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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	      USDL-21-0582
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, April 2, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 916,000 in March, and the unemployment rate 
edged down to 6.0 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. These 
improvements in the labor market reflect the continued resumption of economic activity 
that had been curtailed due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Job growth was 
widespread in March, led by gains in leisure and hospitality, public and private 
education, and construction. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. 
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate edged down to 6.0 percent in March. The rate is down considerably
from its recent high in April 2020 but is 2.5 percentage points higher than its pre-
pandemic level in February 2020. The number of unemployed persons, at 9.7 million, 
continued to trend down in March but is 4.0 million higher than in February 2020. (See
table A-1. See the box note at the end of this news release for more information about 
how the household survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Asians rose to 6.0 percent in
March, following a decline in the previous month. The jobless rate for Hispanics edged
down to 7.9 percent over the month, while the rates for adult men (5.8 percent), adult
women (5.7 percent), teenagers (13.0 percent), Whites (5.4 percent), and Blacks (9.6 
percent) changed little. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of persons on temporary layoff declined by 203,000 in
March to 2.0 million. This measure is down considerably from the recent high of 18.0 
million in April 2020 but is 1.3 million higher than in February 2020. The number of 
permanent job losers, at 3.4 million, was little changed in March but is 2.1 million 
higher than February 2020. (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 4.2 million,
changed little over the month but is up by 3.1 million since February 2020. In March, 
these long-term unemployed accounted for 43.4 percent of the total unemployed. The 
number of persons jobless 5 to 14 weeks declined by 313,000 to 1.9 million. The number 
of persons jobless less than 5 weeks, at 2.2 million, was essentially unchanged over 
the month. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate changed little at 61.5 percent in March. This 
measure is 1.8 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The employment-population
ratio, at 57.8 percent, was up by 0.2 percentage point over the month but is 3.3 
percentage points lower than in February 2020.  (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 5.8 million, changed 
little in March but is 1.4 million higher than in February 2020. These individuals, who
would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours 
had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was about 
unchanged at 6.9 million in March but is up by 1.8 million since February 2020. These 
individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for 
work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who currently want a job, the number of persons 
marginally attached to the labor force, at 1.9 million, was essentially unchanged in 
March but is up by 416,000 since February 2020. These individuals wanted and were 
available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not
looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a
subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, was
523,000 in March, essentially unchanged from the previous month. (See Summary table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In March, 21.0 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus pandemic,
down from 22.7 percent in the prior month. These data refer to employed persons who 
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically 
because of the pandemic.

In March, 11.4 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all
or worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. This measure
is down from 13.3 million in the previous month. Among those who reported in March that 
they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost business, 10.2 
percent received at least some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, little 
changed from the previous month.

Among those not in the labor force in March, 3.7 million persons were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic. This measure is down from 4.2 million the month 
before. (To be counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively 
looking for work or on temporary layoff.)

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in May
2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not 
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 916,000 in March but is down by 8.4 million,
or 5.5 percent, from its pre-pandemic peak in February 2020. Job growth in March was 
widespread, with the largest gains occurring in leisure and hospitality, public and 
private education, and construction. (See table B-1. See the box note at the end of this 
news release for more information about how the establishment survey and its measures were
affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

In March, employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 280,000, as pandemic-related
restrictions eased in many parts of the country. Nearly two-thirds of the increase was in
food services and drinking places (+176,000). Job gains also occurred in arts, 
entertainment, and recreation (+64,000) and in accommodation (+40,000). Employment in 
leisure and hospitality is down by 3.1 million, or 18.5 percent, since February 2020.

In March, employment increased in both public and private education, reflecting the 
continued resumption of in-person learning and other school-related activities in many 
parts of the country. Employment rose by 76,000 in local government education, by 50,000 
in state government education, and by 64,000 in private education. Employment is down 
from February 2020 in local government education (-594,000), state government education 
(-270,000), and private education (-310,000).

Construction added 110,000 jobs in March, following job losses in the previous month 
(-56,000) that were likely weather-related. Employment growth in the industry was 
widespread in March, with gains of 65,000 in specialty trade contractors, 27,000 in heavy
and civil engineering construction, and 18,000 in construction of buildings. Employment 
in construction is 182,000 below its February 2020 level.

Employment in professional and business services rose by 66,000 over the month but is 
down by 685,000 since February 2020. In March, employment in administrative and support
services continued to trend up (+37,000), although employment in its temporary help 
services component was essentially unchanged. Employment also continued on an upward 
trend in management and technical consulting services (+8,000) and in computer systems 
design and related services (+6,000). 

Manufacturing employment rose by 53,000 in March, with job gains occurring in both 
durable goods (+30,000) and nondurable goods (+23,000). Employment in manufacturing is 
down by 515,000 since February 2020.

Transportation and warehousing added 48,000 jobs in March. Employment increased in 
couriers and messengers (+17,000), transit and ground passenger transportation (+13,000),
support activities for transportation (+6,000), and air transportation (+6,000). Since 
February 2020, employment in couriers and messengers is up by 206,000 (or 23.3 percent),
while employment is down by 112,000 (or 22.8 percent) in transit and ground passenger 
transportation and by 104,000 (or 20.1 percent) in air transportation. 

Employment in the other services industry increased by 42,000 over the month, reflecting
job gains in personal and laundry services (+19,000) and in repair and maintenance 
(+18,000). Employment in other services is down by 396,000 since February 2020.

Social assistance added 25,000 jobs in March, mostly in individual and family services 
(+20,000). Employment in social assistance is 306,000 lower than in February 2020.

Employment in wholesale trade increased by 24,000 in March, with job gains in both 
durable goods (+14,000) and nondurable goods (+10,000). Employment in wholesale trade is
234,000 lower than in February 2020.

Retail trade added 23,000 jobs in March. Job growth in clothing and clothing accessories
stores (+16,000), motor vehicle and parts dealers (+13,000), and furniture and home 
furnishing stores (+6,000) was partially offset by losses in building material and garden
supply stores (-9,000) and general merchandise stores (-7,000). Employment in retail 
trade is 381,000 below its February 2020 level.

Employment in mining rose by 21,000 in March, largely in support activities for mining 
(+19,000). Mining employment is down by 130,000 since a peak in January 2019.

Financial activities added 16,000 jobs in March. Job gains in insurance carriers and 
related activities (+11,000) and real estate (+10,000) more than offset losses in credit
intermediation and related activities (-7,000). Financial activities has 87,000 fewer 
jobs than in February 2020.
 
Employment in health care and information changed little in March. 

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls fell by
4 cents to $29.96. Average hourly earnings for private-sector production and 
nonsupervisory employees, at $25.21, changed little (+2 cents). The large employment 
fluctuations over the past year--especially in industries with lower-paid workers--
complicate the analysis of recent trends in average hourly earnings. (See tables B-3 
and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.3 hour
to 34.9 hours in March, following a decline of 0.4 hour in the prior month. In 
manufacturing, the workweek increased by 0.2 hour to 40.5 hours over the month, and 
overtime increased by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and 
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 0.3 hour to 34.3 hours. 
(See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised up by 67,000, from
+166,000 to +233,000, and the change for February was revised up by 89,000, from +379,000
to +468,000. With these revisions, employment in January and February combined was 156,000
higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports 
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and 
from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on Friday, May 7, 2021,
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on March 2021                      |
|			 Household and Establishment Survey Data			|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been 	|
| classified as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead misclassified as employed 	|
| but not at work. However, the share of responses that may have been misclassified was |
| highest in the early months of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent |
| months. Since March 2020, BLS has published an estimate of what the unemployment rate |
| might have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed. 	|
| Repeating this same approach, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in March 2021 |
| would have been 0.4 percentage point higher than reported. However, this represents 	|
| the upper bound of our estimate of misclassification and probably overstates the size |
| of the misclassification error. 							|
|											|
| More information about the impact of the pandemic on the two surveys is available at 	|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-march-2021.htm.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Change from:
Feb.
2021-
Mar.
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,758 260,851 260,918 261,003 85

Civilian labor force

162,721 160,161 160,211 160,558 347

Participation rate

62.6 61.4 61.4 61.5 0.1

Employed

155,536 150,031 150,239 150,848 609

Employment-population ratio

59.9 57.5 57.6 57.8 0.2

Unemployed

7,185 10,130 9,972 9,710 -262

Unemployment rate

4.4 6.3 6.2 6.0 -0.2

Not in labor force

97,037 100,690 100,708 100,445 -263

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.4 6.3 6.2 6.0 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.1 6.0 6.0 5.8 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.0 6.0 5.9 5.7 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

14.1 14.8 13.9 13.0 -0.9

White

3.9 5.7 5.6 5.4 -0.2

Black or African American

6.8 9.2 9.9 9.6 -0.3

Asian

4.1 6.6 5.1 6.0 0.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.0 8.6 8.5 7.9 -0.6

Total, 25 years and over

3.5 5.7 5.6 5.3 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

6.9 9.1 10.1 8.2 -1.9

High school graduates, no college

4.3 7.1 7.2 6.7 -0.5

Some college or associate degree

3.7 6.2 5.9 5.9 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.5 4.0 3.8 3.7 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,198 6,997 6,586 6,226 -360

Job leavers

716 653 701 777 76

Reentrants

1,772 1,963 2,124 2,253 129

New entrants

526 542 582 497 -85

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

3,424 2,278 2,185 2,177 -8

5 to 14 weeks

1,785 2,528 2,254 1,941 -313

15 to 26 weeks

784 1,346 1,407 1,391 -16

27 weeks and over

1,188 4,023 4,148 4,218 70

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,787 5,954 6,088 5,826 -262

Slack work or business conditions

4,128 4,756 4,723 4,629 -94

Could only find part-time work

1,311 986 1,166 984 -182

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,361 18,519 18,369 19,102 733

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,442 1,917 1,890 1,853 -37

Discouraged workers

536 624 522 523 1

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-1,683 233 468 916

Total private

-1,622 122 558 780

Goods-producing

-188 -7 -44 183

Mining and logging

-16 -1 -6 20

Construction

-91 12 -56 110

Manufacturing

-81 -18 18 53

Durable goods(1)

-46 -17 9 30

Motor vehicles and parts

-7.3 -6.4 -3.0 -1.0

Nondurable goods

-35 -1 9 23

Private service-providing

-1,434 129 602 597

Wholesale trade

-18.6 14.2 6.2 23.7

Retail trade

-126.2 18.5 28.0 22.5

Transportation and warehousing

-1.0 5.9 35.5 47.5

Utilities

-0.4 0.9 -0.1 0.3

Information

-16 13 3 -2

Financial activities

-25 7 -9 16

Professional and business services(1)

-151 90 78 66

Temporary help services

-50.3 99.7 49.8 -0.8

Education and health services(1)

-218 -14 57 101

Health care and social assistance

-136.1 -91.7 50.8 36.4

Leisure and hospitality

-782 -17 384 280

Other services

-95 11 19 42

Government

-61 111 -90 136

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-360 64 132 539

Total private

-375 69 135 487

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

50.0 49.8 49.8 49.7

Total private women employees

48.6 48.4 48.5 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.1 81.4 81.5 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.1 35.0 34.6 34.9

Average hourly earnings

$28.74 $29.92 $30.00 $29.96

Average weekly earnings

$980.03 $1,047.20 $1,038.00 $1,045.60

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

109.6 106.5 105.7 107.3

Over-the-month percent change

-2.1 1.0 -0.8 1.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

150.6 152.3 151.6 153.7

Over-the-month percent change

-1.4 1.0 -0.5 1.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

12.5 50.4 58.6 71.0

Manufacturing (75 industries)

15.3 46.0 60.7 74.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,758 260,918 261,003 259,758 261,085 261,230 260,851 260,918 261,003

Civilian labor force

162,537 160,008 160,397 162,721 160,536 160,567 160,161 160,211 160,558

Participation rate

62.6 61.3 61.5 62.6 61.5 61.5 61.4 61.4 61.5

Employed

155,167 149,522 150,493 155,536 149,809 149,830 150,031 150,239 150,848

Employment-population ratio

59.7 57.3 57.7 59.9 57.4 57.4 57.5 57.6 57.8

Unemployed

7,370 10,486 9,905 7,185 10,728 10,736 10,130 9,972 9,710

Unemployment rate

4.5 6.6 6.2 4.4 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.0

Not in labor force

97,221 100,910 100,606 97,037 100,548 100,663 100,690 100,708 100,445

Persons who currently want a job

5,215 6,902 6,576 5,490 7,127 7,331 6,957 6,933 6,850

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,639 126,224 126,266 125,639 126,296 126,367 126,192 126,224 126,266

Civilian labor force

85,914 84,754 84,728 86,113 85,161 85,175 85,149 85,061 84,917

Participation rate

68.4 67.1 67.1 68.5 67.4 67.4 67.5 67.4 67.3

Employed

81,794 78,855 79,188 82,302 79,267 79,481 79,714 79,666 79,681

Employment-population ratio

65.1 62.5 62.7 65.5 62.8 62.9 63.2 63.1 63.1

Unemployed

4,120 5,899 5,540 3,811 5,894 5,694 5,434 5,395 5,236

Unemployment rate

4.8 7.0 6.5 4.4 6.9 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.2

Not in labor force

39,725 41,470 41,538 39,526 41,135 41,192 41,043 41,163 41,349

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,254 117,902 117,949 117,254 117,936 118,010 117,864 117,902 117,949

Civilian labor force

83,174 81,978 81,992 83,171 82,226 82,244 82,173 82,095 81,978

Participation rate

70.9 69.5 69.5 70.9 69.7 69.7 69.7 69.6 69.5

Employed

79,448 76,568 76,872 79,785 76,777 77,004 77,204 77,193 77,194

Employment-population ratio

67.8 64.9 65.2 68.0 65.1 65.3 65.5 65.5 65.4

Unemployed

3,726 5,410 5,120 3,385 5,449 5,240 4,969 4,902 4,784

Unemployment rate

4.5 6.6 6.2 4.1 6.6 6.4 6.0 6.0 5.8

Not in labor force

34,080 35,924 35,957 34,083 35,710 35,767 35,691 35,807 35,972

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,119 134,694 134,737 134,119 134,788 134,862 134,660 134,694 134,737

Civilian labor force

76,623 75,254 75,670 76,608 75,376 75,392 75,012 75,149 75,641

Participation rate

57.1 55.9 56.2 57.1 55.9 55.9 55.7 55.8 56.1

Employed

73,373 70,667 71,305 73,234 70,542 70,350 70,316 70,572 71,167

Employment-population ratio

54.7 52.5 52.9 54.6 52.3 52.2 52.2 52.4 52.8

Unemployed

3,250 4,587 4,365 3,374 4,834 5,042 4,696 4,577 4,474

Unemployment rate

4.2 6.1 5.8 4.4 6.4 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.9

Not in labor force

57,496 59,440 59,067 57,511 59,413 59,471 59,648 59,545 59,096

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,915 126,546 126,594 125,915 126,604 126,681 126,507 126,546 126,594

Civilian labor force

73,789 72,445 72,818 73,657 72,395 72,422 72,147 72,173 72,668

Participation rate

58.6 57.2 57.5 58.5 57.2 57.2 57.0 57.0 57.4

Employed

70,908 68,163 68,730 70,691 67,941 67,872 67,851 67,928 68,513

Employment-population ratio

56.3 53.9 54.3 56.1 53.7 53.6 53.6 53.7 54.1

Unemployed

2,881 4,283 4,088 2,966 4,453 4,551 4,296 4,245 4,155

Unemployment rate

3.9 5.9 5.6 4.0 6.2 6.3 6.0 5.9 5.7

Not in labor force

52,126 54,101 53,775 52,258 54,209 54,259 54,360 54,373 53,926

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,590 16,470 16,460 16,590 16,545 16,538 16,481 16,470 16,460

Civilian labor force

5,574 5,585 5,587 5,894 5,915 5,900 5,841 5,942 5,913

Participation rate

33.6 33.9 33.9 35.5 35.8 35.7 35.4 36.1 35.9

Employed

4,811 4,792 4,890 5,060 5,091 4,955 4,975 5,118 5,142

Employment-population ratio

29.0 29.1 29.7 30.5 30.8 30.0 30.2 31.1 31.2

Unemployed

763 793 697 834 825 946 865 825 771

Unemployment rate

13.7 14.2 12.5 14.1 13.9 16.0 14.8 13.9 13.0

Not in labor force

11,015 10,885 10,873 10,696 10,630 10,638 10,640 10,528 10,547

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,023 201,606 201,642 201,023 201,685 201,749 201,588 201,606 201,642

Civilian labor force

125,761 123,680 123,768 125,803 124,038 124,208 123,727 123,737 123,819

Participation rate

62.6 61.3 61.4 62.6 61.5 61.6 61.4 61.4 61.4

Employed

120,660 116,369 116,981 120,840 116,665 116,703 116,699 116,859 117,166

Employment-population ratio

60.0 57.7 58.0 60.1 57.8 57.8 57.9 58.0 58.1

Unemployed

5,101 7,312 6,787 4,963 7,373 7,505 7,027 6,878 6,653

Unemployment rate

4.1 5.9 5.5 3.9 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.6 5.4

Not in labor force

75,261 77,926 77,874 75,220 77,647 77,541 77,862 77,869 77,823

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,501 64,441 64,348 65,420 64,648 64,593 64,550 64,434 64,289

Participation rate

71.1 69.7 69.6 71.0 69.9 69.8 69.8 69.7 69.5

Employed

62,842 60,565 60,753 63,012 60,844 60,872 60,988 60,989 60,935

Employment-population ratio

68.2 65.5 65.7 68.4 65.8 65.8 66.0 66.0 65.9

Unemployed

2,659 3,875 3,596 2,407 3,804 3,721 3,561 3,446 3,353

Unemployment rate

4.1 6.0 5.6 3.7 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,894 54,824 55,040 55,777 54,717 54,980 54,529 54,599 54,911

Participation rate

57.8 56.5 56.7 57.7 56.4 56.6 56.2 56.3 56.6

Employed

53,974 51,985 52,340 53,789 51,765 51,871 51,739 51,782 52,155

Employment-population ratio

55.8 53.6 53.9 55.6 53.3 53.4 53.3 53.4 53.7

Unemployed

1,921 2,838 2,699 1,988 2,953 3,109 2,790 2,817 2,756

Unemployment rate

3.4 5.2 4.9 3.6 5.4 5.7 5.1 5.2 5.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,366 4,416 4,380 4,606 4,673 4,635 4,648 4,704 4,619

Participation rate

35.9 36.5 36.3 37.8 38.5 38.2 38.4 38.9 38.2

Employed

3,844 3,818 3,888 4,038 4,056 3,960 3,972 4,088 4,076

Employment-population ratio

31.6 31.6 32.2 33.2 33.4 32.7 32.8 33.8 33.7

Unemployed

521 598 492 568 616 675 676 616 543

Unemployment rate

11.9 13.5 11.2 12.3 13.2 14.6 14.5 13.1 11.8

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,238 33,511 33,530 33,238 33,486 33,516 33,493 33,511 33,530

Civilian labor force

20,455 20,041 20,283 20,558 20,165 20,055 20,189 20,154 20,362

Participation rate

61.5 59.8 60.5 61.8 60.2 59.8 60.3 60.1 60.7

Employed

19,018 17,989 18,281 19,164 18,087 18,061 18,323 18,159 18,412

Employment-population ratio

57.2 53.7 54.5 57.7 54.0 53.9 54.7 54.2 54.9

Unemployed

1,438 2,052 2,002 1,394 2,077 1,994 1,866 1,995 1,951

Unemployment rate

7.0 10.2 9.9 6.8 10.3 9.9 9.2 9.9 9.6

Not in labor force

12,783 13,470 13,247 12,680 13,321 13,461 13,305 13,357 13,168

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,404 9,278 9,394 9,450 9,217 9,222 9,348 9,340 9,430

Participation rate

67.2 65.6 66.3 67.5 65.2 65.2 66.1 66.0 66.6

Employed

8,691 8,261 8,406 8,798 8,184 8,265 8,468 8,383 8,501

Employment-population ratio

62.1 58.4 59.4 62.9 57.9 58.4 59.9 59.2 60.0

Unemployed

713 1,017 988 652 1,033 956 880 957 928

Unemployment rate

7.6 11.0 10.5 6.9 11.2 10.4 9.4 10.2 9.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,363 10,120 10,197 10,359 10,242 10,088 10,138 10,127 10,181

Participation rate

61.6 59.7 60.1 61.6 60.4 59.5 59.8 59.7 60.0

Employed

9,806 9,201 9,296 9,806 9,320 9,238 9,274 9,225 9,294

Employment-population ratio

58.3 54.2 54.8 58.3 55.0 54.5 54.7 54.4 54.8

Unemployed

558 919 902 553 921 849 864 902 887

Unemployment rate

5.4 9.1 8.8 5.3 9.0 8.4 8.5 8.9 8.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

687 643 691 748 706 746 703 687 752

Participation rate

28.3 26.8 28.9 30.8 29.3 31.0 29.3 28.7 31.4

Employed

521 527 579 560 583 558 581 551 616

Employment-population ratio

21.4 22.0 24.2 23.0 24.2 23.2 24.2 23.0 25.7

Unemployed

167 116 112 189 123 188 122 136 136

Unemployment rate

24.2 18.0 16.2 25.2 17.4 25.2 17.3 19.8 18.1

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,419 16,588 16,532 16,419 16,558 16,583 16,423 16,588 16,532

Civilian labor force

10,486 10,404 10,433 10,473 10,380 10,253 10,317 10,315 10,422

Participation rate

63.9 62.7 63.1 63.8 62.7 61.8 62.8 62.2 63.0

Employed

10,058 9,873 9,817 10,040 9,685 9,645 9,631 9,792 9,799

Employment-population ratio

61.3 59.5 59.4 61.1 58.5 58.2 58.6 59.0 59.3

Unemployed

428 532 616 434 695 608 686 523 623

Unemployment rate

4.1 5.1 5.9 4.1 6.7 5.9 6.6 5.1 6.0

Not in labor force

5,932 6,184 6,099 5,945 6,179 6,329 6,106 6,273 6,110

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,895 44,587 44,651 43,895 44,559 44,639 44,521 44,587 44,651

Civilian labor force

29,372 29,145 29,232 29,402 29,152 29,150 28,920 29,174 29,273

Participation rate

66.9 65.4 65.5 67.0 65.4 65.3 65.0 65.4 65.6

Employed

27,531 26,527 26,848 27,645 26,688 26,436 26,437 26,701 26,975

Employment-population ratio

62.7 59.5 60.1 63.0 59.9 59.2 59.4 59.9 60.4

Unemployed

1,841 2,619 2,384 1,757 2,463 2,714 2,482 2,473 2,298

Unemployment rate

6.3 9.0 8.2 6.0 8.4 9.3 8.6 8.5 7.9

Not in labor force

14,523 15,442 15,418 14,493 15,407 15,489 15,601 15,413 15,378

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,836 15,924 16,033 15,806 15,951 15,856 15,789 15,952 16,007

Participation rate

79.9 79.1 79.5 79.8 79.3 78.6 78.5 79.2 79.3

Employed

14,943 14,557 14,733 15,006 14,700 14,462 14,578 14,727 14,804

Employment-population ratio

75.4 72.3 73.0 75.7 73.0 71.7 72.5 73.1 73.4

Unemployed

893 1,368 1,300 800 1,251 1,395 1,211 1,224 1,203

Unemployment rate

5.6 8.6 8.1 5.1 7.8 8.8 7.7 7.7 7.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,208 11,845 11,869 12,244 11,821 11,906 11,779 11,794 11,909

Participation rate

60.8 58.0 58.1 61.0 58.0 58.3 57.8 57.8 58.3

Employed

11,462 10,829 10,983 11,513 10,851 10,820 10,743 10,792 11,035

Employment-population ratio

57.1 53.0 53.7 57.3 53.2 52.9 52.7 52.9 54.0

Unemployed

746 1,016 886 731 970 1,086 1,036 1,002 874

Unemployment rate

6.1 8.6 7.5 6.0 8.2 9.1 8.8 8.5 7.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,328 1,376 1,331 1,351 1,380 1,388 1,352 1,428 1,356

Participation rate

33.2 34.1 33.0 33.8 34.2 34.3 33.6 35.4 33.6

Employed

1,126 1,141 1,133 1,125 1,137 1,155 1,116 1,182 1,135

Employment-population ratio

28.1 28.3 28.1 28.1 28.2 28.6 27.7 29.3 28.2

Unemployed

202 235 198 226 243 234 236 247 221

Unemployment rate

15.2 17.0 14.9 16.7 17.6 16.8 17.4 17.3 16.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,184 8,600 8,835 9,302 9,276 9,147 9,169 8,942 8,936

Participation rate

45.3 44.2 43.9 45.9 45.7 45.0 44.9 45.9 44.4

Employed

8,439 7,579 7,997 8,662 8,418 8,254 8,337 8,035 8,204

Employment-population ratio

41.6 38.9 39.8 42.7 41.4 40.7 40.8 41.2 40.8

Unemployed

745 1,021 838 640 858 893 832 907 731

Unemployment rate

8.1 11.9 9.5 6.9 9.2 9.8 9.1 10.1 8.2

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,142 34,436 34,351 34,966 35,163 34,925 34,506 34,462 34,278

Participation rate

57.3 54.7 54.9 57.0 55.4 55.5 55.2 54.7 54.8

Employed

33,460 31,750 31,902 33,455 32,435 32,198 32,051 31,977 31,984

Employment-population ratio

54.6 50.4 51.0 54.6 51.1 51.1 51.3 50.8 51.1

Unemployed

1,682 2,686 2,449 1,510 2,728 2,726 2,455 2,485 2,295

Unemployment rate

4.8 7.8 7.1 4.3 7.8 7.8 7.1 7.2 6.7

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,256 35,489 35,782 37,281 35,644 35,676 35,440 35,450 35,771

Participation rate

64.5 62.8 63.3 64.5 62.3 62.5 62.3 62.7 63.3

Employed

35,803 33,292 33,608 35,902 33,387 33,430 33,257 33,360 33,677

Employment-population ratio

62.0 58.9 59.5 62.1 58.4 58.6 58.4 59.0 59.6

Unemployed

1,453 2,197 2,174 1,379 2,257 2,246 2,183 2,089 2,094

Unemployment rate

3.9 6.2 6.1 3.7 6.3 6.3 6.2 5.9 5.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,888 61,437 61,316 60,470 59,620 59,940 60,391 60,744 60,835

Participation rate

73.5 72.6 72.6 72.9 72.2 71.9 72.2 71.8 72.0

Employed

59,405 59,092 59,086 58,979 57,095 57,665 57,969 58,417 58,612

Employment-population ratio

71.7 69.8 69.9 71.2 69.1 69.1 69.3 69.1 69.4

Unemployed

1,484 2,344 2,230 1,491 2,524 2,274 2,422 2,327 2,224

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.8 3.6 2.5 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.8 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,578 18,914 16,678 16,905 1,900 2,009

Civilian labor force

9,072 8,995 7,974 7,820 1,098 1,176

Participation rate

48.8 47.6 47.8 46.3 57.8 58.5

Employed

8,703 8,544 7,653 7,403 1,051 1,141

Employment-population ratio

46.8 45.2 45.9 43.8 55.3 56.8

Unemployed

368 452 321 417 47 35

Unemployment rate

4.1 5.0 4.0 5.3 4.3 2.9

Not in labor force

9,506 9,919 8,704 9,085 802 833

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,267 4,622 3,551 3,833 716 789

Civilian labor force

3,394 3,637 2,864 3,103 530 534

Participation rate

79.5 78.7 80.6 81.0 74.0 67.7

Employed

3,254 3,414 2,756 2,900 497 514

Employment-population ratio

76.2 73.9 77.6 75.7 69.4 65.1

Unemployed

140 223 107 203 33 20

Unemployment rate

4.1 6.1 3.7 6.5 6.2 3.8

Not in labor force

873 985 687 730 186 255

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,249 3,315 2,711 2,776 538 539

Civilian labor force

2,437 2,455 2,087 2,063 350 392

Participation rate

75.0 74.1 77.0 74.3 65.0 72.8

Employed

2,359 2,345 2,021 1,964 338 381

Employment-population ratio

72.6 70.8 74.6 70.7 62.8 70.8

Unemployed

78 110 66 99 12 11

Unemployment rate

3.2 4.5 3.2 4.8 3.4 2.8

Not in labor force

812 860 624 713 188 146

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,941 6,804 6,699 6,541 242 263

Civilian labor force

1,327 1,141 1,303 1,106 24 35

Participation rate

19.1 16.8 19.5 16.9 9.8 13.3

Employed

1,273 1,090 1,249 1,059 24 31

Employment-population ratio

18.3 16.0 18.7 16.2 9.8 11.9

Unemployed

54 51 54 47 0 3

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.4 4.1 4.3 - -

Not in labor force

5,614 5,663 5,396 5,435 218 228

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,121 4,173 3,717 3,755 404 418

Civilian labor force

1,914 1,762 1,719 1,548 195 214

Participation rate

46.4 42.2 46.3 41.2 48.2 51.3

Employed

1,817 1,694 1,626 1,480 192 214

Employment-population ratio

44.1 40.6 43.7 39.4 47.5 51.3

Unemployed

97 68 94 68 3 0

Unemployment rate

5.0 3.9 5.5 4.4 1.4 0.0

Not in labor force

2,207 2,411 1,998 2,207 209 204

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

232,458 233,443 104,614 104,963 127,844 128,480

Civilian labor force

151,507 149,422 77,080 76,020 74,427 73,403

Participation rate

65.2 64.0 73.7 72.4 58.2 57.1

Employed

144,827 140,208 73,417 71,012 71,410 69,196

Employment-population ratio

62.3 60.1 70.2 67.7 55.9 53.9

Unemployed

6,679 9,215 3,663 5,008 3,017 4,207

Unemployment rate

4.4 6.2 4.8 6.6 4.1 5.7

Not in labor force

80,951 84,021 27,534 28,943 53,417 55,077

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,563 30,108 229,195 230,895

Civilian labor force

6,418 6,082 156,119 154,315

Participation rate

21.0 20.2 68.1 66.8

Employed

5,888 5,459 149,279 145,034

Employment-population ratio

19.3 18.1 65.1 62.8

Unemployed

530 623 6,840 9,282

Unemployment rate

8.3 10.2 4.4 6.0

Not in labor force

24,145 24,026 73,076 76,580

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,713 2,494 77,342 76,533

Participation rate

36.5 33.3 82.4 81.6

Employed

2,442 2,226 73,756 71,553

Employment-population ratio

32.9 29.8 78.5 76.3

Unemployed

271 268 3,586 4,981

Unemployment rate

10.0 10.7 4.6 6.5

Not in labor force

4,715 4,985 16,569 17,222

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,542 2,506 69,285 68,417

Participation rate

33.3 33.4 71.6 70.8

Employed

2,330 2,214 66,379 64,580

Employment-population ratio

30.5 29.5 68.6 66.9

Unemployed

212 292 2,906 3,837

Unemployment rate

8.3 11.6 4.2 5.6

Not in labor force

5,086 5,002 27,437 28,181

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,163 1,082 9,492 9,365

Participation rate

7.5 7.2 24.6 23.1

Employed

1,116 1,019 9,144 8,901

Employment-population ratio

7.2 6.7 23.7 22.0

Unemployed

47 63 348 464

Unemployment rate

4.0 5.9 3.7 5.0

Not in labor force

14,344 14,039 29,069 31,176

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,323 43,059 20,474 20,674 21,849 22,385

Civilian labor force

27,819 27,775 15,965 15,838 11,854 11,937

Participation rate

65.7 64.5 78.0 76.6 54.3 53.3

Employed

26,478 25,886 15,301 14,841 11,178 11,045

Employment-population ratio

62.6 60.1 74.7 71.8 51.2 49.3

Unemployed

1,341 1,889 665 997 676 892

Unemployment rate

4.8 6.8 4.2 6.3 5.7 7.5

Not in labor force

14,504 15,285 4,509 4,836 9,995 10,449

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

217,435 217,944 105,165 105,593 112,270 112,351

Civilian labor force

134,718 132,623 69,949 68,890 64,769 63,733

Participation rate

62.0 60.9 66.5 65.2 57.7 56.7

Employed

128,689 124,607 66,493 64,347 62,195 60,260

Employment-population ratio

59.2 57.2 63.2 60.9 55.4 53.6

Unemployed

6,029 8,016 3,456 4,543 2,574 3,473

Unemployment rate

4.5 6.0 4.9 6.6 4.0 5.4

Not in labor force

82,717 85,321 35,216 36,702 47,501 48,619

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,263 2,184 2,109 2,352 2,432 2,461 2,466 2,308 2,228

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,580 1,450 1,429 1,668 1,553 1,569 1,552 1,519 1,518

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

661 676 623 663 837 823 827 712 635

Unpaid family workers

22 58 57 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

152,904 147,338 148,384 153,093 147,314 147,351 147,535 147,895 148,598

Wage and salary workers(1)

144,163 138,602 139,161 144,327 138,891 138,971 138,941 139,243 139,382

Government

21,484 21,218 20,958 21,147 20,418 20,709 20,689 20,829 20,644

Private industries

122,679 117,383 118,203 123,110 118,525 118,123 118,102 118,151 118,616

Private households

712 604 650 - - - - - -

Other industries

121,967 116,779 117,553 122,327 117,902 117,472 117,532 117,451 117,896

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,704 8,665 9,143 8,799 8,570 8,638 8,721 8,787 9,241

Unpaid family workers

37 72 80 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,879 6,309 5,913 5,787 6,641 6,170 5,954 6,088 5,826

Slack work or business conditions

4,159 4,958 4,660 4,128 5,223 4,891 4,756 4,723 4,629

Could only find part-time work

1,404 1,124 1,061 1,311 1,167 1,045 986 1,166 984

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,764 19,042 19,523 20,361 18,580 18,237 18,519 18,369 19,102

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,788 6,199 5,859 5,728 6,582 6,082 5,824 5,986 5,804

Slack work or business conditions

4,090 4,887 4,622 4,064 5,176 4,819 4,691 4,661 4,592

Could only find part-time work

1,392 1,116 1,060 1,300 1,163 1,037 986 1,154 982

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,392 18,670 19,151 19,987 18,182 17,846 18,112 17,998 18,726

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

155,167 149,522 150,493 155,536 149,809 149,830 150,031 150,239 150,848

16 to 19 years

4,811 4,792 4,890 5,060 5,091 4,955 4,975 5,118 5,142

16 to 17 years

1,636 1,709 1,742 1,812 1,797 1,785 1,784 1,868 1,923

18 to 19 years

3,175 3,082 3,149 3,279 3,277 3,192 3,222 3,245 3,256

20 years and over

150,356 144,730 145,603 150,476 144,718 144,876 145,055 145,121 145,706

20 to 24 years

13,248 13,017 13,009 13,382 13,203 13,167 13,216 13,216 13,150

25 years and over

137,107 131,714 132,593 137,047 131,461 131,637 131,689 131,789 132,492

25 to 54 years

100,141 96,364 96,911 100,126 95,861 96,225 96,307 96,461 96,856

25 to 34 years

35,429 33,966 34,125 35,410 33,581 33,913 33,884 33,988 34,099

35 to 44 years

33,050 32,061 32,356 33,125 32,098 32,011 32,162 32,146 32,406

45 to 54 years

31,662 30,337 30,431 31,591 30,182 30,300 30,261 30,327 30,351

55 years and over

36,966 35,350 35,682 36,921 35,600 35,412 35,382 35,328 35,636

Men, 16 years and over

81,794 78,855 79,188 82,302 79,267 79,481 79,714 79,666 79,681

16 to 19 years

2,346 2,287 2,316 2,517 2,490 2,477 2,510 2,474 2,488

16 to 17 years

724 846 774 826 863 881 892 938 879

18 to 19 years

1,622 1,442 1,542 1,712 1,630 1,603 1,634 1,550 1,632

20 years and over

79,448 76,568 76,872 79,785 76,777 77,004 77,204 77,193 77,194

20 to 24 years

6,688 6,623 6,594 6,800 6,722 6,672 6,810 6,763 6,711

25 years and over

72,760 69,945 70,278 72,991 70,040 70,220 70,317 70,329 70,499

25 to 54 years

53,170 51,162 51,374 53,345 51,025 51,246 51,368 51,436 51,542

25 to 34 years

18,957 18,042 18,188 18,998 17,889 18,172 18,133 18,145 18,229

35 to 44 years

17,687 17,281 17,393 17,776 17,288 17,201 17,358 17,390 17,468

45 to 54 years

16,527 15,839 15,793 16,571 15,848 15,873 15,876 15,901 15,845

55 years and over

19,590 18,783 18,904 19,646 19,015 18,974 18,950 18,892 18,957

Women, 16 years and over

73,373 70,667 71,305 73,234 70,542 70,350 70,316 70,572 71,167

16 to 19 years

2,465 2,504 2,574 2,543 2,600 2,478 2,465 2,644 2,654

16 to 17 years

912 864 968 986 934 904 892 930 1,044

18 to 19 years

1,553 1,641 1,607 1,567 1,647 1,589 1,588 1,695 1,624

20 years and over

70,908 68,163 68,730 70,691 67,941 67,872 67,851 67,928 68,513

20 to 24 years

6,561 6,394 6,415 6,582 6,481 6,495 6,406 6,453 6,440

25 years and over

64,347 61,769 62,315 64,056 61,422 61,417 61,371 61,460 61,993

25 to 54 years

46,971 45,202 45,537 46,781 44,836 44,979 44,939 45,024 45,314

25 to 34 years

16,472 15,925 15,936 16,412 15,692 15,741 15,751 15,843 15,870

35 to 44 years

15,363 14,779 14,963 15,349 14,810 14,810 14,804 14,756 14,938

45 to 54 years

15,135 14,497 14,638 15,020 14,334 14,428 14,384 14,426 14,506

55 years and over

17,376 16,567 16,778 17,275 16,586 16,438 16,432 16,436 16,679

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,901 43,887 43,681 45,901 43,754 43,720 43,819 44,033 43,695

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,700 35,044 35,255 36,381 34,795 34,817 34,668 34,803 34,910

Women who maintain families(2)

9,402 9,367 9,402 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

127,981 123,981 124,840 129,059 124,292 124,689 124,990 124,868 125,803

Part-time workers(4)

27,187 25,541 25,653 26,564 25,373 24,917 24,627 25,109 25,078

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,358 6,787 7,004 7,191 6,559 6,460 6,623 6,678 6,817

Percent of total employed

4.7 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,287 5,670 6,024 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,364 9,341 9,766 9,462 9,408 9,461 9,548 9,498 9,876

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,185 9,972 9,710 4.4 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.0

16 to 19 years

834 825 771 14.1 13.9 16.0 14.8 13.9 13.0

16 to 17 years

354 325 278 16.3 14.9 14.5 15.9 14.8 12.6

18 to 19 years

483 514 500 12.8 13.4 17.0 14.2 13.7 13.3

20 years and over

6,351 9,148 8,939 4.0 6.4 6.3 6.0 5.9 5.8

20 to 24 years

1,254 1,408 1,502 8.6 10.7 11.2 9.7 9.6 10.3

25 years and over

5,023 7,813 7,349 3.5 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.3

25 to 54 years

3,757 5,823 5,639 3.6 6.1 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.5

25 to 34 years

1,557 2,331 2,454 4.2 7.0 6.6 6.8 6.4 6.7

35 to 44 years

1,168 1,929 1,752 3.4 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.7 5.1

45 to 54 years

1,032 1,563 1,433 3.2 5.5 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.5

55 years and over

1,264 1,985 1,692 3.3 5.8 6.0 5.3 5.3 4.5

Men, 16 years and over

3,811 5,395 5,236 4.4 6.9 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.2

16 to 19 years

425 493 452 14.5 15.1 15.5 15.7 16.6 15.4

16 to 17 years

159 175 143 16.1 14.5 15.3 15.0 15.7 14.0

18 to 19 years

269 331 314 13.6 15.5 15.8 16.0 17.6 16.1

20 years and over

3,385 4,902 4,784 4.1 6.6 6.4 6.0 6.0 5.8

20 to 24 years

667 761 823 8.9 11.9 12.1 10.0 10.1 10.9

25 years and over

2,671 4,203 3,889 3.5 6.2 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.2

25 to 54 years

1,957 3,077 2,986 3.5 6.3 5.8 5.9 5.6 5.5

25 to 34 years

842 1,287 1,299 4.2 7.7 6.6 7.0 6.6 6.7

35 to 44 years

595 1,032 939 3.2 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.6 5.1

45 to 54 years

520 759 749 3.0 5.5 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.5

55 years and over

714 1,125 903 3.5 5.9 5.9 5.4 5.6 4.5

Women, 16 years and over

3,374 4,577 4,474 4.4 6.4 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.9

16 to 19 years

408 332 319 13.8 12.8 16.5 14.0 11.2 10.7

16 to 17 years

195 149 135 16.5 15.2 13.7 16.8 13.9 11.5

18 to 19 years

215 183 185 12.0 11.2 18.2 12.3 9.7 10.3

20 years and over

2,966 4,245 4,155 4.0 6.2 6.3 6.0 5.9 5.7

20 to 24 years

587 647 680 8.2 9.4 10.1 9.5 9.1 9.5

25 years and over

2,352 3,610 3,460 3.5 5.8 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.3

25 to 54 years

1,800 2,745 2,653 3.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.5

25 to 34 years

716 1,044 1,155 4.2 6.2 6.6 6.6 6.2 6.8

35 to 44 years

573 897 813 3.6 5.6 5.2 5.6 5.7 5.2

45 to 54 years

512 804 685 3.3 5.5 5.7 5.1 5.3 4.5

55 years and over

559 883 811 3.1 5.8 6.1 5.1 5.1 4.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,069 1,750 1,464 2.3 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.2

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,144 1,553 1,383 3.0 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.3 3.8

Women who maintain families(2)

526 784 822 5.3 7.7 7.2 8.3 7.7 8.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,469 8,397 8,156 4.1 6.9 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.1

Part-time workers(4)

1,691 1,607 1,544 6.0 6.0 7.0 6.4 6.0 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,441 7,051 6,448 4,198 7,468 7,210 6,997 6,586 6,226

On temporary layoff

2,223 2,546 2,202 2,047 2,762 3,039 2,746 2,229 2,026

Not on temporary layoff

2,219 4,505 4,246 2,151 4,705 4,171 4,251 4,357 4,200

Permanent job losers

1,559 3,547 3,462 1,517 3,718 3,370 3,503 3,497 3,432

Persons who completed temporary jobs

660 958 784 634 987 802 749 860 768

Job leavers

695 706 754 716 698 743 653 701 777

Reentrants

1,784 2,183 2,295 1,772 1,968 2,250 1,963 2,124 2,253

New entrants

449 546 407 526 551 509 542 582 497

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

60.3 67.2 65.1 58.2 69.9 67.3 68.9 65.9 63.8

On temporary layoff

30.2 24.3 22.2 28.4 25.9 28.4 27.0 22.3 20.8

Not on temporary layoff

30.1 43.0 42.9 29.8 44.0 38.9 41.9 43.6 43.1

Job leavers

9.4 6.7 7.6 9.9 6.5 6.9 6.4 7.0 8.0

Reentrants

24.2 20.8 23.2 24.6 18.4 21.0 19.3 21.3 23.1

New entrants

6.1 5.2 4.1 7.3 5.2 4.7 5.3 5.8 5.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.7 4.4 4.0 2.6 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.1 3.9

Job leavers

0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.4

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

3,118 2,051 1,876 3,424 2,455 2,904 2,278 2,185 2,177

5 to 14 weeks

2,008 2,693 2,142 1,785 2,404 2,222 2,528 2,254 1,941

15 weeks and over

2,244 5,742 5,886 1,972 5,804 5,529 5,369 5,555 5,609

15 to 26 weeks

999 1,523 1,610 784 1,875 1,572 1,346 1,407 1,391

27 weeks and over

1,245 4,219 4,276 1,188 3,929 3,956 4,023 4,148 4,218

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

17.5 27.2 30.6 16.7 23.0 23.4 26.0 27.6 29.7

Median duration, in weeks

7.3 18.3 21.6 5.8 18.9 16.8 15.3 18.3 19.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

42.3 19.6 18.9 47.7 23.0 27.3 22.4 21.9 22.4

5 to 14 weeks

27.2 25.7 21.6 24.9 22.5 20.9 24.8 22.6 20.0

15 weeks and over

30.4 54.8 59.4 27.5 54.4 51.9 52.8 55.6 57.7

15 to 26 weeks

13.6 14.5 16.3 10.9 17.6 14.8 13.2 14.1 14.3

27 weeks and over

16.9 40.2 43.2 16.5 36.8 37.1 39.5 41.5 43.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

155,167 150,493 7,370 9,905 4.5 6.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

65,995 64,503 1,654 2,063 2.4 3.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

28,050 27,555 635 978 2.2 3.4

Professional and related occupations

37,945 36,948 1,020 1,085 2.6 2.9

Service occupations

25,308 23,194 1,700 2,533 6.3 9.8

Sales and office occupations

30,781 30,520 1,258 1,982 3.9 6.1

Sales and related occupations

14,560 14,503 652 970 4.3 6.3

Office and administrative support occupations

16,221 16,017 606 1,011 3.6 5.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,918 13,402 990 1,109 6.6 7.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,103 1,025 131 106 10.6 9.4

Construction and extraction occupations

8,029 7,647 727 802 8.3 9.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,786 4,730 132 201 2.7 4.1

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,166 18,875 1,305 1,787 6.4 8.7

Production occupations

7,962 7,668 454 583 5.4 7.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,203 11,207 851 1,204 7.1 9.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,370 9,905 4.5 6.2

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,968 8,344 4.6 6.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

52 100 6.2 15.0

Construction

658 835 6.9 8.6

Manufacturing

636 780 4.1 5.2

Durable goods

336 427 3.5 4.6

Nondurable goods

300 353 5.3 6.4

Wholesale and retail trade

962 1,330 5.0 6.7

Transportation and utilities

380 630 5.1 8.3

Information

47 173 1.8 6.6

Financial activities

230 346 2.2 3.4

Professional and business services

838 1,167 4.7 6.7

Education and health services

771 937 3.1 3.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,131 1,625 8.1 13.0

Other services

262 421 3.9 6.7

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

139 111 8.3 7.3

Government workers

486 592 2.2 2.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

327 451 3.4 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Nov.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 3.6 3.7 1.2 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.7 4.4 4.0 2.6 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.1 3.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.5 6.6 6.2 4.4 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.0

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.8 6.9 6.5 4.7 7.1 7.1 6.7 6.5 6.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.3 7.7 7.2 5.3 7.9 7.9 7.4 7.3 7.1

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.9 11.6 10.9 8.8 12.0 11.7 11.1 11.1 10.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

97,221 100,606 39,725 41,538 57,496 59,067

Persons who currently want a job

5,215 6,576 2,559 3,169 2,656 3,407

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,380 1,783 744 914 636 869

Discouraged workers(2)

514 488 302 282 212 207

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

866 1,295 442 633 424 662

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,358 7,004 3,566 3,405 3,792 3,599

Percent of total employed

4.7 4.7 4.4 4.3 5.2 5.0

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,227 4,030 2,225 2,128 2,002 1,902

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,904 1,627 640 492 1,264 1,135

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

237 357 129 193 109 164

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

932 950 550 572 382 378

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Change from:
Feb.2021 - Mar.2021(p)

Total nonfarm

149,952 140,980 142,077 143,400 150,840 142,736 143,204 144,120 916

Total private

126,825 119,527 120,312 121,432 128,066 121,169 121,727 122,507 780

Goods-producing

20,638 19,802 19,778 20,079 20,949 20,221 20,177 20,360 183

Mining and logging

669 593 584 608 674 596 590 610 20

Logging

46.7 46.4 46.2 44.2 47.6 46.2 46.1 45.0 -1.1

Mining

622.0 546.1 537.4 563.6 626.3 549.9 544.2 565.2 21.0

Oil and gas extraction

134.2 130.8 130.7 131.7 135.2 133.0 132.7 133.3 0.6

Mining, except oil and gas

181.5 175.5 174.5 178.5 184.3 179.2 179.2 180.3 1.1

Coal mining

44.8 42.9 43.2 43.7 44.9 42.4 42.9 43.6 0.7

Metal ore mining

42.1 41.5 41.6 41.9 42.1 41.8 41.8 41.8 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

94.6 91.1 89.7 92.9 97.3 95.0 94.5 94.9 0.4

Support activities for mining

306.3 239.8 232.2 253.4 306.8 237.7 232.3 251.6 19.3

Construction

7,297 7,067 7,006 7,217 7,557 7,412 7,356 7,466 110

Construction of buildings

1,639.1 1,623.2 1,621.3 1,658.3 1,676.3 1,666.3 1,671.5 1,689.3 17.8

Residential building

813.1 833.6 838.5 856.6 832.7 854.9 862.5 872.7 10.2

Nonresidential building

826.0 789.6 782.8 801.7 843.6 811.4 809.0 816.6 7.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,021.9 946.8 933.4 987.1 1,097.4 1,054.6 1,035.6 1,062.9 27.3

Specialty trade contractors

4,635.7 4,496.8 4,451.0 4,571.2 4,783.5 4,691.1 4,649.2 4,714.2 65.0

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,050.5 2,066.1 2,049.8 2,100.6 2,109.7 2,141.3 2,130.8 2,157.6 26.8

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,585.2 2,430.7 2,401.2 2,470.6 2,673.8 2,549.8 2,518.4 2,556.6 38.2

Manufacturing

12,672 12,142 12,188 12,254 12,718 12,213 12,231 12,284 53

Durable goods

7,949 7,551 7,574 7,616 7,961 7,581 7,590 7,620 30

Wood products

405.3 400.1 401.2 402.2 408.3 403.3 403.0 404.4 1.4

Nonmetallic mineral products

409.4 381.6 379.5 388.0 417.0 394.6 393.1 396.0 2.9

Primary metals

379.6 346.7 346.6 351.0 378.5 347.4 346.0 348.6 2.6

Fabricated metal products

1,452.4 1,377.7 1,384.1 1,400.1 1,454.2 1,382.8 1,384.1 1,397.8 13.7

Machinery

1,105.2 1,052.9 1,057.2 1,059.5 1,104.9 1,052.7 1,055.6 1,059.1 3.5

Computer and electronic products

1,078.9 1,071.0 1,074.9 1,079.0 1,079.5 1,073.1 1,075.5 1,078.6 3.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

161.4 162.3 163.4 163.5 161.7 162.6 163.4 163.6 0.2

Communications equipment

87.4 85.8 85.5 86.2 87.2 85.6 85.6 85.9 0.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

373.5 369.0 369.5 370.4 373.6 369.7 369.4 370.1 0.7

Electronic instruments

425.2 420.2 422.7 425.2 425.1 420.9 422.9 424.8 1.9

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

31.4 33.7 33.8 33.7 31.9 34.3 34.2 34.2 0.0

Electrical equipment and appliances

394.6 370.2 371.5 373.2 395.7 370.1 371.3 374.0 2.7

Transportation equipment(1)

1,725.9 1,591.3 1,598.1 1,598.1 1,721.5 1,593.1 1,596.9 1,593.9 -3.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

983.9 903.7 906.8 909.8 978.9 904.4 901.4 900.4 -1.0

Furniture and related products

382.7 354.9 352.7 351.6 383.2 355.4 353.5 352.2 -1.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

615.0 604.5 608.3 613.0 617.8 608.5 610.7 615.2 4.5

Nondurable goods

4,723 4,591 4,614 4,638 4,757 4,632 4,641 4,664 23

Food manufacturing

1,630.2 1,619.1 1,623.3 1,625.8 1,647.9 1,635.9 1,636.4 1,639.8 3.4

Textile mills

103.8 95.0 94.2 96.7 104.0 95.1 94.0 96.8 2.8

Textile product mills

109.0 105.2 106.3 106.2 110.0 105.8 106.7 106.7 0.0

Apparel

102.6 89.6 92.0 94.1 103.0 91.0 92.7 94.1 1.4

Paper and paper products

362.5 355.9 354.5 356.3 362.6 356.8 355.6 356.0 0.4

Printing and related support activities

413.1 368.6 366.8 372.2 415.3 370.2 368.5 374.4 5.9

Petroleum and coal products

109.6 99.2 99.9 100.1 113.0 103.7 103.7 103.2 -0.5

Chemicals

852.7 844.7 851.6 855.3 852.1 848.8 850.3 853.3 3.0

Plastics and rubber products

727.1 721.3 726.9 725.7 727.8 723.3 726.3 726.0 -0.3

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

312.5 292.0 298.5 305.3 321.6 301.0 306.5 313.9 7.4

Private service-providing

106,187 99,725 100,534 101,353 107,117 100,948 101,550 102,147 597

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,423 26,957 26,805 26,907 27,729 27,023 27,093 27,187 94

Wholesale trade

5,847.9 5,600.8 5,609.4 5,635.0 5,876.6 5,631.4 5,637.6 5,661.3 23.7

Durable goods

3,204.1 3,076.5 3,083.1 3,096.7 3,214.8 3,088.0 3,092.6 3,106.9 14.3

Nondurable goods

2,136.2 2,047.4 2,050.2 2,061.3 2,151.6 2,064.4 2,066.8 2,076.5 9.7

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

507.6 476.9 476.1 477.0 510.2 479.0 478.2 477.9 -0.3

Retail trade

15,286.8 15,111.0 15,002.7 15,046.7 15,483.6 15,178.3 15,206.3 15,228.8 22.5

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,015.9 1,931.2 1,943.1 1,957.6 2,025.2 1,945.5 1,953.9 1,966.9 13.0

Automobile dealers

1,297.3 1,232.8 1,240.4 1,244.7 1,301.1 1,234.2 1,239.4 1,248.5 9.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

156.3 145.4 148.2 154.6 159.9 155.1 155.8 158.2 2.4

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

562.3 553.0 554.5 558.3 564.2 556.2 558.7 560.2 1.5

Furniture and home furnishings stores

459.0 438.2 435.9 441.3 461.7 435.9 438.2 443.8 5.6

Electronics and appliance stores

459.4 417.7 416.8 416.9 457.1 411.3 417.3 414.5 -2.8

Building material and garden supply stores

1,318.3 1,335.4 1,339.7 1,386.0 1,313.9 1,401.8 1,395.9 1,386.8 -9.1

Food and beverage stores

3,028.1 3,138.1 3,143.8 3,130.9 3,059.4 3,152.5 3,164.6 3,162.6 -2.0

Health and personal care stores

1,022.3 982.3 983.3 992.4 1,028.4 978.2 991.2 996.2 5.0

Gasoline stations

937.2 929.7 923.8 928.7 947.9 937.5 936.9 939.5 2.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,201.6 1,002.2 950.8 950.4 1,240.9 992.1 965.5 981.8 16.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

524.6 476.8 470.7 464.5 533.7 464.9 469.5 463.5 -6.0

General merchandise stores

2,932.2 3,097.6 3,019.5 3,000.2 3,002.7 3,080.2 3,084.3 3,077.2 -7.1

Department stores

978.2 998.0 957.6 951.9 1,012.1 973.4 977.5 977.3 -0.2

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,954.0 2,099.6 2,061.9 2,048.3 1,990.7 2,106.8 2,106.8 2,099.9 -6.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

810.8 763.2 774.0 775.7 830.5 777.8 785.9 791.5 5.6

Nonstore retailers

577.4 598.6 601.3 602.1 582.2 600.6 603.1 604.5 1.4

Transportation and warehousing

5,741.7 5,706.7 5,655.3 5,686.2 5,822.1 5,674.0 5,709.5 5,757.0 47.5

Air transportation

516.7 409.3 404.5 411.5 518.5 412.2 407.2 412.9 5.7

Rail transportation

158.6 141.7 141.7 141.7 158.3 142.4 141.6 140.7 -0.9

Water transportation

64.6 56.3 57.2 58.4 67.0 58.4 59.2 60.2 1.0

Truck transportation

1,492.2 1,454.8 1,453.5 1,461.3 1,516.2 1,480.2 1,479.4 1,482.7 3.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

497.9 367.3 381.0 393.7 484.6 357.2 367.6 380.4 12.8

Pipeline transportation

52.1 48.7 48.1 49.0 52.2 48.7 48.5 49.1 0.6

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

26.4 19.0 19.1 22.1 33.5 25.2 25.2 27.9 2.7

Support activities for transportation

751.1 689.8 692.5 696.8 754.3 690.5 693.8 699.9 6.1

Couriers and messengers

844.3 1,100.0 1,041.4 1,040.0 893.7 1,043.6 1,072.2 1,088.9 16.7

Warehousing and storage

1,337.8 1,419.8 1,416.3 1,411.7 1,343.8 1,415.6 1,414.8 1,414.3 -0.5

Utilities

546.5 538.9 537.8 539.4 547.0 539.4 539.3 539.6 0.3

Information

2,888 2,648 2,670 2,669 2,898 2,672 2,675 2,673 -2

Publishing industries, except Internet

784.7 760.1 758.9 760.7 788.7 764.4 761.5 764.6 3.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

421.9 238.2 252.9 258.2 430.6 256.9 260.9 263.8 2.9

Broadcasting, except Internet

260.8 246.6 250.7 241.7 260.3 247.7 248.9 240.7 -8.2

Telecommunications

703.6 690.9 690.5 689.1 702.1 689.8 687.7 686.5 -1.2

Data processing, hosting and related services

362.9 351.7 356.1 355.1 361.4 353.1 354.0 353.3 -0.7

Other information services

354.2 360.0 361.0 364.2 355.0 359.8 361.5 364.5 3.0

Financial activities

8,805 8,733 8,734 8,748 8,850 8,781 8,772 8,788 16

Finance and insurance

6,498.2 6,534.0 6,535.0 6,539.0 6,506.2 6,545.0 6,540.0 6,544.8 4.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.0 20.2 20.2 20.1 20.0 20.2 20.3 20.2 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,666.4 2,669.4 2,672.8 2,665.5 2,668.1 2,668.5 2,671.0 2,664.4 -6.6

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,783.9 1,746.4 1,742.9 1,738.2 1,783.0 1,746.3 1,742.0 1,738.3 -3.7

Commercial banking

1,396.5 1,359.4 1,357.9 1,353.0 1,395.5 1,359.7 1,356.6 1,353.2 -3.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

580.2 606.2 610.2 607.5 582.6 606.3 610.2 607.0 -3.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

302.3 316.8 319.7 319.8 302.5 315.9 318.8 319.1 0.3

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

961.9 974.2 973.1 971.6 965.6 978.3 975.6 975.9 0.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,849.9 2,870.2 2,868.9 2,881.8 2,852.5 2,878.0 2,873.1 2,884.3 11.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,307.2 2,198.6 2,198.8 2,209.1 2,343.4 2,236.4 2,232.0 2,243.6 11.6

Real estate

1,721.3 1,695.8 1,698.0 1,704.1 1,742.9 1,717.7 1,716.2 1,726.2 10.0

Rental and leasing services

563.3 480.8 478.9 483.1 577.6 496.2 493.5 495.2 1.7

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.6 22.0 21.9 21.9 22.9 22.5 22.3 22.2 -0.1

Professional and business services

21,050 20,291 20,442 20,535 21,318 20,640 20,718 20,784 66

Professional and technical services

9,694.1 9,553.9 9,654.3 9,664.9 9,666.6 9,561.1 9,592.8 9,620.3 27.5

Legal services

1,157.3 1,115.6 1,122.7 1,122.7 1,162.6 1,123.1 1,129.0 1,127.6 -1.4

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,126.6 1,066.4 1,113.2 1,117.1 1,018.5 1,001.0 1,000.5 1,000.9 0.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,524.6 1,511.3 1,515.4 1,520.3 1,543.9 1,528.5 1,532.0 1,539.4 7.4

Specialized design services

139.4 134.2 133.7 134.4 140.3 135.7 134.7 135.2 0.5

Computer systems design and related services

2,200.9 2,209.8 2,221.8 2,209.0 2,226.4 2,215.9 2,224.8 2,230.3 5.5

Management and technical consulting services

1,550.5 1,558.3 1,569.9 1,571.4 1,570.2 1,579.2 1,582.5 1,590.1 7.6

Scientific research and development services

759.9 783.3 790.9 795.1 762.1 789.1 794.3 795.4 1.1

Advertising and related services

480.0 432.1 438.0 440.2 482.5 435.1 439.2 442.6 3.4

Other professional and technical services

754.9 742.9 748.7 754.7 760.2 753.5 755.8 758.8 3.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,408.0 2,330.8 2,325.7 2,330.2 2,419.0 2,339.1 2,338.1 2,338.9 0.8

Administrative and waste services

8,947.5 8,406.1 8,461.7 8,539.5 9,232.3 8,740.1 8,786.7 8,825.2 38.5

Administrative and support services

8,498.0 7,964.9 8,021.3 8,095.4 8,775.8 8,290.8 8,338.0 8,374.6 36.6

Office administrative services

541.1 532.3 534.9 539.6 544.9 537.0 539.5 542.5 3.0

Facilities support services

163.9 153.0 152.6 154.3 163.8 154.5 153.2 153.6 0.4

Employment services(1)

3,408.1 3,207.5 3,246.1 3,272.1 3,527.7 3,334.6 3,381.0 3,393.9 12.9

Temporary help services

2,786.6 2,594.1 2,634.7 2,664.5 2,894.5 2,720.3 2,770.1 2,769.3 -0.8

Business support services

855.6 802.9 799.7 794.5 860.6 799.6 798.8 799.7 0.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

208.8 144.3 143.9 146.9 210.1 147.8 146.7 147.7 1.0

Investigation and security services

941.7 893.5 899.2 906.0 949.0 905.5 903.0 913.0 10.0

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,051.9 1,939.6 1,955.1 1,987.8 2,191.2 2,115.6 2,124.3 2,128.3 4.0

Other support services

326.9 291.8 289.8 294.2 328.5 296.2 291.5 295.9 4.4

Waste management and remediation services

449.5 441.2 440.4 444.1 456.5 449.3 448.7 450.6 1.9

Education and health services

24,471 23,105 23,393 23,515 24,347 23,235 23,292 23,393 101

Educational services

3,850.3 3,321.2 3,541.8 3,612.7 3,696.3 3,398.2 3,404.6 3,469.0 64.4

Health care and social assistance

20,621.0 19,783.3 19,851.2 19,902.5 20,650.4 19,836.6 19,887.4 19,923.8 36.4

Health care(3)

16,360.9 15,854.6 15,884.7 15,904.4 16,397.4 15,898.8 15,923.8 15,935.3 11.5

Ambulatory health care services

7,772.3 7,657.2 7,696.5 7,714.7 7,790.1 7,683.9 7,716.1 7,731.4 15.3

Offices of physicians

2,694.6 2,652.2 2,663.6 2,667.1 2,699.4 2,658.0 2,669.0 2,671.9 2.9

Offices of dentists

957.4 984.0 987.6 989.8 959.7 985.9 991.4 992.4 1.0

Offices of other health practitioners

982.1 949.2 951.6 957.7 986.8 953.4 954.6 962.1 7.5

Outpatient care centers

998.5 986.2 992.1 993.6 997.7 989.0 992.5 992.6 0.1

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

286.9 289.8 292.6 291.6 287.2 289.6 291.5 291.5 0.0

Home health care services

1,537.2 1,486.2 1,493.8 1,499.7 1,542.9 1,495.1 1,501.1 1,505.3 4.2

Other ambulatory health care services

315.6 309.6 315.2 315.2 316.3 312.9 316.0 315.6 -0.4

Hospitals

5,233.9 5,132.7 5,132.2 5,139.6 5,235.5 5,140.2 5,138.3 5,137.7 -0.6

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,354.7 3,064.7 3,056.0 3,050.1 3,371.8 3,074.7 3,069.4 3,066.2 -3.2

Nursing care facilities

1,572.9 1,411.0 1,400.6 1,400.2 1,581.6 1,415.0 1,406.3 1,408.0 1.7

Residential mental health facilities

648.7 604.7 608.2 608.0 650.7 606.9 610.5 609.8 -0.7

Community care facilities for the elderly

969.1 897.8 895.7 891.8 974.5 900.2 900.1 897.3 -2.8

Other residential care facilities

164.0 151.2 151.5 150.1 165.0 152.6 152.5 151.1 -1.4

Social assistance

4,260.1 3,928.7 3,966.5 3,998.1 4,253.0 3,937.8 3,963.6 3,988.5 24.9

Individual and family services

2,728.8 2,603.0 2,620.2 2,638.6 2,733.3 2,611.1 2,622.8 2,642.9 20.1

Emergency and other relief services

186.7 182.5 183.8 185.3 186.3 183.4 184.1 184.8 0.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

317.8 273.0 274.5 277.8 320.6 276.7 276.3 278.3 2.0

Child day care services

1,026.8 870.2 888.0 896.4 1,012.9 866.6 880.4 882.5 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

15,745 12,576 13,037 13,473 16,133 13,117 13,501 13,781 280

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,244.7 1,534.4 1,580.7 1,674.5 2,406.2 1,696.4 1,729.3 1,793.7 64.4

Performing arts and spectator sports

471.2 291.6 304.9 329.2 498.2 328.2 328.0 348.9 20.9

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

161.9 118.1 118.3 123.5 172.4 128.0 129.2 131.5 2.3

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,611.6 1,124.7 1,157.5 1,221.8 1,735.6 1,240.2 1,272.1 1,313.3 41.2

Accommodation and food services

13,500.4 11,041.5 11,456.4 11,798.7 13,726.6 11,421.0 11,771.7 11,987.6 215.9

Accommodation

1,980.0 1,334.3 1,380.6 1,432.6 2,050.3 1,402.0 1,443.3 1,483.4 40.1

Food services and drinking places

11,520.4 9,707.2 10,075.8 10,366.1 11,676.3 10,019.0 10,328.4 10,504.2 175.8

Other services

5,805 5,415 5,453 5,506 5,842 5,480 5,499 5,541 42

Repair and maintenance

1,341.7 1,298.6 1,301.1 1,320.0 1,344.6 1,312.7 1,305.2 1,323.5 18.3

Personal and laundry services

1,492.5 1,284.7 1,307.8 1,332.1 1,507.0 1,302.1 1,326.0 1,344.6 18.6

Membership associations and organizations

2,970.8 2,831.4 2,844.0 2,854.2 2,990.5 2,864.7 2,868.0 2,873.2 5.2

Government

23,127 21,453 21,765 21,968 22,774 21,567 21,477 21,613 136

Federal

2,857 2,861 2,858 2,858 2,879 2,876 2,875 2,882 7

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,262.1 2,258.5 2,252.4 2,253.7 2,277.8 2,268.6 2,265.8 2,273.1 7.3

U.S. Postal Service

594.9 602.1 606.0 603.8 601.5 607.8 609.3 608.9 -0.4

State government

5,405 4,913 5,090 5,164 5,242 5,008 4,956 5,002 46

State government education

2,703.6 2,242.7 2,420.8 2,495.1 2,536.2 2,324.7 2,277.1 2,326.7 49.6

State government, excluding education

2,701.3 2,670.6 2,669.6 2,669.3 2,706.0 2,682.9 2,679.0 2,675.5 -3.5

Local government

14,865 13,679 13,817 13,946 14,653 13,683 13,646 13,729 83

Local government education

8,328.4 7,521.0 7,648.8 7,753.5 8,009.3 7,394.7 7,359.9 7,435.9 76.0

Local government, excluding education

6,536.5 6,158.3 6,168.4 6,192.1 6,643.6 6,288.2 6,286.0 6,293.1 7.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.1 35.0 34.6 34.9

Goods-producing

40.0 40.2 39.7 40.3

Mining and logging

45.0 45.3 45.0 45.6

Construction

39.1 39.4 38.3 39.6

Manufacturing

40.3 40.4 40.3 40.5

Durable goods

40.6 40.7 40.5 40.8

Nondurable goods

39.8 39.9 40.1 40.0

Private service-providing

32.9 33.9 33.6 33.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.4 34.2 34.4

Wholesale trade

38.7 39.1 38.7 39.0

Retail trade

30.6 30.7 30.6 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.0 39.0 38.7 39.1

Utilities

42.2 42.8 42.8 42.8

Information

36.3 37.3 37.2 37.2

Financial activities

37.6 37.8 37.7 37.7

Professional and business services

36.1 36.9 36.6 36.8

Education and health services

33.0 33.7 33.3 33.4

Leisure and hospitality

24.1 25.8 25.3 26.0

Other services

31.4 32.6 32.2 32.5

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 3.2 3.2 3.3

Durable goods

2.9 3.1 3.1 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)

Total private

$28.74 $29.92 $30.00 $29.96 $980.03 $1,047.20 $1,038.00 $1,045.60

Goods-producing

29.65 30.35 30.39 30.41 1,186.00 1,220.07 1,206.48 1,225.52

Mining and logging

34.43 34.58 34.78 34.29 1,549.35 1,566.47 1,565.10 1,563.62

Construction

31.37 32.17 32.24 32.16 1,226.57 1,267.50 1,234.79 1,273.54

Manufacturing

28.37 29.05 29.10 29.15 1,143.31 1,173.62 1,172.73 1,180.58

Durable goods

29.77 30.51 30.56 30.64 1,208.66 1,241.76 1,237.68 1,250.11

Nondurable goods

25.99 26.59 26.68 26.67 1,034.40 1,060.94 1,069.87 1,066.80

Private service-providing

28.52 29.82 29.90 29.85 938.31 1,010.90 1,004.64 1,008.93

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.76 25.70 25.67 25.78 844.32 884.08 877.91 886.83

Wholesale trade

31.88 32.97 33.07 33.12 1,233.76 1,289.13 1,279.81 1,291.68

Retail trade

20.33 21.37 21.26 21.44 622.10 656.06 650.56 658.21

Transportation and warehousing

25.06 25.66 25.72 25.71 952.28 1,000.74 995.36 1,005.26

Utilities

42.57 44.19 44.10 44.09 1,796.45 1,891.33 1,887.48 1,887.05

Information

43.25 44.35 44.61 43.85 1,569.98 1,654.26 1,659.49 1,631.22

Financial activities

36.90 39.20 39.50 39.67 1,387.44 1,481.76 1,489.15 1,495.56

Professional and business services

34.52 35.67 35.79 35.82 1,246.17 1,316.22 1,309.91 1,318.18

Education and health services

28.05 29.31 29.37 29.18 925.65 987.75 978.02 974.61

Leisure and hospitality

16.89 17.24 17.41 17.67 407.05 444.79 440.47 459.42

Other services

25.78 26.91 27.12 26.98 809.49 877.27 873.26 876.85

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2021 - Mar.
2021(p)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2021 - Mar.
2021(p)

Total private

109.6 106.5 105.7 107.3 1.5 150.6 152.3 151.6 153.7 1.4

Goods-producing

95.5 92.6 91.3 93.5 2.4 127.9 127.0 125.4 128.5 2.5

Mining and logging

95.3 84.8 83.4 87.4 4.8 131.7 117.8 116.5 120.3 3.3

Construction

101.9 100.7 97.1 101.9 4.9 138.8 140.7 136.0 142.4 4.7

Manufacturing

92.2 88.8 88.7 89.5 0.9 121.7 119.9 120.0 121.3 1.1

Durable goods

91.0 86.9 86.5 87.5 1.2 120.3 117.7 117.5 119.1 1.4

Nondurable goods

94.5 92.2 92.9 93.1 0.2 124.6 124.5 125.8 126.0 0.2

Private service-providing

113.5 110.2 109.8 111.2 1.3 157.3 159.7 159.7 161.3 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.2 101.4 101.1 102.0 0.9 137.8 140.6 140.0 141.9 1.4

Wholesale trade

100.3 97.1 96.2 97.4 1.2 133.8 133.9 133.1 134.9 1.4

Retail trade

96.2 94.6 94.5 94.9 0.4 129.3 133.6 132.8 134.5 1.3

Transportation and warehousing

127.1 127.1 127.0 129.3 1.8 162.1 166.0 166.1 169.2 1.9

Utilities

99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 0.0 140.5 145.8 145.5 145.6 0.1

Information

96.1 91.0 90.9 90.8 -0.1 147.9 143.7 144.4 141.8 -1.8

Financial activities

109.0 108.8 108.4 108.6 0.2 156.9 166.3 166.9 168.0 0.7

Professional and business services

120.7 119.4 118.9 119.9 0.8 168.7 172.5 172.3 173.9 0.9

Education and health services

131.2 127.9 126.6 127.6 0.8 177.0 180.3 178.9 179.1 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

110.9 96.6 97.5 102.2 4.8 151.2 134.3 136.9 145.7 6.4

Other services

105.8 103.0 102.1 103.8 1.7 149.4 151.9 151.7 153.5 1.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

75,429 71,031 71,353 71,668 50.0 49.8 49.8 49.7

Total private

62,285 58,623 58,980 59,233 48.6 48.4 48.5 48.4

Goods-producing

4,715 4,579 4,589 4,622 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.7

Mining and logging

89 81 81 85 13.2 13.6 13.7 13.9

Construction

983 988 992 1,000 13.0 13.3 13.5 13.4

Manufacturing

3,643 3,510 3,516 3,537 28.6 28.7 28.7 28.8

Durable goods

1,932 1,858 1,862 1,863 24.3 24.5 24.5 24.4

Nondurable goods

1,711 1,652 1,654 1,674 36.0 35.7 35.6 35.9

Private service-providing

57,570 54,044 54,391 54,611 53.7 53.5 53.6 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,075 10,625 10,652 10,668 39.9 39.3 39.3 39.2

Wholesale trade

1,768.5 1,686.4 1,689.3 1,697.5 30.1 29.9 30.0 30.0

Retail trade

7,666.6 7,368.2 7,374.9 7,375.4 49.5 48.5 48.5 48.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,507.4 1,436.8 1,453.7 1,461.5 25.9 25.3 25.5 25.4

Utilities

132.7 133.6 133.6 133.6 24.3 24.8 24.8 24.8

Information

1,151 1,070 1,065 1,055 39.7 40.0 39.8 39.5

Financial activities

5,008 4,964 4,968 4,960 56.6 56.5 56.6 56.4

Professional and business services

9,782 9,508 9,566 9,584 45.9 46.1 46.2 46.1

Education and health services

18,838 17,965 18,014 18,066 77.4 77.3 77.3 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,591 7,006 7,195 7,334 53.3 53.4 53.3 53.2

Other services

3,125 2,906 2,931 2,944 53.5 53.0 53.3 53.1

Government

13,144 12,408 12,373 12,435 57.7 57.5 57.6 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)

Total private

105,083 98,672 99,151 99,784

Goods-producing

14,936 14,332 14,283 14,471

Mining and logging

478 427 422 438

Construction

5,598 5,447 5,391 5,524

Manufacturing

8,860 8,458 8,470 8,509

Durable goods

5,458 5,137 5,142 5,176

Nondurable goods

3,402 3,321 3,328 3,333

Private service-providing

90,147 84,340 84,868 85,313

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,441 22,854 22,905 22,978

Wholesale trade

4,701.7 4,475.4 4,479.6 4,506.2

Retail trade

13,215.3 12,975.3 12,999.3 13,000.7

Transportation and warehousing

5,086.8 4,975.1 4,997.9 5,042.6

Utilities

436.7 428.1 428.2 428.9

Information

2,327 2,118 2,120 2,122

Financial activities

6,843 6,664 6,649 6,647

Professional and business services

17,260 16,646 16,725 16,744

Education and health services

21,350 20,354 20,389 20,467

Leisure and hospitality

14,125 11,250 11,616 11,866

Other services

4,801 4,454 4,464 4,489

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.4 34.4 34.0 34.3

Goods-producing

40.7 41.2 40.4 41.2

Mining and logging

45.4 46.3 45.3 46.7

Construction

39.5 40.2 38.6 40.1

Manufacturing

41.3 41.6 41.4 41.6

Durable goods

41.4 41.9 41.5 41.9

Nondurable goods

41.0 41.1 41.2 41.2

Private service-providing

32.1 33.3 32.9 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 34.5 34.3 34.5

Wholesale trade

38.4 38.9 38.5 38.8

Retail trade

30.6 31.0 30.9 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 38.9 38.6 38.8

Utilities

42.6 42.6 42.7 42.7

Information

35.3 36.5 36.4 36.4

Financial activities

36.7 37.5 37.4 37.4

Professional and business services

35.5 36.3 35.9 36.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.9 32.6 32.7

Leisure and hospitality

22.8 24.6 24.0 24.7

Other services

30.4 31.6 31.0 31.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3

Durable goods

3.9 4.2 4.2 4.3

Nondurable goods

3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)

Total private

$24.15 $25.14 $25.19 $25.21 $806.61 $864.82 $856.46 $864.70

Goods-producing

25.22 25.85 25.81 25.94 1,026.45 1,065.02 1,042.72 1,068.73

Mining and logging

30.70 30.49 30.62 30.56 1,393.78 1,411.69 1,387.09 1,427.15

Construction

29.06 29.69 29.69 29.77 1,147.87 1,193.54 1,146.03 1,193.78

Manufacturing

22.58 23.20 23.25 23.28 932.55 965.12 962.55 968.45

Durable goods

23.56 24.23 24.27 24.28 975.38 1,015.24 1,007.21 1,017.33

Nondurable goods

20.99 21.57 21.66 21.70 860.59 886.53 892.39 894.04

Private service-providing

23.92 24.99 25.07 25.06 767.83 832.17 824.80 831.99

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.99 21.71 21.71 21.78 713.66 749.00 744.65 751.41

Wholesale trade

26.44 27.25 27.27 27.33 1,015.30 1,060.03 1,049.90 1,060.40

Retail trade

17.07 17.90 17.91 17.98 522.34 554.90 553.42 559.18

Transportation and warehousing

22.49 23.02 22.98 23.01 852.37 895.48 887.03 892.79

Utilities

37.80 39.14 39.54 39.40 1,610.28 1,667.36 1,688.36 1,682.38

Information

34.95 36.60 36.78 36.86 1,233.74 1,335.90 1,338.79 1,341.70

Financial activities

28.35 29.88 29.85 29.79 1,040.45 1,120.50 1,116.39 1,114.15

Professional and business services

28.58 29.70 29.83 29.84 1,014.59 1,078.11 1,070.90 1,083.19

Education and health services

24.97 26.08 26.19 26.18 804.03 858.03 853.79 856.09

Leisure and hospitality

14.63 14.81 15.07 15.30 333.56 364.33 361.68 377.91

Other services

22.12 22.93 23.02 23.10 672.45 724.59 713.62 725.34

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2021 - Mar.
2021(p)
Mar.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021(p)
Mar.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2021 - Mar.
2021(p)

Total private

117.0 113.1 112.3 114.1 1.6 188.8 190.1 189.1 192.2 1.6

Goods-producing

92.9 90.2 88.2 91.1 3.3 143.5 142.8 139.4 144.7 3.8

Mining and logging

115.3 105.1 101.6 108.7 7.0 205.9 186.3 180.9 193.2 6.8

Construction

110.7 109.6 104.2 110.9 6.4 173.7 175.8 167.0 178.3 6.8

Manufacturing

84.0 80.8 80.5 81.3 1.0 124.0 122.5 122.4 123.7 1.1

Durable goods

84.9 80.9 80.2 81.5 1.6 124.9 122.3 121.5 123.5 1.6

Nondurable goods

82.2 80.4 80.8 80.9 0.1 121.9 122.6 123.6 124.1 0.4

Private service-providing

123.3 119.7 119.0 120.7 1.4 202.3 205.1 204.6 207.4 1.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.5 110.3 109.9 110.9 0.9 167.2 171.1 170.5 172.5 1.2

Wholesale trade

107.2 103.3 102.4 103.8 1.4 167.2 166.2 164.7 167.4 1.6

Retail trade

102.3 101.8 101.6 102.3 0.7 149.7 156.1 156.0 157.6 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

145.9 146.5 146.0 148.1 1.4 208.9 214.6 213.6 216.9 1.5

Utilities

95.1 93.3 93.5 93.7 0.2 150.1 152.4 154.3 154.0 -0.2

Information

93.8 88.2 88.1