Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-19-0360
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, March 8, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov
	

                   THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- FEBRUARY 2019


Total nonfarm payroll employment changed little in February (+20,000), and the
unemployment rate declined to 3.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Employment in professional and business services, health care, and
wholesale trade continued to trend up, while construction employment decreased.   

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate declined by 0.2 percentage point to 3.8 percent in February,
and the number of unemployed persons decreased by 300,000 to 6.2 million. Among the
unemployed, the number of job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs
(including people on temporary layoff) declined by 225,000. This decline reflects,
in part, the return of federal workers who were furloughed in January due to the
partial government shutdown. (See tables A-1 and A-11.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.5 percent),
Whites (3.3 percent), and Hispanics (4.3 percent) decreased in February. The jobless
rates for adult women (3.4 percent), teenagers (13.4 percent), Blacks (7.0 percent),
and Asians (3.1 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1,
A-2, and A-3.)

In February, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more)
was essentially unchanged at 1.3 million and accounted for 20.4 percent of the
unemployed. (See table A-12.) 

The labor force participation rate held at 63.2 percent in February and has changed
little over the year. The employment-population ratio, at 60.7 percent, was unchanged
over the month but was up by 0.3 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to
as involuntary part-time workers) decreased by 837,000 to 4.3 million in February.
This decline follows a sharp increase in January that may have resulted from the
partial federal government shutdown. (Persons employed part time for economic reasons
would have preferred full-time employment but were working part time because their
hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs.) (See table A-8.)

In February, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, a
decrease of 178,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These
individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had
looked for a job sometime in the last 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed
because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See
table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 428,000 discouraged workers in February,
little changed from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged
workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are
available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons marginally attached to the
labor force in February had not searched for work for reasons such as school
attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)	

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment was little changed in February (+20,000), after
increasing by 311,000 in January. In 2018, job growth averaged 223,000 per month.
In February, employment continued to trend up in professional and business services,
health care, and wholesale trade, while construction employment declined. (See table
B-1.)

In February, employment in professional and business services continued to trend
up (+42,000), in line with its average monthly gain over the prior 12 months. 

Health care added 21,000 jobs in February and 361,000 jobs over the year. Employment
in ambulatory health care services edged up over the month (+16,000). 

In February, wholesale trade employment continued its upward trend (+11,000). The
industry has added 95,000 jobs over the year, largely among durable goods wholesalers. 

Employment in construction declined by 31,000 in February, partially offsetting an
increase of 53,000 in January. In February, employment declined in heavy and civil
engineering construction (-13,000). Over the year, construction has added 223,000 jobs.

Manufacturing employment changed little in February (+4,000), after increasing by an
average of 22,000 per month over the prior 12 months.

In February, employment in leisure and hospitality was unchanged, after posting job
gains of 89,000 and 65,000 in January and December, respectively. Over the year,
leisure and hospitality has added 410,000 jobs.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, retail trade, transportation
and warehousing, information, financial activities, and government, showed little
or no change over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1
hour to 34.4 hours in February. In manufacturing, the average workweek declined 0.1
hour to 40.7 hours, while overtime was unchanged at 3.5 hours. The average workweek
for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls fell by 0.2
hour to 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In February, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 11 cents to $27.66, following a 2-cent gain in January. Over the year, average
hourly earnings have increased by 3.4 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector
production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 8 cents to $23.18 in February.
(See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for December was revised up from +222,000
to +227,000, and the change for January was revised up from +304,000 to +311,000. With
these revisions, employment gains in December and January combined were 12,000 more than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the
recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 186,000
per month over the last 3 months. 

_____________
The Employment Situation for March is scheduled to be released on Friday, April 5, 2019,
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Change from:
Jan.
2019-
Feb.
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

256,934 258,888 258,239 258,392 153

Civilian labor force

161,900 163,240 163,229 163,184 -45

Participation rate

63.0 63.1 63.2 63.2 0.0

Employed

155,213 156,945 156,694 156,949 255

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.6 60.7 60.7 0.0

Unemployed

6,687 6,294 6,535 6,235 -300

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Not in labor force

95,033 95,649 95,010 95,208 198

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.1 3.9 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.7 3.6 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.8 3.5 3.6 3.4 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

14.4 12.5 12.9 13.4 0.5

White

3.7 3.4 3.5 3.3 -0.2

Black or African American

6.8 6.6 6.8 7.0 0.2

Asian

3.0 3.3 3.1 3.1 0.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.9 4.4 4.9 4.3 -0.6

Total, 25 years and over

3.4 3.1 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

5.6 5.8 5.7 5.3 -0.4

High school graduates, no college

4.4 3.8 3.8 3.8 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.5 3.3 3.4 3.2 -0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.2 2.1 2.4 2.2 -0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,227 2,903 3,082 2,857 -225

Job leavers

784 839 805 840 35

Reentrants

1,954 1,958 1,945 1,905 -40

New entrants

703 588 606 623 17

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,458 2,126 2,325 2,194 -131

5 to 14 weeks

1,900 2,027 2,013 1,810 -203

15 to 26 weeks

933 897 902 942 40

27 weeks and over

1,403 1,306 1,252 1,271 19

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,115 4,657 5,147 4,310 -837

Slack work or business conditions

3,293 2,891 3,451 2,792 -659

Could only find part-time work

1,537 1,496 1,419 1,347 -72

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,120 21,234 20,949 21,153 204

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,602 1,556 1,614 1,424 -

Discouraged workers

373 375 426 428 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

330 227 311 20

Total private

304 224 308 25

Goods-producing

111 40 81 -32

Mining and logging

7 4 7 -5

Construction

73 16 53 -31

Manufacturing

31 20 21 4

Durable goods(1)

27 14 23 5

Motor vehicles and parts

7.9 1.2 -0.4 1.3

Nondurable goods

4 6 -2 -1

Private service-providing

193 184 227 57

Wholesale trade

3.2 12.5 10.0 10.9

Retail trade

23.7 -5.9 13.7 -6.1

Transportation and warehousing

28.4 -1.1 29.6 -3.0

Utilities

1.9 -0.2 1.1 -0.3

Information

0 -2 -12 0

Financial activities

26 1 9 6

Professional and business services(1)

44 37 15 42

Temporary help services

11.4 13.5 -11.5 5.8

Education and health services(1)

36 67 64 4

Health care and social assistance

43.9 52.9 37.3 22.5

Leisure and hospitality

25 65 89 0

Other services

4 11 8 3

Government

26 3 3 -5

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

225 233 245 186

Total private

219 236 244 186

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.7 49.7 49.8

Total private women employees

48.2 48.3 48.3 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.5 34.5 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$26.75 $27.53 $27.55 $27.66

Average weekly earnings

$922.88 $949.79 $950.48 $951.50

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

108.8 110.7 110.9 110.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.5 0.2 -0.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

139.2 145.6 146.1 146.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.7 0.8 0.3 0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

68.0 65.9 60.7 57.2

Manufacturing (76 industries)

66.4 65.1 60.5 51.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

256,934 258,239 258,392 256,934 258,514 258,708 258,888 258,239 258,392

Civilian labor force

161,494 162,104 162,793 161,900 162,694 162,821 163,240 163,229 163,184

Participation rate

62.9 62.8 63.0 63.0 62.9 62.9 63.1 63.2 63.2

Employed

154,403 154,964 156,167 155,213 156,582 156,803 156,945 156,694 156,949

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.0 60.4 60.4 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.7

Unemployed

7,091 7,140 6,625 6,687 6,112 6,018 6,294 6,535 6,235

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.4 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8

Not in labor force

95,439 96,135 95,599 95,033 95,821 95,886 95,649 95,010 95,208

Persons who currently want a job

5,152 5,435 5,196 5,136 5,333 5,397 5,327 5,254 5,222

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,250 124,890 124,965 124,250 125,041 125,137 125,227 124,890 124,965

Civilian labor force

85,806 85,829 86,056 86,215 86,146 86,330 86,441 86,577 86,439

Participation rate

69.1 68.7 68.9 69.4 68.9 69.0 69.0 69.3 69.2

Employed

81,829 81,798 82,311 82,653 82,894 83,194 83,041 83,031 83,095

Employment-population ratio

65.9 65.5 65.9 66.5 66.3 66.5 66.3 66.5 66.5

Unemployed

3,977 4,031 3,745 3,562 3,252 3,136 3,401 3,545 3,343

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.7 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.9 4.1 3.9

Not in labor force

38,444 39,060 38,909 38,035 38,895 38,807 38,785 38,313 38,527

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,748 116,436 116,513 115,748 116,546 116,646 116,739 116,436 116,513

Civilian labor force

83,053 83,139 83,435 83,258 83,277 83,408 83,500 83,599 83,632

Participation rate

71.8 71.4 71.6 71.9 71.5 71.5 71.5 71.8 71.8

Employed

79,552 79,504 80,117 80,186 80,388 80,633 80,501 80,472 80,712

Employment-population ratio

68.7 68.3 68.8 69.3 69.0 69.1 69.0 69.1 69.3

Unemployed

3,501 3,635 3,318 3,072 2,889 2,775 2,999 3,126 2,920

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.4 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

32,695 33,296 33,078 32,490 33,269 33,238 33,239 32,837 32,881

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

132,684 133,350 133,427 132,684 133,474 133,571 133,662 133,350 133,427

Civilian labor force

75,688 76,275 76,737 75,685 76,548 76,492 76,798 76,652 76,746

Participation rate

57.0 57.2 57.5 57.0 57.4 57.3 57.5 57.5 57.5

Employed

72,574 73,166 73,857 72,560 73,688 73,609 73,904 73,663 73,854

Employment-population ratio

54.7 54.9 55.4 54.7 55.2 55.1 55.3 55.2 55.4

Unemployed

3,114 3,109 2,880 3,125 2,860 2,883 2,894 2,990 2,892

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

56,996 57,075 56,690 56,998 56,926 57,079 56,864 56,697 56,681

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,407 125,099 125,177 124,407 125,200 125,299 125,393 125,099 125,177

Civilian labor force

72,791 73,485 73,942 72,595 73,442 73,478 73,769 73,691 73,760

Participation rate

58.5 58.7 59.1 58.4 58.7 58.6 58.8 58.9 58.9

Employed

70,029 70,731 71,396 69,849 70,935 70,949 71,218 71,049 71,221

Employment-population ratio

56.3 56.5 57.0 56.1 56.7 56.6 56.8 56.8 56.9

Unemployed

2,762 2,754 2,546 2,746 2,507 2,529 2,550 2,642 2,540

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

51,616 51,615 51,235 51,812 51,757 51,821 51,624 51,408 51,417

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,778 16,704 16,702 16,778 16,768 16,763 16,756 16,704 16,702

Civilian labor force

5,650 5,480 5,416 6,047 5,974 5,935 5,971 5,939 5,792

Participation rate

33.7 32.8 32.4 36.0 35.6 35.4 35.6 35.6 34.7

Employed

4,822 4,729 4,655 5,178 5,258 5,221 5,226 5,172 5,017

Employment-population ratio

28.7 28.3 27.9 30.9 31.4 31.1 31.2 31.0 30.0

Unemployed

828 751 761 870 715 714 745 767 776

Unemployment rate

14.7 13.7 14.0 14.4 12.0 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.4

Not in labor force

11,128 11,224 11,286 10,731 10,795 10,828 10,785 10,765 10,909

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

199,799 200,382 200,447 199,799 200,596 200,690 200,774 200,382 200,447

Civilian labor force

125,658 125,516 126,102 125,862 126,100 126,334 126,680 126,351 126,313

Participation rate

62.9 62.6 62.9 63.0 62.9 63.0 63.1 63.1 63.0

Employed

120,646 120,542 121,628 121,241 121,923 122,036 122,318 121,880 122,168

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.2 60.7 60.7 60.8 60.8 60.9 60.8 60.9

Unemployed

5,012 4,974 4,475 4,621 4,177 4,299 4,362 4,471 4,144

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.0 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

74,141 74,866 74,345 73,937 74,496 74,355 74,094 74,030 74,134

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,802 65,684 65,925 65,887 65,771 65,961 66,110 66,051 66,052

Participation rate

72.0 71.6 71.8 72.1 71.6 71.8 71.9 72.0 72.0

Employed

63,185 63,112 63,636 63,651 63,785 63,960 64,046 63,890 64,088

Employment-population ratio

69.1 68.8 69.3 69.6 69.4 69.6 69.6 69.6 69.8

Unemployed

2,617 2,572 2,289 2,236 1,986 2,000 2,064 2,161 1,964

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,465 55,612 56,042 55,254 55,778 55,819 55,995 55,740 55,814

Participation rate

57.8 57.7 58.1 57.5 57.8 57.9 58.0 57.8 57.9

Employed

53,640 53,733 54,365 53,456 54,062 54,023 54,226 53,959 54,151

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.8 56.4 55.7 56.1 56.0 56.2 56.0 56.2

Unemployed

1,825 1,879 1,677 1,798 1,716 1,796 1,769 1,781 1,663

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,392 4,219 4,135 4,721 4,551 4,554 4,575 4,560 4,447

Participation rate

35.6 34.4 33.7 38.3 37.0 37.0 37.2 37.2 36.3

Employed

3,822 3,697 3,627 4,134 4,076 4,052 4,047 4,031 3,929

Employment-population ratio

31.0 30.1 29.6 33.5 33.1 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.0

Unemployed

570 523 508 587 476 502 528 530 518

Unemployment rate

13.0 12.4 12.3 12.4 10.5 11.0 11.6 11.6 11.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,607 32,868 32,897 32,607 32,887 32,923 32,956 32,868 32,897

Civilian labor force

20,360 20,549 20,441 20,518 20,564 20,451 20,460 20,628 20,575

Participation rate

62.4 62.5 62.1 62.9 62.5 62.1 62.1 62.8 62.5

Employed

18,928 19,033 18,944 19,118 19,290 19,232 19,107 19,220 19,137

Employment-population ratio

58.1 57.9 57.6 58.6 58.7 58.4 58.0 58.5 58.2

Unemployed

1,432 1,516 1,497 1,399 1,274 1,219 1,353 1,408 1,437

Unemployment rate

7.0 7.4 7.3 6.8 6.2 6.0 6.6 6.8 7.0

Not in labor force

12,246 12,318 12,457 12,089 12,323 12,472 12,496 12,240 12,322

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,339 9,320 9,333 9,448 9,400 9,310 9,284 9,367 9,414

Participation rate

68.5 67.6 67.6 69.3 68.2 67.4 67.2 67.9 68.2

Employed

8,744 8,584 8,595 8,889 8,814 8,771 8,709 8,705 8,734

Employment-population ratio

64.1 62.2 62.3 65.2 63.9 63.5 63.0 63.1 63.3

Unemployed

595 736 738 559 586 539 575 662 680

Unemployment rate

6.4 7.9 7.9 5.9 6.2 5.8 6.2 7.1 7.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,261 10,433 10,358 10,264 10,327 10,303 10,359 10,419 10,366

Participation rate

62.4 62.8 62.3 62.4 62.2 62.0 62.2 62.8 62.4

Employed

9,615 9,820 9,793 9,642 9,825 9,789 9,749 9,847 9,822

Employment-population ratio

58.4 59.2 58.9 58.6 59.2 58.9 58.6 59.3 59.1

Unemployed

646 613 565 621 501 515 611 572 544

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.9 5.5 6.1 4.9 5.0 5.9 5.5 5.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

760 797 750 806 837 837 817 842 795

Participation rate

30.3 32.2 30.3 32.1 33.6 33.6 32.8 34.0 32.1

Employed

569 629 556 587 650 672 650 669 582

Employment-population ratio

22.7 25.4 22.5 23.4 26.1 27.0 26.1 27.0 23.5

Unemployed

191 168 194 219 187 165 167 173 213

Unemployment rate

25.2 21.0 25.9 27.1 22.4 19.7 20.5 20.6 26.8

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,792 16,034 16,055 15,792 16,030 16,096 16,138 16,034 16,055

Civilian labor force

9,934 10,264 10,383 9,925 10,280 10,334 10,262 10,298 10,369

Participation rate

62.9 64.0 64.7 62.8 64.1 64.2 63.6 64.2 64.6

Employed

9,635 9,938 10,053 9,630 9,956 10,050 9,929 9,978 10,045

Employment-population ratio

61.0 62.0 62.6 61.0 62.1 62.4 61.5 62.2 62.6

Unemployed

299 326 329 294 324 284 334 321 324

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.1 2.7 3.3 3.1 3.1

Not in labor force

5,858 5,770 5,672 5,868 5,750 5,762 5,876 5,736 5,686

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,335 43,044 43,127 42,335 43,054 43,146 43,234 43,044 43,127

Civilian labor force

27,957 28,828 28,631 28,023 28,513 28,820 28,963 28,985 28,724

Participation rate

66.0 67.0 66.4 66.2 66.2 66.8 67.0 67.3 66.6

Employed

26,469 27,208 27,270 26,656 27,266 27,524 27,701 27,579 27,480

Employment-population ratio

62.5 63.2 63.2 63.0 63.3 63.8 64.1 64.1 63.7

Unemployed

1,488 1,620 1,361 1,366 1,248 1,296 1,261 1,406 1,245

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.6 4.8 4.9 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.9 4.3

Not in labor force

14,378 14,217 14,496 14,313 14,541 14,326 14,271 14,060 14,403

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,280 15,657 15,628 15,315 15,448 15,595 15,651 15,699 15,675

Participation rate

80.0 80.6 80.3 80.2 79.5 80.1 80.2 80.8 80.5

Employed

14,567 14,848 14,953 14,724 14,854 15,063 15,107 15,066 15,117

Employment-population ratio

76.3 76.4 76.8 77.1 76.4 77.3 77.4 77.6 77.7

Unemployed

713 809 675 591 594 533 544 633 557

Unemployment rate

4.7 5.2 4.3 3.9 3.8 3.4 3.5 4.0 3.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,449 11,945 11,806 11,416 11,767 11,857 12,002 11,968 11,798

Participation rate

59.3 60.8 59.9 59.1 59.9 60.2 60.8 60.9 59.9

Employed

10,840 11,332 11,328 10,821 11,266 11,308 11,487 11,396 11,331

Employment-population ratio

56.1 57.6 57.5 56.0 57.3 57.4 58.2 58.0 57.5

Unemployed

609 613 478 595 501 550 515 572 466

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.1 4.0 5.2 4.3 4.6 4.3 4.8 4.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,228 1,226 1,197 1,291 1,298 1,367 1,310 1,318 1,252

Participation rate

31.4 31.0 30.2 33.0 32.8 34.5 33.0 33.3 31.6

Employed

1,061 1,028 988 1,111 1,145 1,154 1,107 1,117 1,031

Employment-population ratio

27.1 26.0 24.9 28.4 28.9 29.1 27.9 28.2 26.0

Unemployed

167 198 209 180 153 214 202 201 221

Unemployment rate

13.6 16.1 17.4 14.0 11.8 15.6 15.4 15.2 17.6

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,887 10,169 9,903 10,263 10,268 10,191 10,283 10,065 10,267

Participation rate

45.1 45.7 45.4 46.8 47.8 46.7 46.1 45.2 47.0

Employed

9,190 9,419 9,243 9,683 9,658 9,619 9,683 9,489 9,720

Employment-population ratio

41.9 42.3 42.4 44.2 44.9 44.0 43.4 42.6 44.5

Unemployed

697 750 660 580 610 572 600 576 548

Unemployment rate

7.0 7.4 6.7 5.6 5.9 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,992 35,968 36,153 36,068 36,103 35,901 36,154 36,301 36,230

Participation rate

57.4 57.9 58.1 57.5 57.6 57.6 58.1 58.5 58.2

Employed

34,221 34,413 34,632 34,468 34,650 34,631 34,776 34,937 34,863

Employment-population ratio

54.6 55.4 55.6 55.0 55.3 55.6 55.9 56.3 56.0

Unemployed

1,771 1,554 1,521 1,600 1,454 1,271 1,377 1,363 1,367

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,648 37,307 37,234 37,615 37,531 37,471 37,175 37,339 37,213

Participation rate

65.7 65.4 65.4 65.6 65.2 65.3 65.7 65.5 65.3

Employed

36,212 35,939 35,956 36,307 36,392 36,293 35,954 36,071 36,040

Employment-population ratio

63.2 63.0 63.1 63.3 63.2 63.2 63.5 63.2 63.3

Unemployed

1,436 1,368 1,278 1,308 1,139 1,178 1,222 1,268 1,173

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

57,260 58,338 59,139 56,608 57,968 58,451 58,701 58,472 58,497

Participation rate

74.4 73.8 74.3 73.6 73.5 73.8 73.6 74.0 73.5

Employed

55,978 56,897 57,860 55,334 56,782 57,150 57,442 57,078 57,220

Employment-population ratio

72.8 72.0 72.7 71.9 72.0 72.1 72.0 72.2 71.9

Unemployed

1,281 1,441 1,279 1,273 1,186 1,301 1,260 1,395 1,277

Unemployment rate

2.2 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,344 18,965 17,485 17,087 1,859 1,878

Civilian labor force

9,504 9,377 8,377 8,221 1,127 1,156

Participation rate

49.1 49.4 47.9 48.1 60.6 61.5

Employed

9,167 9,121 8,080 8,003 1,087 1,117

Employment-population ratio

47.4 48.1 46.2 46.8 58.5 59.5

Unemployed

337 256 298 218 39 38

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.7 3.6 2.7 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

9,840 9,588 9,108 8,866 732 722

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,117 4,289 3,458 3,598 660 692

Civilian labor force

3,303 3,458 2,848 2,963 455 495

Participation rate

80.2 80.6 82.4 82.4 69.0 71.6

Employed

3,193 3,340 2,762 2,866 432 474

Employment-population ratio

77.6 77.9 79.9 79.7 65.4 68.5

Unemployed

110 118 86 97 24 21

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.4 3.0 3.3 5.2 4.3

Not in labor force

815 831 610 635 204 196

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,058 3,051 2,536 2,526 521 524

Civilian labor force

2,458 2,378 2,058 2,012 399 366

Participation rate

80.4 77.9 81.1 79.6 76.6 69.8

Employed

2,380 2,327 1,987 1,966 393 361

Employment-population ratio

77.8 76.3 78.3 77.8 75.4 68.9

Unemployed

78 51 72 46 6 5

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.1 3.5 2.3 1.5 1.3

Not in labor force

600 673 478 515 122 158

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,786 7,366 7,521 7,113 265 253

Civilian labor force

1,624 1,535 1,562 1,473 62 62

Participation rate

20.9 20.8 20.8 20.7 23.3 24.5

Employed

1,578 1,512 1,520 1,454 58 59

Employment-population ratio

20.3 20.5 20.2 20.4 21.8 23.2

Unemployed

47 23 43 20 4 3

Unemployment rate

2.9 1.5 2.7 1.3 - -

Not in labor force

6,162 5,831 5,959 5,640 203 191

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,383 4,259 3,970 3,850 413 409

Civilian labor force

2,119 2,006 1,909 1,773 210 233

Participation rate

48.4 47.1 48.1 46.1 50.9 56.9

Employed

2,016 1,941 1,812 1,718 205 224

Employment-population ratio

46.0 45.6 45.6 44.6 49.5 54.7

Unemployed

103 65 97 56 6 9

Unemployment rate

4.9 3.2 5.1 3.1 2.8 3.9

Not in labor force

2,264 2,253 2,061 2,077 203 176

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

228,565 230,460 102,212 103,302 126,354 127,157

Civilian labor force

149,978 151,531 76,510 76,901 73,468 74,630

Participation rate

65.6 65.8 74.9 74.4 58.1 58.7

Employed

143,542 145,482 73,001 73,556 70,541 71,926

Employment-population ratio

62.8 63.1 71.4 71.2 55.8 56.6

Unemployed

6,436 6,049 3,509 3,345 2,928 2,705

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.0 4.6 4.3 4.0 3.6

Not in labor force

78,587 78,928 25,702 26,401 52,885 52,527

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,751 30,355 227,183 228,037

Civilian labor force

6,161 6,347 155,333 156,446

Participation rate

20.7 20.9 68.4 68.6

Employed

5,629 5,770 148,775 150,397

Employment-population ratio

18.9 19.0 65.5 66.0

Unemployed

532 576 6,559 6,049

Unemployment rate

8.6 9.1 4.2 3.9

Not in labor force

23,590 24,008 71,850 71,591

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,758 2,831 77,745 77,549

Participation rate

36.8 36.4 82.7 82.7

Employed

2,488 2,519 74,217 74,302

Employment-population ratio

33.2 32.4 78.9 79.2

Unemployed

269 312 3,528 3,247

Unemployment rate

9.8 11.0 4.5 4.2

Not in labor force

4,736 4,938 16,314 16,220

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,335 2,333 68,930 69,485

Participation rate

30.4 30.2 71.0 71.7

Employed

2,135 2,130 66,180 66,966

Employment-population ratio

27.8 27.6 68.2 69.1

Unemployed

199 203 2,751 2,519

Unemployment rate

8.5 8.7 4.0 3.6

Not in labor force

5,336 5,396 28,118 27,414

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,069 1,183 8,658 9,412

Participation rate

7.3 8.0 24.0 25.2

Employed

1,005 1,122 8,378 9,129

Employment-population ratio

6.9 7.6 23.2 24.4

Unemployed

64 61 280 283

Unemployment rate

6.0 5.2 3.2 3.0

Not in labor force

13,518 13,674 27,418 27,957

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,955 43,455 20,880 21,237 22,075 22,218

Civilian labor force

28,218 28,892 16,168 16,572 12,051 12,320

Participation rate

65.7 66.5 77.4 78.0 54.6 55.4

Employed

27,094 27,817 15,582 16,002 11,511 11,815

Employment-population ratio

63.1 64.0 74.6 75.3 52.1 53.2

Unemployed

1,124 1,075 585 570 539 505

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 3.6 3.4 4.5 4.1

Not in labor force

14,736 14,563 4,712 4,665 10,024 9,898

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,979 214,937 103,370 103,728 110,609 111,209

Civilian labor force

133,276 133,901 69,639 69,484 63,637 64,417

Participation rate

62.3 62.3 67.4 67.0 57.5 57.9

Employed

127,310 128,351 66,247 66,309 61,063 62,041

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.7 64.1 63.9 55.2 55.8

Unemployed

5,966 5,550 3,392 3,175 2,574 2,375

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.1 4.9 4.6 4.0 3.7

Not in labor force

80,703 81,036 33,731 34,244 46,972 46,792

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,280 2,414 2,344 2,450 2,418 2,556 2,522 2,576 2,510

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,487 1,644 1,572 1,653 1,674 1,772 1,747 1,778 1,741

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

758 746 757 764 722 768 752 787 764

Unpaid family workers

36 24 15 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

152,123 152,550 153,824 152,695 154,135 154,297 154,520 154,177 154,446

Wage and salary workers(1)

143,213 143,834 145,148 143,741 145,071 145,313 145,478 145,251 145,674

Government

21,503 20,800 21,032 21,012 21,186 21,054 20,677 20,614 20,588

Private industries

121,710 123,034 124,116 122,657 124,063 124,365 124,787 124,657 125,042

Private households

738 799 796 - - - - - -

Other industries

120,972 122,234 123,321 121,928 123,239 123,512 123,904 123,861 124,243

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,854 8,672 8,638 8,954 8,949 8,889 9,031 8,855 8,780

Unpaid family workers

56 44 38 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,331 5,640 4,561 5,115 4,630 4,781 4,657 5,147 4,310

Slack work or business conditions

3,501 3,888 2,986 3,293 2,837 2,882 2,891 3,451 2,792

Could only find part-time work

1,509 1,418 1,295 1,537 1,461 1,562 1,496 1,419 1,347

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,804 20,734 21,807 21,120 21,448 20,909 21,234 20,949 21,153

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,241 5,543 4,477 5,020 4,549 4,726 4,580 5,079 4,244

Slack work or business conditions

3,449 3,841 2,933 3,252 2,779 2,843 2,816 3,418 2,763

Could only find part-time work

1,501 1,398 1,291 1,527 1,453 1,571 1,473 1,401 1,339

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,388 20,340 21,411 20,708 21,083 20,521 20,826 20,548 20,761

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

154,403 154,964 156,167 155,213 156,582 156,803 156,945 156,694 156,949

16 to 19 years

4,822 4,729 4,655 5,178 5,258 5,221 5,226 5,172 5,017

16 to 17 years

1,695 1,492 1,565 1,898 1,954 1,915 1,784 1,674 1,756

18 to 19 years

3,127 3,237 3,090 3,299 3,305 3,295 3,441 3,459 3,249

20 years and over

149,581 150,235 151,512 150,036 151,324 151,582 151,720 151,522 151,932

20 to 24 years

13,980 13,567 13,821 14,207 13,897 13,942 13,885 13,911 14,018

25 years and over

135,602 136,668 137,691 135,850 137,504 137,615 137,786 137,605 137,942

25 to 54 years

99,847 100,208 100,574 100,088 100,892 100,844 100,833 100,787 100,840

25 to 34 years

34,959 35,392 35,512 34,991 35,693 35,672 35,689 35,665 35,584

35 to 44 years

32,328 32,732 32,965 32,494 32,857 32,796 32,881 32,902 33,101

45 to 54 years

32,560 32,084 32,098 32,603 32,343 32,376 32,263 32,221 32,156

55 years and over

35,755 36,460 37,117 35,762 36,612 36,771 36,954 36,817 37,102

Men, 16 years and over

81,829 81,798 82,311 82,653 82,894 83,194 83,041 83,031 83,095

16 to 19 years

2,277 2,294 2,194 2,467 2,506 2,561 2,540 2,559 2,384

16 to 17 years

748 708 751 866 895 848 848 805 860

18 to 19 years

1,529 1,586 1,443 1,619 1,621 1,711 1,686 1,735 1,535

20 years and over

79,552 79,504 80,117 80,186 80,388 80,633 80,501 80,472 80,712

20 to 24 years

7,213 6,868 7,006 7,381 7,082 7,089 7,044 7,101 7,148

25 years and over

72,339 72,636 73,111 72,793 73,331 73,519 73,435 73,398 73,566

25 to 54 years

53,400 53,358 53,539 53,721 53,789 53,933 53,774 53,808 53,858

25 to 34 years

18,824 18,958 19,002 18,928 19,169 19,201 19,165 19,132 19,119

35 to 44 years

17,424 17,600 17,760 17,586 17,625 17,664 17,701 17,772 17,899

45 to 54 years

17,152 16,799 16,777 17,207 16,995 17,068 16,908 16,904 16,840

55 years and over

18,939 19,278 19,572 19,072 19,542 19,587 19,661 19,591 19,708

Women, 16 years and over

72,574 73,166 73,857 72,560 73,688 73,609 73,904 73,663 73,854

16 to 19 years

2,545 2,435 2,461 2,711 2,753 2,660 2,686 2,613 2,633

16 to 17 years

946 784 813 1,032 1,059 1,067 936 869 896

18 to 19 years

1,599 1,651 1,648 1,680 1,684 1,584 1,755 1,723 1,714

20 years and over

70,029 70,731 71,396 69,849 70,935 70,949 71,218 71,049 71,221

20 to 24 years

6,767 6,699 6,815 6,826 6,816 6,853 6,841 6,810 6,870

25 years and over

63,262 64,031 64,580 63,057 64,173 64,096 64,352 64,206 64,377

25 to 54 years

46,447 46,850 47,035 46,367 47,103 46,912 47,059 46,979 46,983

25 to 34 years

16,135 16,433 16,510 16,062 16,524 16,471 16,524 16,533 16,465

35 to 44 years

14,904 15,132 15,205 14,908 15,231 15,132 15,180 15,130 15,202

45 to 54 years

15,408 15,285 15,321 15,397 15,348 15,308 15,355 15,317 15,316

55 years and over

16,816 17,181 17,545 16,689 17,070 17,184 17,293 17,227 17,394

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,635 45,494 45,664 45,870 46,192 46,204 45,984 45,819 45,893

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,786 36,420 36,731 35,642 36,089 36,220 36,379 36,504 36,574

Women who maintain families(2)

9,624 9,491 9,596 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

126,401 128,166 128,836 127,700 129,255 129,774 129,913 129,837 130,159

Part-time workers(4)

28,003 26,799 27,331 27,524 27,311 27,017 26,994 26,752 26,878

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,103 7,749 7,823 7,843 7,873 7,749 7,866 7,850 7,641

Percent of total employed

5.2 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,767 5,965 6,072 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,611 9,418 9,395 9,718 9,671 9,657 9,783 9,642 9,544

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,687 6,535 6,235 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8

16 to 19 years

870 767 776 14.4 12.0 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.4

16 to 17 years

345 282 335 15.4 10.6 13.2 13.8 14.4 16.0

18 to 19 years

525 479 453 13.7 12.9 11.5 12.1 12.2 12.2

20 years and over

5,817 5,768 5,459 3.7 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,037 1,143 1,090 6.8 6.8 6.6 7.2 7.6 7.2

25 years and over

4,784 4,640 4,372 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.1

25 to 54 years

3,599 3,425 3,331 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,584 1,464 1,495 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.9 4.0

35 to 44 years

1,035 984 886 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.6

45 to 54 years

980 978 950 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.9 2.9

55 years and over

1,188 1,207 1,029 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.2 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,562 3,545 3,343 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.9 4.1 3.9

16 to 19 years

490 419 423 16.6 12.6 12.3 13.7 14.1 15.1

16 to 17 years

182 149 189 17.3 11.1 14.8 14.9 15.6 18.0

18 to 19 years

313 261 251 16.2 13.5 11.1 13.7 13.1 14.0

20 years and over

3,072 3,126 2,920 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.5

20 to 24 years

599 652 589 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.8 8.4 7.6

25 years and over

2,477 2,492 2,333 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,794 1,818 1,762 3.2 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.2

25 to 34 years

800 795 767 4.1 3.7 3.3 3.7 4.0 3.9

35 to 44 years

497 526 479 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.6

45 to 54 years

497 497 515 2.8 2.7 2.6 3.0 2.9 3.0

55 years and over

684 673 571 3.5 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.3 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

3,125 2,990 2,892 4.1 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8

16 to 19 years

379 347 352 12.3 11.4 11.7 11.3 11.7 11.8

16 to 17 years

163 133 146 13.6 10.1 11.9 12.9 13.3 14.0

18 to 19 years

212 218 203 11.2 12.3 12.0 10.5 11.2 10.6

20 years and over

2,746 2,642 2,540 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.4

20 to 24 years

437 491 501 6.0 6.1 5.8 6.5 6.7 6.8

25 years and over

2,307 2,148 2,040 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,805 1,607 1,570 3.7 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2

25 to 34 years

784 669 728 4.7 3.6 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.2

35 to 44 years

538 458 407 3.5 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.6

45 to 54 years

484 480 435 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.8

55 years and over

496 515 461 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

989 992 907 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

981 912 866 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

637 539 496 6.2 5.3 5.4 4.5 5.4 4.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,391 5,415 5,087 4.1 3.6 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.8

Part-time workers(4)

1,281 1,176 1,135 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.2 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,716 3,791 3,300 3,227 2,858 2,842 2,903 3,082 2,857

On temporary layoff

1,172 1,432 1,088 871 793 804 762 937 820

Not on temporary layoff

2,544 2,359 2,212 2,356 2,066 2,038 2,141 2,144 2,037

Permanent job losers

1,799 1,536 1,406 1,667 1,365 1,337 1,432 1,427 1,300

Persons who completed temporary jobs

745 823 806 689 701 701 710 717 737

Job leavers

774 804 840 784 731 697 839 805 840

Reentrants

1,962 1,999 1,908 1,954 1,914 1,880 1,958 1,945 1,905

New entrants

639 547 577 703 605 577 588 606 623

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

52.4 53.1 49.8 48.4 46.8 47.4 46.2 47.9 45.9

On temporary layoff

16.5 20.1 16.4 13.1 13.0 13.4 12.1 14.6 13.2

Not on temporary layoff

35.9 33.0 33.4 35.3 33.8 34.0 34.1 33.3 32.7

Job leavers

10.9 11.3 12.7 11.8 12.0 11.6 13.3 12.5 13.5

Reentrants

27.7 28.0 28.8 29.3 31.3 31.4 31.1 30.2 30.6

New entrants

9.0 7.7 8.7 10.5 9.9 9.6 9.3 9.4 10.0

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.3 2.3 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,307 2,751 2,085 2,458 2,062 2,128 2,126 2,325 2,194

5 to 14 weeks

2,253 2,169 2,137 1,900 1,845 1,842 2,027 2,013 1,810

15 weeks and over

2,532 2,221 2,403 2,336 2,229 2,124 2,203 2,153 2,214

15 to 26 weeks

1,024 905 1,031 933 859 865 897 902 942

27 weeks and over

1,507 1,316 1,371 1,403 1,370 1,259 1,306 1,252 1,271

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.7 19.2 21.5 22.9 22.4 21.7 21.8 20.5 21.7

Median duration, in weeks

9.4 8.3 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.0 9.1 8.9 9.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

32.5 38.5 31.5 36.7 33.6 34.9 33.4 35.8 35.3

5 to 14 weeks

31.8 30.4 32.3 28.4 30.1 30.2 31.9 31.0 29.1

15 weeks and over

35.7 31.1 36.3 34.9 36.3 34.9 34.7 33.2 35.6

15 to 26 weeks

14.4 12.7 15.6 13.9 14.0 14.2 14.1 13.9 15.2

27 weeks and over

21.3 18.4 20.7 21.0 22.3 20.7 20.5 19.3 20.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

154,403 156,167 7,091 6,625 4.4 4.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,908 64,281 1,301 1,317 2.0 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,625 26,562 530 565 2.0 2.1

Professional and related occupations

37,283 37,718 771 753 2.0 2.0

Service occupations

26,226 26,090 1,503 1,447 5.4 5.3

Sales and office occupations

32,992 33,200 1,538 1,452 4.5 4.2

Sales and related occupations

15,541 15,292 736 800 4.5 5.0

Office and administrative support occupations

17,451 17,908 802 652 4.4 3.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,109 13,964 1,092 939 7.2 6.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,129 1,143 162 190 12.5 14.3

Construction and extraction occupations

8,020 8,272 781 598 8.9 6.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,961 4,549 149 151 2.9 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,168 18,633 1,012 868 5.3 4.5

Production occupations

8,488 8,742 386 340 4.3 3.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,680 9,891 626 528 6.1 5.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,091 6,625 4.4 4.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,529 5,123 4.3 4.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

52 26 6.6 3.6

Construction

732 588 7.8 6.2

Manufacturing

555 464 3.6 2.9

Durable goods

339 270 3.5 2.7

Nondurable goods

216 194 3.7 3.3

Wholesale and retail trade

1,064 978 5.3 5.0

Transportation and utilities

260 297 3.7 4.1

Information

89 107 3.2 4.1

Financial activities

218 264 2.2 2.6

Professional and business services

827 768 4.8 4.3

Education and health services

598 621 2.5 2.5

Leisure and hospitality

903 794 6.8 5.8

Other services

230 215 3.4 3.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

154 190 9.6 11.1

Government workers

411 397 1.9 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

358 337 3.6 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Oct.
2018
Nov.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.3 2.3 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.4 4.4 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.6 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.3 5.3 4.9 5.1 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.7

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.6 8.8 7.7 8.2 7.5 7.6 7.6 8.1 7.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,439 95,599 38,444 38,909 56,996 56,690

Persons who currently want a job

5,152 5,196 2,384 2,608 2,768 2,588

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,602 1,424 841 810 761 614

Discouraged workers(2)

373 428 224 301 148 127

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,230 996 617 509 613 487

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,103 7,823 4,082 3,815 4,020 4,008

Percent of total employed

5.2 5.0 5.0 4.6 5.5 5.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,446 4,502 2,437 2,410 2,009 2,092

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,127 1,961 809 681 1,317 1,280

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

343 251 199 157 144 95

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,127 1,057 601 550 526 507

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Change from:
Jan.2019 - Feb.2019(p)

Total nonfarm

146,665 151,203 148,306 149,133 148,097 150,275 150,586 150,606 20

Total private

123,968 128,363 125,945 126,363 125,697 127,790 128,098 128,123 25

Goods-producing

20,056 20,881 20,559 20,570 20,497 20,961 21,042 21,010 -32

Mining and logging

695 753 746 743 706 752 759 754 -5

Logging

49.8 47.7 46.5 45.2 50.3 47.2 47.7 45.8 -1.9

Mining

645.6 705.4 699.9 697.8 655.3 705.1 711.1 708.3 -2.8

Oil and gas extraction

139.6 148.3 148.7 148.9 141.2 148.3 149.8 150.6 0.8

Mining, except oil and gas

182.8 192.8 188.9 189.4 188.9 194.9 195.5 195.7 0.2

Coal mining

50.7 52.9 52.8 52.7 50.9 52.7 52.7 52.8 0.1

Metal ore mining

40.9 40.9 40.7 40.9 41.0 41.0 41.0 41.1 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

91.2 99.0 95.4 95.8 97.0 101.1 101.8 101.8 0.0

Support activities for mining

323.2 364.3 362.3 359.5 325.2 361.9 365.8 362.0 -3.8

Construction

6,840 7,313 7,072 7,062 7,199 7,400 7,453 7,422 -31

Construction of buildings

1,546.9 1,643.4 1,603.8 1,599.9 1,598.1 1,649.7 1,656.5 1,651.9 -4.6

Residential building

759.4 825.2 805.2 804.0 786.9 824.7 832.4 830.8 -1.6

Nonresidential building

787.5 818.2 798.6 795.9 811.2 825.0 824.1 821.1 -3.0

Heavy and civil engineering construction

930.0 1,033.2 971.2 970.9 1,032.2 1,075.4 1,086.0 1,072.8 -13.2

Specialty trade contractors

4,363.2 4,636.6 4,496.5 4,490.8 4,568.4 4,674.5 4,710.9 4,697.4 -13.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,918.1 2,026.9 1,970.6 1,963.5 2,005.4 2,046.7 2,061.5 2,052.2 -9.3

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,445.1 2,609.7 2,525.9 2,527.3 2,563.0 2,627.8 2,649.4 2,645.2 -4.2

Manufacturing

12,521 12,815 12,741 12,765 12,592 12,809 12,830 12,834 4

Durable goods

7,834 8,045 8,023 8,037 7,865 8,036 8,059 8,064 5

Wood products

399.1 406.1 404.0 406.9 404.8 406.2 409.5 411.7 2.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

401.7 415.6 408.7 405.8 413.4 417.6 420.7 417.4 -3.3

Primary metals

377.1 384.0 382.8 383.1 377.6 382.0 382.6 383.2 0.6

Fabricated metal products

1,444.7 1,483.3 1,480.8 1,478.1 1,449.4 1,481.2 1,484.9 1,482.0 -2.9

Machinery

1,102.2 1,137.1 1,137.7 1,142.8 1,102.5 1,137.0 1,139.8 1,143.0 3.2

Computer and electronic products

1,043.4 1,068.3 1,068.4 1,070.8 1,046.8 1,067.6 1,071.4 1,073.9 2.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

154.6 157.9 159.5 160.7 155.6 158.1 159.8 161.1 1.3

Communications equipment

85.9 86.6 85.0 85.1 86.3 86.4 85.4 85.6 0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

365.8 372.4 373.3 375.2 366.7 372.3 375.0 376.0 1.0

Electronic instruments

403.5 416.8 417.5 416.9 404.3 416.5 417.9 417.8 -0.1

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.6 34.6 33.1 32.9 33.9 34.3 33.4 33.3 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

391.4 405.5 403.8 402.7 392.9 404.9 405.0 404.6 -0.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,679.6 1,735.3 1,733.3 1,739.3 1,679.9 1,731.6 1,735.0 1,738.5 3.5

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

992.6 1,008.4 1,003.1 1,006.4 991.9 1,005.1 1,004.7 1,006.0 1.3

Furniture and related products

393.9 395.3 393.3 395.4 394.7 395.2 395.5 395.8 0.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

600.7 614.4 610.6 612.1 603.1 613.1 614.2 614.2 0.0

Nondurable goods

4,687 4,770 4,718 4,728 4,727 4,773 4,771 4,770 -1

Food manufacturing

1,592.9 1,629.0 1,608.7 1,612.9 1,610.9 1,631.7 1,632.9 1,632.8 -0.1

Textile mills

112.5 113.0 111.8 112.0 112.5 112.6 112.1 112.1 0.0

Textile product mills

115.4 116.5 114.1 113.4 116.3 116.1 114.7 114.3 -0.4

Apparel

115.1 108.9 108.6 107.0 114.8 108.4 109.5 106.9 -2.6

Paper and paper products

364.7 370.4 368.3 369.9 364.4 370.7 369.6 369.5 -0.1

Printing and related support activities

432.7 427.8 422.4 420.8 435.5 425.5 424.8 423.6 -1.2

Petroleum and coal products

112.2 114.6 112.0 112.3 117.1 116.7 116.5 117.1 0.6

Chemicals

828.4 850.6 845.7 852.9 831.4 849.4 849.8 855.7 5.9

Plastics and rubber products

725.6 738.3 731.8 735.4 727.5 737.7 736.6 737.0 0.4

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

287.1 301.0 294.5 290.9 296.4 304.5 304.2 300.9 -3.3

Private service-providing

103,912 107,482 105,386 105,793 105,200 106,829 107,056 107,113 57

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,198 28,512 27,705 27,475 27,560 27,788 27,842 27,844 2

Wholesale trade

5,791.3 5,913.6 5,867.6 5,888.1 5,827.3 5,901.3 5,911.3 5,922.2 10.9

Durable goods

3,119.4 3,195.2 3,178.8 3,192.5 3,131.8 3,189.8 3,197.2 3,204.9 7.7

Nondurable goods

2,131.6 2,165.9 2,137.2 2,142.4 2,151.7 2,160.5 2,160.1 2,161.6 1.5

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

540.3 552.5 551.6 553.2 543.8 551.0 554.0 555.7 1.7

Retail trade

15,577.0 16,309.2 15,750.5 15,571.7 15,833.1 15,821.0 15,834.7 15,828.6 -6.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,997.3 2,026.1 2,012.6 2,020.7 2,014.1 2,033.8 2,034.3 2,037.4 3.1

Automobile dealers

1,292.5 1,303.5 1,296.4 1,300.5 1,298.2 1,304.9 1,304.0 1,306.0 2.0

Other motor vehicle dealers

150.9 152.4 150.2 151.4 158.2 159.7 160.4 159.0 -1.4

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

553.9 570.2 566.0 568.8 557.8 569.2 570.0 572.3 2.3

Furniture and home furnishings stores

476.8 507.3 495.6 484.7 478.4 484.5 487.9 485.8 -2.1

Electronics and appliance stores

491.1 489.7 479.3 471.0 493.5 474.2 471.8 474.2 2.4

Building material and garden supply stores

1,268.8 1,264.2 1,237.2 1,261.1 1,313.2 1,301.0 1,301.9 1,305.1 3.2

Food and beverage stores

3,056.9 3,138.2 3,094.2 3,089.5 3,084.1 3,107.9 3,109.6 3,113.6 4.0

Health and personal care stores

1,054.6 1,090.0 1,068.0 1,040.5 1,058.8 1,062.3 1,059.7 1,048.0 -11.7

Gasoline stations

918.6 939.9 935.3 932.7 931.7 942.7 947.6 945.6 -2.0

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,324.7 1,477.9 1,358.1 1,305.1 1,369.9 1,348.2 1,352.1 1,352.1 0.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

579.1 596.5 568.1 549.3 594.3 542.8 558.9 559.2 0.3

General merchandise stores

3,037.8 3,319.0 3,112.6 3,027.3 3,099.0 3,105.1 3,095.0 3,091.9 -3.1

Department stores

1,123.5 1,280.9 1,167.1 1,103.8 1,151.9 1,142.6 1,142.2 1,133.2 -9.0

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,914.3 2,038.1 1,945.5 1,923.5 1,947.2 1,962.5 1,952.7 1,958.7 6.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

809.6 857.9 815.9 817.8 828.4 842.3 838.7 837.4 -1.3

Nonstore retailers

561.7 602.5 573.6 572.0 567.7 576.2 577.2 578.3 1.1

Transportation and warehousing

5,276.6 5,733.7 5,533.1 5,462.4 5,343.1 5,511.0 5,540.6 5,537.6 -3.0

Air transportation

494.5 506.5 506.5 508.2 499.2 508.3 510.3 512.4 2.1

Rail transportation

211.0 215.0 213.2 213.2 212.7 215.4 215.4 215.0 -0.4

Water transportation

61.1 63.9 63.1 62.5 64.1 64.9 65.2 65.4 0.2

Truck transportation

1,453.2 1,511.7 1,489.6 1,492.4 1,478.4 1,511.6 1,516.7 1,517.6 0.9

Transit and ground passenger transportation

501.1 503.1 493.6 497.9 489.6 487.4 484.4 486.8 2.4

Pipeline transportation

48.7 47.8 47.6 46.9 49.0 47.7 47.7 47.2 -0.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

25.8 29.3 24.4 23.6 35.1 34.6 34.2 32.4 -1.8

Support activities for transportation

702.2 726.4 714.9 716.9 706.1 721.3 721.0 720.9 -0.1

Couriers and messengers

679.8 925.5 804.5 724.6 701.5 749.8 764.3 754.6 -9.7

Warehousing and storage

1,099.2 1,204.5 1,175.7 1,176.2 1,107.4 1,170.0 1,181.4 1,185.3 3.9

Utilities

553.1 555.4 554.0 552.5 556.0 554.6 555.7 555.4 -0.3

Information

2,807 2,839 2,769 2,805 2,812 2,827 2,815 2,815 0

Publishing industries, except Internet

728.8 735.5 730.7 732.4 731.0 732.8 733.7 734.7 1.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

418.8 440.6 393.8 418.7 418.9 439.1 427.3 424.9 -2.4

Broadcasting, except Internet

268.5 271.9 270.1 270.5 269.5 270.4 271.1 271.2 0.1

Telecommunications

766.0 740.5 730.0 732.3 764.2 735.5 732.7 730.4 -2.3

Data processing, hosting and related services

327.6 329.1 326.3 331.3 328.7 329.5 329.7 332.1 2.4

Other information services

297.6 321.6 318.2 319.9 299.2 319.7 320.1 321.7 1.6

Financial activities

8,476 8,622 8,567 8,576 8,528 8,615 8,624 8,630 6

Finance and insurance

6,287.6 6,339.6 6,310.8 6,321.9 6,298.0 6,328.1 6,328.4 6,332.7 4.3

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.3 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.4 19.6 19.6 19.7 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,643.0 2,641.2 2,631.5 2,631.8 2,647.2 2,638.5 2,637.7 2,636.5 -1.2

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,711.3 1,712.1 1,712.4 1,714.1 1,714.1 1,714.5 1,715.7 1,716.8 1.1

Commercial banking

1,321.5 1,313.4 1,313.9 1,314.6 1,322.0 1,315.5 1,316.0 1,315.2 -0.8

Nondepository credit intermediation

620.5 620.6 611.5 609.6 621.6 616.6 613.8 611.6 -2.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

311.2 308.5 307.6 308.1 311.5 307.3 308.2 308.1 -0.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

947.4 970.1 959.6 962.4 950.6 966.9 965.2 965.9 0.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,677.9 2,708.7 2,700.1 2,708.1 2,680.8 2,703.1 2,705.9 2,710.6 4.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,188.6 2,282.8 2,256.4 2,254.1 2,229.6 2,286.9 2,295.5 2,296.8 1.3

Real estate

1,620.2 1,687.3 1,666.9 1,668.2 1,641.0 1,682.8 1,687.4 1,689.7 2.3

Rental and leasing services

545.8 572.1 566.9 563.3 565.6 580.8 584.9 584.0 -0.9

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.6 23.4 22.6 22.6 23.0 23.3 23.2 23.1 -0.1

Professional and business services

20,462 21,345 20,853 20,989 20,774 21,254 21,269 21,311 42

Professional and technical services

9,232.8 9,463.6 9,431.1 9,519.5 9,186.0 9,434.9 9,451.9 9,473.9 22.0

Legal services

1,132.1 1,146.6 1,134.1 1,135.3 1,139.4 1,139.9 1,142.1 1,142.7 0.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,100.3 1,030.8 1,088.2 1,143.4 992.5 1,034.3 1,032.4 1,036.5 4.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,442.3 1,494.5 1,476.9 1,484.4 1,462.1 1,495.3 1,498.7 1,504.5 5.8

Specialized design services

140.1 148.6 145.6 147.7 142.0 146.3 147.8 149.4 1.6

Computer systems design and related services

2,088.8 2,164.1 2,160.3 2,168.2 2,088.2 2,162.2 2,164.4 2,167.7 3.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,450.4 1,519.0 1,491.5 1,500.6 1,464.9 1,505.7 1,510.1 1,515.3 5.2

Scientific research and development services

675.9 710.5 708.5 711.3 680.0 710.3 712.8 715.7 2.9

Advertising and related services

483.8 493.1 483.7 488.5 487.6 491.6 491.0 491.9 0.9

Other professional and technical services

719.1 756.4 742.3 740.1 729.3 749.5 752.5 750.3 -2.2

Management of companies and enterprises

2,330.9 2,398.4 2,389.4 2,389.0 2,343.2 2,395.3 2,398.3 2,402.1 3.8

Administrative and waste services

8,898.4 9,483.3 9,032.4 9,080.5 9,245.2 9,423.3 9,418.8 9,434.9 16.1

Administrative and support services

8,478.0 9,038.2 8,590.0 8,637.4 8,817.0 8,976.1 8,969.8 8,984.4 14.6

Office administrative services

509.1 519.3 520.2 518.7 511.0 518.6 522.1 521.1 -1.0

Facilities support services

151.5 155.0 154.8 155.9 152.3 155.3 156.1 156.7 0.6

Employment services(1)

3,505.9 3,860.8 3,555.1 3,585.1 3,647.5 3,731.2 3,723.6 3,729.0 5.4

Temporary help services

2,861.7 3,178.7 2,897.8 2,924.6 2,987.1 3,059.8 3,048.3 3,054.1 5.8

Business support services

900.8 921.2 901.1 896.3 899.2 897.5 897.8 895.3 -2.5

Travel arrangement and reservation services

216.3 213.9 213.8 213.5 219.0 216.5 218.5 216.6 -1.9

Investigation and security services

930.3 954.4 931.4 935.9 939.6 948.1 943.9 947.0 3.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,948.3 2,087.6 1,987.1 2,002.6 2,127.5 2,177.2 2,175.3 2,184.7 9.4

Other support services

315.8 326.0 326.5 329.4 321.0 331.6 332.5 333.7 1.2

Waste management and remediation services

420.4 445.1 442.4 443.1 428.2 447.2 449.0 450.5 1.5

Education and health services

23,620 24,092 23,801 24,112 23,481 23,912 23,976 23,980 4

Educational services

3,866.7 3,852.5 3,653.7 3,911.5 3,706.4 3,745.5 3,772.5 3,753.8 -18.7

Health care and social assistance

19,753.1 20,239.8 20,147.2 20,200.4 19,774.7 20,166.1 20,203.4 20,225.9 22.5

Health care(3)

15,851.7 16,248.1 16,175.5 16,212.1 15,883.6 16,184.7 16,223.9 16,244.7 20.8

Ambulatory health care services

7,401.8 7,649.2 7,611.4 7,640.1 7,419.8 7,614.6 7,641.0 7,656.5 15.5

Offices of physicians

2,598.4 2,664.8 2,645.1 2,651.2 2,603.4 2,647.8 2,652.9 2,656.0 3.1

Offices of dentists

941.7 975.5 972.8 975.6 943.4 971.5 974.4 977.0 2.6

Offices of other health practitioners

910.7 957.5 950.7 954.7 914.2 954.0 955.6 958.3 2.7

Outpatient care centers

919.8 956.9 955.7 962.2 920.9 953.9 957.9 962.8 4.9

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

273.3 283.6 286.3 286.4 274.0 282.4 287.1 286.7 -0.4

Home health care services

1,448.7 1,506.7 1,497.0 1,505.5 1,454.4 1,500.3 1,505.7 1,510.4 4.7

Other ambulatory health care services

309.2 304.2 303.8 304.5 309.5 304.7 307.5 305.4 -2.1

Hospitals

5,104.7 5,207.4 5,200.8 5,206.5 5,109.5 5,195.1 5,208.5 5,212.7 4.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,345.2 3,391.5 3,363.3 3,365.5 3,354.3 3,375.0 3,374.4 3,375.5 1.1

Nursing care facilities

1,609.2 1,617.5 1,602.3 1,602.3 1,613.5 1,609.2 1,605.6 1,606.2 0.6

Residential mental health facilities

640.7 649.2 643.1 644.1 641.8 647.2 645.5 645.7 0.2

Community care facilities for the elderly

931.2 955.8 949.7 949.3 933.9 949.7 953.5 953.0 -0.5

Other residential care facilities

164.1 169.0 168.2 169.8 165.0 168.9 169.8 170.5 0.7

Social assistance

3,901.4 3,991.7 3,971.7 3,988.3 3,891.1 3,981.4 3,979.5 3,981.2 1.7

Individual and family services

2,430.1 2,503.5 2,491.9 2,497.2 2,429.7 2,502.2 2,500.0 2,499.6 -0.4

Emergency and other relief services

173.3 179.2 176.0 177.2 171.9 177.2 175.7 176.2 0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

328.3 329.7 324.3 325.4 331.5 330.1 329.2 328.7 -0.5

Child day care services

969.7 979.3 979.5 988.5 958.0 971.9 974.5 976.7 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

15,588 16,213 15,880 15,999 16,233 16,554 16,643 16,643 0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,131.4 2,264.2 2,195.8 2,226.2 2,371.8 2,444.6 2,474.3 2,470.8 -3.5

Performing arts and spectator sports

457.4 494.7 449.7 474.7 501.1 516.0 517.1 520.4 3.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

153.6 166.1 159.0 157.8 168.3 174.0 174.4 173.2 -1.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,520.4 1,603.4 1,587.1 1,593.7 1,702.4 1,754.6 1,782.8 1,777.2 -5.6

Accommodation and food services

13,456.5 13,949.0 13,684.3 13,773.1 13,861.6 14,109.5 14,168.4 14,172.1 3.7

Accommodation

1,925.2 1,967.8 1,941.0 1,955.1 2,016.0 2,036.0 2,043.6 2,045.7 2.1

Food services and drinking places

11,531.3 11,981.2 11,743.3 11,818.0 11,845.6 12,073.5 12,124.8 12,126.4 1.6

Other services

5,761 5,859 5,811 5,837 5,812 5,879 5,887 5,890 3

Repair and maintenance

1,313.2 1,331.0 1,324.8 1,331.2 1,318.5 1,337.0 1,339.3 1,337.9 -1.4

Personal and laundry services

1,477.7 1,524.6 1,498.2 1,509.4 1,497.2 1,524.2 1,522.4 1,529.5 7.1

Membership associations and organizations

2,970.3 3,003.6 2,987.8 2,996.7 2,996.1 3,018.2 3,025.4 3,022.7 -2.7

Government

22,697 22,840 22,361 22,770 22,400 22,485 22,488 22,483 -5

Federal

2,776.0 2,815.0 2,786.0 2,785.0 2,792.0 2,798.0 2,799.0 2,799.0 0.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,169.7 2,186.9 2,182.4 2,180.5 2,183.9 2,191.9 2,193.6 2,195.3 1.7

U.S. Postal Service

606.3 628.2 603.3 604.6 608.1 606.3 605.0 604.0 -1.0

State government

5,284.0 5,295.0 5,080.0 5,298.0 5,155.0 5,183.0 5,177.0 5,176.0 -1.0

State government education

2,619.6 2,611.8 2,396.8 2,610.3 2,475.6 2,486.7 2,480.0 2,473.8 -6.2

State government, excluding education

2,663.9 2,683.4 2,682.8 2,687.6 2,679.1 2,695.8 2,697.4 2,702.5 5.1

Local government

14,637.0 14,730.0 14,495.0 14,687.0 14,453.0 14,504.0 14,512.0 14,508.0 -4.0

Local government education

8,256.1 8,284.3 8,092.9 8,274.9 7,949.6 7,973.7 7,978.7 7,974.3 -4.4

Local government, excluding education

6,380.9 6,446.1 6,401.7 6,412.3 6,503.1 6,529.9 6,533.5 6,533.9 0.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.5 34.5 34.4

Goods-producing

40.6 40.6 40.7 40.2

Mining and logging

45.9 46.2 46.2 46.1

Construction

39.3 39.5 39.9 38.9

Manufacturing

41.0 40.9 40.8 40.7

Durable goods

41.4 41.2 41.2 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.3 40.3 40.3 40.2

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.3 34.3 34.2

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.0 39.0 39.0

Retail trade

31.1 30.6 30.7 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

39.0 38.9 38.7 38.6

Utilities

41.9 42.4 42.3 42.5

Information

36.0 36.3 36.0 36.2

Financial activities

37.6 37.6 37.8 37.8

Professional and business services

36.2 36.1 36.2 36.2

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.0 26.1 26.0

Other services

31.7 31.9 31.9 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5

Durable goods

3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4

Nondurable goods

3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)

Total private

$26.75 $27.53 $27.55 $27.66 $922.88 $949.79 $950.48 $951.50

Goods-producing

27.96 28.62 28.53 28.66 1,135.18 1,161.97 1,161.17 1,152.13

Mining and logging

32.19 32.77 32.78 32.86 1,477.52 1,513.97 1,514.44 1,514.85

Construction

29.53 30.42 30.27 30.45 1,160.53 1,201.59 1,207.77 1,184.51

Manufacturing

26.84 27.33 27.26 27.38 1,100.44 1,117.80 1,112.21 1,114.37

Durable goods

28.12 28.82 28.72 28.89 1,164.17 1,187.38 1,183.26 1,184.49

Nondurable goods

24.65 24.77 24.75 24.80 993.40 998.23 997.43 996.96

Private service-providing

26.46 27.27 27.32 27.43 881.12 908.09 909.76 913.42

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.04 23.79 23.80 23.92 794.88 816.00 816.34 818.06

Wholesale trade

30.13 30.92 30.88 31.03 1,175.07 1,205.88 1,204.32 1,210.17

Retail trade

18.47 19.23 19.33 19.40 574.42 588.44 593.43 593.64

Transportation and warehousing

24.20 24.49 24.42 24.55 943.80 952.66 945.05 947.63

Utilities

39.98 41.68 41.29 41.42 1,675.16 1,767.23 1,746.57 1,760.35

Information

39.15 41.29 41.68 41.71 1,409.40 1,498.83 1,500.48 1,509.90

Financial activities

34.25 35.37 35.44 35.54 1,287.80 1,329.91 1,339.63 1,343.41

Professional and business services

32.10 32.99 33.03 33.17 1,162.02 1,190.94 1,195.69 1,200.75

Education and health services

26.71 27.32 27.42 27.48 881.43 901.56 904.86 906.84

Leisure and hospitality

15.75 16.27 16.29 16.39 411.08 423.02 425.17 426.14

Other services

24.25 24.88 24.99 25.00 768.73 793.67 797.18 797.50

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2019 - Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2019 - Feb.
2019(p)

Total private

108.8 110.7 110.9 110.6 -0.3 139.2 145.6 146.1 146.3 0.1

Goods-producing

94.8 97.0 97.6 96.2 -1.4 119.8 125.4 125.8 124.6 -1.0

Mining and logging

101.8 109.2 110.2 109.2 -0.9 131.6 143.6 145.0 144.1 -0.6

Construction

97.5 100.8 102.5 99.5 -2.9 125.1 133.2 134.8 131.7 -2.3

Manufacturing

92.9 94.2 94.2 94.0 -0.2 115.9 119.8 119.4 119.7 0.3

Durable goods

91.7 93.2 93.5 93.1 -0.4 114.5 119.3 119.2 119.4 0.2

Nondurable goods

95.1 96.0 96.0 95.7 -0.3 118.9 120.7 120.5 120.4 -0.1

Private service-providing

112.7 114.4 114.7 114.8 0.1 144.9 151.7 152.3 153.0 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.7 103.9 104.1 103.8 -0.3 128.7 133.3 133.6 133.9 0.2

Wholesale trade

100.2 101.5 101.7 101.9 0.2 126.3 131.3 131.4 132.2 0.6

Retail trade

100.0 98.3 98.7 98.4 -0.3 122.0 124.9 126.1 126.1 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

119.1 122.5 122.6 122.2 -0.3 146.2 152.2 151.8 152.2 0.3

Utilities

100.8 101.7 101.7 102.1 0.4 133.1 140.1 138.7 139.8 0.8

Information

92.5 93.7 92.6 93.1 0.5 128.9 137.8 137.3 138.2 0.7

Financial activities

105.0 106.1 106.8 106.8 0.0 140.3 146.4 147.6 148.1 0.3

Professional and business services

117.9 120.3 120.7 121.0 0.2 153.3 160.7 161.5 162.5 0.6

Education and health services

126.5 128.8 129.2 129.2 0.0 162.6 169.3 170.4 170.8 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

120.9 122.8 123.9 123.5 -0.3 153.6 161.2 162.9 163.3 0.2

Other services

106.2 108.1 108.3 108.3 0.0 141.2 147.4 148.3 148.4 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

73,421 74,724 74,898 74,996 49.6 49.7 49.7 49.8

Total private

60,546 61,748 61,913 62,011 48.2 48.3 48.3 48.4

Goods-producing

4,501 4,651 4,673 4,676 22.0 22.2 22.2 22.3

Mining and logging

91 95 96 97 12.9 12.6 12.6 12.9

Construction

918 956 961 961 12.8 12.9 12.9 12.9

Manufacturing

3,492 3,600 3,616 3,618 27.7 28.1 28.2 28.2

Durable goods

1,846 1,911 1,915 1,921 23.5 23.8 23.8 23.8

Nondurable goods

1,646 1,689 1,701 1,697 34.8 35.4 35.7 35.6

Private service-providing

56,045 57,097 57,240 57,335 53.3 53.4 53.5 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,073 11,129 11,160 11,167 40.2 40.0 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,727.7 1,769.5 1,775.6 1,774.9 29.6 30.0 30.0 30.0

Retail trade

7,899.6 7,853.2 7,868.4 7,874.5 49.9 49.6 49.7 49.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,317.1 1,375.5 1,385.4 1,385.3 24.7 25.0 25.0 25.0

Utilities

128.5 130.8 131.0 132.3 23.1 23.6 23.6 23.8

Information

1,111 1,115 1,113 1,118 39.5 39.4 39.5 39.7

Financial activities

4,821 4,868 4,876 4,882 56.5 56.5 56.5 56.6

Professional and business services

9,376 9,648 9,642 9,677 45.1 45.4 45.3 45.4

Education and health services

18,074 18,462 18,500 18,520 77.0 77.2 77.2 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,506 8,736 8,801 8,823 52.4 52.8 52.9 53.0

Other services

3,084 3,139 3,148 3,148 53.1 53.4 53.5 53.4

Government

12,875 12,976 12,985 12,985 57.5 57.7 57.7 57.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)

Total private

103,549 105,244 105,508 105,486

Goods-producing

14,736 15,063 15,130 15,095

Mining and logging

523 559 566 562

Construction

5,376 5,517 5,560 5,518

Manufacturing

8,837 8,987 9,004 9,015

Durable goods

5,404 5,540 5,560 5,571

Nondurable goods

3,433 3,447 3,444 3,444

Private service-providing

88,813 90,181 90,378 90,391

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,300 23,488 23,563 23,532

Wholesale trade

4,680.3 4,743.6 4,753.4 4,763.8

Retail trade

13,533.0 13,497.2 13,522.1 13,496.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,641.1 4,803.2 4,842.8 4,829.5

Utilities

446.0 443.7 444.8 442.7

Information

2,260 2,285 2,266 2,267

Financial activities

6,611 6,672 6,681 6,684

Professional and business services

16,915 17,340 17,346 17,389

Education and health services

20,632 20,984 21,051 21,039

Leisure and hospitality

14,285 14,541 14,596 14,604

Other services

4,810 4,871 4,875 4,876

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.7 33.8 33.6

Goods-producing

41.5 41.4 41.6 41.0

Mining and logging

47.0 46.7 46.6 46.8

Construction

39.8 39.9 40.5 39.0

Manufacturing

42.2 42.0 42.0 41.8

Durable goods

42.6 42.5 42.4 42.1

Nondurable goods

41.7 41.3 41.5 41.3

Private service-providing

32.5 32.4 32.5 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.7 33.9 33.7

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.8 38.8 38.7

Retail trade

30.3 30.1 30.4 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 38.2 38.0 37.8

Utilities

42.6 42.6 42.6 42.4

Information

35.7 35.6 35.5 35.6

Financial activities

37.0 36.9 37.1 37.0

Professional and business services

35.4 35.4 35.5 35.4

Education and health services

32.3 32.2 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.0 24.8 24.9 24.8

Other services

30.7 30.9 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.7 4.5 4.5 4.4

Durable goods

4.8 4.6 4.6 4.4

Nondurable goods

4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)

Total private

$22.40 $23.09 $23.10 $23.18 $757.12 $778.13 $780.78 $778.85

Goods-producing

23.72 24.38 24.41 24.43 984.38 1,009.33 1,015.46 1,001.63

Mining and logging

27.74 28.71 29.02 28.97 1,303.78 1,340.76 1,352.33 1,355.80

Construction

27.41 28.20 28.17 28.32 1,090.92 1,125.18 1,140.89 1,104.48

Manufacturing

21.34 21.85 21.84 21.90 900.55 917.70 917.28 915.42

Durable goods

22.29 22.81 22.79 22.86 949.55 969.43 966.30 962.41

Nondurable goods

19.80 20.25 20.28 20.31 825.66 836.33 841.62 838.80

Private service-providing

22.12 22.82 22.82 22.92 718.90 739.37 741.65 742.61

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.52 20.32 20.21 20.32 661.73 684.78 685.12 684.78

Wholesale trade

24.74 25.70 25.52 25.75 962.39 997.16 990.18 996.53

Retail trade

15.52 16.28 16.23 16.30 470.26 490.03 493.39 492.26

Transportation and warehousing

21.60 22.13 22.07 22.12 831.60 845.37 838.66 836.14

Utilities

36.43 37.12 36.81 36.89 1,551.92 1,581.31 1,568.11 1,564.14

Information

31.32 32.95 33.05 33.20 1,118.12 1,173.02 1,173.28 1,181.92

Financial activities

26.76 27.26 27.30 27.47 990.12 1,005.89 1,012.83 1,016.39

Professional and business services

26.45 27.16 27.18 27.28 936.33 961.46 964.89 965.71

Education and health services

23.39 23.97 24.04 24.09 755.50 771.83 774.09 775.70

Leisure and hospitality

13.64 14.17 14.23 14.27 341.00 351.42 354.33 353.90

Other services

20.50 21.10 21.23 21.24 629.35 651.99 653.88 654.19

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2019 - Feb.
2019(p)
Feb.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019(p)
Feb.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2019 - Feb.
2019(p)

Total private

116.6 118.2 118.8 118.1 -0.6 174.6 182.3 183.4 182.9 -0.3

Goods-producing

93.5 95.3 96.2 94.6 -1.7 135.7 142.3 143.8 141.5 -1.6

Mining and logging

130.6 138.7 140.2 139.8 -0.3 210.7 231.6 236.6 235.5 -0.5

Construction

107.1 110.2 112.7 107.8 -4.3 158.6 167.8 171.5 164.8 -3.9

Manufacturing

85.6 86.6 86.8 86.5 -0.3 119.5 123.8 124.0 123.9 -0.1

Durable goods

86.5 88.5 88.6 88.1 -0.6 120.3 126.0 126.0 125.7 -0.2

Nondurable goods

84.3 83.9 84.2 83.8 -0.5 118.0 120.0 120.7 120.3 -0.3

Private service-providing

122.9 124.4 125.1 124.7 -0.3 186.5 194.7 195.8 196.0 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.3 110.5 111.5 110.7 -0.7 153.7 160.4 160.9 160.7 -0.1

Wholesale trade

108.1 109.2 109.5 109.4 -0.1 157.8 165.7 164.9 166.3 0.8

Retail trade

103.8 102.8 104.0 103.1 -0.9 138.0 143.4 144.7 144.1 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

134.4 138.0 138.4 137.3 -0.8 184.1 193.7 193.7 192.6 -0.6

Utilities

97.2 96.7 96.9 96.0 -0.9 147.8 149.8 148.9 147.8 -0.7

Information

92.1 92.8 91.8 92.1 0.3 142.8 151.4 150.2 151.4 0.8

Financial activities

115.2 115.9 116.7 116.4 -0.3 189.6 194.4 196.0 196.8 0.4

Professional and business services

133.9 137.2 137.7 137.6 -0.1 210.6 221.7 222.5 223.3 0.4

Education and health services

142.1 144.1 144.5 144.4 -0.1 219.4 227.9 229.3 229.7 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

130.8 132.1 133.1 132.7 -0.3 202.6 212.6 215.1 215.0 0.0

Other services

103.6 105.6 105.3 105.3 0.0 154.7 162.3 162.9 163.0 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: March 08, 2019