Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                 USDL-18-0335
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, March 9, 2018

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- FEBRUARY 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 313,000 in February, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 4.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Employment rose in construction, retail trade, professional and business services,
manufacturing, financial activities, and mining.

Household Survey Data

In February, the unemployment rate was 4.1 percent for the fifth consecutive month,
and the number of unemployed persons was essentially unchanged at 6.7 million.
(See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Blacks declined to 6.9
percent in February, while the jobless rates for adult men (3.7 percent), adult
women (3.8 percent), teenagers (14.4 percent), Whites (3.7 percent), Asians (2.9
percent), and Hispanics (4.9 percent) showed little change. (See tables A-1, A-2,
and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially
unchanged at 1.4 million in February and accounted for 20.7 percent of the unemployed.
Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed was down by 369,000. (See table A-12.)

The civilian labor force rose by 806,000 in February. The labor force participation
rate increased by 0.3 percentage point over the month to 63.0 percent but changed
little over the year. (See table A-1.)

In February, total employment, as measured by the household survey, rose by 785,000.
The employment-population ratio increased by 0.3 percentage point to 60.4 percent
in February, following 4 months of little change. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred
to as involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 5.2 million in February.
These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been cut or because they were unable to find full-time
jobs. (See table A-8.)

In February, 1.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
different from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for
a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because
they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 373,000 discouraged workers in February,
down by 149,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged
workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are
available for them. The remaining 1.2 million persons marginally attached to the labor
force in February had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or
family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 313,000 in February. Job gains occurred in
construction, retail trade, professional and business services, manufacturing,
financial activities, and mining. (See table B-1.)

In February, construction employment increased by 61,000, with gains in specialty
trade contractors (+38,000) and construction of buildings (+16,000). Construction
has added 185,000 jobs over the past 4 months.

Retail trade employment increased by 50,000 over the month. Within the industry,
employment rose in general merchandise stores (+18,000) and in clothing and clothing
accessories stores (+15,000). However, over the past 4 months, which traditionally
see the bulk of the holiday hiring and layoff, employment in these industries has
changed little on net. Elsewhere in retail trade, building material and garden supply
stores added jobs over the month (+10,000).

Employment in professional and business services increased by 50,000 in February and
has risen by 495,000 over the year. Employment in temporary help services edged up
over the month (+27,000).

Manufacturing added 31,000 jobs in February. Within the industry, employment rose
in transportation equipment (+8,000), fabricated metal products (+6,000), machinery
(+6,000), and primary metals (+4,000). Over the past year, manufacturing has added
224,000 jobs.

Financial activities added 28,000 jobs over the month, with gains in credit
intermediation and related activities (+8,000); insurance carriers and related
activities (+8,000); and securities, commodity contracts, and investments (+5,000).
Over the year, financial activities has added 143,000 jobs.

Employment in mining rose by 9,000 in February, with most of the increase in support
activities for mining (+7,000). Since a recent low in October 2016, mining has added
69,000 jobs.

Employment in health care continued to trend up in February (+19,000), with a gain
of 9,000 in hospitals. Health care has added 290,000 jobs over the past year. 

Employment in other major industries, including wholesale trade, transportation and
warehousing, information, leisure and hospitality, and government, showed little
change over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 0.1 hour
to 34.5 hours in February. In manufacturing, the workweek increased by 0.2 hour to
41.0 hours, while overtime edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.6 hours. The average workweek
for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased
by 0.2 hour to 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In February, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 4 cents to $26.75, following a 7-cent gain in January. Over the year,
average hourly earnings have increased by 68 cents, or 2.6 percent. Average hourly
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 6
cents to $22.40 in February. (See tables B-3 and B-8.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for December was revised up from
+160,000 to +175,000, and the change for January was revised up from +200,000 to
+239,000. With these revisions, employment gains in December and January combined
were 54,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job
gains have averaged 242,000 over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for March is scheduled to be released on Friday, April 6,
2018, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Change from:
Jan.
2018-
Feb.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,246 256,109 256,780 256,934 154

Civilian labor force

159,997 160,597 161,115 161,921 806

Participation rate

62.9 62.7 62.7 63.0 0.3

Employed

152,511 154,021 154,430 155,215 785

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.1 60.1 60.4 0.3

Unemployed

7,486 6,576 6,684 6,706 22

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Not in labor force

94,248 95,512 95,665 95,012 -653

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.3 3.8 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.3 3.7 3.6 3.8 0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

14.9 13.6 13.9 14.4 0.5

White

4.1 3.7 3.5 3.7 0.2

Black or African American

8.1 6.8 7.7 6.9 -0.8

Asian

3.5 2.5 3.0 2.9 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.6 4.9 5.0 4.9 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.9 3.4 3.4 3.4 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

7.6 6.3 5.4 5.7 0.3

High school graduates, no college

4.9 4.2 4.5 4.4 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

4.0 3.6 3.4 3.5 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.4 2.1 2.1 2.3 0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,699 3,254 3,273 3,279 6

Job leavers

812 715 716 780 64

Reentrants

2,196 2,003 1,958 1,948 -10

New entrants

765 581 645 704 59

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,572 2,235 2,280 2,508 228

5 to 14 weeks

2,129 1,994 1,943 1,906 -37

15 to 26 weeks

1,047 882 981 934 -47

27 weeks and over

1,766 1,515 1,421 1,397 -24

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,670 4,915 4,989 5,160 171

Slack work or business conditions

3,589 3,097 3,009 3,302 293

Could only find part-time work

1,850 1,570 1,663 1,541 -122

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,772 21,122 20,867 21,061 194

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,723 1,623 1,653 1,602 -

Discouraged workers

522 474 451 373 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

200 175 239 313

Total private

204 174 238 287

Goods-producing

76 82 72 100

Mining and logging

9 1 7 8

Construction

46 42 40 61

Manufacturing

21 39 25 31

Durable goods(1)

5 29 22 32

Motor vehicles and parts

-3.5 2.5 1.0 6.2

Nondurable goods

16 10 3 -1

Private service-providing

128 92 166 187

Wholesale trade

5.9 8.6 8.5 5.8

Retail trade

-21.6 -25.9 14.8 50.3

Transportation and warehousing

14.3 8.7 11.8 15.4

Utilities

-0.7 -0.2 -1.9 1.2

Information

0 -4 -16 -12

Financial activities

7 8 8 28

Professional and business services(1)

19 31 33 50

Temporary help services

-0.6 -1.0 -2.9 26.5

Education and health services(1)

60 30 63 23

Health care and social assistance

36.7 30.9 31.8 29.1

Leisure and hospitality

31 31 39 16

Other services

13 5 5 10

Government

-4 1 1 26

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

213 221 210 242

Total private

209 223 210 233

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.5 49.6 49.6

Total private women employees

48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.5 34.4 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.07 $26.64 $26.71 $26.75

Average weekly earnings

$896.81 $919.08 $918.82 $922.88

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

106.7 108.5 108.4 109.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.2 -0.1 0.6

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

133.0 138.2 138.4 139.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.5 0.1 0.7

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

68.4 65.5 58.9 68.6

Manufacturing (76 industries)

67.1 68.4 59.2 69.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,246 256,780 256,934 254,246 255,766 255,949 256,109 256,780 256,934

Civilian labor force

159,482 160,037 161,494 159,997 160,371 160,533 160,597 161,115 161,921

Participation rate

62.7 62.3 62.9 62.9 62.7 62.7 62.7 62.7 63.0

Employed

151,594 152,848 154,403 152,511 153,846 153,917 154,021 154,430 155,215

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.5 60.1 60.0 60.2 60.1 60.1 60.1 60.4

Unemployed

7,887 7,189 7,091 7,486 6,524 6,616 6,576 6,684 6,706

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

Not in labor force

94,764 96,743 95,439 94,248 95,395 95,416 95,512 95,665 95,012

Persons who currently want a job

5,641 5,364 5,152 5,577 5,232 5,265 5,308 5,171 5,131

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,862 124,173 124,250 122,862 123,617 123,707 123,786 124,173 124,250

Civilian labor force

84,589 85,125 85,806 85,093 85,247 85,221 85,354 85,931 86,267

Participation rate

68.8 68.6 69.1 69.3 69.0 68.9 69.0 69.2 69.4

Employed

80,126 81,046 81,829 81,070 81,667 81,666 81,821 82,274 82,685

Employment-population ratio

65.2 65.3 65.9 66.0 66.1 66.0 66.1 66.3 66.5

Unemployed

4,463 4,079 3,977 4,023 3,580 3,555 3,533 3,658 3,582

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.2

Not in labor force

38,273 39,048 38,444 37,769 38,370 38,486 38,432 38,242 37,983

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,375 115,669 115,748 114,375 115,120 115,212 115,292 115,669 115,748

Civilian labor force

81,782 82,431 83,053 82,054 82,366 82,375 82,548 82,928 83,309

Participation rate

71.5 71.3 71.8 71.7 71.5 71.5 71.6 71.7 72.0

Employed

77,781 78,761 79,552 78,515 79,248 79,324 79,431 79,705 80,213

Employment-population ratio

68.0 68.1 68.7 68.6 68.8 68.9 68.9 68.9 69.3

Unemployed

4,002 3,670 3,501 3,539 3,118 3,050 3,117 3,223 3,096

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.5 4.2 4.3 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7

Not in labor force

32,592 33,238 32,695 32,321 32,755 32,837 32,745 32,741 32,440

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,384 132,607 132,684 131,384 132,149 132,242 132,323 132,607 132,684

Civilian labor force

74,893 74,912 75,688 74,904 75,124 75,312 75,243 75,183 75,654

Participation rate

57.0 56.5 57.0 57.0 56.8 57.0 56.9 56.7 57.0

Employed

71,469 71,802 72,574 71,441 72,179 72,251 72,200 72,157 72,530

Employment-population ratio

54.4 54.1 54.7 54.4 54.6 54.6 54.6 54.4 54.7

Unemployed

3,424 3,110 3,114 3,464 2,945 3,061 3,043 3,027 3,124

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.2 4.1 4.6 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1

Not in labor force

56,491 57,695 56,996 56,480 57,026 56,930 57,080 57,423 57,030

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,131 124,328 124,407 123,131 123,882 123,975 124,057 124,328 124,407

Civilian labor force

72,230 72,095 72,791 72,050 72,187 72,302 72,293 72,210 72,565

Participation rate

58.7 58.0 58.5 58.5 58.3 58.3 58.3 58.1 58.3

Employed

69,157 69,378 70,029 68,978 69,576 69,665 69,614 69,583 69,828

Employment-population ratio

56.2 55.8 56.3 56.0 56.2 56.2 56.1 56.0 56.1

Unemployed

3,072 2,717 2,762 3,072 2,611 2,637 2,679 2,627 2,737

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.8 3.8 4.3 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.8

Not in labor force

50,901 52,234 51,616 51,081 51,696 51,673 51,764 52,118 51,842

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,740 16,783 16,778 16,740 16,763 16,762 16,760 16,783 16,778

Civilian labor force

5,470 5,511 5,650 5,894 5,818 5,857 5,757 5,977 6,048

Participation rate

32.7 32.8 33.7 35.2 34.7 34.9 34.4 35.6 36.0

Employed

4,657 4,709 4,822 5,018 5,022 4,928 4,977 5,143 5,174

Employment-population ratio

27.8 28.1 28.7 30.0 30.0 29.4 29.7 30.6 30.8

Unemployed

813 802 828 876 796 929 780 834 874

Unemployment rate

14.9 14.6 14.7 14.9 13.7 15.9 13.6 13.9 14.4

Not in labor force

11,271 11,271 11,128 10,847 10,945 10,906 11,003 10,806 10,731

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,525 199,738 199,799 198,525 199,298 199,386 199,458 199,738 199,799

Civilian labor force

124,419 124,547 125,658 124,789 124,757 125,110 125,200 125,334 125,930

Participation rate

62.7 62.4 62.9 62.9 62.6 62.7 62.8 62.7 63.0

Employed

118,991 119,640 120,646 119,724 120,400 120,514 120,551 120,886 121,274

Employment-population ratio

59.9 59.9 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.4 60.5 60.7

Unemployed

5,428 4,907 5,012 5,066 4,356 4,596 4,649 4,447 4,656

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.9 4.0 4.1 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.7

Not in labor force

74,106 75,191 74,141 73,735 74,541 74,276 74,258 74,405 73,869

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,089 65,344 65,802 65,290 65,244 65,394 65,511 65,732 65,948

Participation rate

71.7 71.5 72.0 72.0 71.6 71.7 71.8 71.9 72.1

Employed

62,255 62,743 63,185 62,828 63,155 63,282 63,307 63,510 63,683

Employment-population ratio

68.6 68.6 69.1 69.2 69.3 69.4 69.4 69.5 69.6

Unemployed

2,833 2,601 2,617 2,462 2,090 2,112 2,204 2,222 2,265

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,179 54,873 55,465 54,990 55,014 55,147 55,161 54,896 55,243

Participation rate

57.8 57.2 57.8 57.6 57.4 57.5 57.5 57.2 57.5

Employed

53,138 53,129 53,640 52,973 53,298 53,342 53,275 53,255 53,448

Employment-population ratio

55.7 55.3 55.9 55.5 55.6 55.6 55.5 55.5 55.7

Unemployed

2,040 1,744 1,825 2,017 1,715 1,805 1,886 1,641 1,795

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.2 3.3 3.7 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,151 4,330 4,392 4,510 4,499 4,569 4,528 4,705 4,738

Participation rate

33.6 35.1 35.6 36.6 36.5 37.0 36.7 38.1 38.4

Employed

3,597 3,768 3,822 3,922 3,947 3,891 3,970 4,121 4,143

Employment-population ratio

29.2 30.5 31.0 31.8 32.0 31.5 32.2 33.4 33.6

Unemployed

554 562 570 588 552 678 559 584 595

Unemployment rate

13.4 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.3 14.8 12.3 12.4 12.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,095 32,575 32,607 32,095 32,370 32,404 32,436 32,575 32,607

Civilian labor force

19,858 20,109 20,360 19,989 20,134 20,175 20,153 20,211 20,495

Participation rate

61.9 61.7 62.4 62.3 62.2 62.3 62.1 62.0 62.9

Employed

18,215 18,507 18,928 18,376 18,654 18,718 18,790 18,663 19,087

Employment-population ratio

56.8 56.8 58.1 57.3 57.6 57.8 57.9 57.3 58.5

Unemployed

1,642 1,602 1,432 1,613 1,479 1,457 1,362 1,548 1,408

Unemployment rate

8.3 8.0 7.0 8.1 7.3 7.2 6.8 7.7 6.9

Not in labor force

12,238 12,466 12,246 12,106 12,236 12,230 12,283 12,364 12,112

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,001 9,196 9,339 9,082 9,218 9,225 9,178 9,254 9,438

Participation rate

67.2 67.5 68.5 67.8 68.2 68.1 67.7 67.9 69.2

Employed

8,232 8,457 8,744 8,374 8,539 8,552 8,576 8,564 8,880

Employment-population ratio

61.5 62.1 64.1 62.6 63.1 63.1 63.2 62.9 65.1

Unemployed

769 739 595 708 679 673 601 690 558

Unemployment rate

8.5 8.0 6.4 7.8 7.4 7.3 6.6 7.5 5.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,150 10,210 10,261 10,144 10,204 10,219 10,252 10,197 10,254

Participation rate

62.7 62.1 62.4 62.6 62.5 62.5 62.6 62.0 62.3

Employed

9,429 9,518 9,615 9,428 9,560 9,622 9,657 9,524 9,622

Employment-population ratio

58.2 57.9 58.4 58.2 58.5 58.8 59.0 57.9 58.5

Unemployed

721 692 646 716 644 597 595 673 632

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.8 6.3 7.1 6.3 5.8 5.8 6.6 6.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

706 703 760 764 712 731 723 759 803

Participation rate

28.1 28.0 30.3 30.4 28.4 29.1 28.8 30.3 32.0

Employed

554 532 569 575 555 544 557 575 584

Employment-population ratio

22.0 21.2 22.7 22.9 22.1 21.7 22.2 22.9 23.3

Unemployed

153 171 191 189 157 187 166 185 219

Unemployment rate

21.6 24.3 25.2 24.8 22.0 25.5 22.9 24.3 27.2

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,228 15,731 15,792 15,228 15,466 15,370 15,610 15,731 15,792

Civilian labor force

9,731 9,855 9,934 9,709 9,864 9,699 9,782 9,885 9,908

Participation rate

63.9 62.6 62.9 63.8 63.8 63.1 62.7 62.8 62.7

Employed

9,387 9,548 9,635 9,373 9,565 9,407 9,536 9,584 9,617

Employment-population ratio

61.6 60.7 61.0 61.6 61.8 61.2 61.1 60.9 60.9

Unemployed

344 307 299 336 299 292 246 300 291

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.1 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.9

Not in labor force

5,497 5,876 5,858 5,519 5,602 5,671 5,829 5,846 5,884

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,003 42,249 42,335 41,003 41,665 41,751 41,831 42,249 42,335

Civilian labor force

27,153 27,713 27,957 27,266 27,319 27,389 27,498 27,826 28,021

Participation rate

66.2 65.6 66.0 66.5 65.6 65.6 65.7 65.9 66.2

Employed

25,527 26,114 26,469 25,753 25,999 26,088 26,141 26,432 26,646

Employment-population ratio

62.3 61.8 62.5 62.8 62.4 62.5 62.5 62.6 62.9

Unemployed

1,626 1,599 1,488 1,514 1,321 1,301 1,356 1,393 1,375

Unemployment rate

6.0 5.8 5.3 5.6 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 4.9

Not in labor force

13,850 14,536 14,378 13,737 14,346 14,361 14,334 14,423 14,315

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,879 15,281 15,280 14,937 14,959 14,969 15,084 15,320 15,319

Participation rate

80.6 80.2 80.0 80.9 79.7 79.6 80.1 80.4 80.2

Employed

14,081 14,448 14,567 14,257 14,380 14,400 14,507 14,659 14,723

Employment-population ratio

76.3 75.8 76.3 77.2 76.7 76.6 77.0 76.9 77.1

Unemployed

798 833 713 680 579 569 577 661 595

Unemployment rate

5.4 5.4 4.7 4.6 3.9 3.8 3.8 4.3 3.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,135 11,243 11,449 11,117 11,146 11,222 11,189 11,257 11,410

Participation rate

59.5 58.3 59.3 59.4 58.5 58.8 58.5 58.4 59.1

Employed

10,501 10,683 10,840 10,495 10,601 10,676 10,598 10,737 10,815

Employment-population ratio

56.1 55.4 56.1 56.0 55.7 56.0 55.4 55.7 56.0

Unemployed

635 560 609 622 546 546 591 520 595

Unemployment rate

5.7 5.0 5.3 5.6 4.9 4.9 5.3 4.6 5.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,139 1,189 1,228 1,213 1,214 1,198 1,225 1,249 1,292

Participation rate

29.9 30.4 31.4 31.8 31.4 30.9 31.6 32.0 33.0

Employed

946 982 1,061 1,001 1,018 1,012 1,037 1,036 1,108

Employment-population ratio

24.8 25.1 27.1 26.2 26.3 26.2 26.8 26.5 28.3

Unemployed

193 207 167 211 196 185 188 213 184

Unemployment rate

17.0 17.4 13.6 17.4 16.1 15.5 15.4 17.0 14.2

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,926 10,433 9,887 10,288 10,328 10,167 10,148 10,274 10,258

Participation rate

44.7 45.5 45.1 46.3 46.2 45.1 44.8 44.8 46.8

Employed

9,030 9,695 9,190 9,501 9,699 9,639 9,507 9,715 9,673

Employment-population ratio

40.7 42.2 41.9 42.8 43.4 42.7 42.0 42.3 44.1

Unemployed

896 738 697 787 629 528 641 559 584

Unemployment rate

9.0 7.1 7.0 7.6 6.1 5.2 6.3 5.4 5.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,768 35,395 35,992 35,892 35,572 36,014 35,927 35,735 36,092

Participation rate

57.8 57.0 57.4 58.0 56.9 57.5 57.8 57.5 57.5

Employed

33,825 33,589 34,221 34,126 34,050 34,463 34,425 34,134 34,487

Employment-population ratio

54.6 54.0 54.6 55.1 54.4 55.1 55.4 54.9 55.0

Unemployed

1,943 1,806 1,771 1,767 1,522 1,551 1,503 1,601 1,604

Unemployment rate

5.4 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.5 4.4

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,837 37,792 37,648 37,702 37,761 37,955 37,906 37,863 37,573

Participation rate

66.0 65.8 65.7 65.8 65.8 66.2 66.2 66.0 65.5

Employed

36,193 36,411 36,212 36,190 36,385 36,579 36,534 36,566 36,248

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.4 63.2 63.1 63.4 63.8 63.8 63.7 63.2

Unemployed

1,644 1,380 1,436 1,512 1,376 1,376 1,372 1,297 1,325

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

55,254 55,885 57,260 54,870 55,612 55,501 55,852 55,922 56,669

Participation rate

74.1 73.3 74.4 73.6 73.8 73.6 73.5 73.4 73.7

Employed

53,943 54,649 55,978 53,554 54,477 54,348 54,653 54,720 55,386

Employment-population ratio

72.3 71.7 72.8 71.8 72.3 72.1 71.9 71.8 72.0

Unemployed

1,311 1,235 1,281 1,316 1,135 1,153 1,200 1,202 1,283

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,657 19,344 18,633 17,485 2,024 1,859

Civilian labor force

10,423 9,504 9,240 8,377 1,182 1,127

Participation rate

50.5 49.1 49.6 47.9 58.4 60.6

Employed

10,014 9,167 8,882 8,080 1,132 1,087

Employment-population ratio

48.5 47.4 47.7 46.2 55.9 58.5

Unemployed

409 337 358 298 51 39

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 3.9 3.6 4.3 3.5

Not in labor force

10,234 9,840 9,393 9,108 842 732

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,045 4,117 3,379 3,458 666 660

Civilian labor force

3,329 3,303 2,886 2,848 443 455

Participation rate

82.3 80.2 85.4 82.4 66.5 69.0

Employed

3,175 3,193 2,754 2,762 421 432

Employment-population ratio

78.5 77.6 81.5 79.9 63.2 65.4

Unemployed

154 110 132 86 22 24

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.3 4.6 3.0 5.0 5.2

Not in labor force

716 815 493 610 223 204

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,340 3,058 2,787 2,536 553 521

Civilian labor force

2,660 2,458 2,264 2,058 396 399

Participation rate

79.6 80.4 81.2 81.1 71.6 76.6

Employed

2,577 2,380 2,197 1,987 380 393

Employment-population ratio

77.2 77.8 78.8 78.3 68.7 75.4

Unemployed

83 78 67 72 16 6

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.2 2.9 3.5 4.0 1.5

Not in labor force

680 600 523 478 157 122

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,191 7,786 7,895 7,521 296 265

Civilian labor force

1,900 1,624 1,844 1,562 56 62

Participation rate

23.2 20.9 23.4 20.8 18.9 23.3

Employed

1,810 1,578 1,760 1,520 50 58

Employment-population ratio

22.1 20.3 22.3 20.2 16.9 21.8

Unemployed

90 47 84 43 6 4

Unemployment rate

4.7 2.9 4.5 2.7 - -

Not in labor force

6,291 6,162 6,051 5,959 240 203

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,081 4,383 4,572 3,970 509 413

Civilian labor force

2,535 2,119 2,247 1,909 287 210

Participation rate

49.9 48.4 49.2 48.1 56.5 50.9

Employed

2,452 2,016 2,172 1,812 281 205

Employment-population ratio

48.3 46.0 47.5 45.6 55.2 49.5

Unemployed

82 103 76 97 7 6

Unemployment rate

3.2 4.9 3.4 5.1 2.3 2.8

Not in labor force

2,546 2,264 2,325 2,061 222 203

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

224,576 228,565 99,751 102,212 124,825 126,354

Civilian labor force

147,151 149,978 74,411 76,510 72,740 73,468

Participation rate

65.5 65.6 74.6 74.9 58.3 58.1

Employed

140,004 143,542 70,474 73,001 69,530 70,541

Employment-population ratio

62.3 62.8 70.6 71.4 55.7 55.8

Unemployed

7,147 6,436 3,937 3,509 3,210 2,928

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.3 5.3 4.6 4.4 4.0

Not in labor force

77,425 78,587 25,340 25,702 52,085 52,885

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,113 29,751 224,133 227,183

Civilian labor force

6,134 6,161 153,348 155,333

Participation rate

20.4 20.7 68.4 68.4

Employed

5,508 5,629 146,087 148,775

Employment-population ratio

18.3 18.9 65.2 65.5

Unemployed

626 532 7,261 6,559

Unemployment rate

10.2 8.6 4.7 4.2

Not in labor force

23,979 23,590 70,785 71,850

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,577 2,758 76,757 77,745

Participation rate

33.5 36.8 82.3 82.7

Employed

2,298 2,488 72,812 74,217

Employment-population ratio

29.9 33.2 78.0 78.9

Unemployed

280 269 3,945 3,528

Unemployment rate

10.9 9.8 5.1 4.5

Not in labor force

5,111 4,736 16,561 16,314

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,367 2,335 68,192 68,930

Participation rate

29.6 30.4 70.8 71.0

Employed

2,111 2,135 65,216 66,180

Employment-population ratio

26.4 27.8 67.7 68.2

Unemployed

256 199 2,977 2,751

Unemployment rate

10.8 8.5 4.4 4.0

Not in labor force

5,634 5,336 28,135 28,118

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,189 1,069 8,399 8,658

Participation rate

8.2 7.3 24.4 24.0

Employed

1,099 1,005 8,059 8,378

Employment-population ratio

7.6 6.9 23.4 23.2

Unemployed

90 64 339 280

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.0 4.0 3.2

Not in labor force

13,234 13,518 26,088 27,418

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,137 42,955 19,938 20,880 21,199 22,075

Civilian labor force

27,049 28,218 15,527 16,168 11,522 12,051

Participation rate

65.8 65.7 77.9 77.4 54.4 54.6

Employed

25,701 27,094 14,795 15,582 10,907 11,511

Employment-population ratio

62.5 63.1 74.2 74.6 51.4 52.1

Unemployed

1,348 1,124 732 585 616 539

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.0 4.7 3.6 5.3 4.5

Not in labor force

14,088 14,736 4,411 4,712 9,677 10,024

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,108 213,979 102,924 103,370 110,184 110,609

Civilian labor force

132,432 133,276 69,062 69,639 63,370 63,637

Participation rate

62.1 62.3 67.1 67.4 57.5 57.5

Employed

125,893 127,310 65,331 66,247 60,562 61,063

Employment-population ratio

59.1 59.5 63.5 64.1 55.0 55.2

Unemployed

6,539 5,966 3,731 3,392 2,808 2,574

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.5 5.4 4.9 4.4 4.0

Not in labor force

80,676 80,703 33,862 33,731 46,814 46,972

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,262 2,297 2,280 2,448 2,471 2,510 2,552 2,513 2,474

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,424 1,538 1,487 1,604 1,707 1,697 1,717 1,712 1,679

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

820 732 758 828 749 791 793 781 768

Unpaid family workers

18 27 36 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

149,332 150,551 152,123 150,049 151,334 151,453 151,478 151,894 152,713

Wage and salary workers(1)

140,572 141,666 143,213 141,326 142,294 142,472 142,505 142,828 143,656

Government

21,295 21,109 21,503 20,835 20,755 20,717 20,642 20,815 20,986

Private industries

119,277 120,557 121,710 120,366 121,578 121,779 121,900 122,022 122,693

Private households

689 701 738 - - - - - -

Other industries

118,588 119,855 120,972 119,651 121,012 121,140 121,206 121,349 121,957

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,709 8,838 8,854 8,857 8,956 8,922 8,970 8,991 8,944

Unpaid family workers

52 47 56 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,773 5,474 5,331 5,670 4,880 4,851 4,915 4,989 5,160

Slack work or business conditions

3,704 3,363 3,501 3,589 2,960 2,995 3,097 3,009 3,302

Could only find part-time work

1,820 1,666 1,509 1,850 1,615 1,558 1,570 1,663 1,541

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,498 20,916 21,804 20,772 20,897 21,022 21,122 20,867 21,061

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,700 5,380 5,241 5,625 4,799 4,759 4,856 4,926 5,091

Slack work or business conditions

3,659 3,311 3,449 3,542 2,944 2,952 3,049 2,965 3,258

Could only find part-time work

1,811 1,662 1,501 1,840 1,600 1,552 1,563 1,659 1,533

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,184 20,516 21,388 20,447 20,552 20,645 20,703 20,434 20,641

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

151,594 152,848 154,403 152,511 153,846 153,917 154,021 154,430 155,215

16 to 19 years

4,657 4,709 4,822 5,018 5,022 4,928 4,977 5,143 5,174

16 to 17 years

1,576 1,724 1,695 1,792 1,932 1,929 1,907 1,915 1,915

18 to 19 years

3,080 2,986 3,127 3,256 3,070 2,996 3,075 3,221 3,293

20 years and over

146,938 148,139 149,581 147,493 148,824 148,989 149,045 149,287 150,041

20 to 24 years

13,947 13,794 13,980 14,202 14,183 13,982 13,936 14,153 14,213

25 years and over

132,991 134,345 135,602 133,309 134,716 135,009 135,083 135,129 135,856

25 to 54 years

98,070 99,157 99,847 98,383 99,227 99,407 99,535 99,674 100,120

25 to 34 years

34,216 34,559 34,959 34,254 34,666 34,692 34,606 34,768 34,975

35 to 44 years

31,448 32,231 32,328 31,631 32,094 32,146 32,304 32,380 32,503

45 to 54 years

32,406 32,367 32,560 32,498 32,468 32,568 32,625 32,526 32,642

55 years and over

34,920 35,188 35,755 34,926 35,489 35,602 35,548 35,455 35,735

Men, 16 years and over

80,126 81,046 81,829 81,070 81,667 81,666 81,821 82,274 82,685

16 to 19 years

2,345 2,286 2,277 2,555 2,419 2,342 2,391 2,569 2,472

16 to 17 years

770 817 748 901 884 884 848 920 872

18 to 19 years

1,576 1,469 1,529 1,676 1,528 1,443 1,540 1,638 1,617

20 years and over

77,781 78,761 79,552 78,515 79,248 79,324 79,431 79,705 80,213

20 to 24 years

7,045 7,079 7,213 7,240 7,280 7,210 7,203 7,339 7,392

25 years and over

70,736 71,682 72,339 71,261 72,016 72,102 72,226 72,388 72,822

25 to 54 years

52,241 52,996 53,400 52,647 53,082 53,084 53,308 53,441 53,764

25 to 34 years

18,262 18,630 18,824 18,392 18,617 18,617 18,612 18,773 18,925

35 to 44 years

16,906 17,277 17,424 17,081 17,320 17,300 17,450 17,447 17,592

45 to 54 years

17,073 17,089 17,152 17,175 17,145 17,167 17,246 17,221 17,247

55 years and over

18,495 18,686 18,939 18,614 18,934 19,018 18,918 18,947 19,058

Women, 16 years and over

71,469 71,802 72,574 71,441 72,179 72,251 72,200 72,157 72,530

16 to 19 years

2,311 2,424 2,545 2,463 2,603 2,586 2,586 2,574 2,702

16 to 17 years

807 907 946 892 1,048 1,044 1,059 995 1,044

18 to 19 years

1,505 1,517 1,599 1,581 1,541 1,552 1,535 1,583 1,676

20 years and over

69,157 69,378 70,029 68,978 69,576 69,665 69,614 69,583 69,828

20 to 24 years

6,903 6,715 6,767 6,962 6,903 6,772 6,733 6,814 6,821

25 years and over

62,255 62,663 63,262 62,048 62,700 62,906 62,857 62,742 63,033

25 to 54 years

45,829 46,161 46,447 45,736 46,146 46,322 46,227 46,233 46,356

25 to 34 years

15,954 15,929 16,135 15,862 16,049 16,074 15,994 15,995 16,050

35 to 44 years

14,542 14,954 14,904 14,550 14,774 14,846 14,853 14,933 14,911

45 to 54 years

15,333 15,278 15,408 15,323 15,323 15,402 15,380 15,305 15,395

55 years and over

16,426 16,502 16,816 16,312 16,555 16,584 16,630 16,508 16,677

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,729 45,442 45,635 46,029 45,776 45,621 45,439 45,714 45,863

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,891 35,624 35,786 35,683 35,853 35,844 35,813 35,768 35,632

Women who maintain families(2)

9,685 9,652 9,624 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

123,610 125,435 126,401 125,071 126,636 126,758 126,723 127,016 127,745

Part-time workers(4)

27,985 27,413 28,003 27,570 27,142 27,138 27,257 27,271 27,548

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,980 7,751 8,103 7,801 7,209 7,342 7,647 7,845 7,864

Percent of total employed

5.3 5.1 5.2 5.1 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,681 5,958 5,767 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,529 9,570 9,611 9,685 9,705 9,713 9,763 9,773 9,713

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,486 6,684 6,706 4.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

16 to 19 years

876 834 874 14.9 13.7 15.9 13.6 13.9 14.4

16 to 17 years

375 337 351 17.3 15.0 19.1 15.2 15.0 15.5

18 to 19 years

505 495 524 13.4 13.2 14.4 13.2 13.3 13.7

20 years and over

6,611 5,851 5,833 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7

20 to 24 years

1,217 1,123 1,042 7.9 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.4 6.8

25 years and over

5,381 4,704 4,787 3.9 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4

25 to 54 years

4,165 3,611 3,617 4.1 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5

25 to 34 years

1,724 1,576 1,596 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.3 4.4

35 to 44 years

1,346 1,034 1,037 4.1 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1

45 to 54 years

1,095 1,001 984 3.3 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.0 2.9

55 years and over

1,230 1,103 1,193 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.2

Men, 16 years and over

4,023 3,658 3,582 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.2

16 to 19 years

484 434 486 15.9 16.0 17.7 14.8 14.5 16.4

16 to 17 years

183 137 180 16.9 17.4 20.7 15.7 13.0 17.1

18 to 19 years

305 286 309 15.4 15.7 16.6 15.0 14.9 16.1

20 years and over

3,539 3,223 3,096 4.3 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7

20 to 24 years

739 651 605 9.3 8.0 8.4 7.9 8.2 7.6

25 years and over

2,789 2,561 2,488 3.8 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3

25 to 54 years

2,152 1,905 1,800 3.9 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.2

25 to 34 years

953 796 799 4.9 4.3 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.1

35 to 44 years

661 552 495 3.7 2.8 2.7 2.6 3.1 2.7

45 to 54 years

537 557 505 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.8

55 years and over

637 656 688 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.5

Women, 16 years and over

3,464 3,027 3,124 4.6 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1

16 to 19 years

392 399 387 13.7 11.4 14.1 12.3 13.4 12.5

16 to 17 years

192 199 170 17.7 12.8 17.7 14.7 16.7 14.0

18 to 19 years

200 209 215 11.3 10.6 12.4 11.3 11.7 11.4

20 years and over

3,072 2,627 2,737 4.3 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.8

20 to 24 years

479 472 437 6.4 6.3 5.8 6.2 6.5 6.0

25 years and over

2,592 2,143 2,300 4.0 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.5

25 to 54 years

2,013 1,706 1,817 4.2 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.8

25 to 34 years

771 781 797 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7

35 to 44 years

685 482 542 4.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.5

45 to 54 years

558 444 478 3.5 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.8 3.0

55 years and over

582 421 488 3.4 2.9 2.8 3.2 2.5 2.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,230 1,080 992 2.6 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,110 877 973 3.0 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.7

Women who maintain families(2)

671 666 637 6.5 5.6 5.5 5.3 6.5 6.2

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

6,014 5,347 5,395 4.6 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1

Part-time workers(4)

1,443 1,340 1,293 5.0 4.5 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,184 3,891 3,716 3,699 3,214 3,149 3,254 3,273 3,279

On temporary layoff

1,307 1,333 1,172 962 862 950 915 912 878

Not on temporary layoff

2,877 2,558 2,544 2,738 2,352 2,200 2,339 2,361 2,401

Permanent job losers

2,118 1,756 1,799 2,038 1,688 1,539 1,636 1,652 1,709

Persons who completed temporary jobs

759 802 745 700 664 661 703 709 692

Job leavers

803 715 774 812 731 739 715 716 780

Reentrants

2,220 2,013 1,962 2,196 2,001 2,025 2,003 1,958 1,948

New entrants

681 571 639 765 626 697 581 645 704

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

53.0 54.1 52.4 49.5 48.9 47.6 49.7 49.6 48.9

On temporary layoff

16.6 18.5 16.5 12.9 13.1 14.4 14.0 13.8 13.1

Not on temporary layoff

36.5 35.6 35.9 36.6 35.8 33.3 35.7 35.8 35.8

Job leavers

10.2 9.9 10.9 10.9 11.1 11.2 10.9 10.9 11.6

Reentrants

28.1 28.0 27.7 29.4 30.5 30.6 30.6 29.7 29.0

New entrants

8.6 7.9 9.0 10.2 9.5 10.5 8.9 9.8 10.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.6 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5

Reentrants

1.4 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,327 2,655 2,307 2,572 2,128 2,253 2,235 2,280 2,508

5 to 14 weeks

2,522 2,064 2,253 2,129 1,943 1,894 1,994 1,943 1,906

15 weeks and over

3,038 2,470 2,532 2,813 2,500 2,514 2,397 2,402 2,330

15 to 26 weeks

1,160 972 1,024 1,047 856 921 882 981 934

27 weeks and over

1,878 1,498 1,507 1,766 1,645 1,593 1,515 1,421 1,397

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

25.1 22.7 22.7 25.1 25.8 25.2 23.6 24.1 22.9

Median duration, in weeks

10.3 8.9 9.4 10.1 9.8 9.5 9.1 9.4 9.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

29.5 36.9 32.5 34.2 32.4 33.8 33.7 34.4 37.2

5 to 14 weeks

32.0 28.7 31.8 28.3 29.6 28.4 30.1 29.3 28.3

15 weeks and over

38.5 34.4 35.7 37.4 38.0 37.7 36.2 36.3 34.6

15 to 26 weeks

14.7 13.5 14.4 13.9 13.0 13.8 13.3 14.8 13.8

27 weeks and over

23.8 20.8 21.3 23.5 25.0 23.9 22.9 21.5 20.7

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

151,594 154,403 7,887 7,091 4.9 4.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,064 62,908 1,313 1,301 2.1 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,242 25,625 626 530 2.4 2.0

Professional and related occupations

35,822 37,283 687 771 1.9 2.0

Service occupations

25,894 26,226 1,857 1,503 6.7 5.4

Sales and office occupations

33,484 32,992 1,615 1,538 4.6 4.5

Sales and related occupations

15,970 15,541 712 736 4.3 4.5

Office and administrative support occupations

17,515 17,451 903 802 4.9 4.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,495 14,109 1,134 1,092 7.8 7.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,073 1,129 105 162 8.9 12.5

Construction and extraction occupations

7,531 8,020 813 781 9.7 8.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,891 4,961 216 149 4.2 2.9

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,657 18,168 1,261 1,012 6.7 5.3

Production occupations

8,398 8,488 536 386 6.0 4.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,259 9,680 725 626 7.3 6.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,887 7,091 4.9 4.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

6,267 5,529 5.0 4.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

34 52 4.6 6.6

Construction

781 732 8.8 7.8

Manufacturing

619 555 4.0 3.6

Durable goods

443 339 4.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

177 216 3.1 3.7

Wholesale and retail trade

1,106 1,064 5.4 5.3

Transportation and utilities

343 260 5.2 3.7

Information

105 89 3.9 3.2

Financial activities

344 218 3.4 2.2

Professional and business services

919 827 5.5 4.8

Education and health services

752 598 3.2 2.5

Leisure and hospitality

952 903 7.0 6.8

Other services

312 230 4.6 3.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

126 154 8.5 9.6

Government workers

463 411 2.1 1.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

350 358 3.5 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Oct.
2017
Nov.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.6 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.9 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.3 4.8 4.6 5.0 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.0 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.1

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.5 8.9 8.6 9.2 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018
Feb.
2017
Feb.
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,764 95,439 38,273 38,444 56,491 56,996

Persons who currently want a job

5,641 5,152 2,575 2,384 3,066 2,768

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,723 1,602 972 841 751 761

Discouraged workers(2)

522 373 376 224 146 148

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,201 1,230 596 617 605 613

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,980 8,103 3,985 4,082 3,996 4,020

Percent of total employed

5.3 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.6 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,415 4,446 2,444 2,437 1,970 2,009

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,180 2,127 773 809 1,406 1,317

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

251 343 150 199 101 144

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,101 1,127 606 601 495 526

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Change from:
Jan.2018 - Feb.2018(p)

Total nonfarm

144,423 148,530 145,472 146,696 145,896 147,625 147,864 148,177 313

Total private

121,798 125,855 123,290 124,021 123,587 125,294 125,532 125,819 287

Goods-producing

19,487 20,230 19,869 20,039 19,964 20,328 20,400 20,500 100

Mining and logging

645 700 693 702 655 698 705 713 8

Logging

49.6 50.1 49.1 49.8 50.6 49.7 50.7 50.4 -0.3

Mining

595.1 649.6 643.4 652.0 604.6 648.3 654.2 662.8 8.6

Oil and gas extraction

146.7 145.3 145.3 146.2 148.0 144.5 146.4 147.5 1.1

Mining, except oil and gas

176.8 183.7 179.2 180.1 183.3 185.8 186.2 186.8 0.6

Coal mining

50.9 51.9 52.0 51.9 50.9 51.8 51.9 52.2 0.3

Metal ore mining

38.7 38.4 38.3 38.4 38.9 38.4 38.5 38.6 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

87.2 93.4 88.9 89.8 93.5 95.7 95.7 96.0 0.3

Support activities for mining

271.6 320.6 318.9 325.7 273.3 318.0 321.6 328.5 6.9

Construction

6,527 6,970 6,692 6,800 6,919 7,072 7,112 7,173 61

Construction of buildings

1,474.5 1,555.5 1,511.7 1,532.3 1,528.7 1,563.8 1,566.9 1,582.6 15.7

Residential building

721.3 766.0 743.5 751.9 750.7 767.5 772.1 778.9 6.8

Nonresidential building

753.2 789.5 768.2 780.4 778.0 796.3 794.8 803.7 8.9

Heavy and civil engineering construction

877.9 942.4 873.5 900.1 987.4 991.3 999.8 1,007.3 7.5

Specialty trade contractors

4,174.2 4,471.7 4,307.0 4,367.2 4,402.4 4,516.7 4,545.7 4,583.3 37.6

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,830.9 1,964.9 1,892.4 1,922.4 1,940.8 1,986.5 2,001.5 2,020.1 18.6

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,343.3 2,506.8 2,414.6 2,444.8 2,461.6 2,530.2 2,544.2 2,563.2 19.0

Manufacturing

12,315 12,560 12,484 12,537 12,390 12,558 12,583 12,614 31

Durable goods

7,670 7,829 7,799 7,841 7,704 7,821 7,843 7,875 32

Wood products

392.0 399.1 395.5 398.2 397.7 398.5 400.8 404.1 3.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

397.3 413.0 403.1 405.8 411.8 415.8 418.0 419.6 1.6

Primary metals

368.2 379.9 378.6 382.0 368.5 378.7 378.9 382.6 3.7

Fabricated metal products

1,411.9 1,458.2 1,455.2 1,463.2 1,414.6 1,456.0 1,461.0 1,466.9 5.9

Machinery

1,071.0 1,097.5 1,100.8 1,108.3 1,071.8 1,097.2 1,103.0 1,108.6 5.6

Computer and electronic products

1,033.6 1,057.2 1,054.2 1,055.2 1,036.8 1,055.8 1,057.1 1,058.2 1.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.3 166.3 166.6 168.0 157.4 166.0 167.3 168.6 1.3

Communications equipment

85.8 86.5 86.0 85.8 86.5 86.5 86.4 86.3 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

359.0 367.6 365.0 366.1 359.7 366.6 366.4 367.2 0.8

Electronic instruments

398.3 404.1 404.0 402.8 398.7 404.1 404.2 403.4 -0.8

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.2 32.7 32.6 32.5 34.4 32.7 32.8 32.7 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

382.2 395.6 394.7 394.2 383.4 395.1 395.5 395.6 0.1

Transportation equipment(1)

1,630.2 1,642.3 1,639.1 1,649.7 1,632.1 1,639.0 1,643.6 1,651.8 8.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

951.8 959.2 954.7 962.8 953.2 956.3 957.3 963.5 6.2

Furniture and related products

394.2 392.2 388.7 392.4 395.2 392.2 391.7 393.6 1.9

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

589.8 593.6 589.2 592.1 592.1 592.3 593.2 594.2 1.0

Nondurable goods

4,645 4,731 4,685 4,696 4,686 4,737 4,740 4,739 -1

Food manufacturing

1,571.6 1,620.0 1,600.8 1,605.2 1,589.2 1,623.9 1,624.9 1,625.2 0.3

Textile mills

113.3 111.8 111.0 111.3 113.0 111.5 111.2 111.0 -0.2

Textile product mills

114.7 113.0 111.8 110.8 116.3 112.8 112.8 112.1 -0.7

Apparel

124.6 116.5 115.6 117.1 124.1 115.9 116.5 116.4 -0.1

Paper and paper products

368.8 369.8 369.9 371.3 369.3 370.0 370.4 371.2 0.8

Printing and related support activities

440.4 439.3 433.5 434.0 443.7 436.9 436.6 437.3 0.7

Petroleum and coal products

108.5 113.0 110.3 112.3 112.9 114.9 114.7 116.5 1.8

Chemicals

814.7 831.6 824.8 824.1 817.3 830.3 828.7 827.6 -1.1

Plastics and rubber products

709.4 723.9 719.9 721.5 711.5 724.3 725.3 723.3 -2.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

278.6 292.4 287.4 288.4 288.5 296.0 298.4 298.8 0.4

Private service-providing

102,311 105,625 103,421 103,982 103,623 104,966 105,132 105,319 187

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,071 28,337 27,464 27,325 27,448 27,593 27,627 27,699 72

Wholesale trade

5,845.1 5,951.7 5,899.8 5,915.9 5,885.3 5,941.9 5,950.4 5,956.2 5.8

Durable goods

2,932.6 2,998.1 2,979.9 2,991.6 2,948.3 2,994.9 3,000.7 3,008.0 7.3

Nondurable goods

2,023.5 2,057.5 2,023.4 2,028.3 2,043.5 2,054.8 2,048.7 2,048.9 0.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

889.0 896.1 896.5 896.0 893.5 892.2 901.0 899.3 -1.7

Retail trade

15,621.6 16,371.1 15,789.5 15,659.2 15,891.2 15,861.1 15,875.9 15,926.2 50.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,984.5 2,010.6 1,999.9 2,005.6 2,003.9 2,019.9 2,022.1 2,025.4 3.3

Automobile dealers

1,285.9 1,300.8 1,296.5 1,300.4 1,293.4 1,303.4 1,304.3 1,308.1 3.8

Other motor vehicle dealers

146.8 147.8 145.9 149.0 155.4 155.9 157.4 157.3 -0.1

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

551.8 562.0 557.5 556.2 555.2 560.6 560.4 560.0 -0.4

Furniture and home furnishings stores

476.1 503.2 486.9 481.0 476.2 480.7 481.2 481.2 0.0

Electronics and appliance stores

508.6 513.0 506.7 494.6 510.6 495.0 494.8 496.0 1.2

Building material and garden supply stores

1,218.7 1,261.0 1,239.4 1,268.6 1,266.6 1,299.5 1,305.2 1,315.5 10.3

Food and beverage stores

3,068.2 3,125.2 3,078.3 3,072.2 3,098.1 3,099.8 3,095.6 3,099.9 4.3

Health and personal care stores

1,067.7 1,089.1 1,066.4 1,054.3 1,071.7 1,065.9 1,061.5 1,058.9 -2.6

Gasoline stations

916.4 930.3 921.7 922.3 929.9 933.1 934.9 935.5 0.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,342.3 1,486.5 1,365.8 1,324.5 1,395.4 1,347.5 1,358.9 1,373.8 14.9

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

592.6 674.4 597.2 574.8 603.8 598.8 592.6 589.9 -2.7

General merchandise stores

3,077.8 3,334.3 3,143.4 3,074.3 3,143.0 3,121.7 3,123.6 3,141.3 17.7

Department stores

1,158.3 1,315.2 1,196.8 1,145.7 1,189.0 1,175.5 1,176.0 1,177.8 1.8

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,919.5 2,019.1 1,946.6 1,928.6 1,954.0 1,946.2 1,947.5 1,963.5 16.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

812.5 835.6 801.4 805.6 829.8 821.2 822.4 822.3 -0.1

Nonstore retailers

556.2 607.9 582.4 581.4 562.2 578.0 583.1 586.5 3.4

Transportation and warehousing

5,051.0 5,459.1 5,224.7 5,199.9 5,115.8 5,236.2 5,248.0 5,263.4 15.4

Air transportation

482.0 497.7 495.8 496.9 487.0 499.6 500.5 502.1 1.6

Rail transportation

216.2 211.8 210.2 210.2 218.0 212.1 212.3 211.9 -0.4

Water transportation

61.9 64.7 63.5 63.1 64.4 65.8 65.6 65.7 0.1

Truck transportation

1,424.7 1,460.2 1,435.7 1,444.3 1,451.3 1,460.3 1,464.4 1,470.0 5.6

Transit and ground passenger transportation

499.1 511.0 502.8 507.4 488.0 495.5 492.9 496.3 3.4

Pipeline transportation

48.7 47.8 47.1 47.4 49.0 47.6 47.3 47.6 0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

24.9 30.0 25.4 26.8 34.0 36.0 36.0 36.3 0.3

Support activities for transportation

678.4 703.8 697.4 702.1 683.4 700.2 703.5 706.8 3.3

Couriers and messengers

644.6 887.9 737.9 694.7 663.0 707.7 711.5 712.3 0.8

Warehousing and storage

970.5 1,044.2 1,008.9 1,007.0 977.7 1,011.4 1,014.0 1,014.4 0.4

Utilities

552.8 554.9 550.0 550.0 556.0 554.1 552.2 553.4 1.2

Information

2,810 2,784 2,724 2,742 2,810 2,776 2,760 2,748 -12

Publishing industries, except Internet

728.2 720.3 713.8 712.7 729.9 717.0 716.2 714.5 -1.7

Motion picture and sound recording industries

431.7 414.6 380.9 399.2 426.8 416.3 409.0 399.3 -9.7

Broadcasting, except Internet

268.6 264.7 261.8 261.1 269.2 263.0 262.5 261.7 -0.8

Telecommunications

794.8 778.1 764.5 762.6 794.7 773.9 766.0 763.4 -2.6

Data processing, hosting and related services

311.5 320.1 319.5 322.4 312.9 319.6 321.4 323.7 2.3

Other information services

275.0 286.5 283.4 284.0 276.3 285.9 285.0 285.7 0.7

Financial activities

8,344 8,516 8,461 8,488 8,404 8,511 8,519 8,547 28

Finance and insurance

6,217.6 6,301.6 6,278.0 6,299.3 6,233.6 6,291.2 6,293.9 6,314.3 20.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.2 19.0 18.9 18.9 19.0 18.9 18.9 18.9 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,632.2 2,660.6 2,652.4 2,658.1 2,640.1 2,657.3 2,657.9 2,665.5 7.6

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,708.3 1,714.5 1,713.5 1,713.4 1,712.0 1,716.0 1,715.7 1,717.1 1.4

Commercial banking

1,321.5 1,321.1 1,319.7 1,320.9 1,322.0 1,322.5 1,319.3 1,321.4 2.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

618.9 629.9 623.3 627.0 621.2 625.9 624.7 629.0 4.3

Activities related to credit intermediation

305.0 316.2 315.6 317.7 306.9 315.4 317.5 319.3 1.8

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

927.2 952.5 949.7 956.5 931.6 950.8 954.4 959.7 5.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,639.0 2,669.5 2,657.0 2,665.8 2,642.9 2,664.2 2,662.7 2,670.2 7.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,126.7 2,214.7 2,182.7 2,188.3 2,170.8 2,219.5 2,225.2 2,232.4 7.2

Real estate

1,566.6 1,615.5 1,592.1 1,593.3 1,590.0 1,611.1 1,614.2 1,616.6 2.4

Rental and leasing services

536.3 574.8 566.4 570.7 556.6 584.2 586.5 591.3 4.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.8 24.4 24.2 24.3 24.2 24.2 24.5 24.5 0.0

Professional and business services

19,971 20,770 20,319 20,450 20,265 20,677 20,710 20,760 50

Professional and technical services

8,985.1 9,110.2 9,084.4 9,163.1 8,923.7 9,080.8 9,092.0 9,110.9 18.9

Legal services

1,125.4 1,143.8 1,128.0 1,128.9 1,131.5 1,137.1 1,135.9 1,135.7 -0.2

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,103.8 979.8 1,039.7 1,088.0 981.2 982.1 971.6 974.1 2.5

Architectural and engineering services

1,397.0 1,454.6 1,437.1 1,442.9 1,419.0 1,456.0 1,459.6 1,465.2 5.6

Specialized design services

138.1 140.6 135.1 135.5 139.7 138.3 137.4 137.3 -0.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,029.2 2,066.2 2,067.7 2,073.8 2,026.1 2,064.5 2,068.4 2,071.5 3.1

Management and technical consulting services

1,362.0 1,439.1 1,416.1 1,418.3 1,377.8 1,424.1 1,436.0 1,434.2 -1.8

Scientific research and development services

653.6 662.5 662.2 665.3 657.4 663.1 666.6 669.4 2.8

Advertising and related services

489.8 493.0 482.7 489.6 492.7 490.9 488.9 492.2 3.3

Other professional and technical services

686.2 730.6 715.8 720.8 698.3 724.7 727.5 731.4 3.9

Management of companies and enterprises

2,271.2 2,312.1 2,303.7 2,302.8 2,281.7 2,308.4 2,310.5 2,312.8 2.3

Administrative and waste services

8,715.1 9,347.8 8,931.3 8,984.1 9,059.7 9,287.4 9,307.4 9,335.8 28.4

Administrative and support services

8,310.5 8,931.5 8,517.9 8,571.8 8,647.7 8,869.4 8,888.2 8,916.5 28.3

Office administrative services

498.4 519.3 518.7 517.1 500.0 518.7 520.7 519.4 -1.3

Facilities support services

145.5 155.3 153.1 155.3 146.7 155.8 154.5 156.6 2.1

Employment services(1)

3,412.8 3,800.5 3,511.1 3,549.0 3,557.5 3,673.6 3,677.6 3,699.2 21.6

Temporary help services

2,774.2 3,113.6 2,850.7 2,886.1 2,901.2 2,998.1 2,995.2 3,021.7 26.5

Business support services

909.4 932.1 915.2 913.8 908.0 908.5 913.6 912.3 -1.3

Travel arrangement and reservation services

216.3 213.9 212.3 214.6 219.4 216.4 217.3 217.5 0.2

Investigation and security services

900.2 933.2 921.9 925.4 910.8 927.9 931.8 934.7 2.9

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,913.4 2,052.0 1,960.0 1,968.4 2,086.9 2,137.6 2,141.3 2,144.1 2.8

Other support services

314.5 325.2 325.6 328.2 318.4 331.1 331.4 332.8 1.4

Waste management and remediation services

404.6 416.3 413.4 412.3 412.0 418.0 419.2 419.3 0.1

Education and health services

23,142 23,556 23,250 23,592 23,017 23,380 23,443 23,466 23

Educational services

3,804.7 3,808.3 3,599.0 3,882.4 3,648.2 3,695.7 3,726.3 3,720.5 -5.8

Health care and social assistance

19,337.0 19,748.0 19,651.0 19,709.3 19,368.5 19,684.4 19,716.2 19,745.3 29.1

Health care(3)

15,582.7 15,921.8 15,837.1 15,870.9 15,619.7 15,867.0 15,890.7 15,909.2 18.5

Ambulatory health care services

7,202.1 7,419.1 7,367.6 7,386.6 7,221.8 7,388.6 7,399.7 7,407.8 8.1

Offices of physicians

2,559.4 2,628.0 2,604.4 2,612.1 2,564.0 2,612.2 2,613.0 2,617.6 4.6

Offices of dentists

929.2 945.2 935.7 934.3 930.2 943.5 938.1 935.6 -2.5

Offices of other health practitioners

873.0 908.4 908.5 908.1 877.6 905.6 913.6 912.7 -0.9

Outpatient care centers

880.7 916.2 918.1 918.3 882.4 914.0 919.6 919.6 0.0

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

267.9 275.6 274.2 275.8 268.3 274.0 274.8 276.1 1.3

Home health care services

1,390.9 1,436.5 1,421.9 1,427.9 1,397.6 1,430.5 1,431.6 1,435.6 4.0

Other ambulatory health care services

301.0 309.2 304.8 310.1 301.7 308.8 309.0 310.5 1.5

Hospitals

5,050.1 5,135.9 5,125.0 5,136.8 5,057.1 5,124.0 5,134.1 5,143.4 9.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,330.5 3,366.8 3,344.5 3,347.5 3,340.8 3,354.4 3,356.9 3,358.0 1.1

Nursing care facilities

1,631.6 1,626.6 1,615.8 1,612.1 1,636.0 1,619.7 1,619.2 1,617.1 -2.1

Residential mental health facilities

623.7 635.8 631.8 633.2 626.1 635.0 634.5 635.1 0.6

Community care facilities for the elderly

909.5 934.0 927.2 931.4 912.0 929.4 931.6 934.2 2.6

Other residential care facilities

165.7 170.4 169.7 170.8 166.8 170.3 171.5 171.5 0.0

Social assistance

3,754.3 3,826.2 3,813.9 3,838.4 3,748.8 3,817.4 3,825.5 3,836.1 10.6

Individual and family services

2,311.3 2,366.7 2,363.1 2,379.4 2,314.8 2,366.4 2,373.0 2,383.4 10.4

Emergency and other relief services

168.2 172.0 171.2 173.4 167.4 170.6 171.1 172.2 1.1

Vocational rehabilitation services

335.6 344.0 341.2 344.0 339.8 345.0 346.4 348.0 1.6

Child day care services

939.2 943.5 938.4 941.6 926.7 935.5 935.1 932.5 -2.6

Leisure and hospitality

15,283 15,862 15,452 15,601 15,937 16,207 16,246 16,262 16

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,069.3 2,174.0 2,072.5 2,111.9 2,306.6 2,349.9 2,350.6 2,354.5 3.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

437.7 475.4 427.2 450.6 480.0 496.5 492.2 495.6 3.4

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

148.4 163.0 156.1 156.3 163.1 171.5 172.0 172.0 0.0

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,483.2 1,535.6 1,489.2 1,505.0 1,663.5 1,681.9 1,686.4 1,686.9 0.5

Accommodation and food services

13,213.9 13,687.7 13,379.6 13,489.3 13,630.0 13,857.5 13,895.0 13,907.6 12.6

Accommodation

1,901.2 1,948.5 1,913.5 1,927.0 1,989.6 2,013.8 2,015.2 2,016.3 1.1

Food services and drinking places

11,312.7 11,739.2 11,466.1 11,562.3 11,640.4 11,843.7 11,879.8 11,891.3 11.5

Other services

5,690 5,800 5,751 5,784 5,742 5,822 5,827 5,837 10

Repair and maintenance

1,297.8 1,309.6 1,299.9 1,309.3 1,302.7 1,316.8 1,315.6 1,314.9 -0.7

Personal and laundry services

1,447.6 1,507.2 1,488.2 1,493.3 1,469.1 1,507.0 1,511.3 1,516.0 4.7

Membership associations and organizations

2,944.3 2,982.8 2,962.6 2,981.6 2,969.7 2,998.0 3,000.5 3,006.4 5.9

Government

22,625 22,675 22,182 22,675 22,309 22,331 22,332 22,358 26

Federal

2,798.0 2,811.0 2,788.0 2,778.0 2,810.0 2,795.0 2,799.0 2,792.0 -7.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,183.3 2,180.3 2,175.5 2,172.1 2,196.8 2,182.4 2,184.8 2,184.4 -0.4

U.S. Postal Service

614.4 630.2 612.4 606.0 612.7 612.6 614.3 608.0 -6.3

State government

5,295.0 5,233.0 5,037.0 5,274.0 5,154.0 5,129.0 5,132.0 5,134.0 2.0

State government education

2,617.7 2,576.9 2,384.5 2,618.1 2,467.7 2,462.3 2,467.3 2,468.9 1.6

State government, excluding education

2,677.2 2,655.6 2,652.1 2,655.5 2,686.3 2,667.1 2,664.8 2,665.3 0.5

Local government

14,532.0 14,631.0 14,357.0 14,623.0 14,345.0 14,407.0 14,401.0 14,432.0 31.0

Local government education

8,218.5 8,246.2 8,012.8 8,262.7 7,907.6 7,938.2 7,922.3 7,949.2 26.9

Local government, excluding education

6,313.3 6,384.9 6,343.9 6,360.7 6,437.3 6,468.4 6,478.4 6,483.2 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.5 34.4 34.5

Goods-producing

40.3 40.5 40.3 40.6

Mining and logging

44.6 45.7 45.3 45.9

Construction

39.2 39.5 39.0 39.3

Manufacturing

40.7 40.8 40.8 41.0

Durable goods

41.2 41.3 41.2 41.5

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.0 40.1 40.3

Private service-providing

33.2 33.3 33.2 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.5 34.5 34.5

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.3 39.0 39.1

Retail trade

30.8 31.1 31.1 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.7 38.7 38.9

Utilities

42.0 42.0 41.9 41.9

Information

36.2 36.2 35.8 36.0

Financial activities

37.5 37.6 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.0 36.0 35.8 36.2

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 32.9 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.2 26.0 26.1

Other services

31.8 31.8 31.6 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.5 3.5 3.6

Durable goods

3.3 3.5 3.5 3.6

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)

Total private

$26.07 $26.64 $26.71 $26.75 $896.81 $919.08 $918.82 $922.88

Goods-producing

27.32 27.84 27.89 27.94 1,101.00 1,127.52 1,123.97 1,134.36

Mining and logging

32.15 32.24 32.35 32.37 1,433.89 1,473.37 1,465.46 1,485.78

Construction

28.53 29.31 29.34 29.47 1,118.38 1,157.75 1,144.26 1,158.17

Manufacturing

26.39 26.77 26.83 26.83 1,074.07 1,092.22 1,094.66 1,100.03

Durable goods

27.64 28.05 28.12 28.09 1,138.77 1,158.47 1,158.54 1,165.74

Nondurable goods

24.27 24.58 24.63 24.68 968.37 983.20 987.66 994.60

Private service-providing

25.77 26.36 26.43 26.47 855.56 877.79 877.48 881.45

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.62 23.04 23.04 23.06 775.87 794.88 794.88 795.57

Wholesale trade

29.96 30.30 30.24 30.31 1,168.44 1,190.79 1,179.36 1,185.12

Retail trade

18.02 18.34 18.41 18.41 555.02 570.37 572.55 572.55

Transportation and warehousing

23.59 24.22 24.20 24.18 912.93 937.31 936.54 940.60

Utilities

38.64 39.52 39.53 39.59 1,622.88 1,659.84 1,656.31 1,658.82

Information

37.67 38.80 39.08 39.40 1,363.65 1,404.56 1,399.06 1,418.40

Financial activities

32.81 34.04 34.28 34.33 1,230.38 1,279.90 1,288.93 1,290.81

Professional and business services

31.32 31.96 32.04 32.08 1,127.52 1,150.56 1,147.03 1,161.30

Education and health services

26.09 26.65 26.73 26.75 858.36 879.45 879.42 882.75

Leisure and hospitality

15.28 15.69 15.72 15.74 397.28 411.08 408.72 410.81

Other services

23.60 24.22 24.25 24.25 750.48 770.20 766.30 768.73

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2018 - Feb.
2018(p)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2018 - Feb.
2018(p)

Total private

106.7 108.5 108.4 109.0 0.6 133.0 138.2 138.4 139.3 0.7

Goods-producing

91.7 93.8 93.7 94.8 1.2 113.2 118.0 118.1 119.7 1.4

Mining and logging

91.8 100.2 100.4 102.8 2.4 118.5 129.7 130.3 133.7 2.6

Construction

93.5 96.3 95.6 97.2 1.7 115.9 122.6 121.9 124.4 2.1

Manufacturing

90.7 92.2 92.4 93.0 0.6 111.3 114.8 115.2 116.1 0.8

Durable goods

89.4 90.9 91.0 92.0 1.1 109.7 113.3 113.6 114.8 1.1

Nondurable goods

93.3 94.6 94.9 95.3 0.4 114.9 118.0 118.6 119.4 0.7

Private service-providing

110.7 112.5 112.3 112.8 0.4 138.6 144.1 144.2 145.1 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.4 103.5 103.7 103.9 0.2 124.7 128.4 128.5 129.0 0.4

Wholesale trade

100.1 101.9 101.3 101.6 0.3 125.2 128.8 127.8 128.5 0.5

Retail trade

99.4 100.2 100.3 100.6 0.3 118.4 121.5 122.1 122.5 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

113.3 116.0 116.2 117.2 0.9 135.6 142.5 142.8 143.8 0.7

Utilities

101.0 100.7 100.1 100.3 0.2 129.0 131.5 130.7 131.2 0.4

Information

92.9 91.8 90.2 90.3 0.1 124.6 126.8 125.6 126.7 0.9

Financial activities

103.2 104.8 104.9 105.2 0.3 132.1 139.2 140.3 140.9 0.4

Professional and business services

114.7 117.1 116.6 118.2 1.4 145.6 151.6 151.4 153.6 1.5

Education and health services

123.6 126.0 125.9 126.4 0.4 155.2 161.5 161.9 162.7 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

118.2 121.2 120.5 121.1 0.5 145.7 153.4 152.9 153.8 0.6

Other services

105.3 106.7 106.2 106.7 0.5 136.2 141.7 141.1 141.8 0.5

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,307 73,124 73,268 73,452 49.6 49.5 49.6 49.6

Total private

59,514 60,286 60,426 60,578 48.2 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,368 4,466 4,482 4,508 21.9 22.0 22.0 22.0

Mining and logging

92 91 93 93 14.0 13.0 13.2 13.0

Construction

870 902 909 920 12.6 12.8 12.8 12.8

Manufacturing

3,406 3,473 3,480 3,495 27.5 27.7 27.7 27.7

Durable goods

1,804 1,831 1,834 1,848 23.4 23.4 23.4 23.5

Nondurable goods

1,602 1,642 1,646 1,647 34.2 34.7 34.7 34.8

Private service-providing

55,146 55,820 55,944 56,070 53.2 53.2 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,105 11,057 11,070 11,124 40.5 40.1 40.1 40.2

Wholesale trade

1,740.0 1,755.4 1,763.4 1,764.5 29.6 29.5 29.6 29.6

Retail trade

7,982.9 7,888.2 7,893.8 7,943.3 50.2 49.7 49.7 49.9

Transportation and warehousing

1,253.6 1,285.8 1,286.8 1,289.1 24.5 24.6 24.5 24.5

Utilities

128.1 127.4 126.1 127.4 23.0 23.0 22.8 23.0

Information

1,120 1,095 1,088 1,084 39.9 39.4 39.4 39.4

Financial activities

4,765 4,797 4,807 4,812 56.7 56.4 56.4 56.3

Professional and business services

9,116 9,327 9,355 9,387 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.2

Education and health services

17,739 17,981 18,028 18,039 77.1 76.9 76.9 76.9

Leisure and hospitality

8,279 8,477 8,504 8,524 51.9 52.3 52.3 52.4

Other services

3,022 3,086 3,092 3,100 52.6 53.0 53.1 53.1

Government

12,793 12,838 12,842 12,874 57.3 57.5 57.5 57.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)

Total private

101,872 103,244 103,446 103,681

Goods-producing

14,396 14,633 14,702 14,787

Mining and logging

467 517 522 527

Construction

5,230 5,294 5,336 5,390

Manufacturing

8,699 8,822 8,844 8,870

Durable goods

5,300 5,371 5,392 5,420

Nondurable goods

3,399 3,451 3,452 3,450

Private service-providing

87,476 88,611 88,744 88,894

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,092 23,304 23,346 23,413

Wholesale trade

4,707.5 4,765.4 4,771.1 4,779.5

Retail trade

13,497.3 13,533.9 13,558.8 13,615.7

Transportation and warehousing

4,439.6 4,559.0 4,571.7 4,573.6

Utilities

447.8 445.8 444.5 444.2

Information

2,264 2,236 2,220 2,207

Financial activities

6,538 6,609 6,609 6,619

Professional and business services

16,582 16,846 16,862 16,896

Education and health services

20,217 20,528 20,588 20,616

Leisure and hospitality

14,031 14,276 14,300 14,319

Other services

4,752 4,812 4,819 4,824

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.8 33.6 33.8

Goods-producing

41.3 41.3 41.2 41.5

Mining and logging

46.0 46.5 46.1 46.7

Construction

39.8 40.0 39.6 39.9

Manufacturing

42.0 41.8 41.9 42.2

Durable goods

42.4 42.2 42.2 42.5

Nondurable goods

41.3 41.2 41.4 41.8

Private service-providing

32.3 32.5 32.4 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.6 34.0 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.8 39.2 38.9 39.0

Retail trade

30.0 30.4 30.4 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.3 38.3 38.6

Utilities

42.3 42.4 42.7 42.7

Information

35.7 35.8 35.5 35.8

Financial activities

37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.3 35.4 35.1 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.2 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 25.0 24.8 24.9

Other services

30.8 30.9 30.6 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7

Durable goods

4.4 4.5 4.7 4.8

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.4 4.5 4.6

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)

Total private

$21.85 $22.31 $22.34 $22.40 $734.16 $754.08 $750.62 $757.12

Goods-producing

22.90 23.54 23.59 23.71 945.77 972.20 971.91 983.97

Mining and logging

27.30 27.79 27.85 27.89 1,255.80 1,292.24 1,283.89 1,302.46

Construction

26.38 27.12 27.16 27.36 1,049.92 1,084.80 1,075.54 1,091.66

Manufacturing

20.65 21.21 21.28 21.34 867.30 886.58 891.63 900.55

Durable goods

21.62 22.21 22.27 22.28 916.69 937.26 939.79 946.90

Nondurable goods

19.09 19.61 19.71 19.82 788.42 807.93 815.99 828.48

Private service-providing

21.63 22.05 22.08 22.12 698.65 716.63 715.39 718.90

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.18 19.53 19.52 19.54 644.45 664.02 661.73 662.41

Wholesale trade

24.54 24.80 24.75 24.80 952.15 972.16 962.78 967.20

Retail trade

15.21 15.52 15.49 15.47 456.30 471.81 470.90 468.74

Transportation and warehousing

21.00 21.54 21.62 21.67 804.30 824.98 828.05 836.46

Utilities

36.08 36.12 36.44 36.34 1,526.18 1,531.49 1,555.99 1,551.72

Information

30.42 31.05 31.20 31.33 1,085.99 1,111.59 1,107.60 1,121.61

Financial activities

26.29 26.82 26.73 26.79 972.73 992.34 989.01 991.23

Professional and business services

25.80 26.30 26.37 26.40 910.74 931.02 925.59 934.56

Education and health services

22.86 23.30 23.41 23.45 736.09 752.59 753.80 757.44

Leisure and hospitality

13.19 13.60 13.61 13.63 325.79 340.00 337.53 339.39

Other services

19.86 20.45 20.46 20.51 611.69 631.91 626.08 629.66

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2018 - Feb.
2018(p)
Feb.
2017
Dec.
2017
Jan.
2018(p)
Feb.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2018 - Feb.
2018(p)

Total private

114.0 116.3 115.8 116.8 0.9 166.5 173.3 172.9 174.8 1.1

Goods-producing

90.9 92.4 92.6 93.8 1.3 127.4 133.1 133.7 136.1 1.8

Mining and logging

114.2 127.8 127.9 130.8 2.3 181.3 206.5 207.1 212.1 2.4

Construction

104.2 106.0 105.8 107.7 1.8 148.5 155.3 155.2 159.1 2.5

Manufacturing

83.9 84.7 85.1 85.9 0.9 113.3 117.4 118.4 119.9 1.3

Durable goods

84.5 85.2 85.5 86.6 1.3 114.0 118.1 118.9 120.4 1.3

Nondurable goods

82.7 83.8 84.2 85.0 1.0 111.6 116.1 117.3 119.0 1.4

Private service-providing

120.3 122.6 122.5 123.0 0.4 178.5 185.4 185.4 186.6 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

108.2 110.5 110.3 110.6 0.3 148.0 153.9 153.6 154.2 0.4

Wholesale trade

107.6 110.0 109.3 109.8 0.5 155.5 160.7 159.4 160.4 0.6

Retail trade

102.5 104.1 104.3 104.4 0.1 133.6 138.5 138.5 138.5 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

128.0 131.4 131.8 132.9 0.8 170.5 179.6 180.8 182.7 1.1

Utilities

96.9 96.7 97.1 97.0 -0.1 145.9 145.7 147.6 147.1 -0.3

Information

92.3 91.4 90.0 90.2 0.2 138.9 140.4 138.9 139.9 0.7

Financial activities

113.9 115.1 115.1 115.3 0.2 184.2 189.9 189.3 190.0 0.4

Professional and business services

131.2 133.7 132.6 134.0 1.1 201.4 209.2 208.2 210.6 1.2

Education and health services

138.8 141.4 141.3 142.0 0.5 209.4 217.4 218.4 219.8 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

126.9 130.7 129.9 130.6 0.5 190.2 201.9 200.8 202.2 0.7

Other services

102.6 104.3 103.4 103.9 0.5 148.5 155.4 154.2 155.2 0.6

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: March 09, 2018