families(2)

545 734 845 5.4 10.0 8.6 7.7 7.2 8.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,716 8,911 8,548 3.5 7.8 6.9 6.9 6.7 6.4

Part-time workers(4)

1,163 1,871 1,676 4.1 8.4 6.7 6.0 7.0 6.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,267 7,264 7,666 2,575 9,039 7,685 7,468 7,210 6,997

On temporary layoff

1,109 3,124 3,215 640 4,624 3,231 2,762 3,039 2,746

Not on temporary layoff

2,158 4,141 4,452 1,935 4,415 4,454 4,705 4,171 4,251

Permanent job losers

1,403 3,342 3,585 1,305 3,661 3,620 3,718 3,370 3,503

Persons who completed temporary jobs

755 798 867 630 754 834 987 802 749

Job leavers

830 706 651 828 808 763 698 743 653

Reentrants

1,907 2,044 2,039 1,831 2,123 2,017 1,968 2,250 1,963

New entrants

500 389 494 560 535 526 551 509 542

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

50.2 69.8 70.7 44.4 72.3 69.9 69.9 67.3 68.9

On temporary layoff

17.1 30.0 29.6 11.1 37.0 29.4 25.9 28.4 27.0

Not on temporary layoff

33.2 39.8 41.0 33.4 35.3 40.5 44.0 38.9 41.9

Job leavers

12.8 6.8 6.0 14.3 6.5 6.9 6.5 6.9 6.4

Reentrants

29.3 19.7 18.8 31.6 17.0 18.3 18.4 21.0 19.3

New entrants

7.7 3.7 4.6 9.7 4.3 4.8 5.2 4.7 5.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.0 4.5 4.8 1.6 5.6 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4

Reentrants

1.2 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,468 2,813 2,707 2,071 2,552 2,494 2,455 2,904 2,278

5 to 14 weeks

1,925 2,211 2,716 1,752 2,754 2,341 2,404 2,222 2,528

15 weeks and over

2,110 5,380 5,428 2,045 7,339 6,185 5,804 5,529 5,369

15 to 26 weeks

893 1,502 1,354 881 4,934 2,651 1,875 1,572 1,346

27 weeks and over

1,217 3,878 4,074 1,163 2,405 3,534 3,929 3,956 4,023

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

20.5 22.8 24.3 22.2 21.0 21.4 23.0 23.4 26.0

Median duration, in weeks

8.6 16.1 14.5 9.3 17.8 19.0 18.9 16.8 15.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

38.0 27.0 24.9 35.3 20.2 22.6 23.0 27.3 22.4

5 to 14 weeks

29.6 21.3 25.0 29.9 21.8 21.2 22.5 20.9 24.8

15 weeks and over

32.4 51.7 50.0 34.8 58.0 56.1 54.4 51.9 52.8

15 to 26 weeks

13.7 14.4 12.5 15.0 39.0 24.1 17.6 14.8 13.2

27 weeks and over

18.7 37.3 37.5 19.8 19.0 32.1 36.8 37.1 39.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,994 148,383 6,504 10,851 4.0 6.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

65,643 63,886 1,453 2,433 2.2 3.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,573 27,307 653 1,088 2.3 3.8

Professional and related occupations

38,070 36,580 799 1,345 2.1 3.5

Service occupations

25,943 22,366 1,280 2,887 4.7 11.4

Sales and office occupations

31,320 30,295 1,309 1,983 4.0 6.1

Sales and related occupations

15,428 14,641 724 1,036 4.5 6.6

Office and administrative support occupations

15,892 15,654 585 947 3.5 5.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,923 13,235 934 1,417 6.3 9.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,081 984 210 140 16.3 12.4

Construction and extraction occupations

8,015 7,790 590 963 6.9 11.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,827 4,461 134 314 2.7 6.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,165 18,601 1,008 1,626 4.8 8.0

Production occupations

8,299 7,840 434 544 5.0 6.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,866 10,761 574 1,081 4.6 9.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,504 10,851 4.0 6.8

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,954 8,945 3.8 7.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

16 93 1.9 14.2

Construction

515 938 5.4 9.4

Manufacturing

530 699 3.4 4.7

Durable goods

317 396 3.2 4.2

Nondurable goods

214 303 3.7 5.6

Wholesale and retail trade

945 1,367 4.7 6.9

Transportation and utilities

220 613 3.0 8.2

Information

61 186 2.3 7.4

Financial activities

259 350 2.5 3.4

Professional and business services

724 1,146 4.1 6.8

Education and health services

601 1,059 2.4 4.3

Leisure and hospitality

833 1,949 5.9 15.9

Other services

250 544 3.7 8.8

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

231 153 12.5 9.4

Government workers

467 641 2.1 3.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

351 617 3.6 6.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Sept.
2020
Oct.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 3.4 3.4 1.2 4.6 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.0 4.5 4.8 1.6 5.6 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.0 6.5 6.8 3.5 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.3

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.2 6.9 7.2 3.7 8.2 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.8 7.8 8.0 4.3 8.9 8.0 7.9 7.9 7.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.7 11.6 12.0 6.9 12.8 12.1 12.0 11.7 11.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021
Jan.
2020
Jan.
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,004 101,618 39,183 41,655 56,822 59,963

Persons who currently want a job

5,107 7,129 2,566 3,381 2,541 3,748

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,464 2,053 817 1,164 647 889

Discouraged workers(2)

350 638 185 430 166 208

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,113 1,415 632 734 481 681

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,083 6,535 3,949 3,071 4,134 3,463

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.4 4.8 3.9 5.6 5.0

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,528 3,755 2,421 1,934 2,108 1,822

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,047 1,577 700 499 1,347 1,078

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

326 240 227 143 99 97

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,123 928 585 475 538 453

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Change from:
Dec.2020 - Jan.2021(p)

Total nonfarm

150,055 144,121 143,700 140,927 152,234 142,809 142,582 142,631 49

Total private

127,405 122,128 121,889 119,532 129,445 121,321 121,117 121,123 6

Goods-producing

20,626 20,203 20,157 19,811 21,096 20,146 20,222 20,218 -4

Mining and logging

678 599 601 605 689 597 600 609 9

Logging

47.9 45.7 46.6 46.2 48.6 44.9 45.8 46.3 0.5

Mining

629.8 553.1 554.7 558.8 640.6 552.5 553.8 562.6 8.8

Oil and gas extraction

137.2 139.8 141.9 141.0 138.8 139.4 141.1 141.9 0.8

Mining, except oil and gas

181.8 176.7 177.9 175.9 187.5 176.2 178.9 179.4 0.5

Coal mining

47.4 39.3 42.4 43.0 47.4 39.3 42.1 42.4 0.3

Metal ore mining

41.5 41.6 41.3 41.5 42.0 41.9 41.5 41.8 0.3

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

92.9 95.8 94.2 91.4 98.1 95.0 95.3 95.2 -0.1

Support activities for mining

310.8 236.6 234.9 241.9 314.3 236.9 233.8 241.3 7.5

Construction

7,243 7,413 7,305 7,051 7,615 7,353 7,395 7,392 -3

Construction of buildings

1,634.4 1,657.6 1,650.3 1,617.8 1,682.1 1,651.2 1,655.3 1,658.3 3.0

Residential building

805.9 844.3 845.7 828.5 829.8 836.7 844.3 847.9 3.6

Nonresidential building

828.5 813.3 804.6 789.3 852.3 814.5 811.0 810.4 -0.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,002.1 1,058.8 1,007.0 943.9 1,112.2 1,036.2 1,049.5 1,051.5 2.0

Specialty trade contractors

4,606.2 4,696.4 4,647.2 4,489.0 4,820.2 4,665.6 4,690.0 4,682.5 -7.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,034.4 2,141.6 2,125.8 2,060.1 2,127.0 2,132.2 2,140.7 2,136.5 -4.2

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,571.8 2,554.8 2,521.4 2,428.9 2,693.2 2,533.4 2,549.3 2,546.0 -3.3

Manufacturing

12,705 12,191 12,251 12,155 12,792 12,196 12,227 12,217 -10

Durable goods

7,967 7,570 7,610 7,556 8,002 7,580 7,598 7,581 -17

Wood products

406.7 398.7 402.5 400.5 411.3 398.8 402.3 403.6 1.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

403.8 399.3 398.4 381.7 416.7 396.7 400.9 394.5 -6.4

Primary metals

379.7 348.5 349.0 348.0 379.4 350.0 348.2 347.4 -0.8

Fabricated metal products

1,461.0 1,376.5 1,388.2 1,377.4 1,469.0 1,383.1 1,385.2 1,381.1 -4.1

Machinery

1,115.1 1,051.5 1,055.1 1,054.8 1,115.1 1,055.6 1,055.3 1,054.6 -0.7

Computer and electronic products

1,079.3 1,071.2 1,074.3 1,072.0 1,081.9 1,071.0 1,072.1 1,073.4 1.3

Computer and peripheral equipment

162.8 162.2 162.5 161.7 162.5 162.2 162.2 161.8 -0.4

Communications equipment

86.7 85.1 85.3 86.0 86.9 85.0 85.1 85.9 0.8

Semiconductors and electronic components

373.1 367.1 368.2 369.4 374.7 367.4 368.3 370.1 1.8

Electronic instruments

426.0 422.4 422.8 420.3 426.6 422.2 421.7 420.5 -1.2

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

30.7 34.4 35.5 34.6 31.2 34.2 34.8 35.1 0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

399.4 371.8 375.2 370.6 399.2 372.1 373.6 370.4 -3.2

Transportation equipment(1)

1,720.0 1,595.2 1,603.1 1,593.1 1,722.7 1,594.7 1,598.1 1,594.9 -3.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

976.0 905.0 913.3 905.1 975.9 906.9 910.5 905.2 -5.3

Furniture and related products

384.3 354.2 356.8 353.4 385.2 355.0 356.1 354.0 -2.1

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

617.2 603.1 607.3 604.6 621.5 602.7 606.2 607.5 1.3

Nondurable goods

4,738 4,621 4,641 4,599 4,790 4,616 4,629 4,636 7

Food manufacturing

1,636.7 1,634.1 1,642.8 1,620.4 1,661.0 1,629.1 1,634.1 1,636.3 2.2

Textile mills

105.6 95.6 95.3 95.0 106.1 95.6 95.2 95.1 -0.1

Textile product mills

112.6 104.5 105.8 105.4 113.6 103.9 105.2 105.6 0.4

Apparel

103.1 89.4 92.6 89.4 104.3 89.2 92.7 90.2 -2.5

Paper and paper products

362.8 354.5 357.1 354.9 364.2 355.6 356.2 355.8 -0.4

Printing and related support activities

417.8 373.1 374.8 370.1 420.2 370.7 372.9 371.7 -1.2

Petroleum and coal products

109.4 103.5 105.1 103.0 113.7 103.9 107.2 106.9 -0.3

Chemicals

849.7 838.5 844.7 848.1 854.7 839.6 841.1 851.6 10.5

Plastics and rubber products

729.5 716.1 725.0 722.9 731.1 717.8 723.8 723.7 -0.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

310.9 311.7 297.9 290.1 321.5 310.4 300.9 299.1 -1.8

Private service-providing

106,779 101,925 101,732 99,721 108,349 101,175 100,895 100,905 10

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,755 27,520 27,942 27,030 27,852 26,983 27,108 27,058 -50

Wholesale trade

5,865.3 5,615.0 5,632.6 5,602.4 5,901.1 5,602.4 5,617.9 5,632.2 14.3

Durable goods

3,205.5 3,064.8 3,080.3 3,069.7 3,218.6 3,064.4 3,073.6 3,081.5 7.9

Nondurable goods

2,146.7 2,069.0 2,070.5 2,053.1 2,167.2 2,058.2 2,063.6 2,070.0 6.4

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

513.1 481.2 481.8 479.6 515.3 479.8 480.7 480.7 0.0

Retail trade

15,508.4 15,487.9 15,755.0 15,175.0 15,605.2 15,129.7 15,264.6 15,226.8 -37.8

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,025.0 1,940.2 1,948.2 1,933.8 2,044.1 1,941.0 1,953.8 1,947.3 -6.5

Automobile dealers

1,306.1 1,229.9 1,239.4 1,235.3 1,312.8 1,229.7 1,239.6 1,236.8 -2.8

Other motor vehicle dealers

152.4 150.0 148.9 144.5 162.0 154.0 155.7 153.9 -1.8

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

566.5 560.3 559.9 554.0 569.3 557.3 558.5 556.6 -1.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

474.6 443.4 455.3 438.3 472.0 432.8 435.2 436.0 0.8

Electronics and appliance stores

470.4 455.3 454.0 412.8 467.0 435.3 434.5 405.2 -29.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,238.4 1,363.3 1,395.3 1,362.8 1,299.0 1,402.8 1,428.8 1,429.6 0.8

Food and beverage stores

3,062.6 3,161.3 3,180.8 3,151.3 3,077.4 3,139.2 3,148.1 3,163.3 15.2

Health and personal care stores

1,035.5 969.5 987.5 981.6 1,029.1 950.1 960.8 975.2 14.4

Gasoline stations

949.8 938.5 938.6 931.3 958.4 937.4 939.5 938.2 -1.3

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,278.8 1,029.5 1,074.8 1,003.2 1,272.7 966.8 978.4 993.2 14.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

557.8 484.1 499.2 473.3 558.2 456.4 457.6 459.0 1.4

General merchandise stores

3,010.9 3,300.2 3,405.6 3,135.6 2,997.0 3,091.3 3,152.3 3,114.0 -38.3

Department stores

1,039.7 1,092.5 1,130.5 1,002.3 1,015.2 982.4 981.1 973.3 -7.8

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,971.2 2,207.7 2,275.1 2,133.3 1,981.8 2,108.9 2,171.2 2,140.7 -30.5

Miscellaneous store retailers

828.0 779.9 781.7 760.4 846.8 773.2 767.4 772.4 5.0

Nonstore retailers

576.6 622.7 634.0 590.6 583.5 603.4 608.2 593.4 -14.8

Transportation and warehousing

5,835.1 5,876.7 6,014.0 5,713.9 5,798.1 5,711.3 5,687.2 5,659.4 -27.8

Air transportation

510.5 392.9 395.9 409.3 514.1 394.3 397.4 412.2 14.8

Rail transportation

159.2 143.0 145.4 144.4 160.5 143.3 144.8 144.8 0.0

Water transportation

65.3 58.4 58.2 57.1 67.3 59.8 59.2 58.9 -0.3

Truck transportation

1,495.6 1,480.5 1,477.3 1,449.4 1,522.8 1,472.8 1,478.3 1,475.4 -2.9

Transit and ground passenger transportation

503.0 389.5 379.3 370.2 493.8 372.7 363.1 360.3 -2.8

Pipeline transportation

51.9 50.3 49.6 49.1 51.7 50.2 49.5 49.0 -0.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

26.1 21.2 20.6 18.8 35.0 25.1 24.6 24.9 0.3

Support activities for transportation

761.0 699.2 700.6 689.0 763.2 694.5 694.8 689.5 -5.3

Couriers and messengers

958.3 1,173.4 1,306.0 1,101.9 879.2 1,063.9 1,033.0 1,019.3 -13.7

Warehousing and storage

1,304.2 1,468.3 1,481.1 1,424.7 1,310.5 1,434.7 1,442.5 1,425.1 -17.4

Utilities

546.2 540.0 540.1 538.8 547.6 539.5 538.5 539.1 0.6

Information

2,868 2,659 2,665 2,647 2,910 2,650 2,656 2,672 16

Publishing industries, except Internet

777.5 758.2 759.1 759.0 781.2 755.2 759.1 763.2 4.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

408.1 260.6 261.3 243.5 441.9 258.4 257.6 262.6 5.0

Broadcasting, except Internet

261.7 248.2 248.0 246.3 263.0 247.9 246.7 246.9 0.2

Telecommunications

710.1 681.2 683.7 685.4 711.5 679.0 679.4 685.4 6.0

Data processing, hosting and related services

360.4 354.2 354.7 352.1 362.0 352.7 355.1 353.5 -1.6

Other information services

350.4 357.0 358.3 360.8 350.0 357.0 357.6 360.1 2.5

Financial activities

8,783 8,763 8,788 8,729 8,849 8,756 8,774 8,782 8

Finance and insurance

6,476.3 6,542.2 6,554.3 6,525.0 6,498.5 6,532.8 6,539.2 6,540.2 1.0

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.8 20.2 20.3 20.2 19.7 20.3 20.3 20.2 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,663.5 2,669.2 2,672.6 2,669.2 2,667.7 2,668.9 2,669.6 2,671.0 1.4

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,783.1 1,751.3 1,750.0 1,746.6 1,785.5 1,754.7 1,750.9 1,747.7 -3.2

Commercial banking

1,395.6 1,365.3 1,363.2 1,359.5 1,396.6 1,368.3 1,364.6 1,360.6 -4.0

Nondepository credit intermediation

578.5 601.2 607.0 606.9 580.8 599.9 605.3 608.4 3.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

301.9 316.7 315.6 315.7 301.4 314.3 313.4 314.9 1.5

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

956.6 971.5 975.2 977.2 964.1 971.6 972.7 981.7 9.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,836.4 2,881.3 2,886.2 2,858.4 2,847.0 2,872.0 2,876.6 2,867.3 -9.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,306.8 2,220.9 2,233.6 2,203.9 2,350.6 2,223.6 2,234.6 2,241.7 7.1

Real estate

1,720.6 1,714.3 1,726.7 1,702.5 1,744.0 1,712.5 1,720.5 1,724.4 3.9

Rental and leasing services

563.8 484.0 484.3 479.4 583.4 488.6 491.7 494.8 3.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.4 22.6 22.6 22.0 23.2 22.5 22.4 22.5 0.1

Professional and business services

21,036 20,580 20,632 20,290 21,437 20,391 20,547 20,644 97

Professional and technical services

9,639.4 9,475.6 9,551.8 9,558.5 9,673.8 9,466.2 9,526.9 9,567.0 40.1

Legal services

1,154.4 1,125.3 1,127.4 1,118.6 1,162.9 1,122.8 1,121.3 1,126.1 4.8

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,069.2 966.3 999.0 1,065.6 1,022.7 997.6 1,000.4 1,004.2 3.8

Architectural and engineering services

1,517.3 1,523.7 1,525.4 1,513.6 1,535.2 1,521.6 1,526.7 1,530.7 4.0

Specialized design services

140.9 135.1 135.2 132.9 143.2 134.0 133.6 134.5 0.9

Computer systems design and related services

2,223.1 2,203.5 2,205.3 2,217.0 2,232.2 2,190.0 2,209.6 2,220.9 11.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,551.7 1,550.5 1,568.1 1,549.8 1,571.6 1,535.5 1,553.9 1,570.0 16.1

Scientific research and development services

749.0 779.3 784.7 787.0 756.5 779.9 784.0 794.0 10.0

Advertising and related services

483.8 437.5 443.8 432.7 488.3 436.2 441.2 435.5 -5.7

Other professional and technical services

750.0 754.4 762.9 741.3 761.4 748.6 756.2 751.1 -5.1

Management of companies and enterprises

2,422.2 2,339.1 2,351.6 2,339.1 2,430.0 2,339.9 2,347.5 2,346.4 -1.1

Administrative and waste services

8,974.3 8,765.7 8,728.2 8,392.3 9,333.2 8,584.8 8,672.1 8,730.5 58.4

Administrative and support services

8,524.8 8,315.7 8,279.9 7,950.4 8,875.3 8,134.8 8,222.2 8,280.7 58.5

Office administrative services

539.7 525.3 528.3 529.8 543.5 523.4 528.7 533.2 4.5

Facilities support services

164.1 153.6 153.4 151.8 166.4 153.3 152.9 153.4 0.5

Employment services(1)

3,455.1 3,323.0 3,388.5 3,185.7 3,598.7 3,176.2 3,255.7 3,318.1 62.4

Temporary help services

2,826.0 2,713.3 2,763.5 2,580.0 2,949.7 2,558.5 2,622.8 2,703.7 80.9

Business support services

869.4 819.8 824.9 806.0 867.3 800.3 803.7 802.7 -1.0

Travel arrangement and reservation services

216.3 148.8 145.5 144.5 221.7 149.1 147.0 148.1 1.1

Investigation and security services

939.6 909.9 899.3 892.6 953.7 903.2 895.2 904.6 9.4

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,014.5 2,138.3 2,039.6 1,945.4 2,192.6 2,130.8 2,135.0 2,121.5 -13.5

Other support services

326.1 297.0 300.4 294.6 331.5 298.5 304.0 299.1 -4.9

Waste management and remediation services

449.5 450.0 448.3 441.9 457.9 450.0 449.9 449.8 -0.1

Education and health services

24,364 23,510 23,401 23,118 24,513 23,278 23,247 23,240 -7

Educational services

3,697.3 3,555.5 3,401.6 3,276.8 3,786.5 3,388.2 3,318.7 3,352.6 33.9

Health care and social assistance

20,667.1 19,954.6 19,999.8 19,840.8 20,726.9 19,889.4 19,928.5 19,887.7 -40.8

Health care(3)

16,412.5 15,979.5 16,040.1 15,910.9 16,460.2 15,935.4 15,979.7 15,950.1 -29.6

Ambulatory health care services

7,821.5 7,708.0 7,737.9 7,683.0 7,850.5 7,680.4 7,703.4 7,706.9 3.5

Offices of physicians

2,710.2 2,672.1 2,682.0 2,662.5 2,716.9 2,660.1 2,664.8 2,668.2 3.4

Offices of dentists

985.7 983.8 987.8 984.2 987.9 981.2 983.5 986.3 2.8

Offices of other health practitioners

993.8 944.2 949.7 948.4 998.2 941.3 946.7 952.6 5.9

Outpatient care centers

996.0 998.8 1,006.8 998.6 996.8 998.4 1,001.9 999.0 -2.9

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

288.8 286.2 289.1 290.9 289.9 286.3 288.1 290.6 2.5

Home health care services

1,529.7 1,516.7 1,514.2 1,487.1 1,540.2 1,508.8 1,509.0 1,495.9 -13.1

Other ambulatory health care services

317.3 306.2 308.3 311.3 320.6 304.3 309.4 314.3 4.9

Hospitals

5,224.4 5,148.2 5,183.3 5,164.4 5,231.0 5,136.3 5,171.9 5,169.8 -2.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,366.6 3,123.3 3,118.9 3,063.5 3,378.7 3,118.7 3,104.4 3,073.4 -31.0

Nursing care facilities

1,581.4 1,443.3 1,439.7 1,410.3 1,586.5 1,439.0 1,433.6 1,414.2 -19.4

Residential mental health facilities

647.7 614.0 612.5 606.0 650.2 613.3 611.2 608.2 -3.0

Community care facilities for the elderly

972.1 911.1 912.3 896.6 975.0 911.5 905.7 899.0 -6.7

Other residential care facilities

165.4 154.9 154.4 150.6 167.0 154.9 153.9 152.0 -1.9

Social assistance

4,254.6 3,975.1 3,959.7 3,929.9 4,266.7 3,954.0 3,948.8 3,937.6 -11.2

Individual and family services

2,703.7 2,624.8 2,615.6 2,597.3 2,714.4 2,618.7 2,613.6 2,605.1 -8.5

Emergency and other relief services

185.8 185.4 186.5 182.7 186.4 185.1 183.9 183.4 -0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

318.2 278.7 276.1 272.8 322.9 280.1 276.6 275.6 -1.0

Child day care services

1,046.9 886.2 881.5 877.1 1,043.0 870.1 874.7 873.5 -1.2

Leisure and hospitality

16,117 13,418 12,858 12,497 16,858 13,632 13,096 13,035 -61

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,245.9 1,698.8 1,603.4 1,528.8 2,502.5 1,816.5 1,713.6 1,690.4 -23.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

463.1 320.4 309.5 289.1 525.8 329.3 320.2 325.4 5.2

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

161.3 129.8 128.2 121.5 175.3 133.5 133.0 131.5 -1.5

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,621.5 1,248.6 1,165.7 1,118.2 1,801.4 1,353.7 1,260.4 1,233.5 -26.9

Accommodation and food services

13,871.5 11,719.2 11,254.1 10,967.8 14,355.0 11,815.6 11,381.9 11,344.2 -37.7

Accommodation

2,007.6 1,411.3 1,377.2 1,336.2 2,108.3 1,453.6 1,422.1 1,403.8 -18.3

Food services and drinking places

11,863.9 10,307.9 9,876.9 9,631.6 12,246.7 10,362.0 9,959.8 9,940.4 -19.4

Other services

5,856 5,475 5,446 5,410 5,930 5,485 5,467 5,474 7

Repair and maintenance

1,341.8 1,309.9 1,305.2 1,299.3 1,359.5 1,311.9 1,312.4 1,313.6 1.2

Personal and laundry services

1,541.9 1,311.1 1,298.4 1,285.7 1,561.9 1,311.6 1,298.0 1,302.8 4.8

Membership associations and organizations

2,972.0 2,853.6 2,842.7 2,825.0 3,009.0 2,861.6 2,856.1 2,857.9 1.8

Government

22,650 21,993 21,811 21,395 22,789 21,488 21,465 21,508 43

Federal

2,835 2,895 2,904 2,851 2,852 2,888 2,889 2,865 -24

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,233.4 2,281.0 2,279.6 2,248.6 2,247.9 2,283.7 2,285.1 2,261.0 -24.1

U.S. Postal Service

601.5 613.8 624.7 602.1 604.2 604.2 604.3 604.1 -0.2

State government

5,185 5,112 5,049 4,875 5,284 4,931 4,940 4,971 31

State government education

2,494.2 2,432.3 2,373.0 2,209.7 2,578.5 2,245.3 2,255.5 2,291.6 36.1

State government, excluding education

2,690.3 2,679.5 2,676.1 2,665.1 2,705.0 2,685.8 2,684.9 2,679.2 -5.7

Local government

14,630 13,986 13,858 13,669 14,653 13,669 13,636 13,672 36

Local government education

8,138.3 7,677.4 7,635.8 7,503.8 8,024.5 7,334.8 7,328.1 7,377.5 49.4

Local government, excluding education

6,491.8 6,308.4 6,222.6 6,164.7 6,628.8 6,333.8 6,307.8 6,294.5 -13.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.3 34.8 34.7 35.0

Goods-producing

40.2 39.9 39.9 40.1

Mining and logging

45.6 45.0 44.8 45.1

Construction

39.2 39.0 39.2 39.3

Manufacturing

40.4 40.3 40.1 40.4

Durable goods

40.9 40.5 40.4 40.8

Nondurable goods

39.7 39.8 39.7 39.7

Private service-providing

33.2 33.7 33.7 33.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 34.5 34.1 34.5

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.6 38.7 39.1

Retail trade

30.3 30.9 30.4 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 39.0 38.9 39.2

Utilities

42.5 43.1 42.8 42.8

Information

36.2 36.9 37.0 37.1

Financial activities

37.7 37.8 37.8 37.8

Professional and business services

36.1 36.7 36.7 37.0

Education and health services

33.0 33.4 33.5 33.6

Leisure and hospitality

25.9 25.7 25.2 25.8

Other services

31.9 32.4 32.4 32.5

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)

Total private

$28.43 $29.61 $29.90 $29.96 $975.15 $1,030.43 $1,037.53 $1,048.60

Goods-producing

29.48 30.23 30.29 30.31 1,185.10 1,206.18 1,208.57 1,215.43

Mining and logging

34.24 34.47 34.62 34.47 1,561.34 1,551.15 1,550.98 1,554.60

Construction

31.23 31.97 32.06 32.11 1,224.22 1,246.83 1,256.75 1,261.92

Manufacturing

28.18 28.99 29.00 29.02 1,138.47 1,168.30 1,162.90 1,172.41

Durable goods

29.62 30.51 30.49 30.51 1,211.46 1,235.66 1,231.80 1,244.81

Nondurable goods

25.70 26.45 26.51 26.52 1,020.29 1,052.71 1,052.45 1,052.84

Private service-providing

28.18 29.47 29.81 29.88 935.58 993.14 1,004.60 1,012.93

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.60 25.47 25.65 25.89 836.40 878.72 874.67 893.21

Wholesale trade

31.73 32.76 32.89 32.96 1,231.12 1,264.54 1,272.84 1,288.74

Retail trade

20.12 21.15 21.30 21.77 609.64 653.54 647.52 670.52

Transportation and warehousing

24.91 25.48 25.72 25.66 954.05 993.72 1,000.51 1,005.87

Utilities

42.37 44.37 44.14 44.23 1,800.73 1,912.35 1,889.19 1,893.04

Information

42.85 44.40 44.32 44.62 1,551.17 1,638.36 1,639.84 1,655.40

Financial activities

36.64 38.79 39.08 39.34 1,381.33 1,466.26 1,477.22 1,487.05

Professional and business services

34.31 35.44 35.56 35.62 1,238.59 1,300.65 1,305.05 1,317.94

Education and health services

27.86 28.86 29.45 29.28 919.38 963.92 986.58 983.81

Leisure and hospitality

16.85 17.09 17.15 17.24 436.42 439.21 432.18 444.79

Other services

25.54 26.69 26.81 26.87 814.73 864.76 868.64 873.28

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2020 - Jan.
2021(p)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2020 - Jan.
2021(p)

Total private

111.5 106.0 105.5 106.4 0.9 151.5 150.0 150.8 152.4 1.1

Goods-producing

96.6 91.6 91.9 92.4 0.5 128.7 125.1 125.8 126.5 0.6

Mining and logging

98.7 84.4 84.5 86.3 2.1 135.7 116.8 117.4 119.4 1.7

Construction

102.9 98.9 99.9 100.1 0.2 139.6 137.3 139.2 139.7 0.4

Manufacturing

93.0 88.4 88.2 88.8 0.7 121.8 119.2 119.0 119.8 0.7

Durable goods

92.1 86.4 86.4 87.1 0.8 121.2 117.1 117.0 118.0 0.9

Nondurable goods

94.9 91.7 91.7 91.9 0.2 123.8 123.1 123.4 123.6 0.2

Private service-providing

115.8 109.8 109.5 110.1 0.5 158.6 157.2 158.6 159.9 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.3 101.6 100.9 101.9 1.0 137.1 139.5 139.5 142.2 1.9

Wholesale trade

101.0 95.4 95.9 97.1 1.3 134.0 130.7 131.9 133.9 1.5

Retail trade

96.0 94.9 94.2 95.2 1.1 127.7 132.7 132.6 137.0 3.3

Transportation and warehousing

127.6 128.0 127.1 127.5 0.3 161.7 165.9 166.3 166.4 0.1

Utilities

100.7 100.6 99.7 99.8 0.1 141.0 147.5 145.4 145.9 0.3

Information

96.2 89.3 89.7 90.5 0.9 146.8 141.2 141.6 143.8 1.6

Financial activities

109.3 108.4 108.7 108.8 0.1 156.2 164.1 165.6 166.9 0.8

Professional and business services

121.3 117.3 118.2 119.8 1.4 168.6 168.4 170.2 172.7 1.5

Education and health services

132.1 127.0 127.2 127.5 0.2 177.0 176.3 180.2 179.6 -0.3

Leisure and hospitality

124.6 100.0 94.2 96.0 1.9 169.4 137.8 130.3 133.5 2.5

Other services

109.1 102.5 102.1 102.6 0.5 152.7 149.9 150.1 151.1 0.7

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

76,161 71,100 70,904 70,991 50.0 49.8 49.7 49.8

Total private

62,999 58,723 58,566 58,609 48.7 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,750 4,562 4,578 4,581 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.7

Mining and logging

91 83 84 83 13.2 13.9 14.0 13.6

Construction

990 978 982 981 13.0 13.3 13.3 13.3

Manufacturing

3,669 3,501 3,512 3,517 28.7 28.7 28.7 28.8

Durable goods

1,946 1,857 1,860 1,858 24.3 24.5 24.5 24.5

Nondurable goods

1,723 1,644 1,652 1,659 36.0 35.6 35.7 35.8

Private service-providing

58,249 54,161 53,988 54,028 53.8 53.5 53.5 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,142 10,619 10,691 10,666 40.0 39.4 39.4 39.4

Wholesale trade

1,775.3 1,678.1 1,679.2 1,694.4 30.1 30.0 29.9 30.1

Retail trade

7,725.8 7,365.2 7,420.7 7,400.3 49.5 48.7 48.6 48.6

Transportation and warehousing

1,508.0 1,441.6 1,457.1 1,437.1 26.0 25.2 25.6 25.4

Utilities

133.1 134.1 133.9 134.5 24.3 24.9 24.9 24.9

Information

1,152 1,058 1,062 1,071 39.6 39.9 40.0 40.1

Financial activities

5,006 4,957 4,959 4,955 56.6 56.6 56.5 56.4

Professional and business services

9,830 9,365 9,450 9,498 45.9 45.9 46.0 46.0

Education and health services

18,970 17,986 17,978 17,996 77.4 77.3 77.3 77.4

Leisure and hospitality

8,979 7,262 6,952 6,939 53.3 53.3 53.1 53.2

Other services

3,170 2,914 2,896 2,903 53.5 53.1 53.0 53.0

Government

13,162 12,377 12,338 12,382 57.8 57.6 57.5 57.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)

Total private

106,444 98,926 98,729 98,624

Goods-producing

15,084 14,301 14,385 14,357

Mining and logging

496 428 431 437

Construction

5,672 5,432 5,474 5,442

Manufacturing

8,916 8,441 8,480 8,478

Durable goods

5,488 5,137 5,158 5,152

Nondurable goods

3,428 3,304 3,322 3,326

Private service-providing

91,360 84,625 84,344 84,267

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,555 22,859 22,985 22,931

Wholesale trade

4,723.8 4,447.2 4,454.1 4,479.5

Retail trade

13,312.5 12,920.5 13,049.6 13,041.8

Transportation and warehousing

5,079.2 5,063.2 5,055.5 4,981.6

Utilities

439.5 427.9 425.8 428.4

Information

2,334 2,084 2,089 2,117

Financial activities

6,848 6,671 6,665 6,654

Professional and business services

17,390 16,414 16,535 16,607

Education and health services

21,528 20,381 20,368 20,352

Leisure and hospitality

14,804 11,753 11,251 11,161

Other services

4,901 4,463 4,451 4,445

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 34.2 34.2 34.4

Goods-producing

41.0 40.7 40.9 41.1

Mining and logging

46.0 46.0 45.7 45.7

Construction

39.9 39.3 39.8 40.1

Manufacturing

41.4 41.3 41.3 41.5

Durable goods

41.7 41.5 41.5 41.8

Nondurable goods

40.9 40.9 41.1 41.0

Private service-providing

32.4 33.1 33.0 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 34.4 34.0 34.3

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.5 38.4 38.9

Retail trade

30.4 31.0 30.5 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

38.0 39.0 38.6 39.2

Utilities

42.8 42.6 42.4 42.3

Information

35.1 37.3 36.5 36.5

Financial activities

37.0 37.3 37.4 37.5

Professional and business services

35.5 36.2 36.3 36.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.8 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 24.3 23.9 24.6

Other services

31.0 31.4 31.4 31.5

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1

Durable goods

4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1

Nondurable goods

3.9 3.9 4.2 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)

Total private

$23.88 $24.93 $25.15 $25.18 $802.37 $852.61 $860.13 $866.19

Goods-producing

25.08 25.69 25.80 25.89 1,028.28 1,045.58 1,055.22 1,064.08

Mining and logging

30.29 29.87 30.03 30.90 1,393.34 1,374.02 1,372.37 1,412.13

Construction

28.92 29.55 29.65 29.72 1,153.91 1,161.32 1,180.07 1,191.77

Manufacturing

22.41 23.10 23.17 23.22 927.77 954.03 956.92 963.63

Durable goods

23.37 24.14 24.22 24.31 974.53 1,001.81 1,005.13 1,016.16

Nondurable goods

20.84 21.44 21.52 21.51 852.36 876.90 884.47 881.91

Private service-providing

23.63 24.77 25.02 25.03 765.61 819.89 825.66 831.00

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.89 21.62 21.75 21.86 708.17 743.73 739.50 749.80

Wholesale trade

26.23 27.08 27.11 27.17 1,012.48 1,042.58 1,041.02 1,056.91

Retail trade

16.92 17.92 18.00 18.17 514.37 555.52 549.00 556.00

Transportation and warehousing

22.52 22.79 23.09 23.09 855.76 888.81 891.27 905.13

Utilities

37.67 39.17 39.00 39.00 1,612.28 1,668.64 1,653.60 1,649.70

Information

34.51 36.24 36.19 36.47 1,211.30 1,351.75 1,320.94 1,331.16

Financial activities

28.17 29.68 29.70 29.99 1,042.29 1,107.06 1,110.78 1,124.63

Professional and business services

28.35 29.48 29.63 29.64 1,006.43 1,067.18 1,075.57 1,075.93

Education and health services

24.70 25.83 26.29 26.06 795.34 847.22 864.94 857.37

Leisure and hospitality

14.84 14.70 14.65 14.80 366.55 357.21 350.14 364.08

Other services

21.74 22.80 22.91 22.97 673.94 715.92 719.37 723.56

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2020 - Jan.
2021(p)
Jan.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020(p)
Jan.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Dec.
2020 - Jan.
2021(p)

Total private

119.2 112.7 112.5 113.1 0.5 190.2 187.9 189.1 190.3 0.6

Goods-producing