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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	       USDL-20-0379
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, March 6, 2020

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                    THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- FEBRUARY 2020


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 273,000 in February, and the unemployment
rate was little changed at 3.5 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Notable job gains occurred in health care and social assistance,
food services and drinking places, government, construction, professional and
technical services, and financial activities.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household
survey measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic
characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and
earnings by industry. For more information about the concepts and statistical
methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 3.5 percent, and the number of unemployed persons,
at 5.8 million, changed little in February. The unemployment rate has been either
3.5 percent or 3.6 percent for the past 6 months. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Asians declined to 2.5
percent in February. The rates for adult men (3.3 percent), adult women (3.1 percent),
teenagers (11.0 percent), Whites (3.1 percent), Blacks (5.8 percent), and Hispanics
(4.4 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and
A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.1
million, changed little in February and accounted for 19.2 percent of the unemployed.
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate remained at 63.4 percent in February. The
employment-population ratio, at 61.1 percent, changed little over the month but was
up by 0.4 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.3 million,
changed little in February. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they
were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In February, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force,
little changed from the previous month. These individuals were not in the labor
force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the
prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. 
Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no
jobs were available for them, numbered 405,000 in February, little different
from the previous month. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 273,000 in February, after an increase of
the same magnitude in January. In 2019, job growth averaged 178,000 per month. In
February, notable job gains occurred in health care and social assistance, food
services and drinking places, government, construction, professional and technical
services, and financial activities. (See table B-1.)

Employment in health care and social assistance increased by 57,000 in February.
Health care added 32,000 jobs, with gains in offices of physicians (+10,000), home
health care services (+10,000), and hospitals (+8,000). Employment in social assistance
increased by 25,000, with a majority of the gain in individual and family services
(+18,000). Over the past 12 months, employment increased by 368,000 in health care and
by 191,000 in social assistance. 

Food services and drinking places added 53,000 jobs in February. Employment in the
industry has increased by 252,000 over the past 7 months, following a lull in job growth
earlier in 2019.

In February, government employment increased by 45,000, led by a gain in state government
education (+16,000). Federal employment increased by 8,000, reflecting the hiring of
7,000 temporary workers for the 2020 Census. 

Construction added 42,000 jobs in February, following a similar gain in January (+49,000).
In 2019, job gains averaged 13,000 per month. In February, employment gains occurred
in specialty trade contractors (+26,000) and residential building (+10,000). 

In February, employment in professional and technical services increased by 32,000. Job
growth occurred in architectural and engineering services (+10,000) and in scientific
research and development services (+5,000). Employment continued to trend up in computer
systems design and related services (+8,000). Over the past 12 months, professional and
technical services has added 285,000 jobs. 

Employment in financial activities increased by 26,000 in February, with gains in real
estate (+8,000) and in credit intermediation and related activities (+6,000). Over the
past 12 months, financial activities has added 160,000 jobs.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade,
retail trade, transportation and warehousing, and information, changed little over the
month.

In February, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
increased by 9 cents to $28.52. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have 
increased by 3.0 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 8 cents to $23.96 in February. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 0.1 hour to
34.4 hours in February. In manufacturing, the workweek increased by 0.2 hour to 40.7
hours, and overtime edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 33.7
hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for December was revised up by 37,000 from
+147,000 to +184,000, and the change for January was revised up by 48,000 from +225,000
to +273,000. With these revisions, employment gains in December and January combined were
85,000 higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and
from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged
243,000 per month over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for March is scheduled to be released on
Friday, April 3, 2020, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Change from:
Jan.
2020-
Feb.
2020

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,392 260,181 259,502 259,628 126

Civilian labor force

163,047 164,556 164,606 164,546 -60

Participation rate

63.1 63.2 63.4 63.4 0.0

Employed

156,866 158,803 158,714 158,759 45

Employment-population ratio

60.7 61.0 61.2 61.1 -0.1

Unemployed

6,181 5,753 5,892 5,787 -105

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.5 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Not in labor force

95,345 95,625 94,896 95,082 186

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.8 3.5 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.5 3.1 3.3 3.3 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.4 3.2 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.3 12.6 12.2 11.0 -1.2

White

3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 0.0

Black or African American

6.9 5.9 6.0 5.8 -0.2

Asian

3.1 2.5 3.0 2.5 -0.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.3 4.2 4.3 4.4 0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.1 2.8 2.9 2.9 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.3 5.2 5.5 5.7 0.2

High school graduates, no college

3.7 3.7 3.8 3.6 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

3.1 2.7 2.8 3.0 0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.2 1.9 2.0 1.9 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,863 2,686 2,665 2,723 58

Job leavers

841 829 836 777 -59

Reentrants

1,902 1,655 1,838 1,803 -35

New entrants

619 551 557 505 -52

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,169 2,065 2,059 2,013 -46

5 to 14 weeks

1,809 1,730 1,755 1,803 48

15 to 26 weeks

928 812 887 825 -62

27 weeks and over

1,279 1,186 1,166 1,102 -64

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,302 4,148 4,182 4,318 136

Slack work or business conditions

2,779 2,657 2,655 2,776 121

Could only find part-time work

1,349 1,215 1,294 1,317 23

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,196 21,586 22,154 22,175 21

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,403 1,230 1,342 1,440 98

Discouraged workers

431 289 337 405 68

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

1 184 273 273

Total private

-6 164 222 228

Goods-producing

-29 5 27 61

Mining and logging

-5 -9 -2 4

Construction

-29 16 49 42

Manufacturing

5 -2 -20 15

Durable goods(1)

3 0 -11 11

Motor vehicles and parts

1.6 2.0 -8.2 6.8

Nondurable goods

2 -2 -9 4

Private service-providing

23 159 195 167

Wholesale trade

5.8 6.9 5.6 -2.6

Retail trade

-29.3 41.4 -5.8 -7.0

Transportation and warehousing

1.6 -2.1 29.8 -4.0

Utilities

-1.5 0.7 -1.0 0.5

Information

-2 9 11 4

Financial activities

14 10 10 26

Professional and business services(1)

38 22 25 41

Temporary help services

-2.6 4.5 -2.6 -3.3

Education and health services(1)

18 29 72 54

Health care and social assistance

31.9 25.3 42.6 56.5

Leisure and hospitality

-23 40 38 51

Other services

1 2 10 4

Government

7 20 51 45

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

151 210 239 243

Total private

142 200 211 205

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 50.0 50.0 50.0

Total private women employees

48.4 48.7 48.7 48.7

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.2 82.2 82.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.3 34.3 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$27.69 $28.37 $28.43 $28.52

Average weekly earnings

$952.54 $973.09 $975.15 $981.09

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.2 111.4 111.5 112.1

Over-the-month percent change

-0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

145.9 151.0 151.6 152.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

58.3 58.1 57.0 58.7

Manufacturing (76 industries)

57.2 50.7 47.4 54.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,392 259,502 259,628 258,392 259,845 260,020 260,181 259,502 259,628

Civilian labor force

162,793 163,497 164,235 163,047 164,401 164,347 164,556 164,606 164,546

Participation rate

63.0 63.0 63.3 63.1 63.3 63.2 63.2 63.4 63.4

Employed

156,167 156,994 158,017 156,866 158,544 158,536 158,803 158,714 158,759

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.5 60.9 60.7 61.0 61.0 61.0 61.2 61.1

Unemployed

6,625 6,504 6,218 6,181 5,857 5,811 5,753 5,892 5,787

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

95,599 96,004 95,393 95,345 95,444 95,673 95,625 94,896 95,082

Persons who currently want a job

5,196 5,107 4,973 5,206 4,756 4,832 4,832 4,904 4,962

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,965 125,513 125,575 124,965 125,687 125,773 125,852 125,513 125,575

Civilian labor force

86,056 86,331 86,597 86,399 86,901 87,104 87,049 87,088 87,008

Participation rate

68.9 68.8 69.0 69.1 69.1 69.3 69.2 69.4 69.3

Employed

82,311 82,701 83,047 83,066 83,776 84,018 84,034 83,940 83,871

Employment-population ratio

65.9 65.9 66.1 66.5 66.7 66.8 66.8 66.9 66.8

Unemployed

3,745 3,629 3,549 3,333 3,126 3,086 3,015 3,147 3,137

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

38,909 39,183 38,979 38,566 38,786 38,669 38,803 38,426 38,568

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,513 117,110 117,181 116,513 117,242 117,331 117,413 117,110 117,181

Civilian labor force

83,435 83,600 83,804 83,588 83,911 84,057 84,008 84,087 84,001

Participation rate

71.6 71.4 71.5 71.7 71.6 71.6 71.5 71.8 71.7

Employed

80,117 80,358 80,592 80,677 81,196 81,377 81,390 81,345 81,202

Employment-population ratio

68.8 68.6 68.8 69.2 69.3 69.4 69.3 69.5 69.3

Unemployed

3,318 3,241 3,212 2,911 2,715 2,679 2,618 2,743 2,799

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

33,078 33,511 33,377 32,925 33,330 33,274 33,405 33,023 33,180

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,427 133,988 134,053 133,427 134,158 134,247 134,329 133,988 134,053

Civilian labor force

76,737 77,167 77,638 76,648 77,500 77,243 77,507 77,518 77,538

Participation rate

57.5 57.6 57.9 57.4 57.8 57.5 57.7 57.9 57.8

Employed

73,857 74,292 74,970 73,800 74,769 74,518 74,769 74,774 74,888

Employment-population ratio

55.4 55.4 55.9 55.3 55.7 55.5 55.7 55.8 55.9

Unemployed

2,880 2,874 2,668 2,848 2,731 2,725 2,738 2,744 2,651

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

56,690 56,822 56,415 56,779 56,658 57,004 56,822 56,470 56,514

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,177 125,770 125,841 125,177 125,907 125,998 126,082 125,770 125,841

Civilian labor force

73,942 74,320 74,768 73,667 74,542 74,291 74,584 74,512 74,501

Participation rate

59.1 59.1 59.4 58.8 59.2 59.0 59.2 59.2 59.2

Employed

71,396 71,785 72,413 71,169 72,130 71,881 72,200 72,097 72,179

Employment-population ratio

57.0 57.1 57.5 56.9 57.3 57.0 57.3 57.3 57.4

Unemployed

2,546 2,535 2,355 2,497 2,411 2,411 2,383 2,415 2,323

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Not in labor force

51,235 51,450 51,073 51,511 51,365 51,706 51,498 51,258 51,340

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,702 16,622 16,606 16,702 16,696 16,692 16,686 16,622 16,606

Civilian labor force

5,416 5,578 5,663 5,792 5,948 5,999 5,964 6,007 6,043

Participation rate

32.4 33.6 34.1 34.7 35.6 35.9 35.7 36.1 36.4

Employed

4,655 4,851 5,012 5,019 5,218 5,278 5,213 5,273 5,378

Employment-population ratio

27.9 29.2 30.2 30.1 31.3 31.6 31.2 31.7 32.4

Unemployed

761 727 651 773 730 721 752 734 665

Unemployment rate

14.0 13.0 11.5 13.3 12.3 12.0 12.6 12.2 11.0

Not in labor force

11,286 11,044 10,943 10,909 10,748 10,693 10,722 10,614 10,562

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,447 200,918 200,968 200,447 201,172 201,254 201,326 200,918 200,968

Civilian labor force

126,102 126,487 126,954 126,276 127,122 127,191 127,197 127,288 127,146

Participation rate

62.9 63.0 63.2 63.0 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.4 63.3

Employed

121,628 122,058 122,669 122,119 123,028 123,077 123,175 123,332 123,189

Employment-population ratio

60.7 60.8 61.0 60.9 61.2 61.2 61.2 61.4 61.3

Unemployed

4,475 4,429 4,285 4,157 4,094 4,115 4,022 3,957 3,957

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1

Not in labor force

74,345 74,431 74,014 74,172 74,050 74,063 74,129 73,630 73,821

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,925 65,925 66,057 66,037 66,115 66,204 66,076 66,279 66,153

Participation rate

71.8 71.6 71.7 71.9 71.7 71.8 71.6 72.0 71.8

Employed

63,636 63,599 63,767 64,067 64,173 64,247 64,238 64,341 64,204

Employment-population ratio

69.3 69.1 69.2 69.8 69.6 69.7 69.6 69.9 69.7

Unemployed

2,289 2,326 2,290 1,970 1,941 1,957 1,839 1,938 1,950

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

56,042 56,255 56,477 55,782 56,399 56,299 56,429 56,324 56,247

Participation rate

58.1 58.2 58.4 57.9 58.3 58.2 58.3 58.3 58.2

Employed

54,365 54,639 54,914 54,114 54,755 54,666 54,827 54,807 54,692

Employment-population ratio

56.4 56.5 56.8 56.1 56.6 56.5 56.6 56.7 56.6

Unemployed

1,677 1,616 1,563 1,668 1,644 1,633 1,602 1,517 1,555

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,135 4,308 4,420 4,456 4,608 4,688 4,692 4,686 4,746

Participation rate

33.7 35.3 36.3 36.3 37.6 38.3 38.4 38.4 39.0

Employed

3,627 3,821 3,988 3,938 4,099 4,164 4,111 4,184 4,294

Employment-population ratio

29.6 31.3 32.7 32.1 33.5 34.0 33.6 34.3 35.2

Unemployed

508 487 432 518 509 524 581 502 452

Unemployment rate

12.3 11.3 9.8 11.6 11.0 11.2 12.4 10.7 9.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,897 33,184 33,211 32,897 33,152 33,184 33,215 33,184 33,211

Civilian labor force

20,441 20,702 20,833 20,557 20,704 20,675 20,949 20,790 20,946

Participation rate

62.1 62.4 62.7 62.5 62.5 62.3 63.1 62.6 63.1

Employed

18,944 19,327 19,530 19,140 19,571 19,527 19,712 19,549 19,730

Employment-population ratio

57.6 58.2 58.8 58.2 59.0 58.8 59.3 58.9 59.4

Unemployed

1,497 1,375 1,303 1,417 1,133 1,148 1,238 1,241 1,216

Unemployment rate

7.3 6.6 6.3 6.9 5.5 5.6 5.9 6.0 5.8

Not in labor force

12,457 12,482 12,379 12,341 12,448 12,509 12,266 12,395 12,266

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,333 9,351 9,408 9,410 9,485 9,504 9,591 9,445 9,499

Participation rate

67.6 67.0 67.3 68.2 68.0 68.1 68.6 67.6 68.0

Employed

8,595 8,754 8,779 8,744 9,003 9,019 9,034 8,918 8,945

Employment-population ratio

62.3 62.7 62.8 63.3 64.6 64.6 64.6 63.9 64.0

Unemployed

738 597 629 667 482 485 557 526 554

Unemployment rate

7.9 6.4 6.7 7.1 5.1 5.1 5.8 5.6 5.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,358 10,662 10,726 10,362 10,494 10,445 10,625 10,617 10,721

Participation rate

62.3 63.5 63.9 62.4 62.6 62.3 63.3 63.3 63.8

Employed

9,793 10,049 10,194 9,819 9,984 9,929 10,094 10,067 10,207

Employment-population ratio

58.9 59.9 60.7 59.1 59.6 59.2 60.1 60.0 60.8

Unemployed

565 613 532 544 511 516 530 550 514

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.7 5.0 5.2 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.2 4.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

750 690 698 784 724 727 734 728 725

Participation rate

30.3 28.3 28.7 31.7 29.5 29.6 29.9 29.8 29.8

Employed

556 524 556 577 584 579 583 564 578

Employment-population ratio

22.5 21.5 22.9 23.3 23.8 23.6 23.8 23.1 23.7

Unemployed

194 166 142 206 141 147 151 164 148

Unemployment rate

25.9 24.0 20.3 26.3 19.4 20.3 20.6 22.5 20.4

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,055 16,178 16,421 16,055 16,399 16,558 16,482 16,178 16,421

Civilian labor force

10,383 10,259 10,596 10,366 10,713 10,705 10,478 10,332 10,574

Participation rate

64.7 63.4 64.5 64.6 65.3 64.7 63.6 63.9 64.4

Employed

10,053 9,932 10,327 10,046 10,409 10,429 10,214 10,017 10,312

Employment-population ratio

62.6 61.4 62.9 62.6 63.5 63.0 62.0 61.9 62.8

Unemployed

329 327 268 320 305 276 264 315 262

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.2 2.5 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.5 3.0 2.5

Not in labor force

5,672 5,920 5,825 5,688 5,686 5,852 6,004 5,847 5,848

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,127 43,742 43,820 43,127 43,814 43,902 43,986 43,742 43,820

Civilian labor force

28,631 29,572 29,750 28,746 29,482 29,575 29,517 29,672 29,852

Participation rate

66.4 67.6 67.9 66.7 67.3 67.4 67.1 67.8 68.1

Employed

27,270 28,066 28,311 27,499 28,279 28,339 28,286 28,397 28,531

Employment-population ratio

63.2 64.2 64.6 63.8 64.5 64.6 64.3 64.9 65.1

Unemployed

1,361 1,506 1,438 1,248 1,203 1,236 1,231 1,275 1,322

Unemployment rate

4.8 5.1 4.8 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4

Not in labor force

14,496 14,170 14,071 14,380 14,332 14,327 14,468 14,070 13,968

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,628 16,096 15,985 15,688 15,841 15,983 15,875 16,114 16,035

Participation rate

80.3 81.5 80.8 80.6 80.1 80.6 79.9 81.6 81.1

Employed

14,953 15,362 15,355 15,127 15,310 15,498 15,393 15,571 15,519

Employment-population ratio

76.8 77.8 77.6 77.7 77.4 78.2 77.5 78.9 78.5

Unemployed

675 734 630 561 531 485 483 543 516

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.6 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.4 3.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,806 12,222 12,460 11,793 12,318 12,196 12,293 12,242 12,441

Participation rate

59.9 61.1 62.2 59.9 61.5 60.8 61.1 61.2 62.1

Employed

11,328 11,637 11,839 11,328 11,834 11,675 11,736 11,701 11,834

Employment-population ratio

57.5 58.2 59.1 57.5 59.1 58.2 58.4 58.5 59.1

Unemployed

478 585 622 465 485 521 558 541 607

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.8 5.0 3.9 3.9 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,197 1,253 1,305 1,265 1,323 1,396 1,349 1,316 1,377

Participation rate

30.2 31.4 32.6 31.9 33.0 34.8 33.6 32.9 34.4

Employed

988 1,066 1,118 1,043 1,135 1,166 1,157 1,125 1,177

Employment-population ratio

24.9 26.7 27.9 26.3 28.3 29.0 28.8 28.1 29.4

Unemployed

209 187 187 222 188 230 191 191 199

Unemployment rate

17.4 14.9 14.3 17.5 14.2 16.5 14.2 14.5 14.5

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,903 9,657 9,341 10,267 9,783 9,761 9,895 9,621 9,710

Participation rate

45.4 46.1 46.0 47.0 47.2 46.5 46.5 45.9 47.8

Employed

9,243 8,946 8,670 9,721 9,240 9,245 9,379 9,090 9,160

Employment-population ratio

42.4 42.7 42.7 44.5 44.6 44.1 44.0 43.4 45.1

Unemployed

660 711 671 546 543 516 516 531 550

Unemployment rate

6.7 7.4 7.2 5.3 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.5 5.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,153 35,878 36,278 36,203 36,263 36,178 36,094 36,230 36,309

Participation rate

58.1 58.1 58.3 58.1 57.8 58.0 58.5 58.7 58.3

Employed

34,632 34,299 34,793 34,847 34,928 34,850 34,764 34,861 34,986

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.6 55.9 56.0 55.6 55.9 56.3 56.5 56.2

Unemployed

1,521 1,579 1,484 1,357 1,335 1,328 1,330 1,369 1,323

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,234 37,211 37,291 37,222 37,585 37,478 37,509 37,283 37,325

Participation rate

65.4 64.5 64.7 65.3 64.8 64.7 64.7 64.6 64.8

Employed

35,956 36,088 36,061 36,050 36,515 36,393 36,491 36,243 36,209

Employment-population ratio

63.1 62.5 62.6 63.3 63.0 62.9 63.0 62.8 62.9

Unemployed

1,278 1,124 1,230 1,172 1,069 1,085 1,018 1,040 1,116

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.0 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.8 3.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

59,139 60,237 60,589 58,401 59,555 59,924 59,938 60,176 59,894

Participation rate

74.3 73.8 74.0 73.4 73.9 74.0 73.5 73.7 73.1

Employed

57,860 59,015 59,411 57,139 58,319 58,750 58,778 59,002 58,736

Employment-population ratio

72.7 72.3 72.5 71.8 72.3 72.5 72.1 72.3 71.7

Unemployed

1,279 1,222 1,177 1,262 1,235 1,174 1,160 1,174 1,158

Unemployment rate

2.2 2.0 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,965 18,608 17,087 16,711 1,878 1,897

Civilian labor force

9,377 9,221 8,221 8,058 1,156 1,163

Participation rate

49.4 49.6 48.1 48.2 61.5 61.3

Employed

9,121 8,892 8,003 7,772 1,117 1,120

Employment-population ratio

48.1 47.8 46.8 46.5 59.5 59.1

Unemployed

256 329 218 286 38 43

Unemployment rate

2.7 3.6 2.7 3.6 3.3 3.7

Not in labor force

9,588 9,387 8,866 8,653 722 734

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,289 4,314 3,598 3,553 692 761

Civilian labor force

3,458 3,446 2,963 2,877 495 570

Participation rate

80.6 79.9 82.4 81.0 71.6 74.9

Employed

3,340 3,291 2,866 2,737 474 554

Employment-population ratio

77.9 76.3 79.7 77.0 68.5 72.8

Unemployed

118 155 97 140 21 16

Unemployment rate

3.4 4.5 3.3 4.8 4.3 2.8

Not in labor force

831 868 635 677 196 191

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,051 3,190 2,526 2,701 524 489

Civilian labor force

2,378 2,453 2,012 2,127 366 327

Participation rate

77.9 76.9 79.6 78.7 69.8 66.8

Employed

2,327 2,397 1,966 2,084 361 313

Employment-population ratio

76.3 75.2 77.8 77.2 68.9 63.9

Unemployed

51 56 46 42 5 14

Unemployment rate

2.1 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.3 4.4

Not in labor force

673 736 515 574 158 162

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,366 6,974 7,113 6,731 253 243

Civilian labor force

1,535 1,441 1,473 1,401 62 40

Participation rate

20.8 20.7 20.7 20.8 24.5 16.6

Employed

1,512 1,384 1,454 1,350 59 35

Employment-population ratio

20.5 19.9 20.4 20.1 23.2 14.3

Unemployed

23 57 20 51 3 6

Unemployment rate

1.5 3.9 1.3 3.6 - -

Not in labor force

5,831 5,533 5,640 5,330 191 203

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,259 4,130 3,850 3,726 409 404

Civilian labor force

2,006 1,880 1,773 1,654 233 226

Participation rate

47.1 45.5 46.1 44.4 56.9 56.0

Employed

1,941 1,819 1,718 1,600 224 219

Employment-population ratio

45.6 44.0 44.6 43.0 54.7 54.2

Unemployed

65 61 56 54 9 8

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.9 3.3

Not in labor force

2,253 2,250 2,077 2,072 176 178

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

230,460 232,297 103,302 104,503 127,157 127,794

Civilian labor force

151,531 153,043 76,901 77,659 74,630 75,383

Participation rate

65.8 65.9 74.4 74.3 58.7 59.0

Employed

145,482 147,349 73,556 74,499 71,926 72,850

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.4 71.2 71.3 56.6 57.0

Unemployed

6,049 5,693 3,345 3,160 2,705 2,533

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 4.3 4.1 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

78,928 79,255 26,401 26,844 52,527 52,411

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,355 30,972 228,037 228,657

Civilian labor force

6,347 6,420 156,446 157,815

Participation rate

20.9 20.7 68.6 69.0

Employed

5,770 5,918 150,397 152,100

Employment-population ratio

19.0 19.1 66.0 66.5

Unemployed

576 502 6,049 5,715

Unemployment rate

9.1 7.8 3.9 3.6

Not in labor force

24,008 24,552 71,591 70,842

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,831 2,752 77,549 77,725

Participation rate

36.4 35.9 82.7 83.0

Employed

2,519 2,483 74,302 74,654

Employment-population ratio

32.4 32.4 79.2 79.7

Unemployed

312 269 3,247 3,070

Unemployment rate

11.0 9.8 4.2 4.0

Not in labor force

4,938 4,920 16,220 15,917

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,333 2,414 69,485 70,138

Participation rate

30.2 31.7 71.7 72.5

Employed

2,130 2,236 66,966 67,799

Employment-population ratio

27.6 29.4 69.1 70.1

Unemployed

203 178 2,519 2,339

Unemployment rate

8.7 7.4 3.6 3.3

Not in labor force

5,396 5,198 27,414 26,624

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,183 1,253 9,412 9,952

Participation rate

8.0 8.0 25.2 26.0

Employed

1,122 1,199 9,129 9,646

Employment-population ratio

7.6 7.6 24.4 25.2

Unemployed

61 55 283 306

Unemployment rate

5.2 4.4 3.0 3.1

Not in labor force

13,674 14,434 27,957 28,300

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,455 42,956 21,237 20,865 22,218 22,091

Civilian labor force

28,892 28,719 16,572 16,375 12,320 12,344

Participation rate

66.5 66.9 78.0 78.5 55.4 55.9

Employed

27,817 27,697 16,002 15,880 11,815 11,817

Employment-population ratio

64.0 64.5 75.3 76.1 53.2 53.5

Unemployed

1,075 1,022 570 495 505 527

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 3.4 3.0 4.1 4.3

Not in labor force

14,563 14,237 4,665 4,490 9,898 9,747

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

214,937 216,673 103,728 104,710 111,209 111,962

Civilian labor force

133,901 135,516 69,484 70,222 64,417 65,294

Participation rate

62.3 62.5 67.0 67.1 57.9 58.3

Employed

128,351 130,320 66,309 67,167 62,041 63,153

Employment-population ratio

59.7 60.1 63.9 64.1 55.8 56.4

Unemployed

5,550 5,196 3,175 3,054 2,375 2,141

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.8 4.6 4.3 3.7 3.3

Not in labor force

81,036 81,157 34,244 34,489 46,792 46,668

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,344 2,283 2,332 2,488 2,473 2,356 2,533 2,412 2,466

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,572 1,666 1,704 1,704 1,651 1,661 1,849 1,750 1,829

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

757 592 612 773 793 692 684 647 645

Unpaid family workers

15 25 16 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

153,824 154,711 155,686 154,354 155,970 156,167 156,241 156,337 156,283

Wage and salary workers(1)

145,148 146,019 146,861 145,554 147,118 147,275 147,431 147,467 147,347

Government

21,032 21,580 21,330 20,616 21,513 21,342 21,323 21,390 20,943

Private industries

124,116 124,438 125,531 124,850 125,812 125,996 126,069 126,042 126,282

Private households

796 801 781 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,321 123,637 124,750 124,045 124,979 125,157 125,250 125,234 125,487

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,638 8,642 8,780 8,757 8,811 8,856 8,821 8,808 8,897

Unpaid family workers

38 50 45 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,561 4,732 4,600 4,302 4,397 4,288 4,148 4,182 4,318

Slack work or business conditions

2,986 3,057 3,037 2,779 2,747 2,634 2,657 2,655 2,776

Could only find part-time work

1,295 1,340 1,288 1,349 1,278 1,259 1,215 1,294 1,317

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,807 21,929 22,902 21,196 21,544 21,532 21,586 22,154 22,175

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,477 4,605 4,501 4,220 4,306 4,221 4,111 4,091 4,225

Slack work or business conditions

2,933 2,962 2,966 2,731 2,684 2,599 2,613 2,580 2,719

Could only find part-time work

1,291 1,337 1,282 1,345 1,267 1,254 1,209 1,308 1,313

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,411 21,561 22,473 20,810 21,137 21,163 21,180 21,784 21,770

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,167 156,994 158,017 156,866 158,544 158,536 158,803 158,714 158,759

16 to 19 years

4,655 4,851 5,012 5,019 5,218 5,278 5,213 5,273 5,378

16 to 17 years

1,565 1,774 1,776 1,748 1,851 1,978 1,874 1,949 1,972

18 to 19 years

3,090 3,077 3,236 3,247 3,411 3,315 3,339 3,311 3,401

20 years and over

151,512 152,143 153,005 151,846 153,326 153,258 153,590 153,441 153,381

20 to 24 years

13,821 13,795 14,069 14,043 14,362 14,112 14,142 14,214 14,278

25 years and over

137,691 138,348 138,936 137,881 139,023 139,176 139,426 139,215 139,188

25 to 54 years

100,574 101,005 101,152 100,811 101,437 101,517 101,653 101,487 101,426

25 to 34 years

35,512 35,915 36,038 35,566 36,070 36,190 36,230 36,129 36,123

35 to 44 years

32,965 33,255 33,273 33,101 33,390 33,293 33,406 33,412 33,402

45 to 54 years

32,098 31,835 31,841 32,144 31,978 32,033 32,017 31,945 31,901

55 years and over

37,117 37,343 37,784 37,070 37,585 37,660 37,773 37,728 37,762

Men, 16 years and over

82,311 82,701 83,047 83,066 83,776 84,018 84,034 83,940 83,871

16 to 19 years

2,194 2,343 2,455 2,389 2,580 2,640 2,644 2,596 2,669

16 to 17 years

751 757 776 866 899 929 876 860 891

18 to 19 years

1,443 1,586 1,679 1,537 1,694 1,717 1,766 1,733 1,784

20 years and over

80,117 80,358 80,592 80,677 81,196 81,377 81,390 81,345 81,202

20 to 24 years

7,006 7,045 7,126 7,163 7,208 7,157 7,152 7,307 7,272

25 years and over

73,111 73,313 73,466 73,572 73,986 74,224 74,217 74,057 73,982

25 to 54 years

53,539 53,412 53,415 53,860 53,952 54,101 54,005 53,840 53,770

25 to 34 years

19,002 18,973 19,038 19,115 19,312 19,413 19,364 19,145 19,175

35 to 44 years

17,760 17,713 17,734 17,903 17,875 17,890 17,881 17,884 17,874

45 to 54 years

16,777 16,726 16,643 16,841 16,765 16,797 16,761 16,810 16,720

55 years and over

19,572 19,901 20,052 19,712 20,034 20,124 20,212 20,217 20,213

Women, 16 years and over

73,857 74,292 74,970 73,800 74,769 74,518 74,769 74,774 74,888

16 to 19 years

2,461 2,508 2,557 2,630 2,639 2,637 2,568 2,677 2,709

16 to 17 years

813 1,017 1,000 883 952 1,049 999 1,089 1,081

18 to 19 years

1,648 1,491 1,557 1,710 1,717 1,598 1,573 1,578 1,616

20 years and over

71,396 71,785 72,413 71,169 72,130 71,881 72,200 72,097 72,179

20 to 24 years

6,815 6,750 6,944 6,881 7,154 6,955 6,990 6,907 7,006

25 years and over

64,580 65,035 65,469 64,308 65,037 64,952 65,208 65,158 65,206

25 to 54 years

47,035 47,593 47,737 46,951 47,486 47,416 47,648 47,647 47,657

25 to 34 years

16,510 16,942 17,001 16,451 16,758 16,777 16,866 16,984 16,949

35 to 44 years

15,205 15,542 15,539 15,197 15,514 15,403 15,525 15,528 15,528

45 to 54 years

15,321 15,109 15,198 15,303 15,214 15,236 15,256 15,135 15,180

55 years and over

17,545 17,442 17,733 17,358 17,551 17,536 17,561 17,510 17,549

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,664 45,949 45,855 45,871 45,971 46,059 46,177 46,257 46,067

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,731 36,926 36,811 36,477 36,657 36,581 36,631 36,869 36,597

Women who maintain families(2)

9,596 9,553 9,771 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

128,836 129,379 129,734 130,115 131,518 131,561 131,755 131,099 131,109

Part-time workers(4)

27,331 27,615 28,283 26,917 26,992 26,958 26,992 27,529 27,726

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,823 8,083 8,181 7,683 8,132 8,107 7,946 8,152 8,070

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.1 5.2 4.9 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,072 6,472 6,471 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,395 9,234 9,392 9,530 9,604 9,548 9,506 9,455 9,542

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,181 5,892 5,787 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5

16 to 19 years

773 734 665 13.3 12.3 12.0 12.6 12.2 11.0

16 to 17 years

339 260 214 16.2 14.0 12.6 13.7 11.8 9.8

18 to 19 years

453 473 464 12.2 11.3 11.7 12.1 12.5 12.0

20 years and over

5,408 5,158 5,122 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2

20 to 24 years

1,085 1,012 972 7.2 6.2 6.4 6.3 6.6 6.4

25 years and over

4,352 4,153 4,168 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9

25 to 54 years

3,310 3,154 3,152 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,480 1,397 1,371 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7

35 to 44 years

890 946 955 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8

45 to 54 years

940 811 827 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5

55 years and over

1,035 1,000 1,003 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,333 3,147 3,137 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6

16 to 19 years

422 405 338 15.0 13.7 13.4 13.0 13.5 11.2

16 to 17 years

190 144 108 18.0 14.4 14.1 14.6 14.4 10.8

18 to 19 years

251 256 243 14.0 13.2 13.0 12.8 12.9 12.0

20 years and over

2,911 2,743 2,799 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.3

20 to 24 years

584 533 519 7.5 7.5 7.3 7.2 6.8 6.7

25 years and over

2,324 2,227 2,278 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,756 1,683 1,707 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

761 783 771 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.9

35 to 44 years

480 476 507 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.8

45 to 54 years

516 425 429 3.0 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.5

55 years and over

568 544 571 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.7

Women, 16 years and over

2,848 2,744 2,651 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4

16 to 19 years

351 330 328 11.8 10.8 10.6 12.1 11.0 10.8

16 to 17 years

149 115 105 14.5 13.6 11.3 12.9 9.6 8.9

18 to 19 years

202 217 221 10.6 9.4 10.2 11.3 12.1 12.0

20 years and over

2,497 2,415 2,323 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

20 to 24 years

501 478 453 6.8 4.8 5.5 5.5 6.5 6.1

25 years and over

2,028 1,926 1,891 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8

25 to 54 years

1,553 1,471 1,445 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9

25 to 34 years

719 614 599 4.2 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4

35 to 44 years

410 470 447 2.6 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8

45 to 54 years

424 386 398 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.6

55 years and over

466 438 430 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

899 804 925 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.7 2.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

855 796 814 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

496 545 423 4.9 5.4 4.8 4.2 5.4 4.1

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,020 4,744 4,710 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,147 1,171 1,065 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.1 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,300 3,267 3,151 2,863 2,691 2,804 2,686 2,665 2,723

On temporary layoff

1,088 1,109 1,069 828 772 768 807 742 801

Not on temporary layoff

2,212 2,158 2,082 2,036 1,919 2,036 1,880 1,923 1,922

Permanent job losers

1,406 1,403 1,358 1,304 1,260 1,422 1,295 1,289 1,279

Persons who completed temporary jobs

806 755 723 732 659 614 585 634 644

Job leavers

840 830 766 841 846 776 829 836 777

Reentrants

1,908 1,907 1,839 1,902 1,698 1,663 1,655 1,838 1,803

New entrants

577 500 462 619 622 581 551 557 505

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

49.8 50.2 50.7 46.0 45.9 48.1 46.9 45.2 46.9

On temporary layoff

16.4 17.1 17.2 13.3 13.2 13.2 14.1 12.6 13.8

Not on temporary layoff

33.4 33.2 33.5 32.7 32.8 35.0 32.9 32.6 33.1

Job leavers

12.7 12.8 12.3 13.5 14.4 13.3 14.5 14.2 13.4

Reentrants

28.8 29.3 29.6 30.6 29.0 28.6 28.9 31.2 31.0

New entrants

8.7 7.7 7.4 9.9 10.6 10.0 9.6 9.4 8.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,085 2,468 1,939 2,169 1,978 2,026 2,065 2,059 2,013

5 to 14 weeks

2,137 1,925 2,161 1,809 1,747 1,753 1,730 1,755 1,803

15 weeks and over

2,403 2,110 2,117 2,207 2,144 2,083 1,998 2,053 1,927

15 to 26 weeks

1,031 893 932 928 884 865 812 887 825

27 weeks and over

1,371 1,217 1,185 1,279 1,259 1,219 1,186 1,166 1,102

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

21.5 20.5 20.4 22.0 21.6 20.2 20.8 21.9 20.9

Median duration, in weeks

9.5 8.6 9.3 9.4 9.2 9.2 9.0 9.3 9.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

31.5 38.0 31.2 35.1 33.7 34.6 35.6 35.1 35.1

5 to 14 weeks

32.3 29.6 34.8 29.3 29.8 29.9 29.9 29.9 31.4

15 weeks and over

36.3 32.4 34.1 35.7 36.5 35.5 34.5 35.0 33.6

15 to 26 weeks

15.6 13.7 15.0 15.0 15.1 14.7 14.0 15.1 14.4

27 weeks and over

20.7 18.7 19.1 20.7 21.5 20.8 20.5 19.9 19.2

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,167 158,017 6,625 6,218 4.1 3.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,281 66,091 1,317 1,207 2.0 1.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,562 27,866 565 507 2.1 1.8

Professional and related occupations

37,718 38,225 753 700 2.0 1.8

Service occupations

26,090 26,204 1,447 1,272 5.3 4.6

Sales and office occupations

33,200 31,360 1,452 1,211 4.2 3.7

Sales and related occupations

15,292 15,064 800 657 5.0 4.2

Office and administrative support occupations

17,908 16,296 652 554 3.5 3.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,964 14,207 939 908 6.3 6.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,143 1,139 190 183 14.3 13.8

Construction and extraction occupations

8,272 8,149 598 604 6.7 6.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,549 4,918 151 122 3.2 2.4

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,633 20,155 868 1,130 4.5 5.3

Production occupations

8,742 8,361 340 448 3.7 5.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,891 11,794 528 682 5.1 5.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,625 6,218 4.1 3.8

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,123 4,890 4.0 3.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

26 46 3.6 5.4

Construction

588 531 6.2 5.5

Manufacturing

464 613 2.9 3.9

Durable goods

270 359 2.7 3.6

Nondurable goods

194 254 3.3 4.3

Wholesale and retail trade

978 821 5.0 4.2

Transportation and utilities

297 256 4.1 3.4

Information

107 68 4.1 2.6

Financial activities

264 167 2.6 1.6

Professional and business services

768 795 4.3 4.4

Education and health services

621 608 2.5 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

794 799 5.8 5.7

Other services

215 187 3.2 2.8

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

190 205 11.1 11.0

Government workers

397 347 1.8 1.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

337 312 3.4 3.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Oct.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.1 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.3 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.7 7.7 7.4 7.2 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.9 7.0

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,599 95,393 38,909 38,979 56,690 56,415

Persons who currently want a job

5,196 4,973 2,608 2,526 2,588 2,447

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,424 1,494 810 788 614 707

Discouraged workers(2)

428 421 301 260 127 161

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

996 1,073 509 528 487 545

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,823 8,181 3,815 3,900 4,008 4,281

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.2 4.6 4.7 5.4 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,502 4,576 2,410 2,378 2,092 2,198

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,961 2,126 681 728 1,280 1,398

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

251 308 157 197 95 110

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,057 1,129 550 578 507 551

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Change from:
Jan.2020 - Feb.2020(p)

Total nonfarm

148,684 152,929 150,117 150,997 150,135 151,998 152,271 152,544 273

Total private

125,891 129,918 127,524 127,968 127,622 129,319 129,541 129,769 228

Goods-producing

20,554 21,037 20,704 20,763 20,994 21,136 21,163 21,224 61

Mining and logging

730 714 700 701 741 715 713 717 4

Logging

48.1 53.7 53.1 53.6 48.6 53.2 53.9 54.5 0.6

Mining

682.2 659.9 646.9 647.4 692.6 661.3 658.9 662.0 3.1

Oil and gas extraction

142.3 158.0 154.5 155.3 143.6 157.9 155.9 157.0 1.1

Mining, except oil and gas

187.2 187.2 184.4 183.2 193.3 189.3 190.1 189.4 -0.7

Coal mining

51.9 51.2 51.1 50.1 52.1 51.1 51.1 50.6 -0.5

Metal ore mining

41.9 40.6 40.5 40.6 42.1 40.7 41.0 40.9 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

93.4 95.4 92.8 92.5 99.1 97.5 98.0 97.9 -0.1

Support activities for mining

352.7 314.7 308.0 308.9 355.7 314.1 312.9 315.6 2.7

Construction

7,062 7,447 7,241 7,270 7,423 7,555 7,604 7,646 42

Construction of buildings

1,602.0 1,666.4 1,630.2 1,635.5 1,653.0 1,675.9 1,679.2 1,692.3 13.1

Residential building

789.1 827.7 806.8 813.2 815.2 829.5 832.0 841.7 9.7

Nonresidential building

812.9 838.7 823.4 822.3 837.8 846.4 847.2 850.6 3.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

966.6 1,042.4 990.1 992.6 1,066.3 1,087.6 1,096.1 1,099.1 3.0

Specialty trade contractors

4,493.4 4,738.5 4,620.6 4,642.2 4,703.2 4,791.9 4,828.8 4,854.4 25.6

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,976.0 2,066.7 2,023.2 2,035.8 2,070.2 2,095.0 2,114.9 2,127.1 12.2

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,517.4 2,671.8 2,597.4 2,606.4 2,633.0 2,696.9 2,713.9 2,727.3 13.4

Manufacturing

12,762 12,876 12,763 12,792 12,830 12,866 12,846 12,861 15

Durable goods

8,035 8,072 8,018 8,036 8,062 8,064 8,053 8,064 11

Wood products

404.8 411.1 407.0 407.1 408.7 411.0 411.1 410.9 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

407.9 419.8 410.8 414.5 419.6 422.3 423.3 427.0 3.7

Primary metals

389.9 377.6 373.6 373.7 389.3 375.9 373.2 372.6 -0.6

Fabricated metal products

1,487.3 1,485.7 1,477.3 1,480.1 1,492.0 1,485.1 1,485.1 1,486.9 1.8

Machinery

1,132.4 1,117.4 1,114.6 1,113.0 1,132.2 1,117.3 1,115.1 1,112.8 -2.3

Computer and electronic products

1,067.0 1,096.4 1,094.2 1,095.1 1,070.3 1,095.3 1,097.0 1,098.9 1.9

Computer and peripheral equipment

160.4 167.8 169.1 168.9 160.9 167.5 169.0 169.5 0.5

Communications equipment

82.9 84.4 84.4 84.3 83.4 84.2 84.5 84.7 0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

373.9 378.8 376.8 377.6 375.0 379.1 378.5 378.6 0.1

Electronic instruments

417.6 431.8 431.9 431.9 418.4 431.3 432.4 433.3 0.9

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

32.2 33.6 32.0 32.4 32.7 33.2 32.5 32.8 0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

402.9 407.1 405.2 404.1 404.7 405.6 405.5 404.7 -0.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,740.5 1,747.2 1,731.4 1,744.6 1,740.3 1,743.7 1,734.6 1,742.4 7.8

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,015.0 1,001.7 987.8 1,000.7 1,012.2 997.9 989.7 996.5 6.8

Furniture and related products

390.1 387.8 386.3 384.1 389.6 386.8 387.0 385.4 -1.6

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

612.6 621.9 617.3 619.8 614.9 620.7 621.1 622.4 1.3

Nondurable goods

4,727 4,804 4,745 4,756 4,768 4,802 4,793 4,797 4

Food manufacturing

1,614.8 1,662.8 1,631.3 1,633.9 1,633.5 1,661.1 1,655.3 1,655.7 0.4

Textile mills

109.2 106.7 106.3 106.7 109.3 106.7 106.8 106.5 -0.3

Textile product mills

113.2 112.7 112.3 110.4 114.4 112.0 112.9 111.7 -1.2

Apparel

110.3 106.2 103.7 103.9 109.9 106.3 104.7 104.2 -0.5

Paper and paper products

366.1 365.6 363.6 363.0 365.9 365.0 364.9 364.2 -0.7

Printing and related support activities

424.5 421.2 416.7 416.1 427.6 419.3 419.1 418.7 -0.4

Petroleum and coal products

111.4 111.9 110.1 110.2 115.8 113.9 114.6 114.8 0.2

Chemicals

847.9 855.3 845.2 849.7 851.1 853.3 848.9 850.9 2.0

Plastics and rubber products

733.0 743.8 744.0 746.3 734.2 743.0 745.3 747.0 1.7

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

296.7 317.5 311.8 315.9 306.4 320.9 320.7 323.7 3.0

Private service-providing

105,337 108,881 106,820 107,205 106,628 108,183 108,378 108,545 167

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,351 28,582 27,725 27,452 27,688 27,809 27,838 27,825 -13

Wholesale trade

5,853.6 5,947.8 5,906.3 5,902.4 5,884.7 5,933.2 5,938.8 5,936.2 -2.6

Durable goods

3,177.6 3,224.5 3,209.3 3,207.3 3,187.8 3,218.2 3,220.2 3,218.3 -1.9

Nondurable goods

2,143.7 2,185.3 2,165.0 2,163.7 2,163.0 2,179.5 2,184.7 2,184.1 -0.6

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

532.3 538.0 532.0 531.4 533.9 535.5 533.9 533.8 -0.1

Retail trade

15,429.4 16,159.7 15,562.1 15,399.8 15,667.2 15,672.2 15,666.4 15,659.4 -7.0

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,003.1 2,049.0 2,045.9 2,047.5 2,020.7 2,057.1 2,064.5 2,064.0 -0.5

Automobile dealers

1,292.2 1,304.0 1,305.4 1,308.6 1,298.1 1,306.5 1,311.5 1,313.0 1.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

154.8 159.2 156.2 158.5 162.3 166.3 165.7 166.1 0.4

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

556.1 585.8 584.3 580.4 560.3 584.3 587.3 585.0 -2.3

Furniture and home furnishings stores

471.3 491.8 471.6 469.4 473.1 470.2 469.7 471.6 1.9

Electronics and appliance stores

479.2 495.9 477.6 471.9 479.3 479.8 473.3 475.9 2.6

Building material and garden supply stores

1,250.7 1,269.9 1,247.6 1,261.4 1,291.7 1,305.8 1,308.5 1,303.0 -5.5

Food and beverage stores

3,048.7 3,119.7 3,076.8 3,068.4 3,071.9 3,088.3 3,091.0 3,091.4 0.4

Health and personal care stores

1,047.6 1,082.8 1,059.2 1,058.8 1,053.8 1,055.8 1,052.4 1,063.3 10.9

Gasoline stations

928.5 949.1 943.1 934.5 940.7 951.5 951.5 948.9 -2.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,291.4 1,410.5 1,293.7 1,241.3 1,330.1 1,286.9 1,288.4 1,276.2 -12.2

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

539.5 589.4 551.2 538.2 550.6 543.1 552.5 554.2 1.7

General merchandise stores

2,984.6 3,291.9 3,050.0 2,966.7 3,046.3 3,060.7 3,042.6 3,040.1 -2.5

Department stores

1,061.5 1,231.3 1,092.4 1,041.2 1,089.0 1,090.6 1,074.7 1,074.4 -0.3

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,923.1 2,060.6 1,957.6 1,925.5 1,957.4 1,970.1 1,967.9 1,965.7 -2.2

Miscellaneous store retailers

820.0 834.3 802.8 802.9 839.1 821.5 822.1 822.6 0.5

Nonstore retailers

564.8 575.4 542.6 538.8 569.9 551.5 549.9 548.2 -1.7

Transportation and warehousing

5,521.1 5,925.3 5,711.0 5,604.5 5,585.9 5,655.9 5,685.7 5,681.7 -4.0

Air transportation

498.1 506.3 505.5 507.7 501.8 508.2 509.1 510.8 1.7

Rail transportation

181.3 163.7 159.7 157.7 182.5 163.8 160.8 158.8 -2.0

Water transportation

63.3 64.3 63.1 62.7 66.0 65.2 65.1 65.1 0.0

Truck transportation

1,505.6 1,525.2 1,501.4 1,503.3 1,529.6 1,526.4 1,527.7 1,529.4 1.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

509.7 522.0 517.4 520.8 498.1 506.1 507.7 508.7 1.0

Pipeline transportation

50.2 51.4 51.2 50.3 50.5 51.2 51.0 50.4 -0.6

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

25.7 30.0 27.3 27.7 35.3 35.9 36.3 36.6 0.3

Support activities for transportation

745.3 765.9 761.3 760.9 749.2 760.7 763.1 763.9 0.8

Couriers and messengers

768.0 1,073.1 929.1 815.2 791.2 846.4 866.0 853.8 -12.2

Warehousing and storage

1,173.9 1,223.4 1,195.0 1,198.2 1,181.7 1,192.0 1,198.9 1,204.2 5.3

Utilities

547.1 549.3 545.5 545.1 550.1 547.9 546.9 547.4 0.5

Information

2,830 2,895 2,854 2,878 2,841 2,883 2,894 2,898 4

Publishing industries, except Internet

748.7 765.9 763.7 766.9 751.6 764.4 766.1 769.1 3.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

424.9 459.5 422.4 440.7 431.7 454.4 456.1 456.2 0.1

Broadcasting, except Internet

268.7 265.6 261.3 261.6 268.9 264.0 262.3 261.7 -0.6

Telecommunications

728.1 708.1 705.7 706.0 725.8 704.3 707.5 706.5 -1.0

Data processing, hosting and related services

334.5 345.2 348.5 349.6 335.2 346.4 350.4 350.4 0.0

Other information services

325.4 351.0 352.4 353.6 327.3 349.5 351.6 354.4 2.8

Financial activities

8,633 8,819 8,761 8,793 8,690 8,814 8,824 8,850 26

Finance and insurance

6,377.5 6,475.4 6,453.7 6,471.6 6,393.5 6,464.4 6,475.3 6,488.9 13.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.8 19.1 19.5 19.1 19.8 19.2 19.5 19.2 -0.3

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,641.6 2,672.7 2,670.2 2,674.1 2,649.4 2,669.1 2,674.5 2,680.6 6.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,773.2 1,782.0 1,783.1 1,787.2 1,775.8 1,783.4 1,785.4 1,789.9 4.5

Commercial banking

1,392.0 1,390.9 1,391.8 1,395.7 1,393.2 1,392.8 1,393.5 1,396.9 3.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

566.0 582.9 580.9 581.8 571.5 580.2 583.9 586.0 2.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

302.4 307.8 306.2 305.1 302.0 305.5 305.2 304.6 -0.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

954.0 971.0 961.2 965.3 958.1 968.6 968.5 970.8 2.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,762.1 2,812.6 2,802.8 2,813.1 2,766.2 2,807.5 2,812.8 2,818.3 5.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,255.3 2,344.0 2,306.8 2,321.8 2,296.8 2,349.1 2,348.6 2,361.5 12.9

Real estate

1,675.6 1,747.9 1,721.1 1,731.4 1,696.7 1,743.5 1,744.3 1,752.2 7.9

Rental and leasing services

557.0 572.4 562.7 567.1 576.9 582.0 580.6 585.5 4.9

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.7 23.7 23.0 23.3 23.2 23.6 23.7 23.8 0.1

Professional and business services

20,841 21,600 21,135 21,248 21,164 21,503 21,528 21,569 41

Professional and technical services

9,470.4 9,693.5 9,659.6 9,760.2 9,431.9 9,667.4 9,685.0 9,717.3 32.3

Legal services

1,137.5 1,162.3 1,152.4 1,155.6 1,145.2 1,156.3 1,161.0 1,162.6 1.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,115.7 1,039.4 1,082.2 1,145.8 1,012.6 1,037.1 1,032.8 1,035.6 2.8

Architectural and engineering services

1,479.0 1,528.5 1,513.3 1,522.1 1,500.7 1,530.2 1,530.0 1,540.3 10.3

Specialized design services

142.1 146.7 143.6 143.5 143.6 144.4 146.0 145.3 -0.7

Computer systems design and related services

2,156.3 2,233.6 2,243.4 2,246.7 2,160.6 2,238.9 2,249.9 2,257.7 7.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,500.6 1,570.2 1,545.4 1,553.6 1,512.9 1,557.2 1,562.8 1,565.3 2.5

Scientific research and development services

712.3 745.7 735.9 742.3 716.1 744.8 743.5 748.7 5.2

Advertising and related services

489.5 497.1 490.8 493.0 492.8 495.1 495.1 495.2 0.1

Other professional and technical services

737.4 770.0 752.6 757.6 747.4 763.4 763.8 766.6 2.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,398.9 2,451.5 2,441.2 2,433.4 2,411.2 2,447.7 2,449.6 2,447.8 -1.8

Administrative and waste services

8,971.9 9,455.0 9,034.5 9,054.2 9,321.1 9,387.4 9,393.8 9,404.1 10.3

Administrative and support services

8,532.1 8,991.2 8,576.9 8,595.4 8,873.9 8,922.2 8,928.3 8,937.0 8.7

Office administrative services

517.2 529.6 526.2 525.9 520.1 530.1 530.2 530.9 0.7

Facilities support services

162.0 167.0 164.0 163.3 162.7 166.7 166.0 164.4 -1.6

Employment services(1)

3,504.2 3,797.9 3,504.3 3,502.5 3,642.3 3,653.4 3,651.3 3,652.4 1.1

Temporary help services

2,838.8 3,086.3 2,822.9 2,810.4 2,962.2 2,950.0 2,947.4 2,944.1 -3.3

Business support services

883.9 892.4 872.6 869.6 883.8 869.5 870.2 869.8 -0.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

215.4 220.1 217.6 217.5 218.6 222.5 222.7 221.7 -1.0

Investigation and security services

939.5 966.4 955.4 966.4 951.1 962.9 967.9 972.8 4.9

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,980.2 2,075.4 2,001.3 2,006.7 2,161.7 2,170.0 2,178.6 2,179.7 1.1

Other support services

329.7 342.4 335.5 343.5 333.6 347.1 341.4 345.3 3.9

Waste management and remediation services

439.8 463.8 457.6 458.8 447.2 465.2 465.5 467.1 1.6

Education and health services

24,044 24,633 24,390 24,692 23,918 24,465 24,537 24,591 54

Educational services

3,877.2 3,909.2 3,749.6 3,987.5 3,723.5 3,810.3 3,839.9 3,838.1 -1.8

Health care and social assistance

20,166.3 20,724.0 20,640.2 20,704.5 20,194.6 20,654.2 20,696.8 20,753.3 56.5

Health care(3)

16,101.7 16,497.8 16,424.9 16,454.4 16,135.4 16,438.6 16,471.3 16,502.9 31.6

Ambulatory health care services

7,587.6 7,842.8 7,802.4 7,831.4 7,605.4 7,811.1 7,831.7 7,855.3 23.6

Offices of physicians

2,639.6 2,726.5 2,706.7 2,717.3 2,645.3 2,709.2 2,713.6 2,723.1 9.5

Offices of dentists

960.4 977.8 972.3 972.8 962.9 974.0 975.4 977.1 1.7

Offices of other health practitioners

953.9 985.4 979.9 984.7 956.6 982.0 984.0 987.3 3.3

Outpatient care centers

955.9 980.9 980.8 979.4 955.5 977.4 981.3 980.1 -1.2

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

278.5 289.0 288.8 288.5 278.8 288.2 290.2 289.4 -0.8

Home health care services

1,492.9 1,564.2 1,554.2 1,566.9 1,499.1 1,560.1 1,564.4 1,574.1 9.7

Other ambulatory health care services

306.4 319.0 319.7 321.8 307.2 320.3 322.9 324.1 1.2

Hospitals

5,160.9 5,255.3 5,245.0 5,250.5 5,165.7 5,242.1 5,250.1 5,257.9 7.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,353.2 3,399.7 3,377.5 3,372.5 3,364.3 3,385.4 3,389.5 3,389.7 0.2

Nursing care facilities

1,595.2 1,594.8 1,586.2 1,583.1 1,599.9 1,588.2 1,591.4 1,590.7 -0.7

Residential mental health facilities

641.0 652.2 650.1 650.3 643.0 650.7 652.4 652.9 0.5

Community care facilities for the elderly

951.9 985.6 974.4 972.4 955.8 979.7 977.4 978.0 0.6

Other residential care facilities

165.1 167.1 166.8 166.7 165.6 166.8 168.3 168.1 -0.2

Social assistance

4,064.6 4,226.2 4,215.3 4,250.1 4,059.2 4,215.6 4,225.5 4,250.4 24.9

Individual and family services

2,546.2 2,672.0 2,672.9 2,693.5 2,550.7 2,670.2 2,680.4 2,697.9 17.5

Emergency and other relief services

182.6 188.4 184.6 186.3 181.7 186.2 185.4 187.0 1.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

321.2 325.2 318.8 322.6 324.3 325.2 323.4 325.8 2.4

Child day care services

1,014.6 1,040.6 1,039.0 1,047.7 1,002.5 1,034.0 1,036.3 1,039.7 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

15,841 16,450 16,095 16,259 16,473 16,784 16,822 16,873 51

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,192.7 2,311.7 2,238.3 2,268.5 2,424.5 2,481.5 2,492.7 2,493.9 1.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

472.5 493.7 456.5 473.6 516.9 514.3 518.8 516.4 -2.4

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

156.0 171.1 162.3 161.2 170.8 178.5 176.6 176.7 0.1

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,564.2 1,646.9 1,619.5 1,633.7 1,736.8 1,788.7 1,797.3 1,800.8 3.5

Accommodation and food services

13,648.6 14,138.5 13,856.2 13,990.0 14,048.7 14,302.9 14,329.5 14,379.3 49.8

Accommodation

1,974.4 2,032.6 1,994.6 2,003.1 2,065.2 2,099.6 2,094.6 2,091.8 -2.8

Food services and drinking places

11,674.2 12,105.9 11,861.6 11,986.9 11,983.5 12,203.3 12,234.9 12,287.5 52.6

Other services

5,797 5,902 5,860 5,883 5,854 5,925 5,935 5,939 4

Repair and maintenance

1,324.6 1,357.8 1,355.3 1,370.3 1,332.8 1,365.4 1,371.6 1,376.9 5.3

Personal and laundry services

1,498.6 1,533.7 1,514.9 1,514.6 1,519.3 1,533.0 1,535.2 1,536.1 0.9

Membership associations and organizations

2,973.8 3,010.5 2,989.5 2,998.2 3,001.4 3,026.3 3,027.7 3,026.3 -1.4

Government

22,793 23,011 22,593 23,029 22,513 22,679 22,730 22,775 45

Federal

2,796.0 2,859.0 2,843.0 2,842.0 2,814.0 2,847.0 2,857.0 2,865.0 8.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,192.0 2,237.8 2,241.7 2,246.8 2,207.3 2,243.7 2,253.1 2,262.7 9.6

U.S. Postal Service

604.4 620.7 601.6 595.1 607.1 603.1 604.1 602.4 -1.7

State government

5,306.0 5,291.0 5,102.0 5,344.0 5,175.0 5,184.0 5,199.0 5,217.0 18.0

State government education

2,629.4 2,600.1 2,408.3 2,644.7 2,484.9 2,481.3 2,490.6 2,506.1 15.5

State government, excluding education

2,676.4 2,690.6 2,693.7 2,698.9 2,689.8 2,702.4 2,708.5 2,711.2 2.7

Local government

14,691.0 14,861.0 14,648.0 14,843.0 14,524.0 14,648.0 14,674.0 14,693.0 19.0

Local government education

8,267.3 8,340.4 8,160.3 8,333.6 7,975.5 8,039.2 8,050.2 8,056.4 6.2

Local government, excluding education

6,424.1 6,520.2 6,488.1 6,509.0 6,548.3 6,609.2 6,623.9 6,636.1 12.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.3 34.3 34.4

Goods-producing

40.2 40.1 40.2 40.4

Mining and logging

46.3 45.8 45.8 45.6

Construction

38.8 39.0 39.2 39.3

Manufacturing

40.7 40.4 40.5 40.7

Durable goods

41.0 40.9 40.9 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.1 39.7 39.7 40.0

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.1 34.0 34.3

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

30.6 30.6 30.3 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 38.3 38.3 38.3

Utilities

42.4 42.4 42.6 42.6

Information

36.2 36.3 36.2 36.2

Financial activities

37.7 37.5 37.7 37.6

Professional and business services

36.2 36.1 36.1 36.2

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 33.0 33.1

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 25.8 25.9 25.8

Other services

31.8 31.8 32.0 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.2 3.1 3.2

Durable goods

3.4 3.1 3.1 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.6 3.4 3.2 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)

Total private

$27.69 $28.37 $28.43 $28.52 $952.54 $973.09 $975.15 $981.09

Goods-producing

28.68 29.43 29.47 29.54 1,152.94 1,180.14 1,184.69 1,193.42

Mining and logging

32.95 34.57 34.36 34.52 1,525.59 1,583.31 1,573.69 1,574.11

Construction

30.45 31.15 31.22 31.35 1,181.46 1,214.85 1,223.82 1,232.06

Manufacturing

27.43 28.14 28.17 28.20 1,116.40 1,136.86 1,140.89 1,147.74

Durable goods

28.87 29.62 29.59 29.63 1,183.67 1,211.46 1,210.23 1,220.76

Nondurable goods

24.93 25.58 25.70 25.72 999.69 1,015.53 1,020.29 1,028.80

Private service-providing

27.45 28.12 28.18 28.28 914.09 933.58 935.58 941.72

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.93 24.50 24.59 24.63 818.41 835.45 836.06 844.81

Wholesale trade

30.99 31.61 31.74 31.81 1,208.61 1,226.47 1,231.51 1,234.23

Retail trade

19.42 20.04 20.09 20.13 594.25 613.22 608.73 620.00

Transportation and warehousing

24.52 24.92 24.97 25.13 946.47 954.44 956.35 962.48

Utilities

41.59 42.14 42.19 42.22 1,763.42 1,786.74 1,797.29 1,798.57

Information

41.77 42.57 42.87 43.02 1,512.07 1,545.29 1,551.89 1,557.32

Financial activities

35.51 36.53 36.64 36.88 1,338.73 1,369.88 1,381.33 1,386.69

Professional and business services

33.23 34.23 34.30 34.45 1,202.93 1,235.70 1,238.23 1,247.09

Education and health services

27.46 27.86 27.85 27.92 906.18 919.38 919.05 924.15

Leisure and hospitality

16.38 16.77 16.82 16.87 425.88 432.67 435.64 435.25

Other services

25.00 25.55 25.57 25.63 795.00 812.49 818.24 817.60

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2020 - Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2020 - Feb.
2020(p)

Total private

110.2 111.4 111.5 112.1 0.5 145.9 151.0 151.6 152.8 0.8

Goods-producing

96.2 96.6 96.9 97.7 0.8 124.6 128.4 129.1 130.4 1.0

Mining and logging

107.8 102.9 102.6 102.7 0.1 142.6 142.8 141.6 142.4 0.6

Construction

99.3 101.6 102.8 103.6 0.8 131.4 137.5 139.4 141.1 1.2

Manufacturing

93.9 93.5 93.6 94.2 0.6 119.8 122.4 122.6 123.5 0.7

Durable goods

93.1 92.9 92.7 93.5 0.9 119.3 122.2 121.9 123.1 1.0

Nondurable goods

95.4 95.2 95.0 95.8 0.8 120.7 123.5 123.9 125.0 0.9

Private service-providing

114.3 115.6 115.8 116.4 0.5 152.5 158.0 158.7 160.0 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.3 103.5 103.3 104.1 0.8 133.3 136.7 137.0 138.3 0.9

Wholesale trade

101.2 101.5 101.6 101.6 0.0 131.2 134.3 134.9 135.2 0.2

Retail trade

97.3 97.4 96.4 97.9 1.6 124.9 129.0 128.0 130.3 1.8

Transportation and warehousing

123.9 124.5 125.1 125.0 -0.1 154.5 157.8 158.9 159.9 0.6

Utilities

100.9 100.5 100.8 100.9 0.1 138.7 139.9 140.5 140.7 0.1

Information

93.9 95.6 95.7 95.8 0.1 139.7 144.9 146.0 146.8 0.5

Financial activities

107.3 108.3 109.0 109.0 0.0 148.7 154.3 155.8 156.8 0.6

Professional and business services

120.1 121.7 121.9 122.4 0.4 161.6 168.7 169.2 170.8 0.9

Education and health services

128.9 131.8 132.2 132.9 0.5 170.3 176.7 177.1 178.5 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

122.2 123.6 124.3 124.2 -0.1 161.5 167.2 168.7 169.1 0.2

Other services

107.3 108.6 109.5 109.2 -0.3 147.1 152.1 153.5 153.4 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)

Total nonfarm

74,766 76,047 76,173 76,320 49.8 50.0 50.0 50.0

Total private

61,777 62,936 63,024 63,140 48.4 48.7 48.7 48.7

Goods-producing

4,671 4,762 4,767 4,774 22.2 22.5 22.5 22.5

Mining and logging

94 97 96 95 12.7 13.6 13.5 13.2

Construction

959 987 990 996 12.9 13.1 13.0 13.0

Manufacturing

3,618 3,678 3,681 3,683 28.2 28.6 28.7 28.6

Durable goods

1,919 1,953 1,957 1,956 23.8 24.2 24.3 24.3

Nondurable goods

1,699 1,725 1,724 1,727 35.6 35.9 36.0 36.0

Private service-providing

57,106 58,174 58,257 58,366 53.6 53.8 53.8 53.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,093 11,148 11,138 11,143 40.1 40.1 40.0 40.0

Wholesale trade

1,765.7 1,792.9 1,790.3 1,789.5 30.0 30.2 30.1 30.1

Retail trade

7,793.1 7,756.0 7,748.1 7,755.3 49.7 49.5 49.5 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,402.5 1,466.1 1,466.5 1,464.7 25.1 25.9 25.8 25.8

Utilities

131.4 133.3 132.9 133.3 23.9 24.3 24.3 24.4

Information

1,127 1,146 1,149 1,152 39.7 39.8 39.7 39.8

Financial activities

4,926 4,993 4,988 4,995 56.7 56.6 56.5 56.4

Professional and business services

9,617 9,853 9,880 9,898 45.4 45.8 45.9 45.9

Education and health services

18,482 18,940 18,979 19,025 77.3 77.4 77.3 77.4

Leisure and hospitality

8,737 8,937 8,962 8,993 53.0 53.2 53.3 53.3

Other services

3,124 3,157 3,161 3,160 53.4 53.3 53.3 53.2

Government

12,989 13,111 13,149 13,180 57.7 57.8 57.8 57.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)

Total private

105,109 106,300 106,501 106,668

Goods-producing

15,082 15,119 15,139 15,195

Mining and logging

552 516 513 519

Construction

5,530 5,623 5,663 5,692

Manufacturing

9,000 8,980 8,963 8,984

Durable goods

5,565 5,539 5,530 5,547

Nondurable goods

3,435 3,441 3,433 3,437

Private service-providing

90,027 91,181 91,362 91,473

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,432 23,494 23,526 23,535

Wholesale trade

4,734.7 4,750.2 4,750.3 4,749.5

Retail trade

13,384.6 13,347.3 13,367.2 13,380.4

Transportation and warehousing

4,874.0 4,957.1 4,970.0 4,966.6

Utilities

439.1 438.9 438.9 438.6

Information

2,291 2,314 2,323 2,329

Financial activities

6,731 6,812 6,825 6,835

Professional and business services

17,251 17,444 17,468 17,501

Education and health services

21,001 21,491 21,548 21,583

Leisure and hospitality

14,474 14,736 14,773 14,795

Other services

4,847 4,890 4,899 4,895

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.6 33.6 33.7

Goods-producing

40.9 40.8 41.0 41.0

Mining and logging

46.9 46.2 46.1 45.4

Construction

39.0 39.4 40.0 39.5

Manufacturing

41.7 41.4 41.4 41.7

Durable goods

42.0 41.7 41.7 42.0

Nondurable goods

41.2 40.8 40.8 41.2

Private service-providing

32.4 32.4 32.4 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 33.8 33.9 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.7 38.5 38.5 38.6

Retail trade

30.3 30.3 30.4 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 37.9 38.0 38.3

Utilities

42.3 43.0 42.9 42.8

Information

35.5 35.1 35.0 35.2

Financial activities

37.0 36.8 37.0 36.9

Professional and business services

35.4 35.3 35.5 35.5

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.2 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.7 24.7 24.7

Other services

30.8 30.8 31.1 31.0

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.4 4.1 4.0 4.2

Durable goods

4.4 4.1 4.0 4.3

Nondurable goods

4.4 4.0 3.9 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)

Total private

$23.19 $23.84 $23.88 $23.96 $779.18 $801.02 $802.37 $807.45

Goods-producing

24.40 25.07 25.09 25.15 997.96 1,022.86 1,028.69 1,031.15

Mining and logging

29.05 30.68 30.30 30.74 1,362.45 1,417.42 1,396.83 1,395.60

Construction

28.17 28.88 28.89 28.92 1,098.63 1,137.87 1,155.60 1,142.34

Manufacturing

21.91 22.44 22.43 22.53 913.65 929.02 928.60 939.50

Durable goods

22.84 23.42 23.38 23.54 959.28 976.61 974.95 988.68

Nondurable goods

20.37 20.83 20.88 20.88 839.24 849.86 851.90 860.26

Private service-providing

22.93 23.59 23.63 23.71 742.93 764.32 765.61 770.58

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.34 20.83 20.88 20.93 687.49 704.05 707.83 711.62

Wholesale trade

25.75 26.15 26.28 26.31 996.53 1,006.78 1,011.78 1,015.57

Retail trade

16.30 16.88 16.89 16.92 493.89 511.46 513.46 516.06

Transportation and warehousing

22.18 22.50 22.58 22.72 840.62 852.75 858.04 870.18

Utilities

36.89 37.28 37.65 37.56 1,560.45 1,603.04 1,615.19 1,607.57

Information

33.24 34.44 34.43 34.58 1,180.02 1,208.84 1,205.05 1,217.22

Financial activities

27.46 28.06 28.16 28.16 1,016.02 1,032.61 1,041.92 1,039.10

Professional and business services

27.32 28.28 28.32 28.42 967.13 998.28 1,005.36 1,008.91

Education and health services

24.06 24.72 24.70 24.83 774.73 798.46 795.34 802.01

Leisure and hospitality

14.29 14.77 14.85 14.93 354.39 364.82 366.80 368.77

Other services

21.24 21.71 21.76 21.81 654.19 668.67 676.74 676.11

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2020 - Feb.
2020(p)
Feb.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020(p)
Feb.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2020 - Feb.
2020(p)

Total private

117.7 119.0 119.2 119.8 0.5 182.4 189.6 190.3 191.8 0.8

Goods-producing

94.3 94.3 94.9 95.2 0.3 140.8 144.7 145.7 146.6 0.6

Mining and logging

137.6 126.7 125.7 125.2 -0.4 232.4 226.0 221.5 223.9 1.1

Construction

108.0 110.9 113.4 112.6 -0.7 164.3 173.0 176.9 175.8 -0.6

Manufacturing

86.2 85.3 85.2 86.0 0.9 123.4 125.2 124.9 126.7 1.4

Durable goods

87.8 86.8 86.6 87.5 1.0 125.2 126.9 126.5 128.6 1.7

Nondurable goods

83.4 82.7 82.5 83.4 1.1 120.0 121.8 121.8 123.1 1.1

Private service-providing

124.3 125.9 126.1 126.7 0.5 195.5 203.7 204.4 206.0 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.8 111.1 111.5 111.9 0.4 161.0 165.3 166.4 167.4 0.6

Wholesale trade

108.7 108.5 108.5 108.8 0.3 165.3 167.5 168.4 169.0 0.4

Retail trade

102.6 102.3 102.8 103.3 0.5 143.3 148.0 148.8 149.7 0.6

Transportation and warehousing

139.8 142.2 142.9 144.0 0.8 197.4 203.6 205.4 208.2 1.4

Utilities

95.0 96.5 96.3 96.0 -0.3 146.3 150.2 151.3 150.5 -0.5

Information

92.8 92.7 92.8 93.6 0.9 152.8 158.1 158.2 160.2 1.3

Financial activities

117.2 118.0 118.9 118.7 -0.2 198.0 203.7 205.9 205.7 -0.1

Professional and business services

136.5 137.7 138.6 138.9 0.2 221.8 231.5 233.5 234.8 0.6

Education and health services

144.2 148.0 147.9 148.6 0.5 229.0 241.5 241.2 243.6 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

131.5 133.3 133.7 133.9 0.1 213.4 223.6 225.4 227.0 0.7

Other services

104.7 105.6 106.9 106.4 -0.5 162.0 167.1 169.4 169.1 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.